Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 3

1. a.

Pseudopod- A temporary, foot-like extension of a cell, used for locomotion or engulfing

b. Nucleus- The region of a eukaryotic cell that contains the cells main DNA.
c. Vacuole- A membrane-bounded sac within a cell.
d. Ectoplasm- The thin, watery cytoplasm near the plasma membrane of some cells.
e. Endoplasm- The dense cytoplasm found in the interior of many cells.
f. Flagellate- A protozoan that propels itself with a flagellum.
g. Pellicle- A firm, flexible coating outside the plasma membrane.
h. Chloroplast- An organelle containing chlorophyll for photosynthesis.
i. Chlorophyll- A pigment necessary for photosynthesis.
j. Eyespot- A light-sensitive region in certain protozoa.
k. Symbiosis- A close relationship between two or more species were at least one benefits.
l. Mutualism- A relationship between two or more organisms of different species where all
benefit from the association.
m. Commensalism- A relationship between two organisms of different species where one
benefits and the other is neither harmed nor benefited.
n. Parasitism- A relationship between two organisms of different species where one benefits
and the other is harmed.
o. Cilia- Hairlike projections that extend from the plasma membrane and are used for
p. Spore- A reproductive cell with a hard, protective coating.
q. Plankton- Tiny organisms that float in the water.
r. Zooplankton- Tiny floating organisms that are either small animals or protozoa.
s. Phytoplankton- Tiny floating photosynthetic organisms, primarily algae.
t. Thallus- The body of a plant-like organism that is not divided into leaves, roots, or stems.
u. Cellulose- A substance (made out of sugars) that is common in the cell walls of many
v. Holdfast- A special structure used by an organism to anchor itself.
w. Sessile colony- A colony that uses holdfast to anchor itself to an object.

2. a. Phylum: Sarcodina, Locomotion: Pseudopods
b. Phylum: Mastigophora, Locomotion Flagellum
c. Phylum: Sporozoa, Locomotion: None, is shaped like rods.
d. Phylum: ciliophora, Locomotion: Cilia
e. Phylum: Chlorophyta, Habitat: Freshwater, Organization: Single cells, Cell Wall: cellulose
f. Phylum: Chrysophyta, Habitat: Marine and freshwater, Organization: Single cells, Cell
Wall: Silicon dioxide.
g. Phylum: Pyrrophyta, Habitat: Marine, Organization: Single cells, Cell wall: Cellulose or
h. Phylum: Phaeophyta, Habitat: Cold Marine Waters, Organization: Multiple Cells, Cell Wall;
Cellulose and Alginic acid
i. Phylum: Rhodophyta, Habitat: Warm marine water, Organization: Multiple Cells, Cell Wall:

3. The following genera contain chloroplasts: Euglena and Spirogyra.

4. The function of a contractile vacuole is to regulate the amount of water in a cell: without this,
a cell could potentially explode from water build up. The difference between this and a food
vacuole is that a food vacuole holds and stores food while it is being digested.

5. The difference between Endoplasm and Ectoplasm is twofold: firstly, endoplasm is far denser
than ectoplasm; secondly, endoplasm is usually found near the center of a cell, while ectoplasm
is usually found near the edge.

6. The difference between the means of locomotion of amoeba and eulena are these: an
amoeba moves by extending its pseudopods forward and then pulling the rest of itself up from
behind; a euglena moves with something similar to an outboard motor, a flagellum.

7. Entamoeba Histolytica, Trypanosoma, Plasmodium.

8.Sarcodina move via Pseudopods. Mastigophora moves via Flagellates. Ciliophora moves via

9. Organisms can be separated into Phylum Sporozoa by their lack of locomotion.

10. The tapeworm example exhibits parasitism. The Termite example shows Mutualism.

11. Ciliates have two nuclei; a macronuclei to control their metabolism and micronuclei to
control their reproduction.

12. When paramecia conjugate, a mutual exchange of DNA takes place. When bacteria take
part in conjugation, the exchange is not mutual.

13. Phylum sporozoa only form spores when faced with danger. Spores are formed as a natural
part of an organisms lifestyle. Cysts, however are only formed in the case of life-threatening
conditions. If those conditions do not exist, cysts will not be formed. Thus, the first group
produced cysts. The second group produced spores, making them a part of phylum Sporozoa.

14. Euglenas obtain food via both photosynthesis and normal eating. They are both Autotrophic
and Saprophytic.

15. Phylum Chrysophyta. These are more commonly known as diatoms.

16. a. Food Vacuole: A food vacuole holds and stores food while it is being digested. Phylum:
Sarcodina, Mastigophora, Ciliophora.
b. Contractile Vacuole: A contractile vacuole regulates the amount of water in a cell.
Phylum: Sarcodina, Mastigophora, Ciliophora.
c. Flagellum: A flagellum is a hook like filament that works like an outboard motor. This is
one of the main ways of propulsion that organisms have. Phylum: Mastigophora, Pyrrophyta.
d. Pellicle: A pellicle is a firm, flexible coating outside the plasma membrane. Phylla:
Mastigogophora,, Ciliophora.
e. Chloroplast: Chloroplasts are organelles containing chlorophyll for photosynthesis.
Phylum: Mastigophora,Ciliophora, Algae, Chlorophyta, Chrysophyta.
f. Eyespot: A light sensitive region in certain protozoa. Phylum: Mastigophora,Ciliophora,
Algae, Chlorophyta, Chrysophyta.
g. Cilia: Hairlike projections that extend from the plasma membrane. Phylum: Ciliophora.
h. Nucleus: A nucleus is a membrane-enclosed organelle found in eukaryotic cells.
i. Oral Groove: A cilia lined tube that ingests food. Phylum: Ciliophora.

17. Large deposits of diatom remains are called diatomaceous earth. This earth can be used as
an abrasive. It is commonly used in toothpaste; the abrasive action helps to polish your teeth.
Another common use for diatomaceous earth is for killing insect: it can be laid down in a thin
layer, so that when insects crawl over it, their abdomens are cut. another use is as filters.

18. A red tide takes place when dinoflagellates bloom in nutrient rich water. The bloom is called
a red tide because of the reddish-brown color of the dinoflagellates which turns the water the
same colour.

19. Both Phylum Phaeophyta and Phylum Rhodophyta have macroscopic algae.

20. The name of the substance produced by members of Phylum Phaeophyta is alginic acid

, 10/8/13