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Published in IET Electric Power Applications

Received on 3rd April 2008


Revised on 3rd November 2008
doi: 10.1049/iet-epa.2008.0079
ISSN 1751-8660
Modelling the brushless excitation system
for a synchronous machine
V. Ruuskanen
1
M. Niemela

1
J. Pyrho

nen
1
S. Kanerva
2
J. Kaukonen
3
1
Department of Electrical Engineering, Laboratory of electrical drives technology, Lappeenranta University of Technology,
PO Box 20, FI-53851 Lappeenranta, Finland
2
ABB Oy, Machines, PO Box 186, FI-00381 Helsinki, Finland
3
ABB Oy, MV Drives, PO Box 94, FI-00381 Helsinki, Finland
E-mail: vesa.ruuskanen@lut.
Abstract: The structure and the operation of the model for the brushless excitation system for a synchronous
machine are presented. The nonlinear model including the excitation machine, the ACAC converter supplying
the excitation machine and the rectier diode bridge, mounted on the rotor, is based on a state machine.
The states are dened by current commutation in the power electric devices. The operation of the excitation
system model is veried by measurements with a slip-ring machine imitating the excitation machine. The
excitation system model is integrated and simulated as a part of a synchronous machine simulator.
1 Introduction
Electrically excited synchronous machines can be divided by
their excitation systems into brushed and brushless machines.
The excitation system depends on the application; a brushed
excitation system is used when high dynamic performance is
required, whereas the benet of brushless excitation systems
is their need for lower maintenance. Brushless excitation
systems are commonly used in marine drives, where the
dynamical requirements are not too tight, but extreme
reliability is needed and maintenance is difcult. A
synchronous machine with a brushless excitation system is
presented in Fig. 1.
The target of the excitation current control is to set the power
factor of the machine to the desired value and keep the machine
stable during the transient states. The simulation model created
can be used to simulate the effects of the excitation system
dynamics on the synchronous machine during the transient
states. The state machine model gives an accurate description
of the currents of the excitation machine rotor circuit. The
simple time constant does not describe the excitation system
well enough. The time constant for increasing and decreasing
the excitation current differ from each other because of the
free-wheeling state. It is not possible to force the excitation
current to fall using negative excitation voltage with a diode
bridge.
1.1 Brushless excitation system
Abrushless excitationsystemconsists of the excitationmachine,
that is, a traditional wound-rotor three-phase induction
machine mounted to the main machine shaft and fed by an
ACAC converter, and a diode rectier connected to the
rotor of the excitation machine. The use of the wound-rotor
excitation machine supplied by the ACAC converter makes
it possible to generate the excitation current also at zero
speed, which is a signicant benet compared with the other
kind of excitation method modelled by C

ingoski et al. [1] and


Darabi and Tindall [2]. The thyristor pair converter is
examined, because it is the traditional converter for the
excitation machine of the large sychronous machine.
The rotor of the excitation machine is joined to the shaft of
the synchronous machine. The stator ux of the excitation
machine rotates in an opposite direction compared with the
rotational direction of the synchronous machine. Therefore
the slip of the excitation machine is always greater
IET Electr. Power Appl., 2009, Vol. 3, Iss. 3, pp. 231239 231
doi: 10.1049/iet-epa.2008.0079 & The Institution of Engineering and Technology 2009
www.ietdl.org
than one. The excitation machine is fed by a thyristor pair
power converter that is connected to the stator connectors
of the synchronous machine or to an external network.
The excitation machine takes its power partly from the
supplying network and partly from the axis of the
synchronous machine when operating at a slip greater than
one. There are two extra thyristor pairs for changing the
rotational direction of the eld when the rotational
direction of the synchronous machine is changed. If the
synchronous machine is used as a generator, one pole pair
can be equipped with permanent magnets to enable the
build-up of the generator also in an isolated network
operation. The rotor currents of the excitation machine are
rectied and fed to the excitation winding of the
synchronous machine with a six-pulse diode bridge
rectier. The complete excitation system conguration is
presented in Fig. 2.
The thyristor power converter in the stator circuit and the
diode rectier in the rotor circuit cause strong nonlinearities
into the excitation system. Currents and voltages are not
sinusoidal, which makes modelling quite difcult.
2 State machine model
Because of the strong nonlinearities in the excitation circuit,
the conventional ux vector model cannot be applied to
model the excitation machine. The dynamics of the
excitation system changes constantly by the current
commutations in the power electronic devices. Zahawi et al.
[3] have introduced a state-space model for a Kramer drive
that also includes nonlinearities in the rotor circuit. The
rectier model presented by Akpinar is also based on
different commutation states [4, 5]. The modelling of the
whole excitation system by a state machine model is quite a
laborious task; rst of all, the description of all the
direction combinations of the stator and rotor currents
would require a large number of states. Further, a major
problem would be nding a stable method to commutate
between the states. Therefore only the rotor circuit is
modelled with a state machine. The block diagram of the
model is presented in Fig. 3.
The stator voltage is generated by a PI controller from the
difference between the desired and actual excitation currents.
The stator circuit is modelled with a sinusoidally fed single-
phase equivalent circuit. The phase voltages for the rotor state
machine are generated by the rotor frequency and the
magnetising voltage given by the equivalent circuit.
The method based on different commutation modes for a
sinusoidally fed diode rectier bridge is presented for instance
in [6]. The method gives average values of the excitation
machine rotor circuit currents. The mode selection is based
on the commutation overlapping angle, that is, dened by
the excitation current and the exciter ux linkage. The
method was not used for some practical reasons. The ux
linkage of the excitation machine is changing continuously,
and the rectier mode searching conditions are also
changing, which increases the amount of calculation.
Instead of the averaging model, the waveforms of the
excitation machine rotor currents were desired.
2.1 Single-phase equivalent circuit
of the stator
A single-phase equivalent circuit can be used to model
the stator circuit regardless of the diode rectier and
the excitation winding in the rotor circuit, when the
resistance of the excitation winding is modest compared
with the resistances of the excitation machine. The high
inductance of the excitation winding can be neglected, when
the excitation current is assumed to be a smooth DC
current. According to the measurements, the short-circuited
diode bridge corresponds to the short-circuited rotor
without a diode bridge. The measurements were made using
a slip-ring machine as an excitation machine. The
parameters of the slip-ring machine are presented in Table 1.
A six-pulse diode bridge was connected to the slip-rings.
The load was varied by connecting loads with different
resistances and inductances to the DC buses of the diode
bridge. The slip was varied by rotating the rotor of the slip-
ring machine with a DC machine. The slip was changed
from the rotor rotating at the synchronous speed in the
direction same as that of the stator eld (s 0) in the
locked-rotor situation (s 1), and further, the rotor
rotating at a synchronous speed but in a direction opposite
Figure 2 Brushless excitation system conguration
Figure 1 Synchronous machine with a brushless excitation
system
The rotor circuit is indicated with a lighter line
Figure 3 Block diagram of the excitation system model
232 IET Electr. Power Appl., 2009, Vol. 3, Iss. 3, pp. 231239
& The Institution of Engineering and Technology 2009 doi: 10.1049/iet-epa.2008.0079
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to that of the stator eld (s 2). The stator voltage of the
slip-ring machine was kept constant. The measured
amplitudes of the fundamental harmonics of the rotor
phase current at different loads connected to the diode
bridge are presented in Fig. 4 as a function of slip. Also,
the case with the rotor windings short-circuited without a
diode bridge is presented.
In real excitation machines, the inductance of the
excitation winding is very large compared with that of
the excitation machine. Because of the high slip of the
excitation machine, the equivalent circuit can be assumed
to be short-circuited with a locked rotor. For the excitation
machine, based on Fig. 4, it makes no difference if the slip
is one or more. The single-phase equivalent circuit of an
induction machine is presented in Fig. 5 [7].
The magnetising voltage can be calculated by the stator
voltage and the stator current
u
m
u
s
R
s
i
s
jL
ss
v
s
i
s
(1)
where R
s
is the stator winding resistance, L
ss
the stator stray
inductance and v
s
the stator ux angular speed. The stator
current can be calculated by the stator voltage and
impedances as
i
s

u
s
Z
s
((Z
m
Z
r
)=(Z
m
Z
r
))
(2)
where Z
s
is the stator impedance, Z
m
the magnetising
impedance and Z
r
the rotor impedance. The impedances
are dened as
Z
s
R
s
jv
s
L
ss
(3)
Z
m
jv
s
L
m
(4)
Z
r

R
0
r
s

R
00
F
s
jv
s
L
0
rs
(5)
where R
0
r
is the rotor winding resistance referred to the stator,
s the slip, R
00
F
the excitation winding three-phase equivalent
resistance referred to the stator and L
0
rs
the rotor stray
inductance referred to the stator. The rotor electromotive
force is determined by the magnetising voltage u
m
, the slip
s and the reduction factor n between the stator and the rotor
u
r
u
m
sn (6)
Figure 5 Single-phase equivalent circuit for the excitation
machine
Table 1 Parameters of the slip-ring machine
Parameter Symbol Value
nominal power P
n
1.8 kW
nominal voltage U
n
380 V Y
nominal current I
n
4.5 A
nominal power factor cos(f) 0.8
nominal speed n
n
1400 r/
min
nominal frequency f
n
50 Hz
stator resistance R
s
2.2 V
rotor resistance (referred to the
stator)
R
r
0
5.4 V
rotor resistance R
r
1.0 V
magnetising inductance L
m
0.271 H
stator stray inductance L
ss
12 mH
rotor stray inductance (referred to
the stator)
L
rs
0
27 mH
rotor stray inductance L
rs
5.0 mH
excitation winding inductance
(referred to the stator)
L
F
0
0.353 mH
excitation winding inductance L
F
65 mH
reduction factor between the
stator and the rotor
n 0.43
Figure 4 Rotor phase current fundamental harmonic
amplitudes of the slip-ring machine with a differently
loaded diode bridge connected to the slip-rings as a
function of slip
The stator voltage of the slip-ring machine is constant
IET Electr. Power Appl., 2009, Vol. 3, Iss. 3, pp. 231239 233
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The phase voltages for the state machine can be generated
with the rotor voltage amplitude and the rotor frequency.
2.2 Rotor state machine
There are 12 different phase current direction combinations
in the rotor circuit. If only two phases are conducting,
there are six different current combinations, which are
selected as odd states. Between the odd states, all three
phases are conducting atleast for a short commutating time
interval; the current combinations, in which all the phases
are conducting, are selected as even states. The double-
ended arrow illustrates the ongoing commutation. All
possible rotor states are presented in Table 2. The positive
direction of the current is chosen from the rotor winding to
the diode bridge. The rst letter indicates the positive
current and the second the negative current.
2.2.1 Voltage equations: The directions of the rotor
circuit currents in the rst state cb are presented in Fig. 6.
When the diode resistances and the threshold voltages are
neglected, the voltage equation for the rst state is given by
u
c
u
b

2R
r
R
F

i
c

2L
rs
L
F

di
c
dt

(7)
where R
r
is the rotor phase resistance. The voltage equations
for all the odd states have the same gain matrices; only the
conducting phases change.
During the commutation, all the rotor phases are
conducting. The directions of the currents in the second
state are illustrated in Fig. 7. In the even states, two rotor
currents must be solved. The voltage equations for the
second state are
u
c
u
b
u
c
u
a

(R
r
R
F
) R
r
R
r
2R
r

i
b
i
c

(L
rs
L
F
) L
rs
L
rs
2L
rs

di
b
dt
di
c
dt
2
6
4
3
7
5 (8)
The voltage equations for the rest of the states are formed in
the same way. Both the gain matrices and the phases change.
The voltage equations for the even rotor states are presented
in the Appendix.
2.2.2 Commutation: The commutation between states is
based on the voltages and currents. The state machine moves
from an odd state to an even state, when the voltage of the
non-conducting phase reaches the value of the conducting
phase with the same polarity. For example, when rotating
to the positive direction, the step from the rst (cb) to the
second state (cb $ab) takes place when the voltage of the
phase a reaches the value of the phase c.
The state change from an even to an odd state takes place
when one of the phases stops conducting as it reaches the
zero current. For example, when rotating to the negative
Table 2 States of the rotor state machine
State # Conducting phases
1 cb
2 cb $ab
3 ab
4 ab $ac
5 ac
6 ac $bc
7 bc
8 bc $ba
9 ba
10 ba $ca
11 ca
12 ca $cb
Figure 6 Directions of the rotor circuit currents in the rst
state cb
Figure 7 Directions of the rotor circuit currents in the
second state cb $ab
234 IET Electr. Power Appl., 2009, Vol. 3, Iss. 3, pp. 231239
& The Institution of Engineering and Technology 2009 doi: 10.1049/iet-epa.2008.0079
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direction, the state of the state machine changes from the
second state to the rst state when the current of the phase a
drops to zero.
2.2.3 Free-wheeling state: As can be seen in Fig. 2,
the excitation winding current can ow freely through the
diode bridge without passing through the rotor winding of
the excitation machine; this is known as a free-wheeling
state. In the free-wheeling state, the rotor current can
decrease freely while the excitation current keeps passing
through the diode bridge, damping out because of the
resistive losses in the diodes and the excitation winding.
In the free-wheeling state, the excitation current consists of
the rotor current and the free-wheeling current. The free-
wheeling effect doubles the number of the rotor states. The
free-wheeling states are equivalent to the states presented
above, but the resistance and inductance of the excitation
winding are neglected. In that case, the rotor state machine
generates only the rotor phase currents. The excitation
winding current must be calculated separately with a model
for the damping current. If the excitation machine rotor
currents are assumed to be small, the voltage equation for
the excitation current is written as
0 R
F
i
F
L
F
di
F
dt
(9)
3 Simulation and measurements
The excitation system model was constructed and simulated
with Matlab Simulink. The results were compared with the
measured values. The measured machine is a small 1.8 kW
slip-ring induction machine fed by a variable voltage
transformer. A six-pulse diode bridge was connected to the
slip-rings of the rotor. The diode bridge was loaded with
an RL branch to emulate the excitation winding. The
stator voltages of the simulated and the measured slip-ring
machine were set equal, and the rotor currents were
compared with each other.
3.1 Zero speed
The system was simulated and measured at zero speed, which
means that the slip is equal to one. The simulated and
measured currents are presented in Fig. 8.
The amplitudes of the simulated and measured currents are
almost equal. The small difference is a consequence of the
inaccuracy of the model and the parameters for the slip-ring
machine. The measured current is in a steady state all the
time. In the simulated current, it is possible to detect the time
constant of the excitation system. The frequency of the rotor
currents is equal to the stator frequency, because the rotor is
stationary. The shapes of the measured currents in the upper
gure are congruent with the simulated ones given below.
There is only a small ripple in the excitation DC current.
The trapetzoidal shape of the phase currents can be explained
by the current commutations. The free-wheeling-state is not
clearly visible at zero speed.
3.2 Reverse speed
When the rotor is rotating in the direction opposite to that of
the stator ux, the slip is more than one and the rotor
frequency is higher than the stator frequency. The
measured and simulated currents at the slip equal to two
are presented in Fig. 9.
The rotor frequency is double compared with the locked-
rotor situation. Hence, also the electromotive force of the
Figure 8 One rotor phase current and the excitation
winding current at zero speed
Figure 9 Excitation current and one rotor phase current
measured and simulated at a slip equal to two
IET Electr. Power Appl., 2009, Vol. 3, Iss. 3, pp. 231239 235
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rotor is twice the value in the locked-rotor situation based on
(6). The amplitudes of the rotor current are only slightly
higher than above because of the increasing rotor
impedance. This justies the use of the single-phase
equivalent circuit. The time constant of the rotor circuit is
now smaller than at zero speed. The effect of the excitation
winding impedance diminishes, because both the
electromotive force and the impedance of the rotor circuit
are increased while the slip is increased. The currents are
presented at a shorter interval in Fig. 10 to observe the
shape of the currents.
At a higher slip, the free-wheeling state is clearly visible. If
the rotor system is assumed to be free-wheeling in the state
cb, the diodes 3 and 5 and the free-wheeling diodes are
conducting, and the current of the phase a is zero. The
free-wheeling diodes are the diode pairs that are carrying
the excitation current but not the rotor phase current. The
rotor phase currents and different commutation states with
free-wheeling are presented in Fig. 11.
The diode 1 starts to conduct immediately, and the system
is in the state cb $ab, when the diodes 1, 3 and 5 are
conducting. As the absolute value of the current i
b
reaches
the excitation current, the excitation winding inductance
starts to prevent the absolute value of the current i
b
from
rising and the free-wheeling state is over. When the
absolute value of the phase current i
b
tries to become
smaller than the excitation current i
F
, the free-wheeling
starts. A part of the excitation current starts to pass
through the diode bridge without owing through the rotor
of the excitation machine. The current of the phase b can
change without being dependent on the excitation current.
The current of the phase a rises, and the current of the
phase c is decreases until the current i
c
becomes zero; the
system is in the state ab, and the diodes 1, 5, and the free-
wheeling diodes are conducting. The system does not stay
in an odd state, because the excitation machine inductances
are too small compared with the excitation machine rotor
resistances to keep the rotor current at the value of the
excitation current long enough. Thus, the rotor currents are
continuous, and the current i
c
continues decreasing to
negative values immediately after reaching zero.
Fig. 12 illustrates the currents of a real excitation machine.
The current commutations are as described above in the case
of the slip-ring machine, but now also the odd states are
visible.
Figure 10 Closer view of the currents of the slip-ring
machine measured and simulated at a slip equal to two
Figure 11 Rotor current commutations and free-wheeling
states at a slip equal to two
The odd state points of time are marked, although all the three
phases are conducting continuously
Figure 12 Rotor current commutations of a real excitation
machine measured and simulated at a slip equal to 1.5
236 IET Electr. Power Appl., 2009, Vol. 3, Iss. 3, pp. 231239
& The Institution of Engineering and Technology 2009 doi: 10.1049/iet-epa.2008.0079
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The measured and simulated current waveforms
correspond to each other. The phase currents do not
immediately start to ow to the opposite direction after
reaching zero, and the system stays in an odd state for a
while. The free-wheeling time is very short and cannot be
clearly seen. The difference between the slip-ring machine
and the real excitation machine is a consequence of
different inductance ratios of the systems. In the slip-ring
machine system, the magnetising inductance of the slip-
ring machine is notably higher compared with the
excitation winding inductance than in the case of the real
excitation machine.
4 Integration into the
synchronous machine simulator
The excitation system model was integrated into the
synchronous machine simulator. The use of the simulator
for simulating asynchronous and synchronous machines has
been presented in [8, 9]. Fig. 13 illustrates the block
diagram of the developed excitation system model as a part
of the synchronous machine simulator.
The inputs of the excitation system model are the
excitation current and its reference, slip, and the stator
supply frequency of the excitation machine. The excitation
winding voltage is the only output.
The stator voltage of the excitation machine model is
generated with a PI controller, which has the difference
between the excitation winding current and the reference
value of the excitation winding current as the input. The
rotor electromotive force is calculated with a single-phase
equivalent circuit. The excitation winding current is
generated with the rotor circuit state machine.
The excitation current is calculated at two places at the
same time: in the synchronous machine simulator and in
the excitation system model. The problem is to t these
currents together. The conventional calculation of the
excitation winding voltage with the voltage equation for the
RL branch, u
F
R
F
i
F
L
F
(di
F
=dt) does not work in this
case. The excitation system model calculates the excitation
winding current without coupling with the synchronous
machine model that also generates the excitation current
independently based on the excitation winding voltage. The
only coupling between the models is the excitation winding
inductance. A stronger coupling between the models would
require to integrate the excitation system model very deep
into the synchronous machine model, which would be very
difcult. In that case, the excitation system could not be
separated as a block of its own as currently. It is not
possible to modify the synchronous machine simulator to
have the excitation current as an input to keep the
simulator modular. The brushless exciter model must be
easily replaced by the model of the brushed excitation. The
model of the brushed exciter includes just the model of the
thyristor bridge with a voltage output.
The problem is solved by coupling the excitation currents
together with a PI controller. The PI controller generates the
excitation winding voltage such that the difference between
the excitation currents will disappear. The time constant of
the PI controller has to be much smaller than the time
constant of the excitation system. The excitation winding
voltage is not a physical but a virtual value.
The synchronous machine is rotating at its nominal speed
with no load when a load torque step to the nominal load is
added. Later, the load is decreased to zero again. The
excitation winding current and the reference value of the
excitation current are shown in Fig. 14.
The excitation current follows the reference value well at
the end of the steady state when the excitation current is
rising. The control of the excitation current operates as
desired.
When the load ceases to be effective, the excitation current
stays higher than the reference value. The excitation current is
in a free-wheeling state, and it damps because of the resistive
losses in the diode bridge and the excitation winding. With
brushless excitation, it is not possible to decrease the
excitation current faster by controlling the excitation
winding voltage negative. At the end of the falling edge,
there is a clear undershoot. The undershoot is a
Figure 13 Excitation system model as a part of the
synchronous machine simulator
Figure 14 Excitation current and the reference value of the
excitation current at the torque steps to nominal and
zero loads
IET Electr. Power Appl., 2009, Vol. 3, Iss. 3, pp. 231239 237
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consequence of the slow dynamics of the PI-controlled
excitation system.
The excitation current and the rotor phase currents during
the excitation start-up and the load step are illustrated in
Fig. 15. The currents are presented at a shorter interval in the
steady state in order to observe the shape of the rotor currents.
The rotor phase currents have the same form as described
above. There are strong DC components in the rotor currents
during the free-wheeling state. The DC components are a
consequence of the fast-decreasing amplitude of the phase
currents. The commutation works in spite of the DC
currents, because the high-pass ltered rotor currents are
used for commutation during the free-wheeling state. The
phase currents return to the zero average when the free-
wheeling state ends and the amplitude of the rotor current
rises.
The waveforms of the rotor currents are not the same as in
the case of the measured slip-ring machine. Now, there is a
remarkably larger excitation winding impedance that tries
to keep the excitation current constant. Because of the high
excitation inductance, the rotor circuit is in the free-
wheeling state for most of the time. The variation of the
amplitude of the rotor currents is explained by the low
inductances and resistances in the excitation machine rotor
windings.
To observe the operation of the PI controller coupling the
excitation model with the synchronous machine simulator,
the excitation currents calculated by the excitation model
and the synchronous machine model are presented in Fig. 16.
The excitation current generated by the synchronous
machine model is on an average equal to the current
generated by the excitation system model. The PI controller
operates well in coupling the models together if the time
constant of the controller is small enough. It is worth
remembering that in this case, the excitation winding
voltage is only a virtual value.
5 Conclusion
Only the excitation model with the state machine for the rotor
circuit illustrates the excitation systemwith sufcient accuracy.
Based on the nearly equal measured and simulated rotor
current waveforms, the single-phase equivalent circuit
sufces to illustrate the stator. However, the non-sinusoidal
stator voltage supply may change the situation. To verify the
excitation system model for real excitation machines,
laboratory measurements are needed. Of the greatest
importance is the need to measure the stator and rotor
currents and their waveforms at the same time. Adding a
stator circuit to the state machine drastically increases the
number of states. Consequently, the stable commutation
method would require more research in the future.
6 References
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INGOSKI V., MIKAMI M., YAMASHITA H., INOUE K.: Computer


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Figure 15 Rotor currents of the excitation machine and the
excitation current during the torque steps
Given below, are the currents at a shorter interval in the steady
state. At the time 0.2 s the nominal load is added. The excitaton
current reaches its nominal value at 0.35 s. At the time 0.7 s
the load is subtracted and the system migrates to the free-
wheeling state. The excitation current reaches its reference
value and the free-wheeling state ends at the time 0.95 s
Figure 16 Excitation currents generated with the excitation
system state machine model and the synchronous machine
simulator
238 IET Electr. Power Appl., 2009, Vol. 3, Iss. 3, pp. 231239
& The Institution of Engineering and Technology 2009 doi: 10.1049/iet-epa.2008.0079
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[8] KANERVA S., STULZ C., GERHARD B., BURZANOWSKA H., JA

RVINEN J.,
SEMAN S.: Coupled fem and system simulator in the
simulation of asynchronous machine drive with direct
torque control. 6th Int. Conf. Electrical Machines
(ICEM04), Cracov, Poland, September 2004
[9] BURZANOWSKA H., SARIO P., STULZ C., JOERG P.: Redundant
drive with direct torque control (dtc) and dual-star
machine, simulation and verication. 12th European
Conf. Power Electronics and Applications (EPE 2007),
Aalborg, Denmark, September 2007
7 Appendix
7.1 Commutating states of the rotor
circuit state machine
cb $ab
u
c
u
b
u
c
u
a

(R
r
R
F
) R
r
R
r
2R
r

i
b
i
c

(L
rs
L
F
) L
rs
L
rs
2L
rs

di
b
dt
di
c
dt
2
6
4
3
7
5
(10)
ab $ac
u
a
u
b
u
b
u
c

(2R
r
R
F
) (R
r
R
F
)
R
r
R
r

i
b
i
c

(2L
rs
L
F
) (L
rs
L
F
)
L
rs
L
rs

di
b
dt
di
c
dt
2
6
4
3
7
5
(11)
ac $bc
u
a
u
c
u
a
u
b

R
r
(2R
r
R
F
)
2R
r
R
r

i
b
i
c

L
rs
(2L
rs
L
F
)
2L
rs
L
rs

di
b
dt
di
c
dt
2
6
4
3
7
5
(12)
bc $ba
u
b
u
c
u
c
u
a

R
r
R
F
R
r
R
r
2R
r

i
b
i
c

L
rs
L
F
L
rs
L
rs
2L
rs

di
b
dt
di
c
dt
2
6
4
3
7
5
(13)
ba $ca
u
b
u
a
u
b
u
c

2R
r
R
F
R
r
R
F
R
r
R
r

i
b
i
c

2L
rs
L
F
L
rs
L
F
L
rs
L
rs

di
b
dt
di
c
dt
2
6
4
3
7
5
(14)
ca $cb
u
c
u
a
u
a
u
b

R
r
2R
r
R
F
2R
r
R
r

i
b
i
c

L
rs
2L
rs
L
F
2L
rs
L
rs

di
b
dt
di
c
dt
2
6
4
3
7
5
(15)
IET Electr. Power Appl., 2009, Vol. 3, Iss. 3, pp. 231239 239
doi: 10.1049/iet-epa.2008.0079 & The Institution of Engineering and Technology 2009
www.ietdl.org