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Case No.

14-3057
IN THE UNITED STATES COURT OF APPEALS
FOR THE SIXTH CIRCUIT
JAMES OBERGEFELL; JOHN ARTUR;
DAVID BRIAN MICHENER; ROBERT GRUNN,
Pl ai n t i f f s-Ap p el l ees,
v .
LANCE D. HIMES, i n h i s of f i c i al c ap ac i t y as
In t er i m Di r ec t or of t h e Oh i o Dep ar t m en t of Heal t h ,
Def en dan t-Ap p el l an t .
On Ap p eal f r om t h e Un i t ed St at es Di st r i c t Cour t f or t h e Sout h er n Di st r i c t of Oh i o,
West er n Di v i si on , Case No. 13-CV-0501 (Hon . Ti m ot h y S. Bl ac k)
Br i ef of t h e Am er i c an Psy c h ol ogi c al Assoc i at i on , Am er i c an Ac adem y of
Pedi at r i c s, Am er i c an Psy c h i at r i c Assoc i at i on , Nat i on al Assoc i at i on of Soc i al
Wor ker s, an d Oh i o Psy c h ol ogi c al Assoc i at i on as Am i c i Cur i ae i n Sup p or t of
Pl ai n t i f f s-Ap p el l ees
Nat h al i e F.P. Gi l f oy l e Paul M. Sm i t h
AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION JE~t Ex & BLoc K LLP
750 Fi r st St r eet NE
Wash i n gt on , DC 20002
Tel ep h on e: (202) 336-6100
Fax: (202) 336-6069
Ngi l f oy l e@ap a.or g
1099 New Yor k Av e. NW, St e. 900
Wash i n gt on , DC 20001
Tel ep h on e: (202) 639-6000
Fax: (202) 639-6066
Psm i t h @jen n er .c om
Coun sel f or Am i c i Cur i ae
Case: 14-3057 Document: 69 Filed: 05/01/2014 Page: 1
TABLE OF CONTENTS
CORPORATE DISCLOSURE STATEMENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . i
TABLE OF AUTHORITIES "' . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . v i i i
IDENTITY AND INTEREST OF AMICI CURIAE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
ARGLTIVIENT
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
I. The Sc i en t i f i c Ev i den c e Pr es en t ed i n Thi s Br i ef . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
II. Homos exuali t y Is A Nor mal Expr es s i on of Human Sexuali t y, Is
Gen er ally Not Chos en , an d Is Hi ghly Res i s t an t To Chan ge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
III. Sexual Or i en t at i on an d Relat i on s hi ps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
A. Gay Men an d Les bi an s For m St able, Commi t t ed Relat i on s hi ps
That Ar e Equi v alen t t o Het er os exual Relat i on s hi ps i n Es s en t i al
Res pec t s
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
B. The In s t i t ut i on of Mar r i age Of f er s Soc i al, Ps yc hologi c al, an d
Healt h Ben ef i t s That Ar e Den i ed t o Same-Sex Couples Who
Can n ot Legally Mar r y
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
IV. The Chi ldr en of Same-Sex Couples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 3
A. Man y Same-Sex Couples Rai s e Chi ldr en . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 3
B. The Fac t or s That Af f ec t t he Adjus t men t of Chi ldr en Ar e Not
Depen den t on Par en t al Gen der or Sexual Or i en t at i on . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 4
(1 ) The quali t i es of par en t-c hi ld r elat i on s hi ps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 4
(2) The quali t i es of r elat i on s hi ps bet ween s i gn i f i c an t adult s
i n c hi ldr en 's li v es
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 5
(3 ) The av ai labi li t y of ec on omi c an d ot her r es our c es . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 6
C. Ther e Is No Sc i en t i f i c Bas i s f or Con c ludi n g That Same-Sex
Couples Ar e An y Les s Fi t or Capable Par en t s Than
Het er os exual Couples , or That Thei r Chi ldr en Ar e An y Les s
Ps yc hologi c ally Healt hy an d Well Adjus t ed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 8
Case: 14-3057 Document: 69 Filed: 05/01/2014 Page: 2
V. Denying t h e S t a t u s of Ma rria ge t o S a me-S ex Cou ples S t igma t iz es
Th em
..............................................................................................................2 4
CONCLUS ION
........................................................................................................2 7
CERTIFICATE OF COMPLIANCE
CERTIFICATE OF S ERVICE
ii
Case: 14-3057 Document: 69 Filed: 05/01/2014 Page: 3
UNITED STATES COURT OF APPEALS
FOR THE SIXTH CIRCUIT
Disclosure of Corporate Affiliation s
an d Fin an cial In terest
Six th Circuit
Case Number: 14-3057 Case Name: Oberg efell et al. v . Himes
Name of coun sel: Paul M. Smith
Pursuan t to 6th Cir. R. 26. 1, Amicus Curiae American Psych olog ical Association
Name of Party
makes th e follow in g disclosure:
Is said party a subsidiary or affiliate of a publicly ow n ed corporation ? If Yes, list below th e
iden tity of th e paren t corporation or affiliate an d th e relation sh ip betw een it an d th e n amed
party:
INo
2. Is th ere a publicly ow n ed corporation , n ot a party to th e appeal, th at h as a fin an cial in terest
in th e outcome? If yes, list th e iden tity of such corporation an d th e n ature of th e fin an cial
in terest:
m
CERTIFICATE OF SERVICE
certify th at on May 1, 2014 th e foreg oin g documen t w as serv ed on all
parties or th eir coun sel of record th roug h th e CM/ECF system if th ey are reg istered users or, if th ey are n ot,
by placin g a true an d correct copy in th e Un ited States mail, postag e prepaid, to th eir address of record.
s/Paul M. Smith
Th is statemen t is filed tw ice: w h en th e appeal is in itially open ed an d later, in th e prin cipal briefs,
immediately precedin g th e table of con ten ts. See 6th Cir. R. 26. 1 on pag e 2 of th is form.
6CA-1
8/08 Pag e 1 of 2
Case: 14-3057 Document: 69 Filed: 05/01/2014 Page: 4
UNITED STATES COURT OF APPEALS
FOR THE SIXTH CIRCUIT
Disclosure of Corporate Affiliation s
an d Fin an cial In terest
Six th Circuit
Case Number: 14-3057 Case Name: Oberg efell et al. v . Himes
Name of coun sel: Paul M. Smith
Pursuan t to 6th Cir. R. 26. 1, Amicus Curiae American Academy of Pediatrics
Name of Party
makes th e follow in g disclosure:
Is said party a subsidiary or affiliate of a publicly ow n ed corporation ? If Yes, list below th e
iden tity of th e paren t corporation or affiliate an d th e relation sh ip betw een it an d th e n amed
party:
No
2. Is th ere a publicly ow n ed corporation , n ot a party to th e appeal, th at h as a fin an cial in terest
in th e outcome? If yes, list th e iden tity of such corporation an d th e n ature of th e fin an cial
in terest:
l~C
CERTIFICATE OF SERVICE
certify th at on May 1, 2014 th e foreg oin g documen t w as serv ed on all
parties or th eir coun sel of record th roug h th e CM/ECF system if th ey are reg istered users or, if th ey are n ot,
by placin g a true an d correct copy in th e Un ited States mail, postag e prepaid, to th eir address of record.
s/Paul M. Smith
Th is statemen t is filed tw ice: w h en th e appeal is in itially open ed an d later, in th e prin cipal briefs,
immediately precedin g th e table of con ten ts. See 6th Cir. R. 26. 1 on pag e 2 of th is form.
6CA-1
8~0$ Pag e I of 2
Case: 14-3057 Document: 69 Filed: 05/01/2014 Page: 5
UNITED STATES COURT OF APPEALS
FOR THE SIXTH CIRCUIT
Disclosure of Corporate Affiliation s
an d Fin an cial In terest
Six th Circuit
Case Number: 14-3057 Case Name: Oberg efell et al. v . Himes
Name of coun sel: Paul M. Smith
Pursuan t to 6th Cir. R. 26. 1, Amicus Curiae American Psy ch iatric Association
Name of Party
makes th e follow in g disclosure:
Is said party a subsidiary or affiliate of a publicly ow n ed corporation ? If Yes, list below th e
iden tity of th e paren t corporation or affiliate an d th e relation sh ip betw een it an d th e n amed
party :
INo
2. Is th ere a publicly ow n ed corporation , n ot a party to th e appeal, th at h as a fin an cial in terest
in th e outcome? If y es, list th e iden tity of such corporation an d th e n ature of th e fin an cial
in terest:
V l ' 7
CERTIFICATE OF SERV ICE
certify th at on May 1, 2014 th e foreg oin g documen t w as serv ed on all
parties or th eir coun sel of record th roug h th e CM/ECF sy stem if th ey are reg istered users or, if th ey are n ot,
by placin g a true an d correct copy in th e Un ited States mail, postag e prepaid, to th eir address of record.
s/Paul M. Smith
Th is statemen t is filed tw ice: w h en th e appeal is in itially open ed an d later, in th e prin cipal briefs,
immediately precedin g th e table of con ten ts. See 6th Cir. R. 26. 1 on pag e 2 of th is form.
6CA-1
8~~$ Pag e 1 of 2
Case: 14-3057 Document: 69 Filed: 05/01/2014 Page: 6
UNITED STATES COURT OF APPEALS
FOR THE SIXTH CIRCUIT
Disclosure of Corporate Affiliation s
an d Fin an cial In terest
Six th Circuit
Case Number: 14-3057 Case Name: Oberg efell et al. v . Himes
Name of coun sel: Paul M. Smith
Pursuan t to 6 th Cir. R. 26 . 1, Amicus Curiae Nation al Association of Social Workers
Name of Party
makes th e follow in g disclosure:
Is said party a subsidiary or affiliate of a publicly ow n ed corporation ? If Yes, list below th e
iden tity of th e paren t corporation or affiliate an d th e relation sh ip betw een it an d th e n amed
party:
No
2. Is th ere a publicly ow n ed corporation , n ot a party to th e appeal, th at h as a fin an cial in terest
in th e outcome? If yes, list th e iden tity of such corporation an d th e n ature of th e fin an cial
in terest:
V [ 7
CERTIFICATE OF SERV ICE
certify th at on May 1, 2014 th e foreg oin g documen t w as serv ed on all
parties or th eir coun sel of record th roug h th e CM/ECF system if th ey are reg istered users or, if th ey are n ot,
by placin g a true an d correct copy in th e Un ited States mail, postag e prepaid, to th eir address of record.
s/Paul M. Smith
Th is statemen t is filed tw ice: w h en th e appeal is in itially open ed an d later, in th e prin cipal briefs,
immediately precedin g th e table of con ten ts. See 6 th Cir. R. 26 . 1 on pag e 2 of th is form.
6 CA-1
8~~$ Pag e I of 2
Case: 14-3057 Document: 69 Filed: 05/01/2014 Page: 7
UNITED STATES COURT OF APPEALS
FOR THE SIXTH CIRCUIT
Disclosure of Corporate Affiliation s
an d Fin an cial In terest
Six th Circuit
Case Number: 14-3057 Case Name: Oberg efell et al. v . Himes
Name of coun sel: Paul M. Smith
Pursuan t to 6th Cir. R. 26. 1, Amicus Curiae Oh io Psych olog ical Association
Name of Party
makes th e follow in g disclosure:
1. Is said party a subsidiary or affiliate of a publicly ow n ed corporation ? If Yes, list below th e
iden tity of th e paren t corporation or affiliate an d th e relation sh ip betw een it an d th e n amed
party:
2. Is th ere a publicly ow n ed corporation , n ot a party to th e appeal, th at h as a fin an cial in terest
in th e outcome? If yes, list th e iden tity of such corporation an d th e n ature of th e fin an cial
in terest:
No
CERTIFICATE OF SERVICE
certify th at on May 1, 2014 th e foreg oin g documen t w as serv ed on all
parties or th eir coun sel of record th roug h th e CM/ECF system if th ey are reg istered users or, if th ey are n ot,
by placin g a true an d correct copy in th e Un ited States mail, postag e prepaid, to th eir address of record.
s/Paul M. Smith
Th is statemen t is filed tw ice: w h en th e appeal is in itially open ed an d later, in th e prin cipal briefs,
immediately precedin g th e table of con ten ts. See 6th Cir. R. 26. 1 on pag e 2 of th is form.
6CA-1
808 Pag e I of 2
Case: 14-3057 Document: 69 Filed: 05/01/2014 Page: 8
TABLE OF AUTHORITIES
CASES
DeBoer v . Snyder, 12-CV-10285, --- F. Supp. 2d ---, 2014 WL 1100794 (E. D.
Mich. Mar. 21, 2014)
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16, 23
United States v . Winds or, 133 S. Ct. 2675 (2013)
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
TEXTS, TREATISES, AND OTHER AUTHORITIES
2010 Cens us and 2010 American Community Surv ey, Same-Sex Unmarried
P artner or Spous e Hous eholds by Sex of Hous eholder by P res ence of
Own Children, av ailable at
http://www. cens us . gov /hhes /s ames ex/
files /s upp-table-AFF. xIs
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8, 13
J. M. Adams & W. H. Jones , The Conceptualiz ation of Marital Commitment,
72 J. P ers onality & Soc. P s ychol. 1177 (1997)
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
D. W. Allen, High School Graduation Rates Among Children of Same-Sex
Hous eholds , 11 Rev . Econ. of the Hous ehold 635 (2013) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21-22
D. W. Allen et al. , Nontraditional Families and Childhood P ~og~es s Though
School, 50 Demography 955 (2013)
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
P . R. Amato, Children of Div orce in the 1990s , 15 J. Fam. P s ychol. 355
(2001)
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Am. Acad. of P ediatrics , P olicy Statement, P romoting the Well-Being of
Children Whos e P arents are Gay o~ Les bian, 131 P ediatrics 827
(2013 )
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1, 23
Am. As s n for Marriage and Fam. Therapy, Reparativ e/Conv ers ion Therapy
(2009), av ailable at
http://www. aamft. org/iMIS 15/AAMFT/
MFT
Res ources /Content/Res ources lP os ition On Couples . as px . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Am. Med. As s n, P olicy H-60. 940, P artner Co-Adoption, av ailable at
http://www. ama-as s n. org/ama/pub/about-ama/our-people/member-
groups -s ections /glbt-adv is ory-committee/ama-policy-regarding-
s exual-orientation. page
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
v iii
Case: 14-3057 Document: 69 Filed: 05/01/2014 Page: 9
Am. Med. Assn, Policy H-65.973, Health Care D isp arities in Same-Sex
Partner Households, av ailab le at http ://www.ama-assn.org/ama/p ub /
ab out-ama/our-p eop le/memb er-group s-sections/glb t-adv isory-
committee/ama-p olicy-regarding-sexual-orientation.p age ............................2 5
Am. Med. Assn, Policy H-160.991, Health Cage Needs of the Homosexual
Pop ulation, av ailab le at http ://www.ama-assn.org/ama/p ub /ab out-
ama/our-p eop le/memb er-group s-sections/glb t-adv isory-
committee/ama-p olicy-regarding-sexual-orientation.p age .......................... 6-7
Am. Psychiatric Assn, Position Statement on Homosexuality and Civ il
Rights (1973), in 131 Am. J . Psychiatry 497 (1974) .......................................5
Am. Psychiatric Assn, Position Statement: Psychiatric Treatment and
Sexual O rientation (1998), av ailab le at http ://www.p sych.org/
D ep artments/ED U/Lib rary/APAO fficialD ocumentsandRelated/
PositionStatements/19982 0.asp x .....................................................................6
Am. Psychiatric Assn, Position Statement: Sup p ort of Legal Recognition of
Same-Sex Civ il Marriage (2 005), av ailab le at http ://www.p sych.org/
edu/other res/lib archiv es/archiv es/ 2 00502 .p df ..........................................2 4
Am. Psychoanalytic Assn, Position Statement: Attemp ts to Change Sexual
O rientation, Gender I dentity, o~ Gender Exp ression (2 012 ), av ailab le
at http ://www.ap sa.org/ ap saalp osition_ statements/attemp ts_
change sexual orientation.asp x ....................................................................7
Am. Psychoanalytic Assn, Position Statement: Parenting (2 012 ), av ailab le
at http ://www.ap sa.org/ab out_ ap saa/p osition statements/
p arenting.asp x ............................................................................................2 , 2 4
Am. Psychol. Assn, Minutes of the Annual Meeting of the Council of
Rep resentativ es, 30 Am. Psychologist 62 0 (1975) ..........................................5
Am. Psychol. Assn, Rep ot of the American Psychological Association Task
Force on Ap p rop riate Therap eutic Resp onses to Sexual O rientation
(2 009), av ailab le at http ://www.ap a.org/p i/lgb t/resources/sexual-
orientation. asp x ................................................................................................6
Am. Psychol. Assn, Resolution on Ap p rop riate Affirmativ e Resp onses to
Sexual O rientation D istress and Change Efforts (2 009), av ailab le at
http ://www. ap a. org/p i/lgb t/resources/sexual-orientation. asp x ........................6
ix
Case: 14-3057 Document: 69 Filed: 05/01/2014 Page: 10
Am. Psychol. Assn, Resolution on Ma~~iage Equality For Same-Sex
Couples (2011), av ailab le at http: / / w w w .apa.org/ ab out/ policy/ same-
sex.pdf ..........................................................................................................1, 6
Am. Psychol. Assn, Resolution on Sexual O rientation, Parents and
Children (2004), av ailab le at http: / / w w w .apa.org/ ab out/ policy/
parenting.aspx ................................................................................................23
N. Andersen et al., O utcomes for Children w ith Lesb ian or Gay Parents, 43
Scand. J . Psychol. 3 3 5 (2002) ........................................................................18
K.F. Balsam et al., Thee-Year Follow-Up of Same-Sex Couples Who Had
Civ il Unions in Vermont, Same-Sex Couples Not in Civ il Unions, and
Heterosexual Married Couples, 44 Dev elopmental Psychol. 102
(2008 ) ...............................................................................................................9
P. Berger & H. Kellner, Marriage and the Construction of Reality, 46
Diogenes 1 (19 64) ............................................................................................9
T.J . Bib larz & J . Stacey, How Does the Gender of Parents Matter?, 72 J .
Marriage & Fam. 3 (2010) .............................................................................19
H. Bos et al., Lesb ian and HeteNosexual Tw o-Parent Families, J . Child &
Fam. Stud. (2014), av ailab le at http: / / dx.doi.org/ 10.1007/ x108 26-014-
9 9 13 -8 ............................................................................................................19
H. Bos & T.G.M. Sandfort, Children's Gender I dentity in Lesb ian and
Heterosexual Tw o-Parent Families, 62 Sex Roles 114 (2010) .....................19
S.L. Brow n, The Effect of Union Type on Psychological Well-Being, 41 J .
Health & Soc. Behay. 241 (2000) ..................................................................11
R.P.D. Burton, Glob al I ntegrativ e Meaning as a Mediating Factor in the
Relationship Betw een Social Roles and Psychological Distress, 3 9 J .
Health & Soc. Behay. 201 (19 9 8 ) ..................................................................10
R.W. Chan et al., Psychological AdjustmentAmong Children Conceiv ed v ia
Donor I nsemination b y Lesb ian and Heterosexual Mothers, 69 Child
Dev. 443 (19 9 8 ) ...................................................................................... 15, 17
Consequences of Grow ing Up Poop (G.J . Duncan & J . Brooks-Gunn eds.,
19 9 7) ..............................................................................................................17
x
Case: 14-3057 Document: 69 Filed: 05/01/2014 Page: 11
J . Crocker et a l . , S oci a l S t i gma , i n 2 The Ha n dbook of S oci a l Psychol ogy
504 (D. T. G i l bert et a l . eds. , 4t h ed. 1998) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
E. M. Cummi n gs et a l . , Chi l dren ' s Respon ses t o Everyda y Ma ri t a l Con fl i ct
Ta ct i cs i n t he Home, 74 Chi l d Dev. 1918 (2003) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
E. M. Cummi n gs et a l . , Everyda y Ma ri t a l Con fl i ct a n d Chi l d A ggressi on , 32
J . A bn orma l Chi l d Psychol . 191 (2004) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
A . R. D' A ugel l i , S exua l O ri en t a t i on , i n 7 En cycl opedi a of Psychol ogy 260
(A . E. Ka zdi n ed. , 2000) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
E. Durkhei m, S ui ci de (J . A . S pa ul di n g & G . S i mpson t ra n s. , 1951) (1897) . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
S . Eri ch et a l . , A Compa ra t i ve A n a l ysi s of A dopt i ve Fa mi l y Fun ct i on i n g W i t h
G a y, L esbi a n , a n d Het erosexua l Pa ren t s a n d Thei s Chi l dren , 1 J .
G L BT Fa m. S t ud. 43 (2005) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
S . Eri ch et a l . , G a y a n d L esbi a n A dopt i ve Fa mi l i es, 9 J . Fa m. S oc. W ork 17
(2005)
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Fa mi l y Con t ext of Pa ren t i n g i n Chi l dren ' s A da pt a t i on t o El emen t a ry S chool
(P. A . Cowa n , et a l . eds. , 2005) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
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A . E. G ol dberg, L esbi a n a n d G a y Pa ren t s a n d Thei r Chi l dren (2010) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
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xi
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S. Golombok, Parenting (2002)
........................................................................ 14, 15
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.............................................................................................................25
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Counseling Psychol. 32 (2009) ........................................................................6
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......................................................................................5
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......................................................................................................11
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f rom Heterosexual Married Couples?, 66 J . Marriage & Fam. 880
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...............................................................................................................9
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Gay Male, and Heterosexual Couples, 22 J . Fam. Psychol. 701 (2008).........9
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Current D irections in Psychol. S ci. 251 (2005) ...............................................9
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Lamb eds., 5th ed. 2005) ........................................................................ 14, 15
J .A. Lavner et al., Can Gay and Lesbian Parents Promote Healthy
D evelopment in High-Risk Children Adopted From Foster Care?, 82
Am. J . Orthopsychiatry 465 (2012) ...............................................................19
G. Levinger, Marital Cohesiveness and D issolution, 27 J . Marriage & Fam.
19 (19 65) ........................................................................................................12
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.............................................................................................................25
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Fa m. I ssues 53 (1995)
....................................................................................10
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Ma rria ge & Fa m. 1052 (2000) .......................................................................18
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Psychot hera py 91 (2001) ...............................................................................17
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(M.E. La mb ed., 4t h ed. 2004)
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N ebra ska Symposium on Mot iva t ion 141 (D.A. Hope ed., 2009) ................18
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Diversit y, in Ha ndbook of Socia l iz a t ion 328 (J .E. Grusec & P.D.
Ha st ings eds., 2007 ) .......................................................................... 14, 15, 17
L.A. Pepl a u & A.W. Fingerhut , The Cl ose Rel a t ionships of Lesbia ns a nd
Ga y Men, 58 Ann. Rev. Psychol . 405 (2007 ) ..............................................8 , 9
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Ha ndbook of Psychol ogy a nd Sexua l O rient a t ion 165 (C.J . Pa t t erson
& A.R. D' Augel l i eds., 2013) ..........................................................................8
xiv
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L.A. Peplau & N. Ghavami, Gay, Lesbian, and Bisexual R elat io nships, in
Encyclo pedia o f Human R elat io nships (H.T. R eis & S. Sprecher eds.,
2009) ............................................................................................................8 , 9
L.A. Peplau & K.P. Beals, The Family Lives o f Lesbians and Gay Men, in
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by Same-Sex Parent s, 109 Pediat rics 341 (2002) ..........................................18
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74 J . Marriag e & Fam. 556 (2012) .............................................. 15-16 , 17, 21
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(2003) .............................................................................................................12
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(J . Marmo r ed., 198 0) ......................................................................................5
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1059 (1990) ....................................................................................................11
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xv
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470 (2003) ......................................................................................................12
xv i
Case: 14-3057 Document: 69 Filed: 05/01/2014 Page: 17
IDENTITY AND INTEREST OF AMICI CURIAE'
The American P s y cho l o g ical As s o ciat io n ("AP A") is a s cient if ic and
edu cat io nal o rg aniz at io n dedicat ed t o increas ing and dis s eminat ing p s y cho l o g ical
kno wl edg e; it is t he wo rl d's l arg es t p ro f es s io nal as s o ciat io n o f p s y cho l o g is t s . The
AP A has ado p t ed mu l t ip l e res earch-bas ed p o l icy s t at ement s s u p p o rt ing t he rig ht s
o f g ay and l es bian p eo p l e, incl u ding a 2011 p o l icy s t at ement s u p p o rt ing f u l l
marriag e eq u al it y f o r s ame-s ex co u p l es .2
The American Academy o f P ediat rics ("AAP ") is t he l arg es t p ro f es s io nal
as s o ciat io n o f p ediat ricians in t he wo rl d. Thro u g h edu cat io n, res earch, advo cacy ,
and t he p ro vis io n o f ex p ert advice, t he AAP s eeks t he o p t imal p hy s ical , ment al ,
and s o cial heal t h and wel l -being f o r inf ant s , chil dren, ado l es cent s , and y o u ng
adu l t s . The AAP s u p p o rt s marriag e eq u al it y f o r al l cap abl e and co ns ent ing
co u p l es , incl u ding t ho s e who are o f t he s ame g ender, t o g u arant ee al l l eg al rig ht s
and benef it s f o r t heir chil dren.3
The American P s y chiat ric As s o ciat io n is t he Nat io n's l arg es t o rg aniz at io n o f
p hy s icians s p ecial iz ing in p s y chiat ry . It j o ins t his brief f o r t he reas o ns ex p res s ed
' No p art y 's co u ns el au t ho red t his brief in who l e o r in p art , and no p art y o r p art y 's
co u ns el no r any o t her p ers o n o t her t han Amici co nt ribu t ed mo ney t hat was
int ended t o f u nd p rep aring o r s u bmit t ing t his brief .
2 AP A Res o l u t io n o n Ma~~iag e Eq u al it y Fo N Same-Sex Co u p l es (2011) (denial o f
marriag e eq u al it y "p erp et u at es t he s t ig ma his t o rical l y at t ached t o ho mo s ex u al it y ,
and reinf o rces p rej u dice ag ains t l es bian, g ay , and bis ex u al p eo p l e").
3 AAP , P o l icy St at ement , P ro mo t ing t he Wel l-Being o f Chil dren Who s e P arent s
ay e Gay o r Les bian, 13 1 P ediat rics 827, 828 (2013 ).
Case: 14-3057 Document: 69 Filed: 05/01/2014 Page: 18
i n i t s 2005 p o s i t i o n s t a t e m e n t , Sup p o rt o f Le ga l R e c o gn i t i o n o f Sa m e- Se x C i v i l
Ma rri a ge ("In t h e i n t e re s t o f m a i n t a i n i n g a n d p ro m o t i n g m e n t a l h e a lt h , t h e
Am e ri c a n P s y c h i a t ri c As s o c i a t i o n s up p o rt s t h e le ga l re c o gn i t i o n o f s a m e- s e x
m a rri a ge w i t h a ll ri gh t s , b e n e fi t s , a n d re s p o n s i b i li t i e s c o n fe rre d b y c i v i l
m a rri a ge . ") .
Th e N a t i o n a l As s o c i a t i o n o f So c i a l Wo rke rs ("N ASW") i s t h e la rge s t
a s s o c i a t i o n o f p ro fe s s i o n a l s o c i a l w o rke rs i n t h e Un i t e d St a t e s . N ASW de v e lo p s
p o li c y s t a t e m e n t s o n i s s ue s o f i m p o rt a n c e t o t h e s o c i a l w o rk p ro fe s s i o n .
C o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h o s e s t a t e m e n t s , N ASW s up p o rt s full le ga l a c c e p t a n c e o f le s b i a n ,
ga y , a n d b i s e x ua l p e o p le , i n c ludi n g t h e i r ri gh t t o m a rry .4
Th e Oh i o P s y c h o lo gi c a l As s o c i a t i o n ("OP A") i s t h e Oh i o a ffi li a t e o f t h e
AP A; i t i s n a t i o n a lly re c o gn i z e d a s o n e o f t h e p re e m i n e n t s t a t e p s y c h o lo gi c a l
a s s o c i a t i o n s . Th e OP A a dv a n c e s t h e c re a t i o n , c o m m un i c a t i o n a n d a p p li c a t i o n o f
p s y c h o lo gi c a l kn o w le dge t o b e n e fi t s o c i e t y a n d i m p ro v e p e o p le ' s li v e s , i n c ludi n g
b y a dv o c a t i n g fo r p ub li c p o li c i e s t h a t p ro m o t e a p s y c h o lo gi c a lly h e a lt h y Oh i o .
All p a rt i e s h a v e c o n s e n t e d t o t h e fi li n g o f t h i s b ri e f.
4N ASW, P o li c y St a t e m e n t : Le s b i a n , Ga y , a n d B i s e x ua l Is s ue s , i n So c i a l Wo rk
Sp e a ks 224, 225 (6t h e d. 2003) .
2
Case: 14-3057 Document: 69 Filed: 05/01/2014 Page: 19
ARGUMENT
I . The S c i en t i f i c Evi den c e Presen t ed i n Thi s B ri ef .
Thi s b ri ef p resen t s an ac c u rat e su mmary of t he c u rren t st at e of sc i en t i f i c an d
p rof essi on al kn owl edge c on c ern i n g sex u al ori en t at i on an d f ami l i es rel evan t t o t hi s
c ase. Ami c i have made a good f ai t h ef f ort t o t ake i n t o ac c ou n t t he f i n di n gs of al l
val i d, p u b l i shed st u di es i n t hi s area.
Ami c i rel y on t he b est emp i ri c al researc h avai l ab l e. B ef ore c i t i n g a st u dy,
Ami c i have c ri t i c al l y eval u at ed i t s met hodol ogy, i n c l u di n g t he rel i ab i l i t y an d
val i di t y of t he measu res an d t est s i t emp l oyed, an d t he q u al i t y of i t s dat a- c ol l ec t i on
p roc edu res an d st at i st i c al an al yses.
S c i en t i f i c researc h i s a c u mu l at i ve p roc ess, an d n o emp i ri c al st u dy i s p erf ec t
i n i t s desi gn an d ex ec u t i on . Ac c ordi n gl y, Ami c i b ase t hei r c on c l u si on s as mu c h as
p ossi b l e on f i n di n gs t hat have b een rep l i c at ed ac ross st u di es rat her t han on t he
f i n di n gs of an y si n gl e st u dy.
Even wel l- ex ec u t ed st u di es may b e l i mi t ed i n t hei r i mp l i c at i on s an d
gen eral i z ab i l i t y. Man y st u di es c i t ed herei n di sc u ss t hei r own l i mi t at i on s an d
p rovi de su ggest i on s f or f u rt her researc h. Thi s i s c on si st en t wi t h t he sc i en t i f i c
met hod an d does n ot i mp eac h t hese st u di es' overal l c on c l u si on s.
Most of t he emp i ri c al st u di es an d l i t erat u re revi ews c i t ed herei n have b een
p u b l i shed i n rep u t ab l e, p eer- revi ewed ac ademi c j ou rn al s. S ome ac ademi c b ooks,
3
Case: 14-3057 Document: 69 Filed: 05/01/2014 Page: 20
book c h a p t e r s , a nd t e c h ni c a l r e p or t s , wh i c h t y p i c a l l y a r e not s u bj e c t t o t h e s a me
p e e r-r e vi e w s t a nda r ds a s j ou r na l a r t i c l e s , ma y a l s o be c i t e d, p r ovi de d t h a t t h e y
r e p or t r e s e a r c h e mp l oy i ng r i gor ou s me t h ods , a r e a u t h or e d by e s t a bl i s h e d
r e s e a r c h e r s , a nd a c c u r a t e l y r e f l e c t p r of e s s i ona l c ons e ns u s a bou t t h e c u r r e nt s t a t e of
knowl e dge .
I I . Homos e xu a l i t y I s A Nor ma l Exp r e s s i on of Hu ma n S e xu a l i t y , I s
Ge ne r a l l y Not Ch os e n, a nd I s Hi gh l y Re s i s t a nt t o Ch a nge .
S e xu a l or i e nt a t i on r e f e r s t o a n e ndu r i ng di s p os i t i on t o e xp e r i e nc e s e xu a l ,
a f f e c t i ona l , or r oma nt i c a t t r a c t i ons t o ma l e s , f e ma l e s , or bot h . I t a l s o e nc omp a s s e s
a n i ndi vi du a l ' s s e ns e of p e r s ona l a nd s oc i a l i de nt i t y ba s e d on t h os e a t t r a c t i ons ,
be h a vi or s e xp r e s s i ng t h e m, a nd me mbe r s h i p i n a c ommu ni t y of ot h e r s wh o s h a r e
t h e m.s Al t h ou gh s e xu a l or i e nt a t i on r a nge s a l ong a c ont i nu u m f r om e xc l u s i ve l y
h e t e r os e xu a l t o e xc l u s i ve l y h omos e xu a l , i t i s u s u a l l y di s c u s s e d i n t e r ms of t h r e e
c a t e gor i e s : h e t e r os e xu a l (h a vi ng s e xu a l a nd r oma nt i c a t t r a c t i on p r i ma r i l y or
e xc l u s i ve l y t o me mbe r s of t h e ot h e r s e x) , h omos e xu a l (h a vi ng s e xu a l a nd r oma nt i c
a t t r a c t i on p r i ma r i l y or e xc l u s i ve l y t o me mbe r s of one ' s own s e x) , a nd bi s e xu a l
(h a vi ng a s i gni f i c a nt de gr e e of s e xu a l a nd r oma nt i c a t t r a c t i on t o bot h s e xe s ) .
5 S e e Na t ' l Ac a de my of S c i e nc e s ' I ns t i t u t e of Me di c i ne , Re p ot : Th e He a l t h of
Le s bi a n, Ga y , B i s e xu a l , a nd T~a ns ge nde r Pe op l e (2011) ; A.R. D' Au ge l l i , S e xu a l
O r i e nt a t i on, i n 7 Enc y c l op e di a of Ps y c h ol ogy 260 (A.E. Ka zdi n e d., 2000) ; G.M.
He r e k, Homos e xu a l i t y , i n 2 Co~s i ni Enc y c l op e di a of Ps y c h ol ogy 774-76 (I .B .
We i ne r & W.E. Cr a i gh e a d e ds ., 4t h e d. 2010) .
0
Case: 14-3057 Document: 69 Filed: 05/01/2014 Page: 21
When t he American P s y chiat ric As s ociat ion publis hed t he f irs t Diagnos t ic
and S t at is t ical Manual of Ment al Dis orders ("DS M") in 1952, homos exualit y was
lis t ed as a ment al dis order. However, t his clas s if icat ion ref lect ed s ocial s t igma
rat her t han empirical res earch f indings . Recognizing t he lack of s cient if ic
evidence f or t his clas s if icat ion,6 t he American P s y chiat ric As s ociat ion removed
homos exualit y f rom t he DS M in 1973, s t at ing t hat "homos exualit y per s e implies
no impairment in judgment , s t abilit y , reliabilit y , or general s ocial or vocat ional
capabilit ies . "' In 1975, t he AP A adopt ed a policy ref lect ing t he s ame conclus ion.$
For decades , t he cons ens us of mains t ream ment al healt h prof es s ionals and
res earchers has been t hat homos exualit y and bis exualit y are normal expres s ions of
human s exualit y ; t hat t hey pos e no inherent obs t acle t o leading a happy , healt hy ,
and product ive lif e; and t hat gay and les bian people f unct ion well in t he f ull array
of s ocial ins t it ut ions and int erpers onal relat ions hips .
Mos t gay men and les bians do not experience t heir s exual orient at ion as a
volunt ary choice. In a U. S . nat ional probabilit y (i. e. , "repres ent at ive") s ample of
6 S ee, e. g. , E. Hook er, The Adjus t ment of t he Male Overt Homos exual, 21 J .
P roject ive Techniques 17 (1957); B. F. Ries s , P s y chological Tes t s in
Homos exualit y , in Homos exual Behavior 296 (J . Marmor ed. , 1980); C. Gons iorek ,
The Empirical Bas is f og t he Demis e of t he Illnes s Model of Homos exualit y , in
Homos exualit y 115 (J . C. Gons iorek & J . D. Weinrich eds . , 1991).
~ Am. P s y chiat ric As s n, P os it ion S t at ement : Homos exualit y and Civil Right s
(1973), in 131 Am. J . P s y chiat ry 497 (1974).
8 AP A, Minut es of t he Annual Meet ing of t he Council of Repres ent at ives , 30 Am.
P s y chologis t 620, 633 (1975).
5
Case: 14-3057 Document: 69 Filed: 05/01/2014 Page: 22
662 s e l f- i d e n t i f i e d l e s b i a n , ga y, a n d b i s e x u a l a d u l t s , 88% of ga y me n a n d 68% of
l e s b i a n s r e p or t e d f e e l i n g t he y ha d n o choi ce a t a l l a b ou t t he i r s e x u a l or i e n t a t i on ,
whi l e on l y 5% of ga y me n a n d 16% of l e s b i a n s f e l t t he y ha d a f a i r a mou n t or a
gr e a t d e a l of choi ce .9
Al t hou gh s ome gr ou p s a n d i n d i v i d u a l s ha v e of f e r e d cl i n i ca l i n t e r v e n t i on s
t ha t p u r p or t t o cha n ge s e x u a l or i e n t a t i on f r om homos e x u a l t o he t e r os e x u a l
s ome t i me s ca l l e d "con v e r s i on " t he r a p i e s t he s e i n t e r v e n t i on s ha v e n ot b e e n
s hown t o b e e f f e ct i v e or s a f e . A r e v i e w of t he s ci e n t i f i c l i t e r a t u r e b y a n APA t a s k
f or ce con cl u d e d t ha t s e x u a l or i e n t a t i on cha n ge e f f or t s a r e u n l i k e l y t o s u cce e d a n d
ca n b e ha r mf u l . ' o
Al l ma jor n a t i on a l me n t a l he a l t h or ga n i za t i on s i n cl u d i n g Ami ci ha v e
a d op t e d p ol i cy s t a t e me n t s ca u t i on i n g t he p r of e s s i on a n d t he p u b l i c a b ou t
t r e a t me n t s t ha t p u r p or t t o cha n ge s e x u a l or i e n t a t i on . "
9 G. He r e k e t a l . , De mogr a p hi c, Ps ychol ogi ca l , a n d Soci a l C ha ~ a ct e ~ i s t i cs of Se l f-
I d e n t i f i e d Le s b i a n , Ga y, a n d Bi s e x u a l Ad u l t s i n a U . S. Pr ob a b i l i t y Sa mp l e , 7
Se x u a l i t y Re s . & Soc. Pol i cy 176 (2010); s e e a l s o G. He r e k e t a l . , I n t e r n a l i ze d
St i gma Amon g Se x u a l Mi n or i t y Ad u l t s , 56 J . C ou n s e l i n g Ps ychol . 32 (2009).
C omp a r a b l e d a t a f or he t e r os e x u a l s ' p e r ce p t i on s of t he i r own s e x u a l or i e n t a t i on a r e
n ot a v a i l a b l e .
t o
APA, Re p or t of t he Ame r i ca n Ps ychol ogi ca l As s oci a t i on Ta s k For ce on
Ap p r op r i a t e The r a p e u t i c Re s p on s e s t o Se x u a l O r i e n t a t i on (2009); s e e a l s o APA,
Re s ol u t i on on Ap p r op r i a t e Af f i r ma t i v e Re s p on s e s t o Se x u a l O r i e n t a t i on Di s t r e s s
a n d C ha n ge E f f or t s (2009).
11
Se e APA Re s ol u t i on on Ma ~ ~ i a ge E q u a l i t y, s u p r a n ot e 2; Am. Ps ychi a t r i c As s n ,
Pos i t i on St a t e me n t : Ps ychi a t r i c Tr e a t me n t a n d Se x u a l O r i e n t a t i on (1998); Am.
As s n f or Ma r r i a ge & Fa m. The r a p y, Re p a r a t i v e /C on v e r s i on The r a p y (2009); Am.
D
Case: 14-3057 Document: 69 Filed: 05/01/2014 Page: 23
I I I . Sexual O r i en t at i o n an d R elat i o n s h i p s .
Sexual o r i en t at i o n i s co mmo n ly di s cus s ed as a ch ar act er i s t i c o f i n di v i duals ,
li k e b i o lo g i cal s ex o r ag e. T h i s p er s p ect i v e i s i n co mp let e b ecaus e s exual
o r i en t at i o n n eces s ar i ly i n v o lv es r elat i o n s h i p s w i t h o t h er p eo p le. Sexual act s an d
r o man t i c at t r act i o n s ar e cat eg o r i z ed as h o mo s exual o r h et er o s exual acco r di n g t o
t h e b i o lo g i cal s ex o f t h e i n di v i duals i n v o lv ed, r elat i v e t o each o t h er . I n deed, i t i s
o n ly b y act i n g w i t h an o t h er p er s o n o r des i r i n g t o act t h at i n di v i duals exp r es s
t h ei r h et er o s exuali t y, h o mo s exuali t y, o r b i s exuali t y. T h us , s exual o r i en t at i o n i s
i n t eg r ally li n k ed t o t h e i n t i mat e p er s o n al r elat i o n s h i p s t h at h uman b ei n g s fo r m w i t h
o t h er s t o meet t h ei r deep ly felt n eeds fo r lo v e, at t ach men t , an d i n t i macy. I t defi n es
t h e un i v er s e o f p er s o n s w i t h w h o m o n e i s li k ely t o fi n d t h e s at i s fyi n g an d fulfi lli n g
r elat i o n s h i p s t h at , fo r man y i n di v i duals , co mp r i s e an es s en t i al co mp o n en t o f
p er s o n al i den t i t y.
Med. As s n , P o li cy H-160. 991, Healt h Car e Needs o f t h e Ho mo s exual P o p ulat i o n ;
Nat ' l As s n o f So c. Wo r k er s , P o s i t i o n St at emen t : "R ep ar at i v e" an d "Co n v er s i o n "
T h er ap i es fo g Les b i an s an d Gay Men (2000); Am. P s ych o an alyt i c As s n , P o s i t i o n
St at emen t : At t emp t s t o Ch an g e Sexual O r i en t at i o n , Gen der I den t i t y, o r Gen der
Exp r es s i o n (2012); s ee als o B. L. Fr an k o w s k i , Sexual O r i en t at i o n an d Ado les cen t s ,
113 P edi at r i cs 1827 (2004).
7
Case: 14-3057 Document: 69 Filed: 05/01/2014 Page: 24
A. Gay Men and Lesbians Form S t abl e, Commit t ed R el at ionsh ip s
Th at Are Equival ent t o Het erosexual R el at ionsh ip s in Essent ial
R esp ect s.
Most gay men and l esbians want t o form st abl e, l ong- l ast ing rel at ionsh ip s.
12
Many of t h em do so. According t o 2010 Census dat a, same- sex coup l es h eaded
more t h an 600, 000 U.S . h ouseh ol ds, incl uding nearl y 20, 000 h ouseh ol ds in Oh io.13
Dat a from nat ional p robabil it y samp l es indicat e t h at more t h an t wo t h irds of
l esbians and ap p roximat el y 40% of gay men are current l y in commit t ed
rel at ionsh ip s.14 Numerous st udies using nonp robabil it y samp l es of gay men and
l esbians h ave found t h at t h e vast maj orit y of p art icip ant s h ave been in a commit t ed
rel at ionsh ip at some p oint in t h eir l ives, and t h at many exist ing coup l es h ave been
t oget h er 10 or more years.
l s
12
For examp l e, in a 2013 nat ional p robabil it y samp l e of l esbian, gay, and bisexual
adul t s, 60% were current l y married or said t h ey woul d l ik e t o get married. Pew
R esearch Cent er, S urvey of LGBT Americans (2013). In an earl ier nat ional survey,
78% of gay men and 87% of l esbians wh o were current l y in a rel at ionsh ip said
t h ey woul d marry t h eir p art ner if it were l egal . Herek et al ., Demograp h ic, sup ra
not e 9.
13
2010 Census and 2010 American Communit y S urvey, S ame- S ex Unmarried
Part ner or S p ouse Househ ol ds by S ex of Househ ol der by Presence of Own
Ch il dren; G.J . Gat es, LGBT Parent ing in t h e Unit ed S t at es, Th e Wil l iams Inst it ut e,
at 2 (2013).
14
Herek et al ., Demograp h ic, sup ra not e 9; Pew R esearch Cent er, sup ra not e 12.
1 s
S ee L.A. Pep l au & A. W. Fingerh ut , S ame- S ex R omant ic R el at ionsh ip s, in
Handbook of Psych ol ogy and S exual Orient at ion 165- 178 (C.J . Pat t erson & A.R .
D'Augel l i eds., 2013); L.A. Pep l au & A.W. Fingerh ut , Th e Cl ose R el at ionsh ip s of
Lesbians and Gay Men, 58 Ann. R ev. Psych ol . 405 (2007); L.A. Pep l au & N.
Gh avami, Gay, Lesbian, and Bisexual R el at ionsh ip s, in Encycl op edia of Human
R el at ionsh ip s (H.T. R eis & S . S p rech er eds., 2009).
E: 3
Case: 14-3057 Document: 69 Filed: 05/01/2014 Page: 25
Empirical re s e arch de mons trate s th at th e ps ych ological and s ocial
dime ns ions of committe d re lations h ips be twe e n s ame-s e x partne rs large ly
re s e mble th os e of h e te ros e xu al partne rs h ips . Same-s e x cou ple s form de e p
e motional attach me nts and commitme nts , with le v e ls of re lations h ip s atis faction
s imilar to or h igh e r th an th os e of h e te ros e xu al cou ple s .1 6 Th e y als o go th rou gh
s imilar proce s s e s to addre s s conce rns abou t intimacy, lov e , e q u ity, and oth e r
re lations h ip is s u e s .l '
B. Th e I ns titu tion of Marriage Offe rs Social, Ps ych ological, and
He alth Be ne fits Th at Are De nie d to Same-Se x Cou ple s Wh o
Cannot Le gally Marry.
Marriage h as a profou nd e ffe ct on th e liv e s of marrie d indiv idu als .
Sociologis ts h av e obs e rv e d th at marriage cre ate s orde r in pe ople s 'liv e s lg and
1 6
K. F. Bals am e t al. , Th e e-Ye ar Follow-Up of Same-Se x Cou ple s Wh o Had Civ il
Unions in Ve rmont, Same-Se x Cou ple s Not in Civ il Unions , and He te ros e xu al
Ma~~ie d Cou ple s , 44 De v e lopme ntal Ps ych ol. 1 02 (2008); L. A. Ku rde k, Ch ange in
Re lations h ip Qu ality fog Pa~tne ~s fi^ om Le s bian, Gay Male , and He te ros e xu al
Cou ple s , 22 J . Fam. Ps ych ol. 701 (2008); L. A. Pe plau & K. P. Be als , Th e Family
Liv e s of Le s bians and Gay Me n, in Handbook of Family Commu nication 233, 236
(A. L. Vange lis ti e d. , 2004).
I ~ Ku rde k, Ch ange in Re lations h ip Qu ality, s u pra note 1 6 ; L. A. Ku rde k, Are Gay
and Le s bian Coh abiting Cou ple s
Re ally Diffe re nt from He te ros e xu al Marrie d
Cou ple s ?, 6 6 J . Marriage & Fam. 880 (2004); G. I . Rois man e t al. , Adu lt Romantic
Re lations h ips as Conte xts for Hu man De v e lopme nt, 44 De v e lopme ntal Ps ych ol. 91
(2008); s e e ge ne rally L. A. Ku rde k, Wh at Do We Know Abou t Gay and Le s bian
Cou ple s ?, 1 4 Cu rre nt Dire ctions in Ps ych ol. Sci. 251 (2005); Pe plau & Finge rh u t
(2007), s u pra note 1 5; Pe plau & Gh av ami, s u pra note 1 5.
ig P. Be rge r & H. Ke llne r, Marriage and th e Cons tru ction of Re ality, 46 Dioge ne s
1 (1 96 4).
E
Case: 14-3057 Document: 69 Filed: 05/01/2014 Page: 26
"provides a st ron g posit ive sen se of iden t it y , sel f- w ort h , an d m ast ery . "1 9 Em pirical
research dem on st rat es t h at m arriag e h as dist in ct b en efit s t h at ext en d b ey on d t h e
m at erial n ecessit ies of l ife.2 0 Th ese in t an g ib l e b en efit s h ave im port an t im pl icat ion s
for t h e ph y sical an d psy ch ol og ical h eal t h of m arried in dividu al s an d for t h e
rel at ion sh ip it sel f.
Becau se m arriag e rig h t s h ave b een g ran t ed t o sam e- sex cou pl es on l y
recen t l y , l it t l e em pirical research h as b een pu b l ish ed t h at com pares m arried sam e-
sex cou pl es t o u n m arried sam e- sex cou pl es or t h ose in civil u n ion s.2 1 Based on
t h eir scien t ific an d cl in ical expert ise, Am ici b el ieve it is appropriat e t o ext rapol at e
1 9
W. R. Gove et al . , Th e Effect of Ma~~iag e on t h e Wel l- Bein g of Adu l t s, 1 1 J . Fam .
I ssu es 4, 1 6 (1 9 9 0 ); see al so E. Du rkh eim , S u icide 2 59 (J . A. S pau l din g & G.
S im pson t ran s. , 1 9 51 ) (1 89 7).
2 0 S ee S . S t ack & J . R. Esh l em an , Marit al S t at u s an d Happin ess, 60 J . Marriag e &
Fam . 52 7 (1 9 9 8); R. P. D. Bu rt on , Gl ob al I n t eg rat ive Mean in g as a Mediat in g
Fact or I n t h e Rel at ion sh ip Bet w een S ocial Rol es an d Psy ch ol og ical Dist ress, 39 J .
Heal t h & S oc. Beh ay . 2 0 1 (1 9 9 8); S . L. Nock, A Com parison of Marriag es an d
Coh ab it in g Rel at ion sh ips, 1 6 J . Fam . I ssu es 53, 53 (1 9 9 5); Gove (1 9 9 0 ), su pra
n ot e 1 9 , at 5.
2 1 S ee R. G. Wig h t et al . , S am e- S ex Leg al Marriag e an d Psy ch ol og ical Wel l- Bein g ,
1 0 3 Am . J . Pu b . Heal t h 339 , 343 (2 0 1 3) (fin din g b ased on com parison of g ay ,
l esb ian , an d b isexu al Cal iforn ian s w h o w ere l eg al l y m arried t o t h ose in dom est ic
part n ersh ips or n ot in a l en g t h y recog n ized rel at ion sh ip t h at "t h ere m ig h t b e a
u n iqu e posit ive m en t al h eal t h associat ion specifical l y con ferred b y l eg al m arriag e,
part icu l arl y com pared w it h n ot b ein g in an y t y pe of l eg al l y recog n ized rel at ion sh ip
at al l . ").
1 0
Case: 14-3057 Document: 69 Filed: 05/01/2014 Page: 27
from t h e e mp i ri c a l re s e a rc h l i t e ra t u re for h e t e ros e x u a l c ou p l e s wi t h q u a l i fi c a t i on s
a s n e c e s s a ryt o a n t i c i p a t e t h e l i k e l y e ffe c t s of ma rri a ge for s a me- s e x c ou p l e s .
2 2
Th i s re s e a rc h s h ows t h a t ma rri e d h e t e ros e x u a l me n a n d wome n ge n e ra l l y
e x p e ri e n c e b e t t e r p h ys i c a l a n d me n t a l h e a l t h t h a n t h e i r u n ma rri e d c ou n t e rp a rt s .
2 3
Th e s e h e a l t h b e n e fi t s do n ot a p p e a r t o re s u l t s i mp l y from b e i n g i n a n i n t i ma t e
re l a t i on s h i p ; mos t s t u di e s h a ve fou n d t h a t ma rri e d h e t e ros e x u a l i n di vi du a l s
ge n e ra l l y ma n i fe s t gre a t e r we l l - b e i n g t h a n me mb e rs of c omp a ra b l e c oh a b i t i n g
c ou p l e s .2 4 Of c ou rs e , ma ri t a l s t a t u s a l on e doe s n ot gu a ra n t e e b e t t e r h e a l t h or
gre a t e r h a p p i n e s s . Un h a p p i l y ma rri e d p e op l e oft e n h a ve l owe r l e ve l s of we l l - b e i n g
t h a n t h e u n ma rri e d, a n d ma ri t a l di s c ord a n d di s s a t i s fa c t i on a re oft e n a s s oc i a t e d
2 2
Comp a ri s on s b e t we e n ma rri e d a n d u n ma rri e d h e t e ros e x u a l c ou p l e s a re
c omp l i c a t e d b y t h e p os s i b i l i t y t h a t ob s e rve d di ffe re n c e s mi gh t b e du e t o s e l f-
s e l e c t i on ( i . e . , p e op l e wh o c h oos e t o ma rry ma y di ffe r a p ~ i o~ i from t h os e wh o do
n ot ) . Re s e a rc h e rs h a ve c on c l u de d, h owe ve r, t h a t b e n e fi t s a s s oc i a t e d wi t h ma rri a ge
re s u l t l a rge l y from t h e i n s t i t u t i on i t s e l f ra t h e r t h a n s e l f- s e l e c t i on . S e e , e . g. , Gove
( 1990) , s u p ra n ot e 19, a t 10; J . E . Mu rra y, Ma ri t a l P rot e c t i on a n d Ma ri t a l
S e l e c t i on , 3 7 De mogra p h y 511 ( 2 000) . I t i s re a s on a b l e t o e x p e c t t h a t s a me- s e x
c ou p l e s wh o c h oos e t o ma rry wi l l , l i k e t h e i r h e t e ros e x u a l c ou n t e rp a rt s , b e n e fi t
from t h e i n s t i t u t i on of ma rri a ge i t s e l f.
2 3
S e e N . J . J oh n s on e t a l . , Ma ri t a l S t a t u s a n d Mort a l i t y, 10 An n a l s E p i de mi ol ogy
2 2 4 ( 2 000) ; C. E . Ros s e t a l . , Th e I mp a c t of t h e Fa mi l y on He a l t h , 52 J . Ma rri a ge &
Fa m. 1059 ( 1990) ; R. W. S i mon , Re vi s i t i n g t h e Re l a t i on s h i p s Amon g Ge n de r,
Ma ri t a l S t a t u s , a n d Me n t a l He a l t h , 107 Am. J . S oc . 1065 ( 2 002 ) .
2 4
S e e Gove ( 1990) , s u p ra n ot e 19; S . L. Brown , Th e E ffe c t of Un i on Typ e on
P s yc h ol ogi c a l We l l- Be i n g, 4 1 J . He a l t h & S oc . Be h a y. 2 4 1 ( 2 000) . Bu t s e e C. E .
Ros s , Re c on c e p t u a l i zi n g Ma ri t a l S t a t u s a s a Con t i n u u m of S oc i a l At t a c h me n t , 57 J .
Ma rri a ge & Fa m. 12 9 ( 1995) ( fa i l i n g t o de t e c t s i gn i fi c a n t di ffe re n c e s i n de p re s s i on
b e t we e n ma rri e d a n d c omp a ra b l e c oh a b i t i n g h e t e ros e x u a l c ou p l e s ) .
11
Case: 14-3057 Document: 69 Filed: 05/01/2014 Page: 28
w i t h n e g a t i v e h e a l t h e f f e c t s .25 N e v e r t h e l e s s , s a t i s f i e d m a r r i e d c o u p l e s c o n s i s t e n t l y
m a n i f e s t h i g h e r l e v e l s o f h a p p i n e s s , p s y c h o l o g i c a l w e l l - b e i n g , a n d p h y s i c a l h e a l t h
t h a n t h e u n m a r r i e d .
Be i n g m a r r i e d i s a l s o a s o u r c e o f s t a b i l i t y a n d c o m m i t m e n t . M a r i t a l
c o m m i t m e n t i s a f u n c t i o n n o t o n l y o f r e w a r d i n g f e a t u r e s o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p , b u t
a l s o o f c o n s t r a i n t s o n d i s s o l v i n g t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p ( e . g . , f e e l i n g s o f f a m i l y
o b l i g a t i o n ; m o r a l a n d r e l i g i o u s v a l u e s ; l e g a l r e s t r i c t i o n s ; f i n a n c i a l c o n c e r n s ; a n d
a n t i c i p a t e d d i s a p p r o v a l o f o t h e r s ) .26 Th e e x i s t e n c e o f s u c h b a r r i e r s a l o n e i s n o t
s u f f i c i e n t t o s u s t a i n a m a r r i a g e i n t h e l o n g t e r m , a n d p e r c e i v i n g o n e ' s i n t i m a t e
r e l a t i o n s h i p p r i m a r i l y i n t e r m s o f r e w a r d s , r a t h e r t h a n b a r r i e r s t o d i s s o l u t i o n , i s
l i k e l y t o b e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h g r e a t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s a t i s f a c t i o n .27 N o n e t h e l e s s ,
p e r c e i v e d b a r r i e r s a r e n e g a t i v e l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h d i v o r c e ; t h u s , t h e i r p r e s e n c e m a y
25
Se e W. R. Go v e e t a l . , Do e s M a r r i a g e Ha v e P o s i t i v e E f f e c t s o n t h e P s y c h o l o g i c a l
We l l- Be i n g o f t h e I n d i v i d u a l ? , 24 J . He a l t h & So c . Be h a y . 122 ( 1983) ; K.
Wi l l i a m s , Ha s t h e Fu t u r e o f M a r r i a g e A r r i v e d ? , 44 J . He a l t h So c . Be h a y . 470
( 2003) ; J . K. Ki e c o l t - Gl a s e r & T. L. N e w t o n , M a r r i a g e a n d He a l t h , 127 P s y c h o l .
Bu l l . 472 ( 2001) .
26
Se e G. Le v i n g e r , M a r i t a l C o h e s i v e n e s s a n d Di s s o l u t i o n , 27 J . M a r r i a g e & Fa m .
19 ( 1965) ; J . M . A d a m s & W. H. J o n e s , Th e C o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n o f M a r i t a l
C o m m i t m e n t , 72 J . P e r s o n a l i t y & So c . P s y c h o l . 1177 ( 1997) .
27 Se e , e . g . , D. P r e v i t i & P . R. A m a t o , Wh y St a y M a r r i e d ? , 65 J . M a r r i a g e & Fa m .
561 ( 2003) .
12
Case: 14-3057 Document: 69 Filed: 05/01/2014 Page: 29
i n c r e a s e p a r t n e r s ' m o t i v a t i o n t o s e e k s o l u t i o n s f o r p r o bl e m s r a t h e r t h a n d i s s o l v i n g
t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p .28
Fo r s a m e- s e x c o u p l e s l a c ki n g a c c e s s t o l e g a l m a r r i a g e , t h e p r i m a r y
m o t i v a t i o n t o r e m a i n t o g e t h e r d e r i v e s f r o m t h e r e wa r d s a s s o c i a t e d wi t h t h e
r e l a t i o n s h i p r a t h e r t h a n f o r m a l ba r r i e r s t o s e p a r a t i o n .29 Gi v e n t h i s f a c t , a n d t h e
l e g a l a n d p r e j u d i c i a l o bs t a c l e s t h a t s a m e- s e x p a r t n e r s f a c e , t h e p r e v a l e n c e a n d
d u r a bi l i t y o f s a m e- s e x r e l a t i o n s h i p s a r e s t r i ki n g .
IV. Th e Ch i l d r e n o f Sa m e- Se x Co u p l e s .
A. Ma n y Sa m e- Se x Co u p l e s Ra i s e Ch i l d r e n .
Th e 2010 Ce n s u s r e c o r d e d 111, 033 h o u s e h o l d s h e a d e d by s a m e- s e x p a r t n e r s
wi t h c h i l d r e n u n d e r a g e 18; a p p r o x i m a t e l y 3, 480 o f t h e s e h o u s e h o l d s we r e i n
Oh i o .30 Th e s e f i g u r e s a r e wi d e l y a s s u m e d t o u n d e r e s t i m a t e t h e a c t u a l n u m be r o f
s a m e- s e x c o u p l e s wh o a r e r a i s i n g c h i l d r e n .3 i
28 Se e T. B. He a t o n &S. L . Al br e c h t , St a bl e Un h a p p y Ma r r i a g e s , 53 J . Ma r r i a g e &
Fa m . 747 (1991); L . K. Wh i t e &A. Bo o t h , Di v o r c e Ov e r t h e L i f e Co u r s e , 12 J .
Fa m . Is s u e s 5 (1991).
29
L . A. Ku r d e k, Re l a t i o n s h i p Ou t c o m e s a n d Th e i s P r e d i c t o r s , 60 J . Ma r r i a g e &
Fa m . 553 (1998).
30
2010 Ce n s u s Su r v e y, s u p r a n o t e 13.
31 Th i s i s be c a u s e t h e Ce n s u s d o e s n o t d i r e c t l y a s s e s s p a r t i c i p a n t s ' s e x u a l
o r i e n t a t i o n ; i t r e f l e c t s o n l y h o u s e h o l d s h e a d e d by c o h a bi t i n g s a m e- s e x p a r t n e r s
wh o v o l u n t a r i l y r e p o r t e d t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p s t a t u s .
13
Case: 14-3057 Document: 69 Filed: 05/01/2014 Page: 30
B. The Factors That A f f ect the A djustment of Children A re Not
Dependent on Parental Gender or Sexual Orientation.
Hundreds of studies over the past 30 y ears have elucidated the f actors that
are associated w ith healthy adjustment among children and adolescents i.e., the
inf luences that allow children and adolescents to f unction w ell in their daily lives.
A s one noted authority in developmental psy chology explained, based on the
accumulated empirical evidence:
Many studies have show n that adjustment is largely
af f ected by dif f erences in the q uality of parenting and
parent- child relationships, the q uality of the relationships
betw een the parents, and the richness of the economic
and social resources available to the f amily .
Dimensions of f amily structure including such f actors
as divorce, single parenthood, and the parents' sexual
orientation and biological relatedness betw een parents
and children are of little or no predictive importance once
the process variables are taken into account, because the
same f actors explain child adjustment regardless of
f amily structure.
32
(1) The q ualities of parent- child relationships
Research show s that children' s adjustment is af f ected by the q uality of a
parent- child relationship including attributes like parental w armth, consistency ,
32
M.E. Lamb, Mothers, Fathers, Families, and Circumstances, 16 A pplied
Developmental Sci. 98- 111 (2012); see also S. Golombok, Parenting (2002); M.E.
Lamb & C. Lew is, The Role of Parent- Child Relationships in Child Development,
in Developmental Science 429- 68 (M.H. Bornstein & M.E. Lamb eds., 5 th ed.
2005 ); C.J . Patterson, & P.D. Hastings, Socializ ation in the Context of Family
Diversity , in Handbook of Socializ ation 328- 5 1 (J .E. Grusec & P.D. Hastings eds.,
2007).
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Case: 14-3057 Document: 69 Filed: 05/01/2014 Page: 31
and s t ab i l i t y . Chi l dren whos e p arent s p rovi de t hem wi t h l ovi ng gui dance i n t he
cont ext of s ecure home envi ronment s are l i k el y t o s how more p os i t i ve adjus t ment ,
regardl es s of t hei r p arent s ' s exual ori ent at i on.
3 3
(2) The q ual i t i es of rel at i ons hi p s b et ween s i gni fi cant adul t s i n chi l dren' s
l i ves
A ddi t i onal l y , chi l dren are more l i k el y t o s how p os i t i ve adjus t ment when
p arent al rel at i ons hi p s are charact eri z ed b y l ove, warmt h, coop erat i on, s ecuri t y , and
mut ual s up p ort . In cont ras t , when p arent al rel at i ons hi p s are confl i ct- ri dden and
acri moni ous , adjus t ment t ends t o b e l es s favorab l e. Fami l y i ns t ab i l i t y , hous ehol d
di s rup t i on, and p arent al di vorce are oft en as s oci at ed wi t h p oorer adjus t ment and
p rob l ems t hat can l as t i nt o adul t hood.3 4 Thes e p at t erns are ob s erved, regardl es s of
whet her chi l dren are reared b y s ame- s ex coup l es or het eros exual coup l es .
3 s
3 3
Lamb &Lewi s , s up ra not e 3 2; P at t ers on &Has t i ngs , s up ra not e 3 2; J . Z . Smi t h
et al . , M ul t i l evel M odel i ng A p p roaches t o t he St udy of LGBT P arent- Fami l i es , i n
LGBT- P arent Fami l i es 3 07- 3 23 (A . E. Gol db erg & K. A . A l l en eds . , 2013 )
(q ual i t i es s uch as p arent al warmt h, p arent s ' i nt i mat e rel at i ons hi p q ual i t y , and
p arent al wel l - b ei ng mat t er more t o chi l dren' s adjus t ment t han s exual ori ent at i on).
3 4
See, e. g. , P . R. A mat o, Chi l dren of Di vorce i n t he 1990s , 15 J . Fam. P s y chol . 3 55
(2001).
3 s
The Fami l y Cont ext of P arent i ng i n Chi l dren' s A dap t at i on t o El ement ary School
(P . A . Cowan et al . eds . , 2005); R. W. Chan et al . , P s y chos oci al A djus t ment A mong
Chi l dren Concei ved Vi a Donor Ins emi nat i on By Les b i an and Het eros exual
M ot hers , 69 Chi l d Dev. 4 4 3 (1998); E. M . Cummi ngs et al . , Chi l dren' s Res p ons es
t o Eve~^y day M ari t al Confl i ct Tact i cs i n t he Home, 74 Chi l d Dev. 1918 (2003 );
E. M . Cummi ngs et al . , Every day M ari t al Confl i ct and Chi l d A ggres s i on, 3 2 J .
A b normal Chi l d P s y chol . 191 (2004 ); Gol omb ok (2002), s up ra not e 3 2; D. P ot t er,
Same- Sex P a~^ent Fami l i es and Chi l dren' s A cademi c A chi evement , 74 J . M arri age
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Consequently, r esea r c h er s must ta k e c a r e to a void c onf la ting th e neg a tive
c onsequenc es of ex p er ienc ing divor c e or h ouseh old insta b ility with th e
c onsequenc es of simp ly h a ving a g a y or lesb ia n p a r ent.
3 6
(3 ) Th e a va ila b ility of ec onomic a nd oth er r esour c es
Ch ildr en with suf f ic ient ec onomic r esour c es a r e lik ely to live in sa f er
neig h b or h oods, b r ea th e c lea ner a ir , a nd ea t mor e nutr itious f ood. Th ey a r e a lso
mor e lik ely to h a ve op p or tunities to p a r tic ip a te in p ositive a f ter- sc h ool a c tivities,
a nd h a ve soc ia l a nd emotiona l r esour c es f r om tea mma tes, c oa c h es, youth lea der s,
a nd oth er s. To th e ex tent th a t c h ildr en h a ve a c c ess to th ese r esour c es, th ey a r e
& Fa m. 556 (2012); M. J. Rosenf eld, N ontr a ditiona l Fa milies & Ch ildh ood
Pr og r ess Th oug h Sc h ool, 47 Demog r a p h y, 755 (2010).
Alth oug h r esea r c h c onduc ted with c h ildr en r ea r ed b y h eter osex ua l p a r ents
indic a tes th a t th ey f a r e b etter with two p a r enting f ig ur es th a n with one, see, e. g . , S.
Mc La na h a n & G. Sa ndef ur , Gr owing Up With a Sing le Pa r ent 3 9 (1994),
c omp a r a b le studies of c h ildr en r ea r ed b y sa me- sex c oup les ver sus th ose r a ised b y
a sing le lesb ia n, g a y, or b isex ua l p a r ents h a ve not a p p ea r ed in th e r esea r c h
liter a tur e.
3 6
Sever a l studies th a t p ur p or t to identif y dif f er enc es in th e a djustment of c h ildr en
of h eter osex ua l ver sus sa me- sex c oup les ex h ib it th is f la w. See, e. g . , S. Sa r a nta k os,
Ch ildr en in Th r ee Contex ts, 21 Ch ild. Austr a lia 23 (1996 ) (in a study of Austr a lia n
c h ildr en, c onf la ting ef f ec ts of p a r enta l divor c e a nd soc ia l stig ma with th e ef f ec ts of
p a r enta l sex ua l or ienta tion); M. Reg ner us, How Dif f er ent Ar e th e Adult Ch ildr en of
Pa r ents Wh o Ha ve Sa me- Sex Rela tionsh ip s? 41 Soc . Sc i. Resea r c h 752- 770 (2012)
(c onf la ting ef f ec ts of h ouseh old disr up tion with ef f ec ts of p er c eived p a r enta l
sex ua l or ienta tion). Bec a use of th ese a nd oth er sig nif ic a nt limita tions, th e
f or eg oing studies do not p er mit c onc lusions to b e dr a wn a b out th e ef f ec ts of
p a r enta l sex ua l or ienta tion on c h ildr en' s outc omes. See, e. g . , DeBoe~ v. Snyder ,
12- CV- 10285, - - - F. Sup p . 2d - - - , 2014 WL 1100794, a t *7 (E. D. Mic h . Ma r . 21,
2014) (a f ter a tr ia l on th e mer its, f inding Reg ner us' a sser tion c h ildr en of
h eter osex ua l c oup les f a r e b etter th a n th ose of g a y p a r ents " entir ely unb elieva b le
a nd not wor th y of ser ious c onsider a tion" ).
16
Case: 14-3057 Document: 69 Filed: 05/01/2014 Page: 33
more l i k el y t o show p osi t i v e a d j u st men t , reg a rd l ess of t hei r p a ren t s' sex u a l
ori en t a t i on .37
I n short , t he sa me fa c t ors a re l i n k ed t o c hi l d ren ' s p osi t i v e d ev el op men t ,
whet her t hey a re ra i sed by het erosex u a l , l esbi a n , or g a y p a ren t s. Moreov er, when
t hei r p a ren t s c a n l eg a l l y ma rry , c hi l d ren ben efi t i n t erms of a l l t hree fa c t ors.
Ma rri a g e fa c i l i t a t es p osi t i v e p a ren t- c hi l d rel a t i on shi p s by p rov i d i n g c hi l d ren wi t h a
l eg a l rel a t i on shi p t o bot h p a ren t s. T hi s l eg a l rel a t i on shi p c a n p rov i d e n eed ed
sec u ri t y a n d c on t i n u i t y , esp ec i a l l y d u ri n g t i mes of c ri si s (su c h a s sc hool
emerg en c i es, med i c a l emerg en c i es, or t he i n c a p a c i t y or d ea t h of a p a ren t ) . I n
a d d i t i on , c hi l d ren ben efi t when t hei r p a ren t s a re fi n a n c i a l l y sec u re, p hy si c a l l y a n d
p sy c hol og i c a l l y hea l t hy , a n d n ot su bj ec t ed t o hi g h l ev el s of st ress. T o t he ex t en t
t ha t ma rri a g e fa c i l i t a t es sa me- sex c ou p l es' wel l - bei n g , st ren g t hen s t hei r
rel a t i on shi p s wi t h ea c h ot her, a n d red u c es t he ri sk of hou sehol d i n st a bi l i t y , i t
en ha n c es t hei r c hi l d ren ' s wel l - bei n g a s we1 1 .38 T hu s, Ami c i c on c l u d e t ha t
p ermi t t i n g sa me- sex c ou p l es t o ma rry i s l i k el y t o ha v e p osi t i v e effec t s on t he
c hi l d ren t hey ra i se.
37 Nei g hborhood Pov ert y (J . Brook s- Gu n n et a l . ed s. , 1 9 9 7) ; Con sequ en c es of
Growi n g Up Poor (G. J . Du n c a n & J . Brook s- Gu n n ed s. , 1 9 9 7) ; Pa t t erson &
H a st i n g s, su p ra n ot e 32; Pot t er (201 2) , su p ra n ot e 35; R osen fel d (201 0) , su p ra
n ot e 3 5.
38 Cha n et a l . , su p ra n ot e 35; C. J . Pa t t erson , Fa mi l i es of t he Lesbi a n Ba by Boom, 4
J . Ga y &Lesbi a n Psy c hot hera p y 9 1 (2001 ) .
1 7
Case: 14-3057 Document: 69 Filed: 05/01/2014 Page: 34
C. There I s No S c i en t i f i c Bas i s f or Con c ludi n g That S ame-S ex
Couples Are An y Les s Fi t or Capable Paren t s Than Het eros exual
Couples , or That Thei r Chi ldren Are An y Les s Ps yc hologi c ally
Healt hy an d Well Adjus t ed.
As s ert i on s t hat het eros exual c ouples are bet t er paren t s t han s ame-s ex
c ouples , or t hat t he c hi ldren of les bi an or gay paren t s f are wors e t han c hi ldren of
het eros exual paren t s , are n ot s upport ed by t he c umulat i ve s c i en t i f i c res earc h.
3 9
Rat her, t he vas t majori t y of s c i en t i f i c s t udi es t hat have di rec t ly c ompared t hes e
groups have f oun d t hat gay an d les bi an paren t s are as f i t an d c apable as
het eros exual paren t s , an d t hat t hei r c hi ldren are as ps yc hologi c ally healt hy an d
3 9
The res earc h on gay, les bi an , an d bi s exual paren t s i n c ludes dozen s of empi ri c al
s t udi es . Thei r f i n di n gs are s ummari zed i n revi ews of empi ri c al li t erat ure publi s hed
i n res pec t ed, peer-revi ewed journ als an d ac ademi c books . Rec en t revi ews i n c lude
T.J . Bi blarz & J . S t ac ey, How Does t he Gen der of Paren t s Mat t es ?, 72 J . Marri age
& Fam. 3 -22 (2010); A.E. Goldberg, Les bi an an d Gay Paren t s an d Thei s Chi ldren
(2010); C.J . Pat t ers on , Fami ly Li ves of Les bi an an d Gay Adult s , i n The Han dbook
of Ma~~i age an d Fami ly 659 , 668-71 (G.W. Pet ers on & K.R. Bus h eds ., 2013 );
C.J . Pat t ers on , Chi ldren of Les bi an an d Gay Paren t s , 64 Am. Ps yc hologi s t 727
(2009 ). For earli er revi ews an d relat ed res earc h, s ee, e.g., J . S t ac ey & T.J . Bi blarz,
(How) Does t he S exual O ri en t at i on of Paren t s Mat t er?, 66 Am. S oc . Rev. 159
(2001); E.C. Perri n et al., Tec hn i c al Report : Copa~en t o~ S ec on d-Paren t Adopt i on
by S ame-S ex Paren t s , 109 Pedi at ri c s 3 41 (2002); C.J . Pat t ers on , Fami ly
Relat i on s hi ps of Les bi an s an d Gay Men , 62 J . Marri age & Fam. 1052 (2000); N.
An ders s en et al., O ut c omes f og Chi ldren wi t h Les bi an or Gay Paren t s , 43 S c an d. J .
Ps yc hol. 3 3 5 (2002); C.J . Pat t ers on , Les bi an an d Gay Paren t s an d Thei r Chi ldren ,
i n Con t empo~a~y Pers pec t i ves on Les bi an , Gay, an d Bi s exual I den t i t i es , Nebras ka
S ympos i um on Mot i vat i on 141 (D.A. Hope ed., 2009 ); C.J . Teli n gat or & C.J .
Pat t ers on , Chi ldren an d Adoles c en t s of Les bi an an d Gay Paren t s , 47 J . Am. Ac ad.
of Chi ld &Adoles c en t Ps yc hi at ry 13 64 (2008); J .L. Wai n ri ght et al., Ps yc hos oc i al
Adjus t men t , S c hool O ut c omes , an d Roman t i c Relat i on s hi ps of Adoles c en t s Wi t h
S ame-S ex Paren t s , 75 Chi ld Dev. 1886 (2009 ).
Case: 14-3057 Document: 69 Filed: 05/01/2014 Page: 35
w e l l a d j u s t e d . More re s e a rc h h a s foc u s e d on l e s b i a n mot h e rs t h a n on ga y fa t h e rs ,
4o
b u t p u b l i s h e d s t u d i e s of ga y fa t h e rs fi nd t h a t t h e y a re a s fi t a nd a b l e p a re nt s a s
h e t e ros e x u a l fa t h e rs .41
A 2001 c omp re h e ns i ve s u rve y ofp e e r-re vi e w e d s c i e nt i fi c s t u d i e s c onc l u d e d
t h a t t h e e vi d e nc e from e mp i ri c a l re s e a rc h "s h ow s t h a t p a re nt a l s e x u a l ori e nt a t i on
p e r s e h a s no me a s u ra b l e e ffe c t on t h e q u a l i t y of p a re nt-c h i l d re l a t i ons h i p s or on
c h i l d re n' s me nt a l h e a l t h or s oc i a l a d j u s t me nt . "42 Th e va s t ma j ori t y of re s e a rc h
4o
S e e , e . g. , H. Bos & T. G. M. S a nd fort , C h i l d re n' s Ge nd e r I d e nt i t y i n Le s b i a n a nd
He t e ros e x u a l Tw o-Pa re nt F a mi l i e s , 62 S e x Rol e s 114 (2010); H. Bos e t a l . ,
Le s b i a n &He t e ros e x u a l Tw o-Pa re nt F a mi l i e s , J . C h i l d . & F a m. S t u d . (2014); R. H.
F a rr e t a l . , Pa re nt i ng a nd C h i l d De ve l op me nt i n Ad op t i ve F a mi l i e s , 14 Ap p l i e d
De ve l op me nt a l S c i . 164, 176 (2010); S . Gol omb ok e t a l . , C h i l d re n w i t h Le s b i a n
Pa re nt s , 39 De ve l op me nt a l Ps yc h ol . 20 (2003); I . Ri ve rs e t a l . , V i c t i mi z a t i on,
S oc i a l S u p p ort , a nd Ps yc h os oc i a l F u nc t i oni ng Among C h i l d re n of S a me-S e x a nd
Op p os i t e-S e x C ou p l e s i n t h e U ni t e d Ki ngd om, 44 De ve l op me nt a l Ps yc h ol . 127
(2008); J . L. Wa i nri gh t & C . J . Pa t t e rs on, De l i nq u e nc y, V i c t i mi z a t i on, a nd
S u b s t a nc e U s e Among Ad ol e s c e nt s w i t h F e ma l e S a me-S e x Pa re nt s , 20 J . F a m.
Ps yc h ol . 526 (2006).
41 F a rr, s u p ra not e 40, a t 176; s e e a l s o J . A. La vne r e t a l . , C a n Ga y a nd Le s b i a n
Pa re nt s Promot e He a l t h y De ve l op me nt i n Hi gh-Ri s k C h i l d re n Ad op t e d F rom
F os t e r C a ge ?, 82 Am. J . Ort h op s yc h i a t ry 465-472 (2012); S . E ri c h e t a l . , Ga y a nd
Le s b i a n Ad op t i ve F a mi l i e s , 9 J . F a m. S oc . Work 17 (2005); S . E ri c h e t a l . , A
C omp a ra t i ve Ana l ys i s of Ad op t i ve F a mi l y F u nc t i oni ng w i t h Ga y, Le s b i a n, a nd
He t e ros e x u a l Pa re nt s a nd Th e i s C h i l d re n, 1 J . GLBT F a m. S t u d . 43 (2005). F or a
re vi e w of e a rl i e r re s e a rc h , s e e C . J . Pa t t e rs on, Ga y F a t h e rs , i n Th e Rol e of t h e
F a t h e r i n C h i l d De ve l op me nt 397, 413 (M. E . La mb e d . , 2004).
42
S t a c e y & Bi b l a rz , s u p ra not e 39, a t 176; s e e a l s o N a t ' l Ac a d e my of S c i e nc e s '
I ns t i t u t e of Me d i c i ne , s u p ra not e 5 (c onc l u d i ng t h a t "s t u d i e s s h ow t h a t [ t h e
c h i l d re n of l e s b i a n a nd ga y p a re nt s ] a re w e l l a d j u s t e d a nd d e ve l op me nt a l l y s i mi l a r
t o t h e c h i l d re n of d i ffe re nt-s e x p a re nt s ").
S e ve ra l s t u d i e s t h a t h a ve foc u s e d on s ma l l re p ort e d d i ffe re nc e s h a ve
i d e nt i fi e d p os i t i ve e ffe c t s on c h i l d re n of s a me-s e x c ou p l e s . Bi b l a rz &S t a c e y,
19
Case: 14-3057 Document: 69 Filed: 05/01/2014 Page: 36
f i n d i n g s r e p o r t e d i n t h e y e a r s s i n c e t h a t r e v i e w w a s p u b l i s h e d p r o v i d e f u r t h e r
s u p p o r t f o r t h i s c o n c l u s i o n .
Th e s e i n c l u d e f a i r l y r e c e n t s t u d i e s u s i n g n a t i o n a l p r o b a b i l i t y s a m p l e s . On e
s u c h s t u d y u s e d d a t a f r o m t h e N a t i o n a l L o n g i t u d i n a l St u d y o f A d o l e s c e n t H e a l t h t o
c o m p a r e a d o l e s c e n t s p a r e n t e d b y f e m a l e c o u p l e s w i t h a d o l e s c e n t s p a r e n t e d b y
h e t e r o s e x u a l c o u p l e s . Th e r e s e a r c h e r s f o u n d n o d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n t h e t w o
g r o u p s o n m e a s u r e s o f a l a r g e n u m b e r o f ke y v a r i a b l e s , i n c l u d i n g p s y c h o s o c i a l
a d j u s t m e n t , s c h o o l o u t c o m e s , s u b s t a n c e u s e , d e l i n q u e n c y , v i c t i m i z a t i o n
e x p e r i e n c e s , a n d r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h p e e r s .
43
A n o t h e r s t u d y u s e d d a t a f r o m t h e E a r l y Ch i l d h o o d L o n g i t u d i n a l St u d y
K i n d e r g a r t e n Co h o r t (E CL S-K ) t o c o m p a r e t h e a c a d e m i c a c h i e v e m e n t o f c h i l d r e n
g r o w i n g u p i n v a r i o u s f a m i l y s t r u c t u r e s . Wh e n t h e e f f e c t s o f s i g n i f i c a n t f a m i l y
t r a n s i t i o n s (e . g . , p a r e n t a l d i v o r c e , s e p a r a t i o n , o r d e a t h ) w e r e t a ke n i n t o a c c o u n t ,
c h i l d r e n i n s a m e-s e x f a m i l y s t r u c t u r e s s h o w e d s l i g h t l y h i g h e r a c h i e v e m e n t l e v e l s
s u p r a n o t e 39 (n o t i n g t h e " u b i q u i t o u s f i n d i n g s o f n o d i f f e r e n c e s " i n t h e r e s e a r c h
l i t e r a t u r e b u t c o n c l u d i n g t h a t w h e n s m a l l d i f f e r e n c e s h a v e b e e n f o u n d , t h e y f a v o r
f a m i l i e s o f s a m e-s e x c o u p l e s a t l e a s t a s o f t e n a s f a m i l i e s o f h e t e r o s e x u a l c o u p l e s ).
43
J . L . Wa i n r i g h t & C. J . P a t t e r s o n , P e e p R e l a t i o n s A m o n g A d o l e s c e n t s w i t h Fe m a l e
Sa m e-Se x P a r e n t s , 44 De v e l o p m e n t a l P s y c h o l . 117 (2008); Wa i n r i g h t &P a t t e r s o n
(2006), s u p r a n o t e 40; Wa i n r i g h t e t a l . , s u p r a n o t e 39.
20
Case: 14-3057 Document: 69 Filed: 05/01/2014 Page: 37
than c hi l d r e n l i v i ng wi th the i r b i o l o g i c al mo the r and f athe r , al tho ug h thi s
d i f f e r e nc e was no t s tati s ti c al l y s i g ni f i c ant.
4 4
Two o the r s tud i e s , e ac h us i ng the s ame d ata s o ur c e , d e mo ns tr ate the p i tf al l s
o f c o nf l ati ng p ar e nt s e xual o r i e ntati o n wi th o the r v ar i ab l e s r e l e v ant to c hi l d r e n' s
d e v e l o p me nt. Bo th us e d U. S. Ce ns us d ata to c o mp ar e e d uc ati o nal o utc o me s
amo ng c hi l d r e n r e s i d i ng i n ho me s wi th v ar i o us f ami l y s tr uc tur e s . One r e p o r te d
that c hi l d r e n i n ho us e ho l d s wi th s ame-s e x c o hab i ti ng c o up l e s had s i g ni f i c antl y
l o we r l e v e l s o f s c ho o l p r o g r e s s than c hi l d r e n o f mar r i e d he te r o s e xual c o up l e s .
4 s
4 4
P o tte r , s up r a no te 35; s e e al s o A. L. Fe d e wa & T. P . Cl ar k, P ar e nt P r ac ti c e s and
Ho me-Sc ho o l P ar tne r s hi p s , 5 J . GLBT Fam. Stud . 312-339 (2009) (us i ng an
ECLS-K s ub s amp l e and f i nd i ng c hi l d r e n o f s ame-s e x c o up l e s d i d no t d i f f e r
s i g ni f i c antl y f r o m c hi l d r e n o f he te r o s e xual c o up l e s i n ac ad e mi c ac hi e v e me nt o r
s o c i al ad j us tme nt). In the ECLS-K, p ar e ntal s e xual o r i e ntati o n and r e l ati o ns hi p
s tatus we r e i nf e r r e d f r o m a s e r i e s o f q ue s ti o ns ab o ut the ho us e ho l d c o mp o s i ti o n
and c ar e take r s .
4 5
D. W. Al l e n e t al . , No ntr ad i ti o nal Fami l i e s and Chi l d ho o d P ~o g ~e s s Thr o ug h
Sc ho o l , 50 De mo g r ap hy 955-961 (2013). Ano the r r e c e nt p ap e r b y the s ame autho r
c o mp ar e d ac r o s s f ami l y s tr uc tur e s hi g h s c ho o l g r ad uati o n r ate s amo ng y o ung
ad ul ts (ag e 17-22) i n Canad a s ti l l r e s i d i ng wi th the i r p ar e nts . D. W. Al l e n, Hi g h
Sc ho o l Gr ad uati o n Rate s Amo ng Chi l d r e n o f Same-Se x Ho us e ho l d s , 11 Re v . Ec o n.
o f the Ho us e ho l d 635-658 (2013). Thi s s tud y i s i r r e l e v ant to q ue s ti o ns ab o ut
p ar e nti ng b e c aus e , as the autho r ac kno wl e d g e d : "[T]hi s p ap e r d o e s no t s tud y the
e f f e c t o f g r o wi ng up i n a s ame-s e x ho us e ho l d , b ut r athe r e xami ne s the
as s o c i ati o n o f s c ho o l p e r f o r manc e f o r tho s e c hi l d r e n who l i v e d wi th s ame-s e x
p ar e nts i n 2006. " Id . (e mp has i s ad d e d ). Thi s nar r o w f o c us i s ne c e s s i tate d b y the
l ac k o f d ata c o nc e r ni ng p ar e nts ' p r i o r mar i tal hi s to r y and the e ar l i e r f ami l y hi s to r y
o f the 17-22 y e ar-o l d s . In ad d i ti o n, the s amp l e e xc l ud e d any 17-22 y e ar-o l d s who
we r e no l o ng e r r e s i d i ng wi th the i r p ar e nts , thus p r e c l ud i ng a me ani ng f ul e s ti mate
o f ac tual g r ad uati o n r ate s i n thi s p o p ul ati o n. Mo r e o v e r , the p ap e r ' s o wn anal y s e s
s ho w that d i f f e r e nc e s b e twe e n the 17-22 y e ar-o l d s c ur r e ntl y r e s i d i ng wi th g ay o r
l e s b i an p ar e nts v e r s us tho s e r e s i d i ng wi th mar r i e d he te r o s e xual p ar e nts we r e no
21
Case: 14-3057 Document: 69 Filed: 05/01/2014 Page: 38
The o t her s t u d y , ho wever , co nclu d ed t ha t t he o bs er ved d i f f er ences wer e d u e t o
p a r ent s ' s o ci o eco no mi c s t a t u s a nd d i f f er ences a cr o s s f a mi ly t y p es i n chi ld r en' s
ex p er i ences wi t h ho u s eho ld d i s r u p t i o ns a nd i ns t a bi li t y . When t hes e f a ct o r s wer e
t a k en i nt o co ns i d er a t i o n, s cho o l p r o g r es s d i d no t s i g ni f i ca nt ly d i f f er bet ween
chi ld r en o f ma r r i ed het er o s ex u a l co u p les a nd chi ld r en o f s a me- s ex co ha bi t i ng
co u p les .
46
Ami ci emp ha s i ze t ha t t he p a r ent i ng a bi li t i es o f g a y men a nd les bi a ns a nd
t he p o s i t i ve o u t co mes f o r t hei r chi ld r ena r e no t a r ea s wher e mo s t cr ed i ble
s ci ent i f i c r es ea r cher s d i s a g r ee.47 Thu s , a f t er ca r ef u l s cr u t i ny o f d eca d es o f
lo ng er s t a t i s t i ca lly s i g ni f i ca nt when t he a na ly s es i nclu d ed a d d i t i o na l i nf o r ma t i o n
( i . e. , p a r ent s ' cu r r ent ma r i t a l s t a t u s a nd ho u s eho ld i ns t a bi li t y d u r i ng t he p r evi o u s 5
y ea r s ) . I d . ( Mo d el 3, Ta ble 8 o f t he Ap p end i x ) .
46
R o s enf eld , s u p r a no t e 35.
47 The s o u r ces r ef er enced i n t he Br i ef o f Ami cu s Cu r i a e Ci t i zens f o r Co mmu ni t y
Va lu es ( CCV) d o no t r ef lect t he cu r r ent s t a t e o f s ci ent i f i c k no wled g e. See
g ener a lly O ber g ef ell v. Wy my s lo , 962 F. Su p p . 2d 968, 975 & n. 4 ( S. D. O hi o
2013) ( f i nd i ng t he a r g u ment s a bo u t p a r ent i ng a nd f a mi li es a s s er t ed i n CCV' s
a mi cu s br i ef " o f f ens i ve, " " r ema r k a ble a nd f u nd a ment a lly ba s eles s " a nd no t i ng t ha t
CCV ma d e mu lt i p le " mi s lea d i ng s t a t ement s " a s " [ t ] he p r i ma r y s p o ns o r f o r t he
2004 O hi o co ns t i t u t i o na l a mend ment " ba nni ng s a me- s ex ma r r i a g e) . Ma ny o f t he
s o u r ces ci t ed i n CCV' s br i ef a r e no ns ci ent i f i c. O f t he s ci ent i f i c s t u d i es ci t ed , ma ny
d o no t even r ep o r t d a t a o n s a me- s ex co u p les o r les bi a n, g a y , o r bi s ex u a l p a r ent s .
See Br i ef o f Ami cu s Cu r i a e CCV, a t 16- 20, n. 3 ( ci t i ng , e. g . , B. J . E lli s et . a l, Do es
Fa t her Abs ence Pla ce Da u g ht er s a t Sp eci a l R i s k f o g E a r ly Sex u a l Act i vi t y a nd
Teena g e Pr eg na ncy ?, 74 Chi ld Dev. 801 ( 2003) ) . Fu r t her mo r e, t he co ver p a g e t he
ma i n s t u d y o n whi ch CCV r eli es i nclu d es t he ex p li ci t d i s cla i mer t ha t " no
co nclu s i o ns ca n be d r a wn f r o m t hi s r es ea r ch a bo u t t he well- bei ng o f chi ld r en
r a i s ed by s a me- s ex p a r ent s o r a d o p t i ve p a r ent s . " K. A. Mo o r e et a l. , Ma r r i a g e
Fr o m a Chi ld ' s Per s p ect i ve, Chi ld Tr end s R es ea r ch Br i ef ( J u ne 2002) ( ex p la i ni ng
t ha t i t " s u mma r i zes r es ea r ch co nd u ct ed i n 2002, when nei t her s a me- s ex p a r ent s no r
22
Case: 14-3057 Document: 69 Filed: 05/01/2014 Page: 39
r e s e a r c h , t h e APA c onc lude d i n 2004 t h a t (a ) " t h e r e i s no s c i e nt i f i c e v i de nc e t h a t
p a r e nt i ng e f f e c t i v e ne s s i s r e la t e d t o p a r e nt a l s e x ua l or i e nt a t i on: L e s b i a n a nd g a y
p a r e nt s a r e a s li k e ly a s h e t e r os e x ua l p a r e nt s t o p r ov i de s up p or t i v e a nd h e a lt h y
e nv i r onm e nt s f or t h e i r c h i ldr e n" a nd (b ) " r e s e a r c h h a s s h own t h a t t h e a dj us t m e nt ,
de v e lop m e nt , a nd p s yc h olog i c a l we ll- b e i ng of c h i ldr e n a r e unr e la t e d t o p a r e nt a l
s e x ua l or i e nt a t i on a nd t h a t t h e c h i ldr e n of le s b i a n a nd g a y p a r e nt s a r e a s li k e ly a s
t h os e of h e t e r os e x ua l p a r e nt s t o f lour i s h . "48 S i m i la r ly, t h e AAP h a s c onc lude d t h a t
" [ t ] h e r e i s e x t e ns i v e r e s e a r c h doc um e nt i ng t h a t t h e r e i s no c a us a l r e la t i ons h i p
b e t we e n p a r e nt s ' s e x ua l or i e nt a t i on a nd c h i ldr e n' s e m ot i ona l, p s yc h os oc i a l, a nd
b e h a v i or a l de v e lop m e nt . Ma ny s t udi e s a t t e s t t o t h e nor m a l de v e lop m e nt of
c h i ldr e n of s a m e- g e nde r c oup le s wh e n t h e c h i ld i s wa nt e d, t h e p a r e nt s h a v e a
c om m i t m e nt t o s h a r e d p a r e nt i ng , a nd t h e p a r e nt s h a v e s t r ong s oc i a l a nd e c onom i c
s up p or t s . "
49
a dop t i v e p a r e nt s we r e i de nt i f i e d i n la r g e na t i ona l s ur v e ys " ); s e e B r i e f of Am i c us
Cur i a e CCV, a t 1 7 , 1 9.
L i k e wi s e , t h e one s oc i a l s c i e nc e s our c e c i t e d i n t h e B r i e f of Am i c us Cur i a e
Ea g le For um Educ a t i on &De f e ns e Fund (" Ea g le For um " ) h a s b e e n f ound
unr e li a b le a nd doe s not r e f le c t t h e c ur r e nt s t a t e of s c i e nt i f i c k nowle dg e . S e e B r i e f
of Am i c us Cur i a e Ea g le For um , a t 1 8- 1 9 (c i t i ng wor k of L or e n D. Ma r k s );
De B oe r , 201 4 WL 1 1 007 94, a t * 1 0 (a f t e r a t r i a l on t h e m e r i t s , r e j e c t i ng a r t i c le s a nd
t e s t i m ony of L or e n D. Ma r k s f or " f a i l[ i ng ] t o c onc e de t h e i m p or t a nc e of
` c onv e ni e nc e s a m p li ng ' a s a s oc i a l s c i e nc e r e s e a r c h t ool, " a nd " a long wi t h
Re g ne r us , c le a r ly r e p r e s e nt i ng ] a f r i ng e v i e wp oi nt t h a t i s r e j e c t e d b y t h e v a s t
m a j or i t y of t h e i r c olle a g ue s a c r os s a v a r i e t y of s oc i a l s c i e nc e f i e lds " ).
48 APA, Re s olut i on on S e x ua l O r i e nt a t i on, Pa r e nt s , a nd Ch i ldr e n (2004).
49
AAP, s up r a not e 3 (c i t a t i ons om i t t e d).
23
Case: 14-3057 Document: 69 Filed: 05/01/2014 Page: 40
The National Association of S ocial Workers has sim ilarly determ ined that
" [ t] he m ost striking featu re of the research on lesb ian m others, g ay fathers, and
their children is the ab sence of p atholog ical finding s. The second m ost striking
featu re is how sim ilar the g rou p s of g ay and lesb ian p arents and their children are
to heterosex u al p arents and their children that were inclu ded in the stu dies. "5 0 In
adop ting an official P osition S tatem ent in su p p ort of leg al recog nition of civ il
m arriag e for sam e-sex cou p les, the Am erican P sy chiatric Association ob serv ed
that " no research has shown that the children raised b y lesb ians and g ay m en are
less well adj u sted than those reared within heterosex u al relationship s. "s'
V. Deny ing the S tatu s of Marriag e to S am e-S ex Cou p les S tig m atizes Them .
The foreg oing shows that the arg u m ents ab ou t g ay m en and lesb ians
adv anced in su p p ort of Ohio's m arriag e laws are contradicted b y the scientific
ev idence and reflect an u nreasoned antip athy towards an identifiab le m inority . In
dep riv ing g ay m en and lesb ians of m em b ership in an im p ortant social institu tion,
these laws conv ey Ohio's j u dg m ent that com m itted intim ate relationship s b etween
p eop le of the sam e sex are inferior to heterosex u al relationship s. This is the
essence of stig m a.
so
NAS W, P olicy S tatem ent, su p ra note 4.
sl
Am . P sy chiatric Assn, P osition S tatem ent: S u p p ort of Leg al Recog nition of
S am e-S ex Civ il Marriag e (20 0 5 ); see also Am . P sy choanaly tic Ass'n. , P osition
S tatem ent: P arenting (20 12); Am . Med. Assn, P olicy H-60 . 940 , P a~tne~ Co-
Adop tion.
24
Case: 14-3057 Document: 69 Filed: 05/01/2014 Page: 41
A s t i g m a t i z e d c o n d i t i o n o r s t a t u s i s o n e t h a t i s n e g a t i v e l y v a l u e d by s o c i e t y ,
f u n d a m e n t a l l y d e f i n e s a p e r s o n ' s s o c i a l i d e n t i t y , a n d d i s a d v a n t a g e s t h o s e wh o h a v e
i t . 52 St i g m a h a s be e n c h a r a c t e r i z e d a s "a n u n d e s i r e d d i f f e r e n t n e s s . "53 I t i s
m a n i f e s t e d i n s o c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s , i n c l u d i n g t h e l a w, a n d i n i n d i v i d u a l be h a v i o r s .
La ws t h a t a c c o r d m a j o r i t y a n d m i n o r i t y g r o u p s d i f f e r i n g s t a t u s h i g h l i g h t t h e
p e r c e i v e d "d i f f e r e n t n e s s " o f t h e m i n o r i t y a n d t h e r e by t e n d t o l e g i t i m i z e p r e j u d i c i a l
a t t i t u d e s a n d i n d i v i d u a l a c t s a g a i n s t t h e d i s f a v o r e d g r o u p , i n c l u d i n g o s t r a c i s m ,
h a r a s s m e n t , d i s c r i m i n a t i o n , a n d v i o l e n c e . La r g e n u m be r s o f l e s bi a n , g a y , a n d
bi s e x u a l p e o p l e e x p e r i e n c e s u c h a c t s o f p r e j u d i c e .
s 4
52
Se e E. Go f f m a n , St i g m a (1963); B. G. Li n k & J . C . Ph e l a n , C o n c e p t u a l i z i n g
St i g m a , 27 An n . Re v . So c . 363 (2001); J . C r o c ke r e t a l . , So c i a l St i g m a , i n 2 Th e
Ha n d bo o k o f So c i a l Ps y c h o l o g y 504 (D. T. Gi l be r t e t a l . e d s . , 4t h e d . 1998 ); Am .
Me d . As s n , Po l i c y H-65. 973, He a l t h C a r e Di s p a r i t i e s i n Sa m e-Se x Pa r t n e r
Ho u s e h o l d s (r e c o g n i z i n g t h a t "e x c l u s i o n f r o m c i v i l m a r r i a g e c o n t r i bu t e s t o h e a l t h
c a r e d i s p a r i t i e s a f f e c t i n g s a m e-s e x h o u s e h o l d s ").
s 3
Go f f i n a n , s u p r a n o t e 52, a t 5.
s 4
A s u r v e y u s i n g a n a t i o n a l l y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s a m p l e o f g a y , l e s bi a n , a n d bi s e x u a l
a d u l t s f o u n d t h a t 21 %h a d be e n t h e t a r g e t o f a p h y s i c a l a s s a u l t o r p r o p e r t y c r i m e
s i n c e a g e 18 be c a u s e o f t h e i r s e x u a l o r i e n t a t i o n ; 18 % o f g a y m e n a n d 16% o f
l e s bi a n s r e p o r t e d t h e y h a d e x p e r i e n c e d d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i n h o u s i n g o r e m p l o y m e n t .
G. M. He r e k, Ha t e C r i m e s a n d St i g m a-Re l a t e d Ex p e r i e n c e s Am o n g Se x u a l
Mi n o r i t y Ad u l t s i n t h e Un i t e d St a t e s , 24 J . I n t e r p e r s o n a l Vi o l e n c e 54 (2009). I n
a n o t h e r s u r v e y wi t h a n a t i o n a l l y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s a m p l e , 30% o f l e s bi a n , g a y ,
bi s e x u a l , a n d t r a n s g e n d e r r e s p o n d e n t s s a i d t h e y h a d be e n t h r e a t e n e d o r p h y s i c a l l y
a t t a c ke d be c a u s e o f t h e i r s e x u a l o r i e n t a t i o n o r g e n d e r i d e n t i t y ; 26% o f g a y m e n
a n d 23% o f l e s bi a n s s a i d t h e y h a d be e n t r e a t e d u n f a i r l y by a n e m p l o y e r be c a u s e o f
t h e i r s e x u a l o r i e n t a t i o n . Pe w Re s e a r c h C e n t e r , s u p r a n o t e 12; s e e a l s o G. M. He r e k
e t a l . , Ps y c h o l o g i c a l Se qu e l a e o f Ha t e-C r i m e Vi c t i m i z a t i o n Am o n g Le s bi a n , Ga y ,
a n d Bi s e x u a l Ad u l t s , 67 J . C o n s u l t i n g &C l i n i c a l Ps y c h o l . 945, 948 (1999).
25
Case: 14-3057 Document: 69 Filed: 05/01/2014 Page: 42
O h i o ' s laws b an n i n g r e c o g n i t i o n o f s ame- s e x mar r i ag e s ar e i n s t an c e s o f
i n s t i t u t i o n al s t i g ma. Th e "avo we d p u r p o s e an d p r ac t i c al e ffe c t " o f t h e s e laws "ar e
t o i mp o s e a di s advan t ag e , a s e p ar at e s t at u s , an d s o a s t i g ma" o n s ame- s e x c o u p le s .
Un i t e d S t at e s v. Wi n ds o r , 133 S . C t . 2675, 2693 (2013). Th e y c o n ve y t h e S t at e ' s
ju dg me n t t h at , i n t h e r e alm o f i n t i mat e r e lat i o n s h i p s , le g ally u n i t e d s ame- s e x
c o u p le s ar e i n h e r e n t ly le s s de s e r vi n g o f s o c i e t y' s fu ll r e c o g n i t i o n t h an h e t e r o s e x u al
c o u p le s . By de valu i n g an d de le g i t i mi z i n g t h e r e lat i o n s h i p s t h at c o n s t i t u t e t h e ve r y
c o r e o f h o mo s e x u al o r i e n t at i o n , t h e s e O h i o laws c o mp o u n d an d p e r p e t u at e t h e
s t i g ma h i s t o r i c ally at t ac h e d t o h o mo s e x u ali t y.
26
Case: 14-3057 Document: 69 Filed: 05/01/2014 Page: 43
CONCLUSION
The judgment below, f i ndi ng the Ohi o laws banni ng same- sex mar r i age
unc onsti tuti onal, should be af f i r med.
May 1 , 201 4
27
R esp ec tf ully submi tted,
/ s/ Paul M. Smi th
Paul M. Smi th
JENNER &BLOCK LLP
1 099 New Yor k Ave. NW, Ste. 900
Washi ngton, DC 20001
Telep hone: (202) 639- 6000
Fax : (202) 639- 6066
PSmi th@jenner . c om
Nathali e F. P. G i lf oyle
AMER ICAN PSYCHOLOG ICAL
ASSOCIATION
750 Fi r st Str eet NE
Washi ngton, DC 20002
Telep hone: (202) 336- 61 86
Fax : (202) 336- 6069
Ngi lf oyle@ap a. or g
Counsel f or Ami c i Cur i ae
Case: 14-3057 Document: 69 Filed: 05/01/2014 Page: 44
CERTIFICATE OF COMPLIANCE
This b r ie f complie s with the type-volume limita tion of Fe d. R. App. P.
32(a )(7)(B) b e ca use the b r ie f con ta in s 6,754 wor ds, e xcludin g pa r ts of the b r ie f
e xe mpte d b y Fe d. R. App. P. 32(a )(7)(B)(iii). This b r ie f complie s with the
type f a ce a n d type style r e quir e me n ts of Fe d. R. App. P. 32(a )(5) a n d 32(a )(6),
r e spe ctive ly, b e ca use this b r ie f ha s b e e n pr e pa r e d in a pr opor tion a te ly spa ce d
type f a ce usin g Micr osof t Wor d 2007 in Time s Ne w Roma n 14-poin t f on t.
Da te : Ma y 1, 2014 / s/ Pa ul M. Smith
Pa ul M. Smith
.TENNER &BLOCK LLP
1099 Ne w Yor k Ave . NW, Ste . 900
Wa shin gton , DC 20001
Te le phon e : (202) 639-6000
Fa x: (202) 639-6066
PSmith@je n n e r .com
Case: 14-3057 Document: 69 Filed: 05/01/2014 Page: 45
CERTIFICATE OF SERVICE
I c e r t i f y t h a t on Ma y 1 , 201 4, I c a use d t h e f or e g oi ng Br i e f of t h e Ame r i c a n
P sy c h ol og i c a l Assoc i a t i on, Ame r i c a n Ac a de my of P e di a t r i c s, Ame r i c a n
P sy c h i a t r i c Assoc i a t i on, Na t i ona l Assoc i a t i on of Soc i a l Wor ke r s, a nd Oh i o
P sy c h ol og i c a l Assoc i a t i on a s Ami c i Cur i a e t o be e l e c t r oni c a l l y f i l e d v i a t h e
Cour t ' s CM/ECF Sy st e m. Counse l f or a l l p a r t i e s w i l l be se r v e d v i a t h e Cour t ' s
CM/ECF sy st e m a t t h e e ma i l a ddr e sse s on f i l e .
I f ur t h e r c e r t i f y t h a t I w i l l c a use e i g h t (8) c op i e s of t h e f or e g oi ng Br i e f of t h e
Ame r i c a n P sy c h ol og i c a l Assoc i a t i on, Ame r i c a n Ac a de my of P e di a t r i c s,
Ame r i c a n P sy c h i a t r i c Assoc i a t i on, Na t i ona l Assoc i a t i on of Soc i a l Wor ke r s,
a nd Oh i o P sy c h ol og i c a l Assoc i a t i on a s Ami c i Cur i a e t o be de l i v e r e d v i a
ov e r ni g h t ma i l t o t h e Cl e r k of t h e Uni t e d St a t e s Cour t of Ap p e a l s f or t h e Si x t h
Ci r c ui t .
Da t e : Ma y 1 , 201 4 /s/ P a ul M. Smi t h
P a ul M. Smi t h
JENNER &BLOCK LLP
1 099 Ne w Yor k Av e . NW, St e . 900
Wa sh i ng t on, DC 20001
Te l e p h one : (202) 639-6000
Fa x : (202) 639-6066
P Smi t h @je nne r .c om
Case: 14-3057 Document: 69 Filed: 05/01/2014 Page: 46