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95

MECHANICAL AND RELATED PROPEF?TIES OF SOME EAS!l'EPJJ COALS


A. A. Terchick, R. W. Shoenberger,
B. Perl i c, and L. F. DeRusha
U. S. Steel Corporation
Applied Research Laboratory
Monroeville, Pa.
I n the mining, preparation, handling, and uti l i zati on of. coal, the
mechanical characteri sti cs of the coal influence both i ts breakage and the operation
of the equipment used. Numerous methods have been eveloped to measure the hardness,
strength, and gri ndabi l i ty properti es of c o a ~~9 ~9 3 * One of these methods, the
Hardgrove gri ndabi l i ty test, has been widely used to determine the rel ati ve ease
of grinding coals. This gri ndabi l i index measures the hardness, strength, and
fracture characteri sti cs of coal .l ,tj Further evidence t at thi s empirical index
measures a physical coal property was proposed by Bro~n.~7 Consequently, the
Applied Research Laboratory of U. S. Steel determined the Hardgrove gri ndabi l i ty
indexes of channel samples from mines i n the Pittsburgh seam i n the Pocahontas
seam, and i n eastern Kentucky seams (High Spl i nt seam, Winifrede seam, and C seam).
These data were obtained t o provide information for the sel ecti on of face equipment
i n mining and of f aci l i ti es for the+$reparation of coal. I n addi ti on, the rel ati ve
abrasiveness, microtumbler strength, and Brabender hardness (power required i n
grinding) of each coal were determined, because these characteri sti cs should al so
have an important bearing on the sel ecti on of equipment.
This paper presents the data obtained from the four types of tests; the
resul ts of each test are rel ated to the chemical and petrographic properti es of
the coals and al so compared with one another.
bri ef discussion of the appl i cati on of mechanical properties to the coal i ndustry.
I n addition, the paper presents a
The sources of the coal samples used i n thi s i nvesti gati on are l i sted
i n Table I. A l l samples were ful l -l ength channel samples. Tfie Mine No. A, B, C,
and D samples fromthe Pi ttsburgh seam represent four channel samples that were
blended without crushing.
The samples, which weighed about 200 pounds each, were processed by the method
shown schematically i n Figure 1.
moisture content. The proximate and sulfur analyses, l i sted in !Cable 11, were
determined by ASm procedures. The petrographic analyses, bl e 111, were conducted
according to the standard method developed by U. S. Steel.6?
The other channel samples were treated as si ngl e samples.
A l l samples were ai r-dri ed t o about 1 percent
The Hardgrove gri ndabi l i tytest was conducted according to ASTMstandard
The Hardgrove apparatus has eight 1-inch bal l s that roll on a stati onary Db9-51.
ri ng and are driven by a rotati ng ring above.
of material passing 200-mesh sieve after 60 revolutions i n the machine.
duci bi l i ty of the index obtained on a sample should check within 2 percent.
The index represents the weight
The repro-
The Brabender hardness test was condu ed i n the Brabender Plastograph
adapted for operation as the hardness This instrument has a cone mill
and an electrodynameter t o rotate the grinding element. A 200-gram sample of mirius
4 mesh or 16- by 30-mesh coal was fed i nto the crusher. !Be power required by the
crusher i n grinding the coal was recorded i n respect to time by the electrodynameter
* See references.
++Also known as microstrength index.
96
i n the form of a diagram.
inLiex, which i s expressed i n kilogrammeters. The standard devi ati on f or the enti re
ranj e was found to be + 6.5 index poi nts.
The microtumbler test (resi stance t o degradation by abrasi on and impact)
The area drawn i n thi s diagram i s used as the hardness
-
was conducted i n an apparatus consi sti Of 2 stai nl ess steel tubes, 1 inch i n
can be rotated at a constant speed.
were pl aced i n the tubes with twelve 5/16-inch diameter steel bal l s and tumbled f or
800 revol uti ons.
amount of pl us 100-mesh materi al was recorded as the microtumbler strength. I n
thi s test usi ng coal, the standard devi ati on was +1.3 index poi nts.
i nternal diameter and 12 inches long. 9f': The two tubes are mounted on a frame that
Duplicate 2-gram samples of 14- by 28-mesh coal
The breakage was then determined by a sieve anal ysi s and the
-
The abrasion test was conducted on an apparatus consi sti ng of a mortar
that holds the charge of coal, n arm assembly t o hold the wearing blades,
and a L r i l l press t o provide r ot a: : %! i oT The test consi sts of rotati ng the four
removable bl ades at 1500 rpm f or l 2, OOO revol uti ons i n a 4- ki l ogramsample of minus
4-mesh ai r-dri ed coal . After each test the wearing olades are thoroughly cleaned
and weighed. The weight l oss sustai ned by the blades i n milligrams i s used as the
index of abrasi on.
tested.
The standard devi ati on was 2 1. 7 index poi nts over the range
Mechanical Tests
The resul ts obtained from each of the four tests used to measure the
mechanical properti es of the coal are presented i n Table I V and compared with one
another i n the following di scussi on.
I n the Hardgrove gri ndabi l i ty test the Pittsburgh-seam coal s showed
indexes f r om 59 to 63. the eastern Kentucky coal s from 41 to 51, and the Pocahontas-
seam coal s f rom 90 t o 105.
t o gri nd ti e coal
Bureau of Ydnes.li)
Note that the lower the index, the more di f f i cul t it i s
These data are i n good agreement with those reported by the
The Brabender hardness test gi ves a measure of the power requirement i n
gri ndi ng the coals; thus, the index represents the work done i n grinding the sample.
The hi gher the number the more power i s required t o gri nd the sample.
an i nverse rel ati onshi p exi sts between the Brabender hardness index and the Hardgrove
6ri nJ abi l i ty index (Figure 2, Table I V ) . The correl ati on with the values obtained
from the minus 4-mesh coal was much better than with those from the 16- by 30-mesh
coal , even though the Hardgrove gri ndabi l i ty test requi res 16- by 30-mesh coal.
This test showed the di fferences amon;: the coals from three di f f erent l ocati ons,
as wel l as considerable vari abi l i ty within each l ocati on (Figure 2).
izay be si gni f i cant since the extreme val ues ranged more than would be expected by
the standard devi ati on.
As expected,
This vari abi l i ty
Si nce the microtumbler strengths of' coal i ndi cate the resi stance t o degrada-
Thi s si mi l ari ty i s cl earl y shown i n the excel l ent correl ati on obtained
ti on by abrasi on and impact, the natures of thi s test and the Hardgrove test are very
similar.
between the resul ts of these two tests (Figure 3).
cel cul ate the Xardgrove gri ndabi l i ty index, or vi ce versa.
wi t h the previ ous workP6) i s l i mi ted si nce that i nvesti gati on included only one coal,
Bence, thi s test can be used t o
The resul ts the abrasi on test are al so presented i n Table I V. Comparison
1 1
I
97
R Pittsburgh-seam coal, i n common with the present study. However, the indexes f or
cc7:ciris coal s were similar.
jri:id?.bility i s shown i n F i gr e 4.
xnsuri ng J i f f erent properti es of the sample.
be i i scussei fti rther hereaf ter.
Factors Affecting the Hardness,
Abrasion, anti Gri ndabi l i ty of Coal
The rel ati onshi p between the index o l abrasion and
Fr omthi s rel ati onshi p, these tests must .be
The comparison ol' these resal ts Wi l l
Because of the si mi l ari ty OY the Hardgrove gri ndabi l i ty, Brabender hardness,
The rel ati on-
ani microtumbler-strength tests, only the resul ts rel ati ng the gri ndabi l i ty index
with the chemical and petrographic analyses of the coal s are presented.
shi ps of' the index of abrasion and the chemical and petrographic anal yses are discussed
separatel y.
Hardgrove Gri ndabi l i ty
F i sr e 5 shows the rel ati onshi p of coal rank (express
Confirming published data,
y vol ati l e-matter
content ) t o the gri ndabi l i ty index. the index increased
as the vol ati l e-matter content decreased. The trend i s then reversed Kith coal s having
vol ati l e-matter contents of less than 23 percent.
the vi tri noi ds correl ate with the vol ati l e-matter content,
was obtained i n Figure 6 between the average refl ectance and the gri ndabi l i ty index.
This rel ati onshi p OF r nk
and el asti c propertiesa3J 1'~ of the various rank coal s.
Since tge aveyage refl ectance of
a si mi l ar rel ati onshi p
d gri ndabi l i ty index may be associ ated with the p o r o ~i t y ~' ~~)
The ef f ect of ash content on gri ndabi l i ty i s shown i n Figure 7. The low-
vol ati l e coal s tended t o become more di f f i cul t t o gri nd when the ash content increased.
However, ash content had no apparent ef f ect on the gri ndabi l i ty of' the hi gh-vol ati l e
coal s. The l ow-vol ati l e coal s are much sof ter or more f ri abl e than the hi gh-vol ati l e
coal s and rel ati vel y easy t o grind; therefore, an i ncrease i n hard ash materi al would
make the low-volatile coal s harder to grind. I n contrast, a hi gher percentage of
ash i n the hi ghzvol ati l e coal s would have l i ttl e i nfl uence on the gri ndabi l i ty, si nce
the coal substance i s apparentl y harder than the ash. Other i nvesti gators reported
that addi ti ons of ash t o co Is having indexes f rom60 t o 110 tended to i ncrease or
decrease the index t o 75. 157 However, ash content per se does not exert a primary
ef f ect on the resi stance t o grinding, because the type oi" mineral matter i s the mai n
determining factor.
The ef f ect of petrosraphi c onsti tuents on the hardness or strength of
coal has been known f or some I n a more recent i nvesti gati on Xarr'
l i scussed the ef f ects of petrographic composition i n the breakage of coal.
A t the AZL ,l 7) the total tough coal was rel ated with the mi crotmbl er strength,
which has been shown to correl ate well wi t h the gri ndabi l i ty index. Therei'ore,
tne summation of the micrinoids, resi noi ds, and exinoids (previ ousl y termed .total
tou& coal ) was correl ated with the Hardgrove gri ndabi l i ty indexes. The rel ati onshi p
is shovr. i n Fi L p-2 b. 4. good correl ati on was obtained ri th the hi gh-vol ati l e coals
? ~ r . tils Fi ttsburgh seam an3 eestern Kentucky, where the gri nda.bi l i ty index decreased
as Y?ie mount or mnicrinoids, exinoids, and resi noi .l s i ncreased. I n the l ow-vol ati l e
cos1 samples :'ram t'ne Pocahontas sem, the gri ndabi l i ty index increased as these
mzc-rals i xreased. A n examination 0; the data of these l ow-vol ati l e coal s (Tables
i- anl 111) i ndi cates that those samples with the l east amount 01'micrinoids,
exi:.siis: znd resi noi ds are associ ated with the hi ghest rank (Figure 5) and hi ghest
as? Zoritents (?i i ure 7) of these l ow-vol ati l e coals; whereas those with the greatest
16Bon
--
I
98
amount of micrinoids, exinoids, and resi noi ds are associ ated with the lowest rark
(Figure 5) and lowest
f or the high-rank coal s is doubtful , parti cul arl y when the small ransc (approximately
8 t o 14 percent) of the amounts of these enti ti es are considered.
ash contents (Figure 7). Therefore, the correl ati on cittzined
I ndex of Abrasion
The test resul ts i ndi cated that the rank or the petrographic composition
of - the coal di d not show si gni f i cant rel ati onshi ps with the index of abrasion, the
ash or forei gn materi al i n the coal being mainly responsi bl e lor the abrasion. The
rel ati onshi p of ash content and index of abrasion i s shown i n Figure 9. Other
i nvesti gators have reported similar conclusions .l,lo)
same ash content l evel f or coal of si mi l ar characteri sti cs are si gni fi cant, as
i ndi cated by the standard devi ati on of the test. Additional studi es are required
t o determine the causes f or thi s vari ati on.
However, the di fference at the
Referring t o Figure 4, the rel ati onshi p of these two indexes can most
l i kel y be associ ated with rank f or the gri ndabi l i ty index and ash content or mineral
matter f or the index of abrasi on. For example, the eastern Kentucky samples possessed
the lowest gri ndabi l i ty index wi th the hi ghest vol ati l e matter and tough coal, while
the index of abrasion of these samples was low because of thei r very l ow ash contents.
Application of Mechanical Properti es
A t the ARL the power requi red by a mining machine t o ri p coal vas
qual i tati vel y rel ated t o rographic properti es of the Pittsburgh-seam coal and
microtumbler ~trength.~7,'@ Because of the excel l ent correl ati on between the
gri ndabi l i ty index and the microtumbler strength, the Hardgrove gri ndabi l i ty index
should al so show the power requi red f or mining coal with a continuous miner. Since
the petrographic analyses showed only a good rel ati onshi p with the gri ndabi l i ty index
of hi gh-vol ati l e A coal s, addi ti onal studi es would be required on higher rank coal s
t o determine the i nfl uence that thei r petrographic composition has on the strength
of coal or the power requirements f or mining thi s type of coal.
It is i nteresti ng. t o note that the Bri ti sh have been studying the
rheol ogi cal behavior of coal t o provide basi c data i n the design of coa
machinery. "ome f bdamental studi es have rel ated coal 1 wing force,l 9
formation,20Y and the penetrati on resi stance t o a wedge'l? t o the strength properti es
of the coal. mans came t o the conclusion that f ri abl e coal f ai l s i n shear and hard
coal fai l s i n tensi on.
t o ef f i ci entl y plow hard coal , sharp blades not being so necessary f or f ri abl e
I n another study, the f ri cti on b ween coal and metal surfaces was found t o be
influenced by the rank of
obtained wi th heat of wetting, Knmp hardness, compressive strength, tensi l e strength
i n bending and impact strength.
His resul ts i ndi cate that blades should be kept very sharp
The rel ati onshi p t o rank vas similar t o that
Brown and Hiorns have summarized thi s Bri ti sh work.2)
Tnis i nvesti gati on as wel l as others24) i ndi cate that the basi c information
on the strength properti es should be useful i n the design, sel ecti on, and operation
of equipment used i n the mining, preparati on, handling, and uti l i zati on of coal .
Of Parti cul ar i nterest i n
or comminution of c0a1.~'51
he last-named f i el d has been the study of the breakage
99
Summary
The test resul ts showed that the Hardgrove gri ndabi l i ty kcexes 5- ' t?~~:
low-volatile coals from the Pocahontas seam were from 90 t o 1. 05, those ,L? t he ?.::T--
vol ati l e coal s from the Pi ttsburgh seam from 59 t o 63, and those Di the coal s oi
eastern Kentucky from 41 t o 51.
strengths of these coal s correl ated with the gri ndabi l i ty indexes. :<owever, t h e
Brabender hardness index di d show considerable vari abi l i ty between sanples frcc t he
same seam or l ocati on. The index of abrasion appeared to measure di i 'ferent properti es
of the samples and di d not show a si gni f i cant rel ati onshi p with the other indexes.
The Brabender hardness indexes ard the ai crotmL l er
The rank of the coal influenced the gri ndabi l i ty index as shown i n the
published data. The index i ncreased as rank decreased;.but the trend was reversed
with coal s having vol ati l e-matter contents (dry ash-free basi s) of less tham 23
percent. The ash content appeared t o decrease the index of the l ow-vol ati l e coal s
but di d not have an ef f ect on the index of hi gh-vol ati l e coal s. I n contrast, the
amount of micrinoids, exinoids, and resi noi ds correl ated wel l with the gri ndabi l i ty
index of these hi gh-vol ati l e coals, but thei r influence on the index of low-volatile
coal i s doubtful.
I
i
I n the index of abrasion, the coal substance apparentl y contributed l i ttl e
t o the abrasion, the ash or forei gn materi al i n the coal being mainly responsi bl e
f or the abrasion.
Previous work at the ARL had shown qual i tati vel y that the petrographic
composition and microtumbler strength could be rel ated t o the power requi red by
a continuous miner. I n thi s i nvesti gati on the gri ndabi l i ty index has been correl ated
with both microtumbler strength and petrographic composition, so that thi s index
could al so be used. Additional study would be necessary f or rel ati ng the indexes
of high-rank coals t o actual practi ce i n the mine.
These resul ts and those of other i nvesti gators have i ndi cated that basi c
information on the mechanical properti es of coal should be useful i n the design,
sel ecti on, and operati on of equipment i n the mining, preparation, handling, and
uti l i zati on of coal .
References
1. H. F. Yancey and M. R. Geer, Chemistry of Coal Uti l i zati on, 1st Ed. , J ohn
Wiley and Sons, I nc., H. H. Lowry, Ed., New York City, 1945, pp. 145-159.
2. H. L. Brown and F. J . Hiorns, Chemistry of Coal Uti l i zati on, 2nd Ed., J ohn
Wiley and Sons, I nc., H. H. Lowry, Ed., New York City, 1963, pp. 119-149.
3. W. H. Biclrle, "Crushing and Grinding - A Bibliography, " London:H.M.S.O., 1953.
4. T. G. Cal l i cott, "Coal Gri ndabi l i ty - A Standardized Procedure," J . I nst.
Fuel, Vol 29, May 1956, pp. 207-217.
5 . R. L. Brown, "Recent Advances i n Mechanics of Coal Breakage, " B C U ~ Mor;thiy
Bul . Vol x;cVI , No. 9, September 1962, p. 300.
6. N. Schapiro and R. J . Gray, "Petrographic Cl assi fi cati on Applicable t o Coals
of' Al l Ranks," Proceedings of the I l l i noi s Mining I nsti tute, 68th Year, 1960.
100
7. C. W. Brabender, Three Machines f or the Testing of Coal, C. W. Brabender
I nstruments, I nc . , South Hackensack, New J ersey, 1958.
W. GAnder, "A Method f or Determining the Grindability of Coal," Giuckauf,
V ol 74, 1936, pp. 641-646.
8.
9. H. E. Blayden, W. Noble, and H. L. Mley, '"Be I nfluence of Carbonizing Conditions
of Coke Properti es, Part I - Mechanical Pressure," Jour. I ron and Steel I nst.,
V ol 136, 1937, pp. 47-62.
10. H. F. Yancey, E.I. R. Geer, and J . D. Price, " An I nvesti gati on of the Abrasiveness
of Coal and Its Associated I mpuri ti es," Mining Engineering, March 1956,
pp. 262-268.
11. R. F. Abernethy and E. M. Cochrane, "Free Swelling and Grindability Indexes
of United States Coals," Bureau of Mines I nformation Ci rcul ar 8025, 1961.
12. F. J . Hiorns and J . Venables, "Comparison of the Fracture of Coal and Other
Non-Metallic Heterogeneous Sol i ds," BCURA Monthly Bul . , V ol XXVI, No. 8,
August 1962.
Anon., The Ultra-Fine Structure of Coals and Cokes, BCURA, London, 1944, 13.
pp. 21-30, 118-130.
14. D. Y. van Krevelen and J . Schuyer, Coal Science, El sevi er Publishing Company,
Amsterdam, London, New York, and Princeton, 1957, pp. 264-273.
15. A. Fi tton, T. H. Hughes, and T. F. Hurley, 'The Grindability of Bri ti sh Coals -
A Laboratory Examination, " Jour. of I nst. Fuel, Vol 30, 1957, p. 54.
J . A. Harrison, "Application of Coal Petrography to Coal Preparation, " AIME-ASME
J oi nt Sol i d Fuels Conference, Pittsburgh, Pa., October 4 and 5, 1962.
16.
17. J . T. Peters, N. Schapiro, and R. J . Gray, "Know Your Coal," Trans. of AI ME,
Vol 223, 1962.
18. N. Schapiro, R. J . Gray, and G. R. Eusner, "Recent Developments i n Coal
Petrography," Proceedings AIME Bl ast Furnace, Coke Oven and Raw Materials
Committee, V O ~ 20, 1961.
19. M. J . Dumbleton, M. J . O'Dogherty, and R. Shepherd, "The Effect of Blade Angle
and Other Factors on Coal Ploughing, " Mechanical Properties of Non-Metallic
B r t t t l e Materials, W. H. Walton, Ed., I ntersci ence Publishers, I nc., New York,
1958, P. 399.
20. 3. J . Xamilton and G. Knight, "Some Studies of Dust Si ze Di stri buti on and the
ael ati onshi p Between DUst Formation and Coal Strength," Mechanical Properti es
of Non-Netallic B r i t t l e Materials, W. H. Walton, Ed., I ntersci ence Publishers,
I nc., New York, 1958, p. 365.
21. J . Esans and S. A. F. Murrell, "The Forces Required t o Penetrate a Br i ttl e
Material with a Wedge Shaped Tool, ' Mechanical Properti es of Non-Metallic
B r i t t l e Materi al s, I ntersci ence Publishers, I nc., W. H. Walton, Ed., New York,
1958, P. 432.
101
,>
--. J . Evans, "Theoretical Aspects of Coal Ploughing," Mechanical Properti es Of
No:1-Metallic Bri ttl e Materials, W. H. Walton, Ed., I ntersci ence Publishers,
InC., New York, 1958, p. 451.
23.
J . A. Brown and C. D. Pomeroy, "Fri cti on Between Coal and Metal Surfaces,"
blecha!iical Properti es of Non-Metallic Br i ttl e Materials, W. H. Walton, Ed. ,
I ntersci ence Publishers, I nc., New York, 1958, p. 419.
24. bl . M. Protod'Iakonov,
"To the Question of' a Unified Method ol Determining the
Strength of Coal," I zvesti i a, AN USSH o.T.M., No. 2, 1953, pp. 283-298.
i
L
i
I
I
5 5 ,
1
50 -
45 -
-
L EGEND
0 - PITTSBURGH SEAM
0 -HIGH SPLINT
0 - C- SEAM
0 5 IO 15 20 25
ASH CONTENT. %
?'ionre 9. Effect of Ash on the Index of Abrasion
102
H
H
ai
4
P
7
? ? 'u? ??No!
mal al f al P- . al al
(u
"?-?"??<?
oool nwal l - al
3 3 f mmmmm
E-N r l mw N* m
f mmCUma3dE-
N N N r l O d r l r l
. . . . . . . .
i
I
I
I
- I
106
160
I
A
a
s -
I 140
In
z -
W
7 120
y 100
a -
z
-
I n -
In W
(L
T
W 0
80
a -
60
6 -
m
2 4 0 -
m
20
Figure. 1. Sampling Procedure
A
L EGEND
-
0 - PITTSBURGH SEAM
A - POCAHONTAS SEAM
EASTERN KENTUCKY
A-WINIFREDE
0 -HIGH SPLINT
0 - C- SEAM
-
-
-
-
-
I I , ' ' I ' I * l
Figure 2.
Relationship of Brabender Hardness and Hardgrove Gri ndabi l i ty Index
i
' I
1
I
' I
i
n
' 0
I I I I I I I
'!
\
t
1.
L EGEND
- PITTSBURGH SEAM
A -POCAHONTAS SEAM
EASTERN KENTUCKY
A-WINIFREDE
0 -HIGH -SPLINT
0 - C- SEAM
0 20 40 60 80 100 120
HARDGROVE GRINDABILITY INDEX
Figure 3. Relationship gf Microtumbler Strength and Hardgrove Gri ndabi l i ty Index
A
/-- ' A
\
* /
/
\A
\
/ * A /
0 - PITTSBURGH SEAM
A -POCAHONTAS SEAM A A\AA
A / L EGEND
EASTERN KENTUCKY
A - WIN IFREDE
0 -HIGH SPLINT
o - C- SEAM
"
30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110
HARDGROVE GRINDABILITY INDEX
Figure 4. Relationship of Index of Abrasion an3 Hardgrove Gri ni abi l i ty Index
108
100
\
\
L EGEND
'F
- PITTSBURGH SEAM
- POCAHONTAS SEAM
EASTERN KENTUCKY
A-WINIFREDE
0 -HIGH SPLINT
0 - C- SEAM
I I
20 25 30 35 40
VOLATILE MATTER, % DAF BASIS
5
Figure 5. Relationship Between Hardgrove Gri ndabi l i ty and Coal Rank
L EGEND
- PITTSBURGH SEAM
A - POCAHONTAS SEAM
A - WlNlFREDE
0 -HIGH SPLINT
0- C- SEAM
W
@ 601k /
9
EASTERN KENTUCKY
/
L
40
8 IO 12 14 16 18 20
AVERAGE REFLECTANCE
Fi gure 6. delationship Between Ilardgrove Gri ndabi l i ty Index and Rank
I
>.
_I
k -
rn 80-
2 -
a:
7 0 -
W > -
-
B
60-
LY 4 -
5 0
110,
- L EGEND .-_-
0 -PITTSBURGH SEAM
A - POCAHONTAS SEAM
A - WlNlFREDE
0 -HIGH SPLINT
0 - C- SEAM
0
EASTERN KENTUCKY
e'
0
-00 0
X W 'looi \
9 90
2
a
f 70-
a
EASTERN KENTUCKY
0- HI GH SPLINT
A -WINIFREDE
0 - C- SEAM
& A
e ,
40
I
0 5 IO 15 20 25 :
ASH CONTENT, %
Figure 7. Effect of Ash on Hardgrove Grindability Index
30 I
I I I
5 IO 15 20 25 30 35
TOTAL MICRINOIDS. EXINOIDS, RESINOIDS, %
_ .
T i Zdr ? _. Effect of' Petrographic Composition on the Hardgrove Grindability Index