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Geologi Struktur

(Analisis Geofisika Struktur Geologi)


Oleh :
Irvani
Uni versi tas Bangka Beli tung J urusan Tekni k Pertambangan
Referensi :
Van Der Pluijm, B. A. and Marshak, S. 2004. Earth Structure. 2nd Edition. W. W.
Norton & Company, Inc., USA.
Rowland, S.M., Duebendorfer, E.M. and Schiefelbein, I.M. 2007. Structural Analysis
and Synthesis : A Laboratory Course in Structural Geology. 3th Edition. Blacwell
Publishing Ltd. Voctoria, Australia.
Bates, R.L. and J ackson, J .A., 1987. Glossary Geology. 3th Edition. American
Geological Institute Elexandria, Virginia.
Davis, G.H. 1984. Structural Geology of Rocks and Regions. J ohn Wiley & Sons,
New York.
Ragan, D.M. 2009. Structural Geology : An Introduction to Geometrical Techniques.
4th Edition. Cambridge University Press, New York.
Twiss R.J . And Moores, E.M. 2007. Structural Geology. 2nd Edition. W.H. Freeman
and Company, USA.
Ramsey J . and Huber, M. 1983. The Techniques of Modern Structural Geology :
Strain Analysis. Vol. 1. Academic Press, Inc., London.
Ramsey J . and Huber, M. 1987. The Techniques of Modern Structural Geology : Fold
and Fractures. Vol. 2. Academic Press, Inc., London.
Ramsey J . and Huber, M. 2000. The Techniques of Modern Structural Geology :
Applications of Continuum Mechanics in Structural Geology. Vol. 3. Elsevier
Academic Press, Inc., California.
Cox, A. and Hart, R.B. 1986. Plate Tectonics : How It Works. Blacwell Scienific
Publications, Inc., California.
Trouw, R.A.J . and Passchier, C.W. 1996. Microtectonics. Springer Verlag Berlin
Heidelberg, Germany.
DLL.
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Pokok Bahasan :
I Pendahuluan (P.1)
II Tektonika & Orogenesa (P.2-3)
a. Tektonik lempeng
b. Orogenesa
III Gaya, Tegangan, Strain &
Deformasi (P.4-5)
a. Gaya & Tegangan
b. Strain & Deformasi
IV Struktur Geologi (P.6-9)
a. Unsur struktur
b. Lipatan
c. Kekar
d. Sesar/Patahan
V Identifikasi Struk. Geologi (P.10-11)
a. Pengukuran dan analisis
struktur geologi
b. Analisis geofisika struktur
geologi
VI Aplikasi Struk. Geologi (P.12-13)
a. Mineralisasi
b. Migas
c. Kebencanaan geologi
VII Geologi Struk. Indonesia (P.14)
a. Umum
b. Sumatra&J awa
c. Bangka Belitung
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Geophysical Imaging of the Continental Lithosphere
Sismic
Pluijm& Marshak (2004)
Uni versi tas Bangka Beli tung J urusan Tekni k Pertambangan
P-waves have a particle motion parallel with the propagation direction of the wavefront and it is therefore
a compressional wave. The S-wave has a motion that is perpendicular to the direction of propagation, it is
a transverse waveform. The Love and Raleighwaves have rather complex particle motions. The latter two
are surface-related movements that do not show a great penetration depthand a rapid vertical decrease in
amplitude away from the interface (modified after Keareyand Brooks 1991).
Veeken (2007)
Uni versi tas Bangka Beli tung J urusan Tekni k Pertambangan
Reflection and refraction
Snells law,
Milsom(2003)
Uni versi tas Bangka Beli tung J urusan Tekni k Pertambangan
Diagram illustrating different P-wave raypath in seismic acquisition set-up for a
horizontal interface. Various rays are shownin the depth model at the top and their
recording in the time domain TX-graph at the bottom. The reflected waveform is
representedby a hyperbolic curve.
Veeken (2007)
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Ranges of P-wave velocities and rippabilities in common rocks. The
vertical axis, for each rock type, is intended to show approximately
the relative numbers of samples that would show a given velocity.
Milsom(2003)
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Diagram showing how echo sounding, seismic reflection, and
sidescan sonar are used to study the sea floor. Modified from U.S.
Geological Survey Fact Sheet 039-02
Carlson et al. (2009)
Uni versi tas Bangka Beli tung J urusan Tekni k Pertambangan
Unconformities
Veeken (2007)
Uni versi tas Bangka Beli tung J urusan Tekni k Pertambangan
Stratigraphic subdivision in two wells from the sedimentary Mandawa Basin
(Tanzania) based on biostratigraphic, seismic and lithostratigraphic information.
The 2D seismic line below illustrates the structural style of the basin fill. The
transfer zone penetratedin the Mbuo-1 well contains sands with hydrocarbon shows
directly overlying the basement pop-up block.
Veeken (2007)
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Seismic section illustrating the structuration of the Macuspana Basin (onshore
Mexico). The two high areas are prospective areas for hydrocarbon exploration.
The structure on the right has been tested and contains HCs in the Miocene-
Pliocene sequence. The structure on the left is untested, but has amplitude
anomalies associated with it. The kitchen is situated in the deeper grabenbelow,
in which J urassic and Cretaceous source rocks are mature (courtesy Pemex).
Veeken (2007)
Uni versi tas Bangka Beli tung J urusan Tekni k Pertambangan
Complex tectonic history resulted in
tectonic inversion of the sediments across
the Fahud fault zone in northern Oman.
The velocity distribution is anomalous
due to the Tertiary uplift on the right hand
side, disturbing the natural increase in
velocity due to ongoing burial and
compaction is no longer valid. This
should be taken into account when doing
TD conversion. Local velocity trends are
calibrated by wells and should be
respected by the conversion procedure
(Veekenet al. 2005).
Veeken (2007)
Uni versi tas Bangka Beli tung J urusan Tekni k Pertambangan
Veeken (2007)
Uni versi tas Bangka Beli tung J urusan Tekni k Pertambangan
Seismic reflection profile across the southern Rocky Mountain
Trench near the Canada-U.S. border. Note that the prominent
layering, which is drilled on the west and is known to be dominantly
Proterozoic sills, is offset along a west-dipping listric normal fault
that has about 10 km of dip-slip displacement. Data were recorded by
Duncan Energy of Denver, Colorado.
Pluijm& Marshak (2004)
Uni versi tas Bangka Beli tung J urusan Tekni k Pertambangan
Seismic profile from the Wind River Mountains in Wyoming (USA).
The Wind River fault juxtaposes crystalline rocks of the Wind River
Mountains with sedimentary rocks of the Green River Basin along a
moderately east-dipping fault, and this provides a simple explanation
for theprominent reflection. Below a travel time of about 3.54.0 s,
however, the fault zone places crystalline rocks onto crystalline rocks
and the reflections must be caused by other mechanisms. Data
recorded by COCORP (Consortium for Continental Reflection
Profiling) in1977.
Pluijm& Marshak (2004)
Uni versi tas Bangka Beli tung J urusan Tekni k Pertambangan
Seismic profile from the Proterozoic Trans-Hudson Orogen in
northern Saskatchewan (Canada) illustrating prominent subhorizontal
reflections that have been interpreted as intrusive rocks. Note that the
reflector appears to cross cut several dippingreflections. Note also the
prominent Mohoon these data.
Pluijm& Marshak (2004)
Uni versi tas Bangka Beli tung J urusan Tekni k Pertambangan
Some reflection characteristics of the crustmantle transition. (a) Profile from south-central
portion of theCanadian Cordillera illustrating a relatively simple, single reflection from near
the transition. On the right side of the figure, thenumbers 6.0 and 7.0 represent the positions
of the Moho, as identified from adjacent seismic refraction data, for average velocitiesof 6.0
and 7.0 km/s, respectively. RM represents the preferred position of the Moho using the
crustal velocity structure determinedfrom the refraction profile. Note that the Moho appears
to be located at the base of crustal reflectivity, and that the underlying mantle has fewer
reflections (e.g., MR). Data were recorded by LITHOPROBE in 1988.
372
Pluijm& Marshak (2004)
Uni versi tas Bangka Beli tung J urusan Tekni k Pertambangan
Reflectioncharacteristics of the crustmantle transition. Portion of a
seismic profile that illustrates listric structures into the crustmantle
transition. Data were recorded by LITHOPROBE in 1996. This
segment is from beneath the Great Bear arc region on the regional
profile.
Pluijm& Marshak (2004)
Uni versi tas Bangka Beli tung J urusan Tekni k Pertambangan
(upper) Regional seismic profile from ancient (>2.6 Ga) rocks of the Slave
Province on the east, across the Proterozoic (2.11.85 Ga) Wopmay Orogenin the
center, and thenthe younger Proterozoic ( 1.740.55 Ga) Fort Simpson Basin on
the west. The data are plotted to32.0 s travel time, or about 120 km depth. Note the
prominent crustal reflectivity, thecrustmantle transition, and sparse, but important
reflections from within the upper mantle(M1 and M2). A general interpretation is
shown (lower) to illustrate that the accretion of theProterozoic rocks to the Slave
Province probably resulted from subduction, the remnants of which are probably
the dipping mantle reflections.
Pluijm& Marshak (2004)
Uni versi tas Bangka Beli tung J urusan Tekni k Pertambangan
Enlargement of a segment of the regional profile from the Slave
Province. Here, the Moho appears to have a series of dipping
surfaces (arrows) that are cross cut by horizontal reflections (RM).
One possible interpretation is that these horizontal reflections
represent intrusives. Pluijm& Marshak (2004)
Uni versi tas Bangka Beli tung J urusan Tekni k Pertambangan
Portion of a seismic profile that illustrates many lower crustal layers
that are parallel to the Moho as well as a possible truncation (T?).
Data were recorded by LITHOPROBE in 1996.
Pluijm& Marshak (2004)
Uni versi tas Bangka Beli tung J urusan Tekni k Pertambangan
Portion of a seismic profile fromnorthern Saskatchewan (Canada)
that illustrates a local deepening of the crustmantle transition (Moho
keel). Note that although there is not a prominent reflection near the
transition, the reflectivity does diminish near it. In this figure, two
locations for estimates of travel time to the reflection Moho are
indicated from adjacent refraction profiles.
Pluijm& Marshak (2004)
Uni versi tas Bangka Beli tung J urusan Tekni k Pertambangan
The regional seismic profile across the Proterozoicbasin illustrating
the huge thickness of strata on the west and the associated
shallowingof the Moho.
Pluijm& Marshak (2004)
Uni versi tas Bangka Beli tung J urusan Tekni k Pertambangan
Enlargement of the regional profile in the upper part of the
Proterozoic Fort Simpson Basin on the west. Note the sedimentary
features such as the unconformity at the base of the Paleozoic
sediments, unconformities in the eastward-thinning Proterozoic
layers, and the prominent cross-cutting reflection that may be an
igneous dike.
Pluijm& Marshak (2004)
Uni versi tas Bangka Beli tung J urusan Tekni k Pertambangan
Enlargement of the regional profile across a feature that has been
interpreted as the remnants of an accretionarycomplex. Note that the
mantle reflections, M1, can be followed westward where they
correlate with the Moho and that dipping layers above M1 tend to
steepen eastward (upper arrows) as is common in accretionary
wedges.
Pluijm& Marshak (2004)
Uni versi tas Bangka Beli tung J urusan Tekni k Pertambangan
The Accretionary Prism
Schematic detail of an accretionary prism, showing different regimes of deformation
referred to in the text. (b) Interpreted seismic-reflection profile of the toe edge of an
accretionaryprism forming in the Nankai trough off J apan. Several faults can be imaged.
Pluijm& Marshak (2004)
Uni versi tas Bangka Beli tung J urusan Tekni k Pertambangan
Abyssal Plains
Seismic profiler record of an abyssal plain, showing sediment layers
that have buried an irregular rock surface in the Atlantic Ocean.
From Vogt et al. in Hart, The Earths Crust and Upper Mantle, p.
574, American Geophysical Union
Carlson et al. (2009)
Uni versi tas Bangka Beli tung J urusan Tekni k Pertambangan
Fold-Thrust Belts
the two continents collide. A fold-thrust belt forms in the foreland of the orogen on both
sides of theorogen. Slivers of obductedocean crust may separate lower-plate rocks from the
metamorphichinterland of the orogenand define the suture between the two plates.
Cross-section sketch of a fold-thrust belt forming at the seaward toe of a passive-margin basin.
Pluijm& Marshak (2004)
Uni versi tas Bangka Beli tung J urusan Tekni k Pertambangan
Vertically exaggerated two-dimensional seismic-reflection profile
illustrating an imbricate fan of thrust faults that has developed
offshore of Nigeria (passive-margin).
Pluijm& Marshak (2004)
Uni versi tas Bangka Beli tung J urusan Tekni k Pertambangan
Strike-slip fault
Pluijm& Marshak (2004)
Uni versi tas Bangka Beli tung J urusan Tekni k Pertambangan
Simplified geological map of Sumatra showing the distribution of the main stratigaphic units
and the active volcanoes.
Uni versi tas Bangka Beli tung J urusan Tekni k Pertambangan
Interpreted single-channel seismic reflection sections across the
Mentawai Fault in the southern part of the Sumatra forearc basin
(after Diament et al. 1992). Linelocations as shown.
Milsom(2005) in Barber et al. (ed.)
Uni versi tas Bangka Beli tung J urusan Tekni k Pertambangan
Multi-channel seismic reflection section across the Mentawai Fault
south of Enggano, after Schltiter et al. (2002).
Milsom(2005) in Barber et al. (ed.)
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SIO Line 42-43, showing the Mentawai Fault immediately south of
Nias. Section provided by ScrippsInstitution of Oceanography.
Milsom(2005) in Barber et al. (ed.)
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Geometric distortion on seismic sections. The image is of a small graben structure beneath an unconformity. The
position of the true fault plane BB (indicated by the dashed line) can be estimated fromthe positions of the
terminations of the sub-horizontal reflectors representing the sediment fill within the graben (although care must be
exercised because many of the deeper sub-horizontal events are multiples). The event AA is the seismic image of BB.
It is displaced because the techniques used to display the data assume that reflections are generated from points
vertically beneath the surfacepoints, whereas they are actually generated by normal-incidence rays that are inclined to
the vertical if reflected from dipping interfaces (Section 10.3.2). The reflections fromthe fault and the opposite side of
the graben cross over near the lower symbol A, forming a bow-tie. Convex-upward reflections near point C are
diffraction patterns generated by faulting.
Milsom(2003)
Uni versi tas Bangka Beli tung J urusan Tekni k Pertambangan
Time-migrated seismic profile from southern Appalachian fold-thrust belt (Maher 2002),
displayed with approximately no vertical exaggeration. The vertical scale is two-way travel
time in seconds. a Uninterpreted. b Interpreted
Groshong (2006)
Uni versi tas Bangka Beli tung J urusan Tekni k Pertambangan
Seismic model of a faulted fold. a Geometry of the model, no vertical
exaggeration. b Model time section based on normal velocity
variations with lithology and depth. Vertical scale is two-way travel
time in milliseconds. (After Morse et al. 1991)
Groshong (2006)
Uni versi tas Bangka Beli tung J urusan Tekni k Pertambangan
Time migrated seismic profile from central Wyoming. TWT: Two-way travel time; Ti:
interval thickness. a Original profile having a vertical scale of 7.5 in per second and a
horizontal scale of 12 tracesper in. Vertical exaggeration (ve) is 1.87 :1. b The vertical scale
is the same as in a, the horizontal scale is reduced by two-thirds. Vertical exaggeration is
5.6: 1. c Unexaggerated version produced by expandingthe horizontal scale. Thickness T1 is
now constant across the profile. (After Stone 1991)
Groshong (2006)
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Normal faults on a vertical profile from a time-migrated 3-D seismic reflection volume. V.E. about 1: 1. The profile is
fromthe Gilbertown graben system, southern Alabama (modified fromGroshong et al. 2003a). a Uninterpreted. A:
fault trace between arrows; B: reflectors hang over fault trace; C: disturbed zone along fault trace. b Interpreted. The
faults indicated with heavier lines havebeen identified in nearby wells. Numbers next to the faults are heave (regular
type) and throw (bold). Throws are determined fromthe heaves using Throw=Heave times tan (fault dip). Only the
most obvious faults are interpreted below the top of the Eutaw
Groshong (2006)
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Corsair fault, a thin skinned growth fault on the Texas continental
shelf. 48-fold, depthconverted seismic line. F: fault reflectors.
(After Christensen1983)
Groshong (2006)
Uni versi tas Bangka Beli tung J urusan Tekni k Pertambangan
Groshong (2006)
Uni versi tas Bangka Beli tung J urusan Tekni k Pertambangan
Velocity discontinuities create features that
look like faults on seismic profiles. a
Segment of a seismic line across Wyoming
thrust belt (dynamite source, eight-fold
common-depth-point stack, migrated time
section, approximate vertical exaggeration
1.3 at 2.7 s; Williams and Dixon 1985). b
Discontinuities in seismic reflectors that
might be normal faults. c Interpretation by
Williams and Dixon (1985). d Geological
cross section using well control and the
seismic line; no vertical exaggeration
(Williams and Dixon 1985). The box
outlines the area of the seismic line. No
normal faults are present. TWY: two-way
traveltime (s); C: Cambrian; MD:
Mississippian-Devonian; IPPM:
Pennsylvanian, Permian, Mississippian
undifferentiated; P: Permian; Tr, TR:
Triassic; J: Jurassic undifferentiated; Jn:
J urassic Nugget sandstone; T: Tertiary
Groshong (2006)
Uni versi tas Bangka Beli tung J urusan Tekni k Pertambangan
Uni versi tas Bangka Beli tung J urusan Tekni k Pertambangan
Faults are visible on seismic sections, but with a certain resolution.
Veeken (2007)
Uni versi tas Bangka Beli tung J urusan Tekni k Pertambangan
Faults are visible on seismic sections, but with a certain resolution.
Veeken (2007)
Uni versi tas Bangka Beli tung J urusan Tekni k Pertambangan
Seismic section across the Troll Field, offshore Norway. A flat spot is seen around
1.7 seconds TWT. The gas containing reservoir sands are J urassic in age andhave
an average porosity of 28 percent (modified after Brown 1999, data courtesy
NorskeHydro).
Veeken (2007)
Uni versi tas Bangka Beli tung J urusan Tekni k Pertambangan
Gravity anomalies result from variations in rock mass,
in principle we should be able to determine the relative
positions of different masses at depth.
Gravity
There are some limits (spatially), of course, because the
anomalies are located according to map position, but it is
difficult to determine much more detail without some
additional informationfrom other techniques.
Pluijm& Marshak (2004)
Uni versi tas Bangka Beli tung J urusan Tekni k Pertambangan
Isostatic gravity map of northwestern Canada plotted with shaded
relief (artificial illumination from the west, view toward the
northeast). The position of the regional seismic profile is shown by
the thick white line. TT represents the TintinaFault, a late strike-slip
fault within the Cordillera, and FS represents the Fort Simpson Trend
associated with the Fort Simpson Basin. The gridded digital gravity
data were provided by the Canadian Geophysical Data Centre, and
theoriginal version of this figure was made by KevinHall.
Pluijm& Marshak (2004)
Uni versi tas Bangka Beli tung J urusan Tekni k Pertambangan
Enlargement of the map in the vicinity of the seismic profile to
emphasize the relationship of the profile to the FS anomaly. The
smaller white linenear the bottom right is the location of a second
profile across the southern portion of the FS trend, and the white
circles represent locations of drill holes that penetrated crystalline
rocks below the(b) Western Canada Sedimentary Basin strata.
Pluijm& Marshak (2004)
Uni versi tas Bangka Beli tung J urusan Tekni k Pertambangan
Terima Kasih
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