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Editura Eftimie Murgu, 2013
Piaa Traian vuia nr.1- 4

Redactor ef: Lect.univ. dr. Andrade I. Bichescu
Coperta: Tipografia Intergraf Reia

Bun de tipar: 10.06.2013
ISSN 2286 0711
ISSN-L 2286 0711

Imprimat n Romnia


ANUL I, NR. 1/ 2013, ISSN 2286 0711, ISSN-L 2286 0711



PhD Lecturer Andrade I. Bichescu Eftimie Murgu University of Resita,
Romania, a.bichescu@uem.ro

PhD Lecturer Lavinia Niulescu l.nitulescu@uem.ro
PhD Lecturer Lavinia Popp l.popp@uem.ro
PhD Lecturer Gianina Prodan g.prodan@uem.ro
PhD Lecturer Alina Constantin a.constantin@uem.ro
PhD Lecturer Gabriela Georgevici g.georgevici@uem.ro
PhD Lecturer Ioan Mihoc i.mihoc@uem.ro
Assistant Professor Ph.D. student Zoltan Kiss z.kiss@uem.ro

International Relations and Editors for English Language
PhD Lecturer Alina Vian a.visan@uem.ro

International Relations for French Language
PhD Lecturer Dorina Chi-Toia d.chis-toia@uem.ro



Prof. PhD. tefan Cojocaru - ,,A.I. Cuza University of Iasi,
Prof. PhD. Eugen Blaga - University of Bucharest, Romania
Prof. PhD. Dumitru Otovescu, University of Craiova, Romania
Prof. PhD. Maria Cojocaru - ,,A.I. Cuza University of Iasi,
Prof. PhD. Stefan Buzrnescu - West University of Timisoara,
Prof. PhD. Floarea Chipea - University of Oradea, Romania
Assoc. Prof. PhD. Cosmin Goian - West University of Timisoara,
Assoc. Prof. PhD. Mihaela Tomita - West University of Timisoara,
Prof. PhD. Sorin Cosma - Eftimie Murgu University of Resita, Romania
Assoc. Prof. PhD. Florin Iosif Dobrei - Eftimie Murgu University of
Resita, Romania
Prof. PhD. Gheorghe Popovici - Eftimie Murgu University of Resita,
Prof. PhD. Vasilica Grigore - UNEFS Bucuresti, Romania
Prof. PhD. Paul Mihil - University of Pitesti, Romania
Prof. PhD. Sorinel Florinel Voicu - West University of Timisoara,
Assoc. Prof. PhD. Hidi Jozsef Lazlo - UNEFS Bucharest, Romania
Assoc. Prof. PhD. Doina Croitoru - UNEFS Bucharest, Romania
Assoc. Prof. PhD. Leuciuc Florin - tefan cel Mare University,
Prof. PhD. Maria Puschi - Vasile Goldis Western University of
Arad, Romania
Prof. PhD. Delia Marina Podea - Vasile Goldis Western
University of Arad, Romania


Table of contents

BABA Lucian Victor
THE ESSENES OR QUMRANITES - prototype of Hebrew
community and spiritual life
J I NGA Constantin
THE CITIES OF REFUGE - A Biblical Meditation about the
Value and Meaning of Life
MURG Adrian
TNASE Nichifor
VI LD Marian
BICHESCU Andrade Ionu
DACI CA Liliana


KI SS Zoltan
MI LCU Roxana Emanuela
PRODAN Gianina Ctlina, NIULESCU Lavinia Maria
PRODAN Gianina Ctlina
VIAN Alina
ZUI AC Silvia Sorina

The Annals of Eftimie Murgu University of Reia


Lucian Victor BABA

- prototype of Hebrew community and spiritual life -

Essenes is an enigma to many of us, because it challenged the contemporary world
to accept a particular community with its own rules, strict, focusing both on the spiritual
life and on the material one. Lived in the desert, they understood very well that the place
they have chosen to stay is a place of purification, which facilitates asceticism and allows
you to convert, making man aware of his vital needs. Desert symbolism can be synonymous
with the passage of rivers, places the proper working of miracles, characteristic of Essenes,
who had the gift of prediction. We did not mistake in saying that the Essenes are ancestors
of Christian monastic life.

KEY WORDS: Essenes, Qumranites, Rule of community, Qumran Scrolls,
Religious community

A voice cries: In the wilderness prepare the way of the Lord!
(Isaiah, 40,3)

The Essenes are an ascetic Judaic group or sect from Palestine that emerged around
the 2
century B.C. and lived up to the 70
year A.D.
The name of Essenes is uncertain. Some deduce this word from the Aramaic
adjective: (chase) pious, that in plural, the complete form makes: (chasein), and
in the abbreviated form - (chasaia). From the complete plural form (chasein) it
resulted, in Greek, the word: Essenes (Esenienii in Romanian transcription), and
from the abbreviated form (clasaia) it resulted the word: (Eseii) (Abrudan (2002,
p. 334).
Among the reasons leading to the occurrence of this group, we may mention, first
of all, the decadence of the clergy form the Jerusalem temple. We know that from the time

PhD. Candidate, University Babe Bolyai, Cluj-Napoca; email: lucian26_b@yahoo.com
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of the Syrian king Antiochus IV Epiphanes, the young priests had dropped off from the old
Judaic traditions, accepting the foreign influences, especially the Hellenistic ones. Thus,
they would be ashamed of circumcision and they would abandon their sacerdotal duties to
take part to and even compete in games on the pagan stadiums, which emerged in
Jerusalem too.
The Essenes lived mainly in rural places and townlets (their grouping in
communities separate from the rest of the co-nationals was determined by their fervour for
virtue and an intense love for people), avoiding big cities due to the impieties that were
regular among their inhabitants. Their reason was that in big cities not only the air was
vicious, on account of which so many epidemics spread, but also the social life which
inflicts hopeless touches into the souls.
Philo of Alexandria states about the Essenes that almost the only ones among all
people who live without personal property and without possessions. They procure
everything they need to cover the essential needs of life. When they are accepted into the
community, they give all their personal property to the community, while within the
community the income as well as the expenses are common. The garments are common as
well as the food. Meal is also served conjointly.

Qumran is a sort of end of the world, a cliffy acropolis situated above the Dead
Sea whose insalubrity was well known in the entire antiquity (Aristotle (1989, p. 39).
Beyond the sea, the Transjordan desert lies, populated by Nabateans nomads who used to
shelter the goods and their family on cliffy heights, at the margin of desert, at two days
walk from the inhabited territories (Diodorus (1989, p. 95). From Qumran to Jerusalem
there was a one day walk. In the time of the Hasmoneans, communication between
Jerusalem and the Dead Sea was easy thanks to a network of roads organized for trading
salt, bitumen and spices. The region was pacified by building some fortresses in the region
in the Masheront (beautiful spring) oasis in Transjordan, Masada, Engaddi, Hyrcania,
Herodion in Judea; these well positioned and irrigated fortresses served as hunting houses
and summer palaces as well. In the 2
century, Qumran was first of all a consolidated villa,
organized around a central yard dominating an agricultural exploitation.
So Qumran was not an inaccessible small and secluded convent. Located between
the city and the desert, enjoying a sane environment and an easy to defend natural position,
the establishment reminds us the Jews form Alexandria, who are called therapeutists (Philo
of Alexandria, 1989, p. 17-25) by Philo: they also wanted to stay away from the city and
established a few kilometres away from Alexandria on a hill near Mareotis lake that was
separating the city from the Libyan desert; beyond that there were swampy lands known as
dangerous, areas haunted by brigands, deportees and revolted people. Under this relative
isolation, the therapeutists found the peace favourable to the ascesis, religious celebrations
and study.
For Philo, as for other Greek geographers, the desert in the geographic and
ecologic sense of the term is a place of privations, errancies and insecurity. It is a place
where we become aware of our vital needs and where, by comparison, the city appears to us
like a place of affluence, cause of corruption and all evils. God transmits the law in the
desert too. A place of endeavours and difficulties, the desert obliges to a life that alleviates

The Annals of Eftimie Murgu University of Reia

ascesis and conversion. A sterile space, it makes us reflect upon sexuality, continence and
even the situation of the eunuchs. A dangerous space, it shows everybody that his faith
depends only on Gods will and it magnifies the extraordinary aspect which may be the one
of the divine action. For the Greek intellectual, the desert expresses above all things a
means of living; for the faithful Jew it was an initiating space, being able to create the
conditions for conversion.
In the 1
century B.C., the borders of the desert sheltered organized Jewish
communities. According to Pliny (Pliny the Elder (1989, p. 15), some Essenes lived on the
occidental shore of the Dead Sea, in the Qumran region itself, being accompanied only by
some palm trees; they came from all the places to find conditions of abstinence and
poverty in solitude. According to Philo and Josephus, the Essenes were dispersed in the
agricultural townlets (Philo of Alexandria (1989, p. 76 ) and even in the citadels (Philo of
Alexandria (1989, p. 11). Just that according to Philo, this dispersion corresponds indeed to
the idea of escaping into the desert, of refusing the city and its commercial activities (Philo
of Alexandria (1989, p. 66, 68), of returning to nature, of redefining the essential needs of
life. As far as Josephus is concerned, he highlights the disgust of the Essenes to oil, which
was omnipresent at that time in the life of Hellenized populations, not only in food, but also
for lightning and sport; it is one of the grounds for rejecting the city and the sport field,
places defamed by the pious Jews, as the Greek athletes used to oil their bodies. The
concern to keep the body dry leads us to the ideal of some Greek mystics, especially of
Pythagorean tendency, for whom what is best in the human being concentrates in the dry
body or dehydrated; according to them the dryness of the body facilitated the release of the
soul (Philostratus Lucius Flavius (1999, p. 21-22).

Qumran was intimately related to the preservation and dispersion of books in
Judea in the first century, as well as to their study. There was of course a studio of
transcribers, even if we may not locate it with certainty. Many times the books were found
there in three or four copies: thus seven copies of the Temple Scrolls were brought to light,
that represent a kind of new Law or a type of Deuteronomy. The copies travelled more or
less far. The Canticle on the Sabbath appears in Masada, where the Jews hid precious books
because of the war against Rome in 68-74; the fortress was definitely very close, but the
resistant people who lived there were the Zealots, people with a very different religious
sensitivity. A copy of the Writing from Damascus (internal regulations) was taken to Egypt,
to the Cairo synagogue in the 8
century. These copies prove that the people in Qumran
had a vast and lasting influence on the cultural history of Judaism. Still the nature of this
influence remains equivocal: the purpose was to gather and keep the mutual fund of
Judaism or to preach a special religious message?
The conditions of preserving the books are not clear either. Old manuscripts were
discovered, older than the set-up of the centre, dating back to the pre-Maccabean era (250-
150 B.C.) and the Hasmonean period; some are even of archaizing nature. Other
manuscripts, representing a third fund, correspond on the contrary to the period when the
villa transformed; this fund was developed until the end of the Jewish war (30 B.C. until 70
A.D.). So the library was progressively established and first of all empirically.

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Was the choice of works an answer to the theological need or to the circumstantial
requirements? The manuscripts were installed in natural caves and not in buildings, which
makes the connection between the library and the central habitation be not quite simple.
Certainly, the caves were easier to supervise and the preservation conditions were optimum,
the air being permanently dry. But the books were dispersed in at least eleven caves, the
main three ones forming an underground complex, carved and organized under the terrace
of the buildings. Further more, they were kept in cruses buried to the neck or sealed in the
walls, which excludes a regular use, at least in the final stage, during the three year war
against Rome, after which Qumran was abandoned. For a period more or less extended in
its history, Qumran could thus serve as hidden library, as the case of the caves in
Murabbaat, Nahal Ever and Masada, during two Jewish rebellions when not only the
religious books were sheltered but also the official correspondence of the rebels and even
the private archives of the inhabitants nearby. During the war, the precious books and
writings were hidden. This fact makes the historians dissociate the library in the caves -
which would be a hiding place - from the organized complex, and formulate, for that
matter, several hypotheses regarding the storing conditions: some saw here the library of
the Jerusalem temple, transferred probably in 68 A.D., to shield it from the Romans; others
assumed that the Masada garrison, that resisted until 74, had been followed here by some
members of the Qumran group, with their books.
From the point of view of cultural history, the Qumran library clarifies the composition of
the Bible considered formally, as its name shows it, as a unique book, having a single text
(Jospehus Flavius (1979, p. 38-42). And indeed we often find in it three textual versions of
the same book: the Hebrew version that would become canon under the name of Masoretic
starting with the 6
century of our era; the version that inspired the Greek translation from
Alexandria in the 3
century; and even the Samaritan Pentateuch, probably drafted starting
with the 3
century B.C. for the believers of the temple on mount Garizim. The text of the
Jews in Alexandria and that of the Samaritans were considered as adapted variants of the
local context for a long time. The presence of these different versions in Qumran obviously
proves a certain eclecticism and the absence of any censorship; it also proves that the
Hebrew Bible, similar to the New Testament arises from a plurality of traditions. Thus
several prototypes of the same story were found, for example the story of Esther. Hence this
collection offers a direct and undisputable evidence of the literary and historical work that
preceded the draft of the biblical books; it makes us think about the elaboration of a canon
according to criteria of internal coherence, as certain writings from the Greek Bible are
missing, for example the books of the Maccabeans. Anyway, the plurality of the textual
traditions contradicts once and for all the image of isolation, far from the world; on the
contrary it reflects exactly the situation of Judaism at that time.
The Qumran community was deterministic, dualist and messianic. The only really
doctrinarian writings are found in the Rule of community, as a support for recommendations
and rites: they expose a dualist vision of the world, dominated by two Spirits, the one of
truth and the one of perversions, the one of light and the one of darkness; God is the
ultimate master of the individual destinies and of the worlds history. The community hopes
that in the end times there would be only one people in heaven and on earth. These
documents incontestably assert an apocalyptic religious sensitivity. The idea of separation
of the human being and the world in two opposed entities turns out the followers to a fierce

The Annals of Eftimie Murgu University of Reia

fight against the forces of darkness and evil. The idea takes inspiration from the revelation
of the founder, master of justice, who predicts the end of times after two generations. In
waiting, the present community, that was now called The many, was anticipating the final
gathering appearing as a military order, materialized maybe by a funerary formation,
conceived as a military square and especially by the organization of some collective
banquets that might take place, as any regular meeting of the synagogue, if ten persons
came up: the requested purification now expressed a participation to the divine
environment, as a kind of sketch of eschatological baptism into Spirit.

So the Law is the one giving authority and establishing hierarchy. The sect is led
by the doctors of Law. The title of master of justice carried by the founder and,
probably by his successors, suggests the prototype of Enoch the justice scribe. The master
of justice trains the community. A visionary and mediator of the heavens revelations,
inspired by the Holy Spirit, he is the rightful master, drawing his legitimacy from the
Torah. The law was interpreted by the masters in wisdom called maskil: they were
opposed to The many by intelligence and caution. Finally the inspectors supervised the
law enforcement; they were called mebaqqer, which literally means that they had the law
in the hand. The masters of the sect were at the same time legal advisers and theologians;
in the internal use texts, the code was otherwise much more developed than the apocalyptic
The rigorous observance of the Law implied a separation from the world and at the
same time it structured the life of the community; it was the one that ingrained a sectarian
nature to the life of the group. The members were defined by participation to Purity and,
irrespective of the sense they gave to this word, that of baptism or mystic mass, that was the
sign of conversion; they did not take the oath but after three stages, each pointed by co-
optation, meaning as much as giving up the earth-bound things. Following these admission
means, special practices expressed and warranted the separation. The prayer took place in
two precise moments of the day and common wake gatherings were provided for prayer.
The Sabbath observance was much more strict than the rabbinic tradition would foresee and
probably than the one of the Pharisees; the sect was keeping the old solar calendar while the
whole civil society, even from the Persian era, and even the Temple itself, starting form the
Hasmoneans epoch was using the lunar calendar. The rule intervened even in private life, as
it firmly recommended early marriage and endogamy within the group, forbidding re-
marriage in case of divorce or even widowhood.
The rule breaking was sanctioned with clearly stated penalties: food penitence or
temporary exclusion for minor offences; excommunication or quarantine for more serious
offences. The disciplinary procedures, controlled by the Tribunal of the Sixth, operated
based on confessions, according to a tradition to be observed by the first Christian churches
(2 CO 13,1); a previous warning was practiced, as in the Gospel (Matthew 18, 15). In case
of theft, the owner had to pronounce a curse under oath, according to the tradition of the
public imprecations practiced by other Semitic cult communities, when an embezzlement or
trust abuse threatens the collective organization.

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Abrudan Dumitru, Pr. Prof. Dr., Cornitescu Emilian, Pr. Prof. Dr. (2002). Arheologia-
Biblic, Sibiu: Editura Institutului Biblic i de Misiune al BOR.
Aristotle, (1989), Meteorology, II, translate by W. Dooley, Wisconsin.
Com. Habakkuk, II, 1-2; Hymns B, II, p. 6-19 and LVII.
Diodorus Siculus, (1989). Bibliotheca Historica. Books XX.
Jospehus Flavius, (1979). Against Apion. I, Colecia Izvoare cretine.
Philo of Alexandria, (1989). De vita contemplativa.
Philo of Alexandria, (1989). Probus.
Philo of Alexandria, (1989). Hypothetica.
Philo of Alexandria, (1989). Quod omnis Probs. De vita contemplative.
Philostratus Lucius Flavius, Life of Apollonius. I, p. 21; VIII, p. 31; Aelius Aristide, Sacred
Tales, II.
Pliny the Elder, Historia naturalis, V.
Rule of Community, VI, 3 and Appendix Rule, II.
Rule of Community, VIII, 10, IX, 2; Writing from Damascus, B, I, 33, II, 13.
Rule of Community, II, III and V.
Scroll of the Temple, Chapter 45, p. 51.
The Inscriptions from Delos, 2531. To relate to the Writing from Damascus, IX, 10-12.
Writing from Damascus, IX, 17-23 and 3-6.
Writing from Damascus, X, 14, XI, 18.
Writing from Damascus, XII, p. 21 and XIII, p. 22; Rule of Community, III, p. 13 and IX.

The Annals of Eftimie Murgu University of Reia




The middle of the twentieth century, the bases of a new ecclesiastical publication
was being laid in Caransebe (then in Timioara) Altarul/Mitropolia Banatului
(Banat Altar/Banat Metropolitan Seat). During about seven decades of quasi continuous
publication, more than 200 studies, articles, commentaries and translations from the field
of Biblical Theology were published in the pages of this valuable Orthodox publication;
half of them refer to the Old Testament. They are all particularly important and therefore,
contribute to the Romanian and universal Christian Theology and spirituality by
completing and enriching them.

KEY WORDS: Caransebe, Timioara, the journal Banat Altar/Banat
Metropolitan Seat, Old Testament, Romanian Theology.

In October 1943, the bases of a new ecclesiastical publication was being laid in
Caransebe Altarul Banatului (Banat Altar), a journal of a high academic standard, a
journal for the development of the soul and theological science. Due to its content, the
elegance of its ideas as well as its high standards it soon compelled recognition among
Romanian cultural-theological publications (Suciu, 1977; Carebia, 2002). However, there
were troubled times; the 23 August 1944 coup dtat, followed by the establishment of the
first pro-Soviet government on 6 March 1945 and then the abolition of the monarchy on 30
December 1947 were only the prelude to some profound changes (Piuan & Ciuceanu,
2001); Vasile, 2005). From a cultural-religious perspective, the fateful year 1948 brought
about the quasi complete suppression of inter-war ecclesiastical journals and periodicals ;
the only ones that were allowed in the following decades were the central journals from
Bucharest Biserica Ortodoxa Romn (Romanian Orthodox Church), Studii

Lecturer Phd. Faculty of Social Sciences, Eftimie Murgu University from Reia,
Romania, i.dobrei@uem.ro.
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Teologice (Theological Studies), Ortodoxia (Orthodoxy) and Glasul Bisericii
(The Voice of the Church), the official journals Mitropolia Moldovei i Sucevei
(Metropolitan Seat of Moldova and Suceava), Mitropolia Ardealului (Metropolitan
Seat of Transylvania), Mitropolia Olteniei (Metropolitan Seat of Oltenia) and
Mitropolia Banatului (Metropolitan Seat of Banat) as well as Telegraful Romn
(The Romanian Telegraph), the newspaper of the archdiocese of Sibiu (Pcurariu
(2008)). All had an intensely politicised content at first, to keep up with the requirements
of the times. As a consequence, at the beginning of the same year, the prestigious
theological journal from Banat had to cease its publication; on 27 January 1948, editor
Marcu Bnescu hands over the publication authorisation to the Service for the State
Security in Caransebe (Archives of Caransebe Diocese, 1948).
At the same time, other two publications would definitely disappear from
Timioara, namely Biserica Banean/Banat Church, the official organ of the
archdiocese of Timioara, and Duh i Adevr (Spirit and Truth), the homiletic journal
of the clergy from Banat. The old periodical Foaia Diecezan (The Diocesan
Newspaper), started by the great hierarch Ioan Popasu, continued to be published and in
1949, when the Episcopal Seat of Caransebe was included in the newly-created
Archepiscopal Seat of Timioara and Caransebe, it became Foaia Arhidiecezan (The
Archdiocesan Newspaper) (Foaia Arhidiecezan, 1949). However, this publication also
ceased to appear in the spring of 1951, being replaced by the official organ Mitropolia
Banatului (Banat Metropolitan Seat) that was actually the result of merging two post-
war theological publications, Foaia Arhidiecezan (The Archdiocesan Newspaper),
also the result of merging other two older church gazettes: Foaia Diecezan (The
Diocesan Newspaper) of Caransebe, which had appeared in 1886, and Biserica
Bnean (Banat Church) of Timioara, which appeared in 1941, and Buletinul
Eparhiei Aradului (The Bulletin of the Eparchy of Arad), replacing the old diocesan
publication Biserica i coala (Church and School), which had appeared in 1877; a
letter sent by the Archepiscopal Seat of Timioara and Caransebe to the Inspectorate for
Press and Printed Works of Arad on 8 June 1951 reads as follows: At its June 1950
meeting, the Permanent Synod of the Romanian Orthodox Church decided, among other
things, to merge the official eparchial bulletins by eparchies []. As of 1 Mai [1951],
Buletinul Eparhiei Aradului [The Bulletin of the Eparchy of Arad], the official organ
of the eparchy of Arad, and Foaia Arhidiecezana [The Archdiocesan Newspaper], the
official organ of the Archepiscopal Seat of Timioara and Caransebe, ceased to appear;
instead, the official organ for the two eparchies belonging to the Metropolitan Seat of Banat
was to be the journal entitled Mitropolia Banatului [The Metropolitan Seat of Banat]
(Archives of the Metropolitan Seat of Banat, 1951).

In time, as its content became more dynamic and of a better quality, this
publication revealed its true identity, namely that of a continuer of the first theological
journal of Banat, Altarul Banatului (Banat Altar) from Caransebe (1944-1947), name
and mission reassumed as of January 1990 (Dobrei, 2011); Dobrei, 2013).
Despite the unfavourable historical circumstances that lasted for almost half a
century, this Christian-Orthodox journal that appeared in Banat fulfilled its purpose,

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namely that of being a true light in the ideological darkness of communist Romania and a
warm and constant adviser for the generations of readers who enjoyed its enlightening
cultural-historical rays and quenched their thirst with the nectar of its spiritualising
theological teachings. Indeed, in what concerns this last aspect, we must mention the fact
that during about seven decades of quasi continuous publication, more than 200 studies,
articles, commentaries and translations from the field of Biblical Theology were published
in the pages of this valuable Orthodox publication; half of them refer to the Old Testament.

These materials were published either in the section for Theological studies, to be
found in all the issues of the journal, or in Pro-Logos, a column published intermittently
between 1997 and 2001. Some are original studies, conducted with scientific seriousness by
Romanian or foreign authors, other are translations of texts by ancient authors. Over time,
the most contributions belonged to theologians Mircea Chialda, Nicolae Neaga, Athanasie
Negoi, Dumitru Abrudan, Teodor Baba, Constantin Jinga and Marius Ioana; the
enumeration follows the chronological criterion of publication.
As for the subjects of the published materials, they cover a wide range of
theological studies related to the Old Testament such as Biblical archaeology studies and
articles, materials concerning interpretative methods and the history of the canon of the
books of the Old Testament, their structure and content, the Old Law as compared to the
New Law of love, etc.; many of these materials are interdisciplinary studies.
The following pages are attempting a systematisation (by content) and an
organisation (chronological) of all the materials that were published in this journal; in the
enumeration of the studies and articles we used the abbreviations AB (for the old and
current editions of Altarul Banatului (Banat Altar) and MB (for the edition
Mitropolia Banatului (The Metropolitan Seat of Banat).

3.1. Biblical archaeology
Athanasie Negoi: Papirusurile din Elefantina i Vechiul Testament/The
papyruses of Elephantine and the Old Testament ( MB, 1-2/1960, pp. 39-59); Idem: Istoria
poporului Bibliei dup cercetri mai noi/The History of the Biblical people according to
newer research (MB, 7-12/1961, pp. 22-37); Idem: Descoperiri noi despre esenieni/New
discoveries about the Essenes (MB, 7-9/1971, pp. 388-401); Nicolae Neaga: Monumente de
arhitectur n epoca Vechiului Testament/Architectural monuments in the age of the Old
Testament (MB, 7-12/1960, pp. 121-140); Gheorghe Geia: Saba. Studiu de arheologie
biblic/Sheba. A study of Biblical archaeology (MB, 10-12/1967, pp. 662-696); Idem:
Filistenii. Studiu de arheologie biblic/The Philistines. A study of Biblical archaeology
(MB, 3-4/1984, pp. 139-149); Mihail Vladimirescu: Remarcabile descoperiri din oraul
biblic Dan/Remarkable discoveries in the Biblical city of Dan (AB, 7-9/2002, pp. 69-84);
Idem: Principalele descoperiri arheologice din Ierusalim n ultimii ani/The main
archaeological discoveries in Jerusalem in the last few years (AB, 1-3/2003, pp. 64-81).
Special attention was given to the manuscripts discovered at Qumran and their
contents: Athanasie Negoi: Descoperirile de la Marea Moart. Manuscrisele de la
Qumran/The Dead Sea discoveries. The Qumran scrolls (MB, 1-4/1962, pp. 51-76); Idem:
Preotul necredincios din manuscrisele de la Qumran/The unfaithful priest from the

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Qumran scrolls (MB, 9-10/1962, pp. 485-496); Idem: Dasclul dreptii i cei doi Mesia
din manuscrisele de la Marea Moart/The teacher of justice and the two Messiah from the
Dead Sea scrolls (MB, 11-12/1962, pp. 650-668); Idem: Manuscrisele de la Qumran i
influenele lor/The Qumran scrolls and their influences (MB, 10-12/1966, pp. 596-613);
Idem: Paralele ntre Biblie i manuscrisele de la Marea Moart (Fericirile se afl n aceste
manuscrise?)/Parallels between the Bible and the Dead Sea scrolls (Can happiness be
found in these scrolls?) (MB, 7-9/1968, pp. 387-401); Idem: Interpretarea Scripturii n
manuscrisele de la Marea Moart/Interpretation of the Holy Scriptures in the Dead Sea
scrolls (MB, 4-6/1977, pp. 330-341); Idem: Manuscrisele de la Marea Moart/The Dead
Sea scrolls (AB, 1-3/1992, pp. 9-17); Nicolae Neaga: Douzeci de ani de la descoperirea
manuscriselor biblice de la Marea Moart/Twenty years since the discovery of the Dead
Sea scrolls (MB, 7-9/1967, pp. 457-466); Teodor Baba: Esenienii date n legtur cu
istoria, nvtura i viaa lor, din sursele filoniene i n baza descoperirilor de la
Qumran/The Essenes Information about their history, teachings and life from Philonian
sources and Qumran discoveries (AB, 4-6/1993, pp. 43-57).

3.2. Historical, social and cultural background
Nicolae Neaga: Limbi orientale de interes biblic/Oriental languages of Biblical
interest (MB, 11-12/1959, pp. 68-80); Idem: Orientul antic. Localiti celebre i locuri
memorabile n Palestina/Ancient Orient. Famous localities and memorable places in
Palestine (MB, 1-2/1960, pp. 18-38); Idem: Colonialismul n epoca Vechiului
Testament/Colonialism in the age of the Old Testament (MB, 7-12/1961, pp. 10-21);
Athanasie Negoi: Biblia n cadrul istoriei Orientului Apropiat/The Bible in the history of
the Near East (MB, 1-2/1963, pp. 11-29; MB, 4-6/1964, pp. 145-158); Idem: Despre
limbile semite/On Semitic languages (MB, 9-10/1964, pp. 562-580); Idem: Cadrul istoric al
Bibliei/The historic framework of the Bible (MB, 10-12/1969, pp. 630-641); Dumitru
Abrudan: Ierusalimul epocii celui de-al doilea temple/Jerusalem during the time of the
Second Temple (MB, 7-9/1975, pp. 368-372); Ionel Popescu: Muzica religioas i laic n
perioada Vechiului Testament/Religious and secular music in the time of the Old Testament
(AB, 1-3/2001, pp. 58-68); Marius Ioana: Literatura sapienial n Orient i n
Biblie/Sapiential literature in the Orient and the Bible (AB, 4-6/2008, pp. 110-117; AB, 7-
9/2008, pp. 60-68).

3.3. The history of the Old Testament Books
Atanasie Popa: Versiuni vechi ale Psalmului 50/Old versions of Psalm 50 (MB, 7-
9/1968, pp. 421-433); Nicolae Neaga: Relaiile Paliei de la Ortie cu textul original
ebraic/Relationships between Palia of Orastie and the original Hebrew text (MB, 7-9/1973,
pp. 415-420); Marius Ioana: Psaltiri celebre n limba romn/Famous psalters in
Romanian (AB, 1-3/2010, pp. 79-95; 4-6/2010, pp. 58-76);
In AB, 1-3/1999, the column Pro-Logos was thematic, being dedicated to the
Septuagint: Cristian Bdili, Septuaginta sau Biblia de la Alexandria/The Septuagint or the
Alexandria Bible (pp. 100-101); Philon din Alexandria, Viaa lui Moise/The life of Moses,
translated by Smaranda Bdili (pp. 102-104); Scrisoarea lui Aristeas ctre
Philokrates/The letter of Aristeas to Philokrates, translated by Cristian Bdili (pp. 105-
106); Coninutul Septuagintei/The contents of the Septuagint (pp. 107-108); Zece cri

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fundamentale despre Septuagint/Ten fundamental books on the Septuagint (pp. 109);
Marguerite Harl, Biblia ebraic tradus i citit grecilor/The Hebrew Bible translated and
read to the Greeks, translated by Cristian Bdili (pp. 110-117); Monique Alexandre,
Olivier Munnich, Septuaginta: de la iudaismul alexandrin la cretinismul oriental i
occidental/The Septuagint: from Alexandrian Judaism to Oriental and Occidental
Christianity, translated by Smaranda Bdili (pp. 118-122); Cristian Bdili, Din nou
despre traducerea Bibliei n romnete/Once again about the translation of the Bible into
Romanian (pp. 123-125); Cartea lui Iov (cap. 1-10)/The Book of Jove (chapters 1-10),
translated by Cristian Bdili (pp. 126-135).

3.4. Apocryphal books
Nicolae Neaga: Crile apocrife ale Vechiului Testament/The Apocryphal books of
the Old testament (MB, 1-3/1966, pp. 26-40); Testamentul lui Avraam/Abrahams
Testament, translated by Cristian Bdili (AB, 4-6/1998, pp. 92-106).

3.5. Interpretative methods
Nicolae Neaga: Rolul limbajului matematic n interpretarea Sfintei Scripturi/The
role of mathematical language in interpreting the Holy Scriptures (MB, 10-12/1979, pp.
590-594); Mariana Sasu: Importana studiului limbii ebraice n aprofundarea textului
Sfintei Scripturi/The importance of studying Hebrew for in-depth knowledge of the Holy
Scriptures text (AB, 7-9/1994, pp. 77-84); Constantin Jinga: Cum citim Biblia?/How do we
read the Bible? (AB, 1-3/1997, pp. 69-74); Idem: Text, carte i lectur n Europa Evului
Mediu. Eseu asupra principiilor medievale de interpretare biblical/Text, book and reading
in Middle Ages Europe. Essay on medieval principles of Biblical interpretation (AB, 4-
6/1997, pp. 97-102); Idem: Biblia Pauperum un exemplu de exegez biblic medieval
aplicat/Biblia Pauperum an example of applied medieval Biblical exegesis (AB, 10-
12/1997, pp. 62-82); Idem: Problema traducerii Sfintei Scripturi: eroare, trdare, nego
sau ncercare duhovniceasc?/The problem of translating the Holy Scriptures: error,
betrayal, trade or clerical attempt? (AB, 10-12/1998, pp. 135-148); Vasile Mihoc:
Tipologia ca metod de interpretare cretin a Vechiului Testament/Typology as a method
of Christian interpretation of the Old Testament (AB, 7-9/1997, pp. 28-39); Agapie Corbu:
Aspecte ale exegezei biblice iudaice n epoca celui de-al doilea Templu/Aspects of Judaic
Biblical exegesis in the age of the Second Temple (AB, 10-12/2000, pp. 26-35); Ioan Bude:
Elemente de tipologie vechitestamentar/Elements of Old Testament typology (AB, 4-
6/2001, pp. 66-72).

3.6. Genesis
Ioan Sorin Usc: Comentariu la Cartea Facerii/Commentary on the Book of
Genesis (AB, 10-12/1994, pp. 77-106; AB, 4-6/1995, pp. 25-60); Idem: Comentarii la
cartea Numerii/Commentaries on the Book of Numbers(AB, 7-9/2001, pp. 115-127; AB,
10-12/2001, pp. 90-97; AB, 1-3/2002, pp. 53-63; AB, 4-6/2002, pp. 57-63); Dan Negrescu:
Facerea i creaia/Genesis and Creation (AB, 1-3/1996, pp. 30-32).

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3.7. The age of the Biblical patriarchs
Radu Comnescu: Lupta lui Iacov cu ngerul/Jacobs fight with the angel (AB, 4-
6/2009, pp. 31-33).

3.8. Moses
Teodor Baba: Figura lui Moise n tradiiile iudaic, cretin i musulman/Moses
in Judaic, Christian and Muslim traditions (MB, 5/1988, pp. 25-35); Constantin Jinga:
Moise o icoan, ntre chip i asemnare/Moses an icon, between face and resemblance
(AB, 7-9/1999, pp. 79-82).

3.9. The age of kings
Nicolae Cotos: David i moartea lui Saul, fragmente din cele dou cri ale lui
Samuil/David and Sauls death, fragments from the two books of Samuel (MB, 1-3/1958,
pp. 76-83).

3.10. Lyrical books
Nicolae Neaga: Cntarea Cntrilor. Contribuii la exegeza crii/Song of Songs.
Contributions to the exegesis of the book (MB, 1-2/1959, pp. 45-52); Idem: Dragostea de
via n cartea vechio-testamentar. Eclesiastu/Love of life in the Old Testament book. The
Ecclesiatl (MB, 7-9/1957, pp. 53-58); Idem: n fluxul fericirii Psalmul 118/in the flow of
love Psalm 118 (MB, 6/1987, pp. 32-37); Idem: Cntrile biblice/Biblical songs (AB, 4-
6/1994, pp. 6-13); Tit Simedrea: Despre psalmii proorocului mprat David/On the psalms
of Prophet- King David (MB, 4-6/1968, pp. 206-216); Spiridon Dumitrache: Zis-a
Domnul Domnului meu (Psalmul 109). Nedumeriri, comentariu, opinie/So said my
Lond (Psalm 109). Perplexities, commentary, opinion (AB, 1-3/2002, pp. 70-73); Stelian
Gombo: O carte biblic i literar: Cntarea Cntrilor/A Biblical and literary book:
The Song of Songs (AB, 7-9/2010, pp. 84-95).

3.11. The prophets
Mircea Chialda: Profetul Maleahi despre preoimea Vechiului Testament/Prophet
Malachi on the priests in the Old Testament (AB, 7-12/1947, pp. 166-170); Teodor Baba:
Profetul Ilie n lumina izvoarelor biblice i patristice/Prophet Elijah in the light of Biblical
and patristic sources (7-8/1990, pp. 36-47); Idem: Profei vechi, oratori sau nescriitori n
Vechiul Testament/Old prophets, orators or non-writers in the Old testament (AB, 7-
9/1994, pp. 35-44); Smaranda Bdili: Inspiraia profetic i oracolele lui
Moise/Prophetic inspiration and Moses oracles (AB, 10-12/1997, pp. 7-15).

3.12. Personalities of the Old Testament
Mircea Chialda: Melhisedec, preotul-rege din Salem/Melhisedec, the Priest-King
of Salem (AB, 1-6/1946, pp. 83-106); Iosif Naghiu: mprteasa de la miaz-zi: regina
[din] Saba/The Empress of East: the Queen [of] Sheba (MB, 1-3/1977, pp. 68-75).

3.13. The Old Testament versus the New Testament
Ion Bunea: Vechiul Testament cluz spre Hristos/The Old Testament a guide
to Christ (MB, 10-12/1971, pp. 530-533); Nicolae Neaga: Ontologia crucii n Vechiul

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Testament/Ontology of the cross in the Old Testament (MB, 4-6/1974, pp. 212-220); Idem,
Iisus Hristos n Vechiul Testament/Jesus Christ in the Old Testament (MB, 5/1987, pp. 15-
22); Simion Radu: Proorocul Moise prenchipuire a lui Hristos-Dumnezeu/Prophet
Moses prefiguration of Christ-God (AB, 10-12/1991, pp. 11-24); Stelian Tofan:
Melchisedec prototip al arhieriei venice a lui Iisus Hristos, dup Epistola ctre Evrei
7/Melchizedek a prototype of the eternal episcopacy of Jesus Christ, according to the
Letter to the Jews 7, 1-10 (AB, 7-9/1997, pp. 50-60); Mircea V. Homescu: Anticipri din
Genez mplinite n Apocalips/Anticipations from the Genesis fulfilled in the Apocalypse
(AB, 7-9/1997, pp. 92-96); Radu Comnescu: Iisus n literatura rabinic/Jesus in rabbinic
literature (AB, 7-9/2006, pp. 56-64); Marius Ioana: Modelul psaltic i folosirea crii
Psalmilor n scrierile Sfntului Luca/The psalm model and the use of the Book of Psalms in
the writings of Saint Luke (AB, 4-6/2007, pp. 66-79; AB, 7-9/2007, pp. 120-129).

3.14. The Old Testament a source of revelation, spiritual guidance and
Christian mission
Antonie Plmdeal: Cteva probleme n legtur cu Ebed-Yahve n Deutero-
Isaia. Preliminarii la o Teologie a slujirii/A few problems concerning Ebed-Yahve in
Deutero-Isaiah. Preambules to a theology of service (MB, 1-3/1970, pp. 70-97); Teodor
Baba: Vechiul Testament n lucrarea pastoral-misionar a preotului/The Old Testament in
a priests pastoral-missionary work (AB, 1-2/1990, pp. 46-58); Nicolae Neaga: Frumuseea
iubirii de oameni. Orizonturi biblice/The beauty of the love for people. Biblical horizons
(AB, 11-12/1990, pp. 8-13); Idem: Panoramic biblic despre btrnee/A Biblical
panoramic view on old age (AB, 7-9/1995, pp. 8-22).

3.15. The theology of the Old Testament
Mircea Chialda: Legea lui Dumnezeu n Psalmul 119/The law of God in Psalm 119
(AB, 1-2/1944, pp. 35-41); Idem: Doctrina Vechiului Testament despre nemurire/The Old
Testament doctrine on immortality (AB, 9-10/1944, pp. 368-380); Nicolae Neaga:
Decalogul/The Decalogue (MB, 1-3/1957, pp. 40-51); Idem: Ortodoxia i Vechiul
Testament/Orthodoxy and the Old Testament (MB, 7-8/1962, pp. 299-318); Dumitru
Abrudan: Cartea Iov i valoarea ei antropologic/The Book of Jove and its anthropological
value (MB, 1-2/1984, pp. 7-20); Ioan Bude: Vechiul Testament despre structura i
frumuseea fiinei umane/The Old Testament on the structure and beauty of the human
being (AB, 7-9/1997, pp. 78-82); Petru Semen: Antilogii scripturistice
vechitestamentare/Antilogies in the Old Testament Scriptures (AB, 7-9/1997, pp. 40-49);
Aurel Pavel: Universalitatea mntuirii. Maleahi 1,11/ The universality of salvation.
Malachi 1,11 (AB, 7-9/1997, pp. 69-77).

3.16. Social theology
Nicolae Neaga: Sfnta Scriptur a Vechiului Testament i ideea pcii/Old
Testaments Holy Scriptures and the idea of peace (MB, 10-11/1958, pp. 24-32); Idem:
Concepia Vechiului Testament despre stat/The Old Testaments conception on the state
(MB, 7-8/1964, pp. 334-345); Idem: Noiunea biblic de patrie i patriotism/The Biblical
notions of homeland and patriotism (MB, 7-9/1969, pp. 391-395).

Fascicle III - Humanities-Social Sciences, Anul I, Nr. 1/2013

3.17. Morality and ethics
John Barton, Vitalitatea eticii veterotestamentare/The vitality of ethics in the Old
Testament, translated by Constantin Jinga (AB, 4-6/1999, pp. 51-60); Mircea V. Homescu:
Femeia n istoria biblic a lumii/The woman in the Biblical history of the world (AB, 7-
9/2002, pp. 44-50); Iosif Stancovici: Familia n lumina referatului biblic despre
Creaie/The family in the light of the Biblical reference to Creation (AB, 7-9/2010, pp. 116-
133; AB, 10-12/2010, pp. 84-113).

3.18. Psychology
Marcu Bnescu: Marginalii la cartea Iov. Starea de frustrare/Marginalia on the
Book of Jove. The state of frustration (MB, 1/1987, pp. 13-21); Idem: Moise n
interpretarea antropologiei psihanalitice/Moses in the interpretation of psychoanalytical
anthropology (AB, 10-12/1994, pp. 6-14); Anca Manolache: Cartea lui Iov. Povestirea
unei realiti/The Book of Jove. The story of a reality (AB, 1-3/1993, pp. 12-19); Nicolae
Neaga: Umor i ironie la scriitorii Vechiului Testament/Humour and irony in the writings
of the Old Testament writers (AB, 10-12/1996, pp. 16-25).

3.19. Biology
Gheorghe Geia: Plante i aromate biblice/Biblical plants and herbs (MB, 11-
12/1959, pp. 81-106); Teodor Baba: Biologia n concepia Sfintei Scripturi/Biology
according to the Holy Scriptures (AB, 4-6/2008, pp. 98-109; AB, 7-9/2008, pp. 44-59).

3.20. Romanian contributions to the study of the Old Testament
Nicolae Neaga: Vechiul Testament n preocuprile Prea Fericitului Patriarh
Iustin/The Old Testament according to His Beatitude Patriarch Iustin (MB, 3-4/1985, pp.
150-154); Athanasie Negoi: Studiul Vechiului Testament la teologii romni/The study of
the Old Testament among Romanian theologians (MB, 3/1987, pp. 28-34); Cornel Toma:
Printele profesor doctor Nicolae Neaga: coordonate bio-bibliografice/Prof. dr. Nicolae
Neaga, Priest: bio-bibliographical coordinates (AB, 7-9/1997, pp. 10-27).

The materials published in this prestigious theological journal from Banat cover
almost the entire range of the Old Testament. As it can be easily noticed, some aspects are
given more attention, such as those related to Biblical archaeology and the Holy Scriptures
interpretative methods of the Old Law; as for the rest of the materials, on the whole, they
include studies and articles on specific topics. Regardless of their content, they are all
particularly important and therefore, contribute to the Romanian and universal Christian
Theology and spirituality by completing and enriching them.

Archives of Caransebe Diocese (1948), IV/20, no. 335.
Archives of the Metropolitan Seat of Banat (1951), C/24, no. 3.469.
Foaia Arhidiecezan (1949), vol. 64, no. 1.

The Annals of Eftimie Murgu University of Reia

Carebia, F. (2002). Presa bisericeasc bnean n trecut i astzi. Altarul Banatului, vol.
13 (52), no. 7-9.
Dobrei, F. (2011). Istoricul revistei Altarul Banatului, Calendarul Arhiepiscopiei
Timioarei, 31.
Dobrei, F. (2013). Revista Altarul (Mitropolia) Banatului repere monografice. Cluj-
Napoca Timioara: Academia Romn. Centrul de Studii Transilvane.
Pcurariu, M. (2008). Istoria Bisericii Ortodoxe Romne, vol. III, Iai: Basilica.
Piuan, C. & Ciuceanu, R. (2001). Biserica Ortodox Romn sub regimul comunist.
1945-1958. vol. I. Bucureti: Institutul Naional pentru Studiul Totalitarismului .
Suciu, I. D. (1977). Monografia Mitropoliei Banatului. Timioara: Mitropolia Banatului .
Vasile, C. (2005). Biserica Ortodox Romn n primul deceniu comunist. Bucureti:
Curtea Veche.

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Constantin JINGA

A Biblical Meditation about the Value and Meaning of Life

The city is presented at first in the Bible as a place of rebellion against God, of
violence and idolatry, as a symbol of alienation and breakdown. However, in the narratives
related to the cities of refuge, the city is seen as a symbol of recovery and restoration of the
human being. Subsequent readings and interpretations of these biblical narratives, whether
of Rabbinic or Christian origin, played an important role in articulating these meanings in
a discourse about the value of life, about the nature of purity understood in biblical terms
and about the theological meaning of the human being. In this study we aim to review a
number of the readings and interpretations applied to the biblical narratives in Numbers
35, Deuteronomy 4:41-43, 19:1-13, 21, and Joshua 20:1-9, in a Rabbinic context, and in
early Christian exegesis. Finally we shall look at a contemporary way of perceiving and
valuing these narratives, an outlook formed at the confluence of Biblical sciences and

KEYWORDS: homicide, blood, guilt, purity, expiation, Christology

The biblical narratives about the status and utility of the cities of exile, also known
in some of the modern editions of the Bible, as cities of refuge or asylum cities seem to
be part, at first view, of the Hebrew legal corpus, designed to manage the accidental
homicide. Consequently they became of major importance for researchers interested in the
antic roots of the Western law or in how judicial cases of high complexity were addressed
and solved in a Biblical milieu. However they are also opened for a theological
interpretation, relevant for the Biblical conception about the value and meaning of life. The
goal of this paper is to review some of the readings these stories underwent in the Rabbinic
context, then in the Early Christian exegesis, and it will try to investigate an interesting
modern way of reception from the crossways of Biblical sciences and psychology.

Rev. Fr. PhD, Lecturer, University of West, Timioara, Romania, Faculty of Letters,
History and Theology, cjinga@litere.uvt.ro
ANUL I, NR. 1/2013, ISSN 2286 0711, ISSN-L 2286 0711

The Annals of Eftimie Murgu University of Reia

Mainly the legislation related to the cities of refuge occurs in three parts of the Old
Testament (Numbers 35, Deuteronomy 4:41-43; 19:1-13; 21, Joshua 20:1-9). Our approach
would not insist on the status, transmission, completion or historical aspects of these
naratives, but on their influence over the mentalities and theological developments after
they became a well defined corpus.
The named biblical passages take into account a series of six cities: three on the
western side of the Jordan river (Kedesh, Shechem, Kirjath-Arba or Hebron), and three on
the eastern side (Bezer, Ramoth and Golan) and the fact that they are destined for those
guilty of unintentional, unwanted, without premeditation murder (Joshua 20:7-8). The
prime function of these cities is to protect a person who had accidentally killed another,
secondly they provide the fundamental setting for a fair trial, and also they offer the
possibility of rehabilitation of the offender through expiatory actions, or ultimately amnesty
accorded after the death of the high-priest.
We should emphasize the fact that even though the toponymic lists are sometimes
different, the idea that clearly emerge from the biblical stories is concerned with the effort
to manage the manslaughter cases, in the context of a mentality dominated by the law of
retaliation, especially by the conceptions related to the theological semantic of blood.
The Mosaic law stipulates that a man who kills his own kind is to be killed, as an act of
vengeance, without trial:

The avenger of blood shall himself put the murderer to death; when he meets
him, he shall put him to death.
[Numbers 35:19]

The accidental murder wasnt exempt from this law: on one hand because the
principle of mutual actions (lat. tallionis) should be fulfilled (Exodus 21:23-25), so the
guilty should receive the same treatment according to his crime and intention (Leviticus
24:19-21; Genesis 4:15; Deuteronomy 19:21; 24:16, etc.); on the other hand because in the
Old Testament the legal stipulation concerning the murdering is generally based on a
symbolic, religious understanding of the blood, adding an important semantic connotation
to the homicide act, like mentioned in Numbers 35:33:

...for blood pollutes the land, and no atonement can be made for the land for the
blood that is shed in it, except by the blood of the one who shed it.

It is to understand from here that the guilt of the murderer evolves at least at two
levels: one judicial and personal the actual homicide act; and another one religious and
community related the general state of impurity that affects the congregation as a whole
(Boda, 2009, pp. 522-523). This connotation, evidently of religious origin, shifts the
discussion from a legal point of view only, to a theological perspective also.
From Numbers 35:19 we do understand that the killing of the slayer is
undoubtedly an imperative, a necessary requirement for the reestablishment of purity. The
cases of accidental murder are different from the premeditated ones, as the intentionality is
absent: the accidental killer does not want, does not premeditate or anticipate the homicide
act and the biblical passages offer an extended list of possible incidents (Numbers 35:22

Fascicle III - Humanities-Social Sciences, Anul I, Nr. 1/2013

sq.; Deuteronomy 19:4-5 etc.). He can be found guilty of his act, but not of his intention. In
such a case, a punishment according to the retaliation principle, including the act and the
intention becomes problematic by the lack of intention (Carmichael, 2008, pp. 11-12, 56).
In this situation the vindicative act implies the intentionality of the avenger, who
transgresses the limits of reciprocity, placing him in the grey zone of incertitude
(Deuteronomy 19:6a, 10. Also in Makkot 2:I.2.H, 2:6.A, etc.)
. Richard H. Hiers senses here
a judicial deadlock, intelligently solved by the Mosaic law, according first of all to the
primordial value of the human being and following the fundamental commandment of
salvation of human life (Deuteronomy 30:19): the execution of the slayer is not a purpose
in itself. The purpose is the expiation of sin and the reestablishment of the lost purity
(Hiers, 2009, pp. 82 sq., 129-134).
The Mosaic law stipulates the separation of these cases from the regular murder
situations, by removing the manslayer from the ordinary settlement into a different context.

The cities shall be for you a refuge from the avenger, that the manslayer may not
die until he stands before the congregation for judgment.
[Numbers 35:12]
So, the commandment reveals its double meaning: first the removal from the
community of the person who became impure by murdering, and second the
acknowledgement of the fact that this is a particular situation that requires an extraordinary
restoration action (Feder, 2011; Boda, 2009, pp. 53-54, 5123, 354).

The consecrated rabbinic texts are particularly interested in the jurisprudence of
the involuntary homicide. They start with a detailed inventory of the cases that qualify for
the admission in the cities of refuge, then they debate the technical data concerning the
settlement of the cities, and finally they argue about the ways their distribution and
presence in the country will help reaching their assigned goals. Obviously this schematic
overview is relevant not as much for the diachronic aspects of the rabbinic interpretations
as for their development as regulatory texts, as part of a fundamental legislative corpus.
Based on the circumstances mentioned in Numbers 35:22 sq., respectively in
Deuteronomy 19:4-5, the cases listed in the Babylonian Talmud (Makkot 2:1.A-L), present
the following issues: first, it is possible for the homicide to be accidental: the author has no
intention to do a criminal act, the setting presents no foreseeable dangers, the victim loses
his life after a legitimate action of another person (for example: a mason is cleaning a
rooftop during nighttime and throws the debris down the street where a delayed transient is
hit and dies); second, the homicide can result from imprudence: the author is engaged in a
legitimate, benign activity without any intention to harm anyone, but he is not taking all the
necessary safety precautions and the victim dies because of that (for example: the mason
throws the debris during daytime where he normally does, in a usually deserted spot, but he
is not checking if there is anyone around, and someone happens to pass-by, he is hit and
dies); third, in several cases the homicide is a result of carelessness, of lack of prevention
from the authors part. For example: the mason throws the debris during daytimes in a busy
place, where he usually doesn't, without checking for people passing-by, one is hit and dies
(Makkot 2.II.I.1.B-I). So the three possible instances are: the accident, the imprudence, the

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negligence. In the accidental homicide cases, described above, the perpetrator is not exiled,
except on certain conditions, carefully examined by the rabbis. However, for the
unintentional murder, committed by imprudence or negligence the expiation is mandatory
(Makkot 2:1.I.A sq.; Carmichael, 2009, pp. 56, 60 sq., 115).
Next, the rabbinic commentaries insist on the biblical passages presenting the
distribution of the cities in the country and the access to them (Deuteronomy 19:3 sq.;
21:3). The Talmud gives precise instructions about how the cities should be easily
accessible, the roads towards them must be as straight as possible and well maintained so
the refugees could flee without obstacles and delays and they would not be caught by the
avengers of blood (Makkot 2:4-6.A-F). There is also mentioned that the cities should be
medium sized fortified settlements, not too sophisticated and well supplied with drinking
water (Makkot 2:6.I.9.A-C).
Last but not least, on their commentaries to Numbers 35, the Rabbis associate the
asylum cities to the levitical ones enriching their purpose: not only should they offer
protection and an exceptional judicial setting, but they should provide an educational and
recovery environment. The asylum seeker would receive teachings and advices from
scholars, rabbis, law teachers in order to fully understand the circumstances that led to the
homicide act, to assume the consequences of it, and to help him with further reintegration
in the community that temporarily exiled him (Makkot 3:8F-J sq.; Hiers, 2009, pp. 129 sq.).
The diligent, accurate meditations of the rabbis from the second chapter of Makkot
prove a deep concern with the integrity and sacredness of human life in close relationship
with God, as the source of life and will. The Talmud indicates that the ultimate goal of the
Law is not the talionic punishment of the guilty, but the expiation of sin. In this case, the
expiation act assumes first of all the separation from the impure condition caused by the
sin; then it implies the exact acknowledgement of the offense committed in all its details
and consequences; and in the same time it requires the acceptance of the responsibility for
the crime and atonement by a restorative approach. Finally, its goal is to regain the lost
purity status, but not by mutual punishment of the offender, but by his reinstatement in the
affected community. The integrity and the purity of a congregation polluted by
manslaughter are restored when the community is ready and able to re-accept, to take back
the slayer.

Philo of Alexandria has a distinctive voice among the commentators of the biblical
passages concerning the asylum cities. He lived and worked in Alexandria's cosmopolitan
environment of the first century AD, preceding by a lot the rabbinic commentators of the
Talmud, so in his exegetical treatise of the mosaic biblical legislation he often uses the
greek philosophers' methods of analysis and interpretation.
In De Specialibus Legibus, Philo debates a theological aspect of the divine
oiconomia: he questions why are such things happening, why is God allowing those things
to happen? For the victim, the answer is obvious in some degree: everyone's life is in the
hands of God, who is the master of life and death, and He is deciding the end for everyone.
Philo refers to the last part of the Book of Job and concludes that the victim dies with God's
approval, for reasons that man can understand only through revelation. The revelation is a
result of God's condescendence (Job 40-41). The slayer's issue is more complicated: the

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philosopher is contemplating why is God allowing for a decent, innocent man, without
violent inclinations to became a murderer? His supposition is that, because it's a polluting
action, God doesn't actually involve an innocent person in it. Partially, his interpretation is
based on the speeches of Job's friends: Eliphaz, Bildad and Zophar, using mostly Bildad's
more mystical opinions (Job 4-27): namely the person who ends up by killing someone
should be guilty of a hidden sin, that he is not aware of. The manslaughtering, by the
required expiatory action, will imply the atonement of the unknown sin. From this
perspective, the exile of the murderers in a city of refuge is similar to the Babylonian exile
of the chosen people, for the atonement of the sins and for preparing them to enter a new
phase of their messianic history.
Philo concludes his commentary with a profound meditation about God's
providence, like a secret work, based on His infinite love for the human kind and on His

We noticed that Philo's interpretations open a very interesting perspective for
reflections about the unveiled mysteries of the divine purposes and about the very nature of
God. His conclusion is that God reveals Himself to man in absolute freedom, beyond the
limiting conventional and arbitrary understandings, sharing His mystery with man. Before
all means, God shows Himself as the Lord of Life, proving the essence of the Law of
Moses, as ingeniously named by Kaplan and Schwartz "a life promoting structure" (Kaplan
& Schwartz, 2008, p. 158) a metanarrative which not only explains, but is also providing
consistency and messianic meaning to the fulfillment of the commandments, aiming the
human fulfillment.
Later, during centuries of development and systematization of the rabbinic
commentaries, the theological perspective seems to fade away. However, an overlook on
the rabbinic debates as a whole shows that the interpretations harmoniously intertwined: the
halakhah commentaries from the Makkot are concerned with the detailed enforcing of the
Law with the intention of a quick and accurate repairing of the lost purity, while the nature
of this purity is envisioned in theological terms and involves the human person in its
distinctiveness, in its unique and unrepeatable features, but also the community that he
belongs to, also seen as unique and and unrepeatable.
Furthermore, through the rabbinic debates and their interpretations, we witness an
apparently collateral theological problem, but in essence a very important one: we observe
how the understanding of the idea and of the status of sin develop in the context of rabbinic
readings, from a conception of sin as burdensome and embarrassing impurity for both the
person and the community, to the idea of the sin as damage, as debt that has to be repaired
and atoned (Anderson, 2009, pp. 15, 20, 27, 29-34, 75).

Concerned mostly with the Christology of the biblical stories from the Old
Testament and with the shaping of the conception about the human being from this
perspective, the Christian exegetes from the patristic times will concentrate their attention
on the relevant aspects that these passages offer for the foundation of the doctrine and for
the enrichment of moral, spiritual and pastoral practices. They show little interest for the

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judicial meanings of the cities of refuge. They are mainly mentioned as explanatory
paraphrases, as historical, informative, cultural background for understanding some aspects
of Jewish life in the old times. Like Philo maybe accustomed to his educational
environment and to his ways of thinking they approach the stories mainly from a
theological point of view.
They pay a special attention to the death of the high-priest, event that is established
as limit for the exile of the penitent:

And he shall remain in that city until he has stood before the congregation for
judgment, until the death of him who is high priest at the time. Then the manslayer may
return to his own town and his own home, to the town from which he fled.
[Joshua 20:6]
Authors like Saint Ambrose of Milan or Saint Hieronymus (Jerome) writing in
the same period, but following slightly different exegetical paths, will recognise the death
of the high-priest, redemptive for the exiled, as foreseeing the Christ the Saviors sacrifice.
The high-priest, when serving his title, is the one making sacrifices of redemption for the
sins of the people; his death is then followed by an amnesty. It is known that in the Old
Testament the high-priest has an expiatory function by performing the sacrificial rituals, but
also by assumption. His death represents the ending of a judicial era according to Robert
Vasholz (Vasholz, 1993, p. 117) and the prescription of the causes managed so far by
means of the asylum cities. Saint Ambrose and Saint Jerome see in the dawn of the judicial
era the envisionment of the closure of time of sin and atonement, through the sacrifice on
the Cross of the Lord Jesus Christ, as being designated by God a high priest after the
order of Melchizedek. [Hebrew 5:10]

Apart from the theological interpretations, Jerome makes some moral comments
on the cases of manslaughtering described in the Bible. He considers that in some cases
ignorance can not be claimed as palliating circumstances for the sin, on the contrary it
becomes a sin in itself
Instead, Saint Ambrose in his suggestively named book Flight From the World
insists more on the spiritual, ascetic aspects of the problem: the self imposed exile of the
guilty person in the city of refuge is seen like a seclusion of the person overburdened by
sin, as a metaphor for the flee from the world of the one who seeks a peaceful life: he runs
away and looks for shelter in a consecrated space, where he can devote himself to ascetic
labor without being disturbed by the secular turmoil. The bishop of Milan shows that this
refuge can be accomplished in spirit too, without the actual, physical removal from the
world. God himself is the prototype of this sacred space: then is the Saturday (as a
beneficial and restorative syncope in the daily rhythm), next the six cities of exile are
presented like mental places for atonement and enrichment of virtues. The flight from the
world and the sheltering in the asylum cities become, in the readings of Saint Ambrose, a
shifting of mind from the thoughts of perdition and its strengthening by bringing it closer to
the Levites, as symbols of sanctifying thoughts. In his vision, like in the traditional,
allegorical readings of the Fathers of the Church from IV-V century AD, each city is paired
with a virtue for satisfying the fundamental needs of human beings in their quest for
perfection: Kedesh correction; Shechem support; Kirjath-Arbah communion; Bezer
strengthening; Ramoth elevation; Golan release, redemption

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Saint Gregory the Great's considerations are also worth mentioning: in The
Pastoral Rule, he uses the situation described in Deuteronomy 19:5-6 for talking about the
good balance the shepherd should show while guiding and sanctioning the mistakes of his
parishioners. He took the example of the man cutting woods in the forest when the iron of
the ax falls accidentally from the handle and hits deathly the man's friend Saint Gregory
advises the pastors to correct the mistakes of his followers with a loving heart, not through
severe clashes that make the interaction to degenerate in insults and kill the spirit of love.
The commentary is not directly related to the theme of the asylum cities, but is an
interesting extrapolation in a spiritual, pastoral context
The perspective opened by Gregory the Greats readings and by Saint Ambroses
ascetical view confirms the effort of the Christian authors from the patristic era to establish
a conception about the human being based on christological principles with biblical origins.
Be it the gentleness and the good judgment required from the pastor in his public work, or
the reference points that circumscribe the spiritual space favorable to the human
accomplishment this perspective is always centered on the image of Jesus Christ
incarnated, as the new Adam, that through His sacrifice on the cross and His Resurrection
offers to the human kind the possibility of expiation and ontological restoration. In
conclusion, for the patristic authors the meaning of the six asylum cities is closely related to
the significance of the death of the high-priest, and together they describe the mental space
of spiritual recovery, in the sphere of active repentance not in an emotional way, but
theological and ascetical.

A refreshing, unexpected approach of biblical passages dealing with the cities of
refuge comes from the researches of two psychologists Matthew B. Schwartz and Kalman
J. Kaplan, who together with specialists like Elaine Mazlich and Adele Faber, recommends
them as useful, efficient tools in different psychotherapies. In their study, Biblical Stories
for Psychotherapy and Counseling. A Sourcebook (2004), they regret that modern
psychology has made little use of the fruitful resource represented by the biblical stories.
They see the biblical narratives as a compendium of formative texts, with positive influence
in the development of human personality, but also in the recovery from the psychological
traumas. For them, the biblical stories offer the optimal, long lasting solutions for
overcoming existential crisis, if they are in-taken at deep levels of consciousness (Schwartz
& Kaplan, 2004, pp. 26-27).
The passages from Numbers 35; Deuteronomy 4:41-43; 19:1-13; 21 and Joshua
20:1-9 are analysed as one unit, presenting the issue of solving the manslaughtering faults,
but also, by extension, the therapy of patients suffering from impaired self-esteem.
Creatively reconsidering the biblical texts and the rabbinic commentaries, Kaplan and
Schwartz argue that the capital punishment of the slayer doesnt solve the problem, on the
contrary, it complicates it by adding to a homicide an another one. Consequently the impure
status becomes dominant, and the societal interest in the human life diminishes, not to
mention, the value of each individual created as image of God (Schwartz & Kaplan, 2004,
p. 177). Instead of the capital punishment, the flee of the guilty to the closest city of refuge
purifies the community, by temporarily excluding the slayer from its midst, on one hand,
and on the other it offers to the penitent the time to meditate to the purpose of life, drawing

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his attention to the fact that every single life, including his own, is Gods gift which makes
it valuable and meaningful (Schwartz & Kaplan, 2004, p. 176).
Kaplan and Schwartz show that the biblical stories could be successfully used in
the therapy of patients affected by actual faults, that they have difficulties healing after the
psychological traumas. Following the biblical texts, they suggest that the idea of
overcoming a fault doesnt mean fading it, on the contrary, the history of the asylum cities
proves that a guilt should be first of all recognized and assumed in order to be exceeded.
The fault assumption and of the facts that caused it is the starting point in therapy and it
shows beneficial results: first it is the chance of reconciliation with the person that suffered
from the penitents actions, and second it is the condition sine qua non to restore self-
esteem an essential aspect of the rehabilitation process of the patient, as the two
psychologists mention (Schwartz & Kaplan, 2004, p. 178).
Almost similar to rabbinic perspective, in the therapeutic approach suggested by
Kaplan and Schwartz, the biblical stories about the cities of refuge are envisioned like a
discourse about mans inner integrity and about the necessity to acknowledge the
importance that the Bible gives to human life. In the same time, similar to patristic
perspective, the same stories are valued like a discourse about the importance of repentance
as spiritual therapeutical approach to restore a damaged integrity, and to regain humans
proper ontological position as Gods image.

Interestingly all these meanings gravitate around a rather ambiguous topos: the
city, which doesnt usually carry positive connotations in the Bible (Rogerson & Vincent,
2009, p. 4). Here, the benign space is primordially the garden, and the best environment
providing a good, balanced positioning of man against himself and God is the village, the
rural area. But it is said in the first biblical mention of a city that it was built as a refuge
from God's anger and punishment for the man's sins (Genesis 4:17). In a well documented
study, Andrew Crook mentions that in the Bible, the cities are frequently connected to
man's rebellious gestures against God, to violent actions and idolatrous practices; as topos,
the cities represents, by association, accusing evidences against persons, actions or
practices (Crook , 1997, pp. 6-7). On the other hand, using passages like Micah 4:1-4,
respectively Isaiah 2:2-4, professor John W. Rogerson proves that the city is also a symbol
for the idea of asylum in order to achieve peace and truth. The topos keeps the idea of
refuge from Genesis 4:17, valuing it as shelter for unavoidable and legitimate adversities
(Rogerson & Vincent, 2009, pp. 21 sq.).
Following the biblical passages concerning the cities of refuge we can conclude
that from a space of rebellion, violence and idolatry, from a symbol of alienation and
decomposition, the city becomes a symbol of rehabilitation and restoration of the human
being. The further readings and interpretations, from Rabbinic or Christian perspective,
from theological or psychotherapeutic point of view, played an important role in defining
an articulate discourse about the value of the purity status understood in biblical terms, and
about the theological purpose of each human being.

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Anderson, A., Gary A. (2009). Sin: A History. New Haven, CT/London, Yale University
Boda, J. M. (2009), A Severe Mercy: Sin and its remedy in the Old Testament. in Siphrut:
Literature and Theology of the Hebrew Scriptures, 1, Eisenbrauns, Winona
Lake, IN
Carmichael, C. edit. (2008). The Deed and the Doer in the Bible: David Daubes Gifford
Lectures. vol. I, Templeton Foundation Press
Crook, A. (1997). The City in the Bible: A Relational Perspective. Cambridge, Jubilee
Feder, Y. (2011). Blood Expiation in Hittie and Biblical Ritual: Origins, Context and
Meaning. in Writings from the Ancient World Supplement Series, nr. 2,
Atlanta, GA, SBL
Hiers, H., Richard, (2009). Justice and Compassion in Biblical Law. London, New York,
T&T Clark
Kaplan, J., Kalman & Schwartz, B. Matthew. (2008). A Psychology of Hope: A biblical
response to tragedy and suicide. Grand Rapids, MI, Eerdmans
Neusner, J., edit. (2006). The Babylonian Talmud. vol. 17, Hendrickson Publisher
Rogerson, W., John & Vincent, John. (2009). The City in Biblical Perspective. in Biblical
Challenges in the Contemporary World, London, Equinox
Schwartz, B., Matthew & Kaplan, J., Kalman. (2004). Biblical Stories for Psychotherapy
and Counseling. A Sourcebook. NY, NY, The Haworth Pastoral Press
Vasholz, R. (1993). Israel's Cities of Refuge. in. Presbyterian, nr. 19, Fall 1993


In Jacob Neusner (ed.), The Babylonian Talmud, vol. 17, Hendrickson Publisher, 2006
Philo, De Specialibus Legibus III:XXI.120 XXIV.136
Ambrose, Flight From the World, 2.13; Jerome, Against the Pelagians, 1.33
Jerome, loc.cit.
Ambrose, Flight From the World, 9.55
Saint Gregory the Great, The Book of Pastoral Rule, 2.10

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St James, the author of the first Catholic epistle of the New Testament Canon, does
not reflect on the nature of wisdom in an abstract manner, but wants to present the effect of
the gift of the wisdom from above (1:5-8) on the community and on each believer. The
first consequence is the inner rebirth of the believer (1:18), which happens by means of the
engrafted word, which is able to save the souls (1:21). Thus, James goes beyond the
Israelite concept of wisdom: wisdom is not just a gift that indicates the moral path for a
way of life, but it also produces a transformation in the believer, that leads him to
deliverance from death. The wisdom from above is characterized by a list of seven
qualities, in 3:17, symbolizing the perfect wisdom. Unlike the halachic style of debate
(Mishnah), James presents Torah in the manner of the sapiential teaching, very similar to
Ben Sirach, and as we learn in the Sermon on the Mount from the Gospel of Matthew. In
this way, his aim is not to detail the exigencies of the commandments under certain
circumstances, but to induce the spirit of the law, to illustrate its requirements, and to rely
on the law as the source of moral edification and exhortation.

KEY WORDS: sapiential tradition, the gift of wisdom, the wisdom from above,
e;mfutoj lo,goj, no,moj evleuqeri,aj

The coherence of the first Catholic Epistle of the New Testament Canon must be
examined on a deeper level. The works form and structure serve its purpose very well, i.e.,
it provides a resource for acquiring wisdom, expressed by obedience to God in the daily life
(Bauckham, 1999, p. 108). The aphorisms that we find in James, in particular, swing
between orality and textuality. Nevertheless, in the case of James, a distinguishing feature
constitutes the fact that he relies primarily on the core of Jesus proclamation of the
Kingdom of Heaven.
James employs the sapiential tradition as one of a series of perspectives, it
providing a very important background for its form and content (Chester and Martin, 1994,

Fr. PhD. Associate Professor, Department of Orthodox Didactic Theology Caransebe,
University Eftimie Murgu Reia, Romania, email: ioanmihoc@gmail.com
ANUL I, NR. 1/2013, ISSN 2286 0711, ISSN-L 2286 0711

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p.10). Among the most important forms of wisdom that can be found in James associated
with the Jewish sapiential tradition, one can mention: sayings of wisdom and edification,
blessings, woes, models or examples, themes of wisdom. Two dimensions of the Jewish
wisdom are manifest in James: 1. Wisdom is a gift received from God (1:17; 3:17); the gift
of wisdom is achieved through prayer (1:5); 2. Having this gift of wisdom, the believers
life requires specific virtues, stated in the list from 3:17-18 (Hartin, 2003, pp.78-79).
The teaching of wisdom is passed on to some readers who have to aspire to the
ideal of holiness and perfection. This transformation also occurs within the community, its
members being reborn as the Twelve Tribes of Gods Kingdom. He speaks about this
perfect gift in 1:17. They are the beginning of the reconstitution of Gods people, called
to live in friendship with God (Hartin, 2003, pp. 79-80).
James begins his Epistle by inviting his readers to ask for wisdom if they lack it, promising
that God would give it to them. But it needs to be asked for in faith, without any doubt. The
text already suggests a form, gradatio, and a focus: What kind of supplicants does James
have in view? And how can the reluctant one be identified (Brosend, 2004, p. 20)?
Having the mind of wisdom, the man becomes aware of the divine judgment and
of the grace of the divine gifts. Temptations are indeed common to human nature and to our
daily life. If in 3:2 the author admits that in many things we offend all, in 1:4, he states
that everyone should have the courage to strive for the ideal of perfection (teleios).
Nonetheless, the perfection of patience in temptation is not a passive experiencing of the
divine intervention. James ethics is characterized by the gift of wisdom, which is granted
by God freely to all those who ask for it and who wait for the gift of Gods eschatological
judgment, without blaming others for their own imperfection.
In fact, James approaches the material of the sapiential tradition in a way that is
guided and framed by Jesus wisdom, this leading to an ethical concentration of the
sapiential teaching and to an intensification of wisdoms moral exigencies. The ethics of
speech from 3:1-12 constitutes an excellent example in this sense (Bauckham, 1999, p.
93). Throughout the Epistle, the concept and role of wisdom are very important (1:5-8, 17,
3:13-18). According to James, wisdom is the horizon within which both the community and
the believer reach perfection in the eschatological era (Hartin, 2003, p.80).

2.1. The divine gift of wisdom (1:5-8)
William F. Brosend perceives verses 2-8 as a single pericope, which would be the
best proof of James rhetorical abilities. The reader that lacks wisdom must ask (aiteit)
God for it, who gives with generosity to whoever asks for it (cf. Mt. 7:7). But, as we learn
in v. 6, the prayer must be made in faith, without any doubt (diakrinomenos), for the one
who doubts is like a wave of the sea, borne about by the wind (Brosend, 2004, p. 34).
In Romans 12:16, St. Paul warns: Be not wise in your own conceits, and prophet
Isaiah says: Woe unto them that are wise in their own eyes, and prudent in their own
sight! (Isaiah 5:21). Saint John Chrysostom shows that there is nothing that so elates men
and makes them feel different from other people, as the foolish notion that they are perfect
and have no need of others. Even if you were wise, you still are in need of another
(Chrysostom, 2005, pp. 424-425); St John Chrysostom shows that, by wisdom, St Paul

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understands the preaching and the image of salvation through the cross, and he calls wise
those who believed (Chrysostom, 1 Cor., 2005, pp. 62-63).
The gift of wisdom is, indeed, the highest gift, for it makes the believer perfect,
lacking nothing (1:5). Moreover, this perfection shines in the calling to friendship with God
(4:4). All those who experience the gift of wisdom from God lead a life based on an
exclusive relationship with God (Hartin, 2003, p.80). That is why, in the context of the
Epistle, the most important thing is not to lack wisdom. The fact that at least some of
James readers seem to lack wisdom proves that the patience under trials still needs to
produce its effect on their souls. In a broad sense, wisdom means competence in life and
involves the capacity to make sound judgments and to speak the right words. However,
James wisdom does not only mean competence in life, but also a divine gift of the ability
to live in a godly way (as it will be shown in chapter 3) and endure trials; wisdom,
suffering, and perfection are very much linked together in the Jewish tradition about
wisdom (McCartney, 2009, p. 90).
As it is well-known, the Jews were aware that God is the source of wisdom, and
the prayer for wisdom was the wisest thing that Solomon ever did (3 Kings 3). In the Old
Testament and in the Jewish sapiential literature, wisdom is sometimes personified
(Proverbs 8:22-31). In Sirach 24, it seems to be almost identified with the Spirit of God,
and, sometimes, James speaks about wisdom in the same manner in which St Paul would
speak about the Spirit of God. In any case, to James, wisdom encompasses the godly virtues
(James 3:17), representing the believers capacity to live the life of faith.
Gods promise to freely and generously (hapls) grant the gift of wisdom
constitutes the essence of the Gospel itself. The stress laid on the progressive participle
didontos, to give, indicates Gods character. He gives everyone everything (cf. Mt. 7:7-11;
cf. Jer. 29:12-13), without partiality (a term that occurs in James 2). But, at the same time,
just as there is a tight relationship between working and having bread, there is a relationship
between the effort of understanding and the acquisition of wisdom (McCartney, 2009, pp.
The only obstacles to wisdom do not come from God, but from our incapacity to
ask for it in faith. Our actions themselves can be obstacles in the way of a life lived wisely.
Knowing that God offers wisdom with generosity, we must ask for it without doubt, in
faith: If any of you lack wisdom, let him ask of God, that giveth to all men liberally, and
upbraideth not; and it shall be given him. But let him ask in faith, nothing wavering. For he
that wavereth is like a wave of the sea driven with the wind and tossed (1:5-6).
A fundamental question must be the one regarding the way in which we reach
wisdom: Which is Gods will for my life? In order to learn Gods will, we need Gods
wisdom. 1 Tim 4:1-2 and 2 Tim 3:8-9 warn about the fact that in the latter times some shall
depart from the truth of faith, being deceived by seducing spirits; they shall be like some
who are ever learning, and never able to come to the knowledge of the truth. Wisdom
means to know how to use the knowledge that you possess. Therefore, there is a
fundamental distinction between wisdom and knowledge.

2.2. Two Contrasting Kinds of Wisdom: James 3:13-18
Verse 13 introduces it by means of a question addressed to those members of the
community who consider themselves wise and knowledgeable, a group that does not

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include only the masters from v.1. They are advised to prove wisdom by their actions,
among which count the ones mentioned in 1:27 and 2:14-17. Then a contrast between the
true and the false wisdom is presented, which is, in fact, a description of two ways of life.
The negative aspect is a kind of wisdom which is not from above, but a devilish one (vs.
14-16). It leads to confusion and every evil work. But the positive aspect is a kind of
wisdom from above (v. 17), that is, from God. As we have seen in 1:5, this is the only true
wisdom. It is defined by a list of virtues, an aptly built ennumeration: a set of four,
beginning with the letter e, for alliteration, followed by another set of three, beginning
with the letter a. This way of life is peaceable, without partiality and without hypocrisy
(v. 17). Verse 18, which originally was probably a separate proverb, closes the unit with the
promise of a fruit of righteousness. The words wise (v. 13) and wisdom (vs. 13, 15,
17) provide the theme for the entire unit. In addition, the terms peaceable (v. 17) and
peace (twice in v. 18) describe the conduct that should characterize James audience
(Sleeper, 1998, p. 97).
Particularly essential for the way in which James relates the dualism of the two
kinds of wisdom to the ancient sapiential tradition is the quote from Proverbs 3:34: God
resisteth the proud, but giveth grace unto the humble (James 4:6). Richard Bauckham
highlights that, for James, Proverbs 3:34 - read in relationship with 3:33,35 - is a
hermeneutical key to sapiential literature, that enables him to understand that literatures
contrast between the righteous and the sinner, the wise and the fool, as being related to the
status of lowly and exalted, as well as to the theme of situation reversal, according to which
God exalts the lowly and poor and brings down the arrogant and wealthy. Bauckham
extensively examines the relationship between Jesus wisdom and that of James and comes
to the conclusion that Jesus wisdom from the synoptic tradition is for James a reference
and a normative principle for the way in which he assimilates other Jewish traditions (see
Ps 118: 98-100; Proverbs 13:20). His wisdom is the Jewish wisdom of a faithful disciple of
Jesus - the Wisdom of God. He is the disciple of whom Jesus said: The disciple is not
above his master: but every one that is perfect shall be as his master (Lk 6:40) (Bauckham,
1999, p. 108).
Faith should be demonstrated by actions, and wisdom by works: Who is a wise
man and endued with knowledge among you? Let him show out of a good conversation his
works with meekness of wisdom (3:13). In the first verse of this third chapter, James
indicated the important role of that didaskalos (master) in the community, and now he is
enunciating the importance of that sophos (wise man). In Mt 23:34, Jesus tells the
Pharisees: Behold, I send unto you prophets, and wise men, and scribes (cf. Rom 16:19; 1
Cor 3:18; Eph 5:15). The joining together of the words wise and endued with knowledge
refers to the truth and its application. The true objective is that God is merciful (cf. 4:6),
and the subjective application is that the wise man humbles himself in obedience (cf. 4:10).
Wisdom knows the good and knows how to accomplish it (Richards, p. 162). The text
explains the difference between the false and the true wisdom. The first does not come from
God, and the latter is from God, from above. James has to deal with those who called
themselves masters, those he mentioned at the beginning of chapter 3. There he starts
referring to this theme by indicating their tongue as the instrument of their falling. To them,
the tongue is the instrument of the false wisdom; that is why he asks: Who is a wise man
and endued with knowledge among you? The false wisdom manifests itself as pride, strife,

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acerbity, and envy, desire to defeat the opponents. Then James shows that true wisdom is,
in fact, heavenly wisdom for the earthly existence (Garcia, 2008, p. 117).
In this passage, James uses a number of paralells, trying to prove three main things
about the two kinds of wisdom: their origins, role, and results. The false wisdom comes
from bellow, while the true wisdom comes from above.
The false wisdom descends not from above, but is earthly, sensual, devilish (v.
1. earthly (): meaning that it does not have its origins neither in heaven,
nor in God. It relies on earthly knowledge, is driven by wordly desires and lusts, completely
contrary to Gods Word. The apothegm from Proverbs 14:12 characterizes this kind of
wisdom: There is a way which seems right unto a man, but the end thereof are the ways
of death.
2. sensual (): it has nothing in common with the life given by Christ
through the Holy Spirit (1 Cor 2:14). The world is rather sensual, pursuing its own
hedonism in a culture of the senses, especially since the Age of Enlightenment (Garcia,
2008, p.119). Instead of looking for the good and perfect gifts from the Father of lights
(1:17), and for the joy of the future realities, this wisdom is self-centered and pursues
personal gain. Previously, James talked about the way of the rich who passes away soon
(1:11) and the defiling of the entire life by speaking without discernment (3,6).
3. devilish (): this adjective serves as a bridge to the following verse,
which ennumerates the vices present in the life of the Epistles readers. James tells them
that human interests can serve devilish interests. The Lord rebuked Peter harshly for trying
to serve the devil by rejecting Jesus prophecy about His own suffering and death. One
must not forget that even the faith that does not agree with the truth of the Gospel is the
same with the demonic faith (2:19b). Further on, the readers are advised to resist the devil
(4:7). Devil is the father of lies, so that any kind of wisdom that do not come from truth is
from him (John 8:44). In short, the world, the body, and the devil are the three great
enemies that stand against mans salvation. An effect can reveal the cause. This a posteriori
way of reasoning shows that actions reflect attitudes, and this verse presents a series of
inner vices. Untamed tongue (3:8), instability (1,8), and doubt are already well known.
Envy and selfish ambition have already been highlighted in v. 14 as vices that defile the
hearts (Richards, p. 167).
Unlike the worldy, sensual and devilish kind of wisdom, true wisdom comes from
God Himself (v. 17). The adverb from above, which is already used in 1:17 to refer to
every perfect gift, is a circumlocution for heavens or God Himself. Believers must always
pray to receive wisdom, which is a divine gift (1:5). Divine wisdom is similar to a spring of
kindness, representing a dynamic development of virtues. This catalogue virtually
comprises everything that James states in these three chapters. Divine wisdom is
characterized by a series of seven qualities in 3:17, which refers to perfect wisdom:
1. pure (): as in other passages of the New Testament, this wisdom is first of
all pure (cf. James 1:27). First and foremost, spiritual and bodily purification is the
indisputable proof of a life lived according to the wisdom of the Gospel of Christ.
2. peaceable (): in the Sermon on the Mount, God blessed all the
peacemakers, assuring that they shall be called the children of God (Mt 5:9).

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3. gentle (), kind, mild, lenient: Wisdom is of no use, unless completed
with kindness, says John Chrysostom when he interprets the words of God: be ye wise as
serpents, and harmless as doves, from Matthew 10:16.
4. easy to be intreated (): For your obedience is come abroad unto all
men. I am glad therefore on your behalf: but yet I would have you wise unto that which is
good, and simple concerning evil (Romans 16:19).
5. full of mercy and good fruits ( ): Mt 5:7:
Blessed are the merciful, for they shall obtain mercy; Jn 15:16; Gal 5:22-23: the fruit of
the Spirit; the fruit of righteousness is sown in peace of them that make peace (3:18).
6. without partiality (): reflecting the main issue of partiality targeted
from the beginning of the Epistle, the next feature of divine wisdom is that of being without
partiality. It connects to the final virtue, that of sincerity (cf. 4:8). Together with it, the term
indicates the manner of relating to others, which makes the uncertainty of intention
disappear, resulting in the lack of doubt.
7. without hypocrisy (): sincerity is the attribute of the pious man who
is unpretending, even in his intentions and actions, not letting others think of him higher
than he really is.
James calls those who master divine wisdom peacemakers (3:18). Like God,
who sows the seed of the kingdom (cf. Mt 13:19), believers must sow works of peace
which will bring a harvest of justice. This series is in harmony with the series of virtues
described by the Beatitudes in Mt 5:1-12 and with the Pauline series about the fruits of the
Holy Spirit of Gal 5:22-23.

2.3. Practical Wisdom
James 1:19b (Wherefore - the Greek iste can be taken as the indicative of the
imperative of the verb oida. The clearest argument for taking it as an imperative is based on
the fact that 1:16-18 is a parallel to 1:19-21: each verse begins with an imperative followed
by an addressing in the vocative (my beloved brethren) which culminates with a
reference at the savior role of the word. In James Epistle, the vocative adelphoi mou, my
beloved brethren, appears about 15 times, 12 times in conjunction with an imperative and
only once with a declarative statement (see 3:10). My beloved brethren has the purpose
of marking the transition towards another point in the main paragraph (Hartin, p. 95) - , my
beloved brethren, let every man - the expression pas anthrpos is a Semitism for the Greek
pantes (all) (cf. In 1:9; 2:10; Gal 5:3; Col 1:28) - be swift to hear, slow to speak (in William
R. Bakers study Personal Speech-Ethics in the Epistle of James, 1995, we find a minute
examination of analysis of hearing and speech control as self-control and its moral
importance in the old Jewish and pagan world (sapiential literature of the Middle East, the
Old Testament, literatures from the Qumran to the Rabbinic, Greco-Roman literature,
Philo, the New Testament), slow to wrath includes an exhortation in which practical
wisdom takes a threefold form enhanced into more extensive sections: the wisdom of the
swift to hear (1:22-2:16); the wisdom of the slow to speak (1:26; 3:1-18); the wisdom
of the slow to wrath (1:20; 4:1-5:6) (see Wall, 1997, pp. 35-37).
On the one hand, we notice that, before being enhanced in other parts of the
Epistle, these exhortations are even present in the case of the pericope of 1:19b-27, which
we could entitle: The correct answer for the Word of God. Each element of this threefold

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exhortation is written in 1:20-27, where the expression engrafted speech is explained
(Jackson-Mccabe, 2001, p. 139). Thus, we have the verses 21-25, 27, wherefrom we cite
here the latter: Pure religion and undefiled before God and the Father is this, to visit the
fatherless and widows in their affliction, and to keep himself unspotted from the world.; v.
26: If any man among you seem to be religious, and bridles not his tongue, but deceives
his own heart, this man's religion is vain, and v. 20: For the wrath of man works not the
righteousness of God. On the other hand, the three sentences point out many similar
references of the sapiential tradition. Being swift to hear: Sir 5:11; 6:33.35. Being slow to
speak: Proverbs 29, 20; Sir 4:29; Being slow to wrath: Sir 1:22; Proverbs 15:1 LXXX); Did
3:2 (Hartin, p. 95). The custom of classifying subjects in groups of three for didactical
purposes seems to have been established (cf. Mishna, Aboth 1:2; 2:10-12), as is the case
with this triad of exhortations (cf. Lucian of Samosata, 2
century AD, Do not lose your
temper! Do little talking and much listening! Demonax 51) (cf. Isaacs, 2002, p. 191).

Being swift to hear (1:22-25)

Hearing means doing Torahs work (1:22-25), and, especially, obeying the
Levitical laws referring to a merciful behavior towards the neighbor (vs. 26-27).
One of the most practical principles of James wisdom involves being a fulfiller/doer, not
just a hearer of Gods Word (1:22-25). He mentions that those who only hear the Word
of God deceive themselves (1:22). For if any be a hearer of the word, and not a doer, he
is like unto a man beholding his natural face in a glass (1:23). When this person moves
away from the mirror, having seen how he actually looks like, he still thinks higher about
himself than he should. Although it is not stated here, the Epistle suggests that this person is
arrogant, having a high opinion about himself. However, James wants us to look in the
mirror and not forget what kind of people we are (1:24). But who so looketh into the
perfect law of liberty, and continueth therein, he being not a forgetful hearer, but a doer of
the work, this man shall be blessed in his deed (1:25). Thus, James believes that the one
who lives a life based on the principles of Gods Word is a truthful Christian, which
presumably proves to be a fulfiller of the Word. In 2:10-26, the author emphasizes the
theme of faith and deeds, for which he is probably best known (Towns and Gutierrez, 2012,
p. 282).
Therefore, the exhortation receive with meekness the engrafted word from v. 21
is reinforced by But be ye doers of the word, and not hearers only! Any other
understanding of what receiving the word means is self-deceiving (v. 22b). This is
exemplified by two contrasting models. The negative model is the person who forgets its
reflection in the mirror immediately after having seen it (vs. 23-24), and the positive model
is the person who takes notice of the perfect law of liberty and does not forget what he has
seen and heard (v. 25). The mirror metaphor was often used in the Greco-Roman parenetic
literature, and the fulfillment of the word was used in the pagan world to refer to the art
of rhetoric, while in Judaism it referred to living according to Gods law (cf. 1 Mac 2:67).
However, the law to which James makes reference here is not the Mosaic Law, but the Law
of Christ (Gal. 6:2; 1 Cor. 9:21; Barnabas 2:6; cf. Mt. 11:30) (Cf. Isaacs, 2002, p. 193).

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Being slow to speak (1:26; 3:1-18)

Having shown the importance of deeds for salvation, St James mentions the
control of speech as a primary deed, this being so because it influences mans entire life. A
moral of communication is the fundamental issue here. Mt 12:36 reads: But I say unto
you, that every idle word that men shall speak, they shall give account thereof in the day of
Judgment. St. James alludes to these words of God when he says: My brethren, be not
many masters, knowing () that we (us, masters) shall receive the greater
condemnation. For in many things we offend all. If any man offend not in word, the same is
a perfect man, and able also to bridle the whole body (3:1-2); then he refers to 1. the
importance of taming the word and the tongue (3:3-5a: two cognate comparisons: the bits
of horses and the helm of ships), 2. the harm caused through tongue (5:5b-6: the ravaging
fire); 3. the difficulty of taming tongue (3:7-8: man taming all beasts opposes the
helplessness of taming the tongue); 4. the danger of using double language (3:9-12:
blessing God and cursing men).

Being slow to wrath

Angry speech is a clear sign of lack of wisdom, both for Jewish moralists, and for
non-Jews (Proverbs 15:1). The Testament of Daniel 2:1-4:7 describes the evil created by
wrath in the soul. It makes an alliance with lie, which always troubles the soul. God goes
away from such a person and Satan takes the lead (3:5-6; 4:7). James simply reminds that
human wrath can never be an instrument of Gods righteousness (1:20). Dikaiosyn,
righteousness, will once again be mentioned in the presentation of the results of wisdom
from above (3:17-18), resulting there from the endeavors to achieve peace (Perkins, 1995,
p. 103).
Wrath may not be fully controlled, but it can be reduced by avoiding impetuous
speech. James connected angry speech to the anger of wrath, an uncontrolled human
emotion (cf. Mc 3:5). Angry emotions will be controlled by giving a thoughtful verbal
answer to people. Unlike those who defend wrath as a final option for persecuted
Christians, James states directly that it is a mistake. The words of Paul from Ephesians 4:26
Be ye angry, and sin not: let not the sun go down upon your wrath and from Col 3:8:
But now ye also put off all these; anger, wrath (cf. Proverbs 29:11) have the same
meaning as being slow to wrath (Richardson, 1997, p. 89).

The interpretation of the Exodus as liberation is clearly found for the first time
in the writings of Philo and Josephus Flavius. Anyway, while the association between law
and liberty appears occasionally in the Rabbinic literature, a clear connection between the
two in a similar way to the law of liberty (1:25) of James is rarely found in other parts of
the Jewish sources (Jackson-Mccabe, 2001, p. 148).
It cannot be a coincidence that James describes the law which he identifies with
the engrafted word as no,moj evleuqeri,aj. In fact, the logos he talks about is deeply
contrasted to worldly lust and pleasures. His exhortation to receive the engrafted word
and to become a fulfiller of the word by closely observing the law of liberty concludes

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that man himself is responsible for temptation, and not God (Jackson-Mccabe, 2001, p.
Identifying the Word (1:18-25) or the Law with Jesus is plausible if we take into
consideration the background of early Jewish literature, of later Christian tradition, the
apostles contemporary with James, and especially Matthew. Irenaeus identifies the law of
liberty or the Word of God with Jesus (Against Heresies 4:34:4; 4:39:3). Justin claims
that Jesus is an eternal and final Law which has replaced the Mosaic law (Dialogue 11:43
and 109:133). Shepherd of Hermas identifies the Law of God with Jesus (Vision 8:3:5).
Clearly, Irenaeus, Justin the Martyr, Hermas and Clement of Alexandria (Stromata
1:29:182; 2:15:68) identify lo,goj or no,moj with Jesus (Ahn, 2001, pp. 61-62).
James sees the law of liberty (eleuthria) as the measure of Christian identity
(1:25), standard of life and basis for judgment: So speak you, and so do, as they that shall
be judged by the law of liberty (2:12). This law includes the Decalogue the ten words
revealed to Moses (2:11; cf. Rom 13:8-10) observed in its entirety (2:10). Still, the
specific law which structures the kingdom of God (2:5) is the royal law (or the law of
the kingdom nomos basilikos, 2:8): the law of loving the neighbor. The Savior Jesus
Christ has placed it right after the commandment of loving God (Mt 19:19; 22:39; Mk
12:31; Lk 10:27). St Paul refers to it as to the fulfillment of the whole law (Rom 13:10, Gal
5:14). In particular, the expression nomos basilikos, usually rendered through the royal
law (or in a similar way), should not be understood as giving the law a lofty or superlative
meaning in itself, but, much more plausible, as the law regarding the emperor or
connected to the kingdom. This means that, for James, the commandment of love can
summarize the law, since it is related to the new Messianic era, the era of the kingdom, and
must be treated as anticipation of it (Chester and Martin, 1994, p. 19).
Of course, James 2:8-12 takes into account the entire law of Moses, that is all the
commandments in the Torah. But 2:18 refers to it as to a royal law and cites Leviticus
19:18b. In 2:8 the singular no,moj refers to the entire law, of course, just like in the
Septuagint, and not only to the commandment of love, as one commandment among other
commandments. It is rather the commandment which summarizes the entire law and is it
called royal because it summarizes the law as a law of the kingdom of God (cf. 2:5).
Although an understanding of Leviticus 19:18b as a summary of the whole law can be
found in later Jewish tradition (Sifra Lev. 19:18), as one of the answers given in the
Rabbinic quest for a summarizing principle of the law, we are surely justified in seeing
James interpretation as reflecting the teaching of Jesus (Matt. 22:40) (Bauckham, 1999, p.
142). Actually, the royal law is the law interpreted by Jesus in preaching the kingdom. It is
obvious that James reads certain commandments of Lev 19 in the light of Jesus teachings:
James 4:11 = Mt 7:1; Lk 6:37; James 5:9; Mt 7:1-2; Lk 6:37; James 5:12 = Mt 5:33-37.
The law is an entirety, which means you cannot choose to only obey some commandments
and ignore others. James is interested in the whole passage of Leviticus which ends with the
commandment of loving ones neighbor, passage found in Leviticus 19:11-18. The
parallelism can be emphasized as follows: Lev 19:12 = James 5:12; Lev 19:13 = James 5:4;
Lev 19:15 = James 2:1.9; Lev 19:16 = James 4:11; Lev 19:17b = James 5:20; Lev 19:18a =
James 5:9.
Leviticus 19:16 prohibits defamation and speaking evil among the people; James
4:11-12 does not allow speaking evil against a brother. Revenge and holding grudge are

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discouraged by Leviticus 19:18a; James 5:9 warns against holding grudge. Leviticus 19:12
prohibits the use of swearing, as does James in 5:12. In Leviticus, man is urged to talk to
his neighbor, rather than hate him; James 5:20 commands turning a Christian who has
sinned of his path. Besides, we notice that each one of these negative commandments of
James comes with a precise mention of judgment (2:9-13; 4:11; 5.9.12). Nevertheless,
reading Leviticus is influenced by an understanding of the life offered by Jesus Messiah.
Thus, partiality as a discriminatory work is prohibited because of its incompatibility with
the the faith of our Lord Jesus Christ (2:1). The prohibition of defamation and judgment
reminds of the commandment given by Jesus Christ in Mt 7:1. The commandment of not
holding grudge against someone stands under the imminent coming of Jesus as a Judge
(5:8). The prohibition of taking oaths (5:12) is also found in the words of Jesus in the
Sermon on the Mount (Mt 5:34-37). The ideal of spiritual improvement also reflects a
saying of Jesus (Mt 18:15; Lk 17:3). Thus, we discover in James a Messianic halakhic
midrash: we find the implications of the commandment of love stated in the text of the
Torah and ratified by the teaching of Jesus (Johnson, 1999, pp. 513-514).
Most of the commandments in the Decalogue have an equivalent in Leviticus 19,
which may have a connection with the fact that the commandments of the Decalogue are
the only specific commandments outside Leviticus 19, at which the Epistle of James hints
(2:11; cf. 4:2) (Bauckham, 1999, p. 144). Still, James did not neglect that commandment of
love of God, which remains a priority. He refers to it twice (2:19; 4:12). Moreover, he
reminds twice the reward promise by God to those who love Him (1:12; 2:5; cf. 1 Cor 2:9;
Sir 2:15-16). Shema asks for love with all the heart only for God, thus being axiomatic for
James thinking which excludes the one with the heart divided between love of God and
friendship with the world. At the same time, the word qrhskei,a usually refers to cultic
serving to God.
In the context of Jewish thinking, the law of liberty (1:25; 2:12) refers to the
liberty of serving God, freedom from sin, from temptations which attract sin and death
(1:14-15). It is related to birth with the word of truth (1:18) and with the engrafted
word (1:21) which offers the ability of surpassing the temptation and freely serving to God
by obeying His law. We can also think of Jeremiahs prophecy in 31:33 about the law of
God which will be written in the heart of man.
Above all, St James knows the perfect law of liberty, of redemption from the
bondage of sin (1:25; 2:12) and the royal law of loving the neighbor (2:8 and Mc
12:28)(Marcu, 1957, p. 50). Actually, several scholars would suggest that James identifies
the law with the Gospel; that, in a similar way with early Fathers (see Barnabas 2:6), he
understands the teaching of Jesus as a new law. Still, while there is some proof that
James puts the teaching of Jesus on an equal level with the law of the Old Testament, it is
impossible to remove the law of the Old Testament from James idea about nomos (cf. 2:9-
11). There is a connection between James engrafted word (e;mfutoj lo,goj) (1:21) and
Jeremiahs profecy about the Law which will be written onto hearts when the New
Covenant will be unveiled (Jer 31:31-34) (Moo, 1985, p. 50).
Some interpreters, like Dibelius, have wondered if we can somehow see a stoical
influence about lo,goj spermatiko,j, but Matt A. Jackson-Mccabe rightly shows that this
philosophical manner of interpreting is purely academical, as e;mfutoj lo,goj is rather a
biblical and Jewish expression, not Greek or stoical (Jackson-Mccabe, 2001, pp. 17, 22).

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James notion about e;mfutoj lo,goj that saves can be understood by comparison with the
image of engraftment in the early missionary contexts, such a 1 Cor 3:6-8 and, especially,
in the synoptic parable of the Sower (Mc 4:3-20 and par.). In James it goes without saying
that the Torah is a written expression of that engrafted logos that all men have by nature,
and it is also implied that God as the author of all this law will make an eschatological
judgment based on it at the parousia of Jesus Christ. Consequently, logos and its opposite,
human will, are shown as two paths on which someone can travel towards this judgment:
the second is characterised by deceit, is manifested through sin and leads to eshatologic
death, while the first is characterised by truth, is manifested through acts of good
(e;rga) and saves souls from death (cf. Jackson-Mccabe, 2001, pp. 20.27).
The Epistle of James connects the engrafted logos with a law which is both
perfect, as well as of liberty. Matt A. Jackson-Mccabe notes that there is a
terminological coincidence between the Commentary od Dionysius bar Salibi to the Epistle
of James, Ciceros De Legibus (the most extensive treay of natural law preserved from
Antiquity) and the Apostolic Constitutions. In each one of these papers, the word
engrafted (e;mfutoj, insita) is used to refer to natural law, denoting the law itself, or
reason (lo, goj, ratio) with which it is identified (Jackson-Mccabe, 2001, p. 29).
Undoubtedly, Leviticus 19:18 thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself, is a pivotal text in
the Epistle of James. It seems that the author has deliberately based part of his text on a
careful reading of that commandment of the Torah in its original context. When saying If
ye fulfill the royal law according to the scripture, <Thou shalt love thy neighbor as thyself,
ye do well> (2:8), the author means it should be understood literally: the text of the
Leviticus clarifies the complex meaning of loving the neighbor. Leviticus 19:15 prohibits
holding grudge. James states that discrimination in judgment is incompatible with faith
(2:1-12). In 3:9, he shows that man is created in the image of God (cf. Gen 1:27).
Therefore, any human being must be treated with respect, people being equal based on the
image of God they bear.

Above all, the wisdom of James is a creative enlargement of the Jewish sapiential
tradition, as it is decisively inspired from the wisdom of Jesus. This method of interpreting
the law is visible in the presentation of the commandment of loving the neighbor, which is
a summary of the law. Actually, the manner in which James appropriates the Torah under
the form of sapiential teaching is the manner in which the Torah has been received in early
Jewish Christianity (Bauckham, 1999, p. 152). For James, ethics is wisdom embodied in
conventional human action, while eschatology is silence before the ultimate otherness of
Gods judgment (cf. Keenan, 2005, p. 35).
The section from 1:5-8 comprises the leitmotif of the whole Epistle, and its topic
about wisdom constitutes the core of James message. This section recommends that,
instead of being in a stoical confrontation with lifes temptations, man should simply pray
for wisdom. It is true that prayer itself, when done correctly, gives rise to wisdom. Verse 5
asserts that all we have to do is ask for wisdom, which means that wisdom is not a human
accomplishment (see Keenan, 2005, p. 36).
James distinguishes between the true and the false wisdom (3:13-18), by means of
a series of contrasting moral features (in short, peaceful and kind vs. envious fight and

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competitive ambition) and their sources: from above (that is, from God; cf. 1:17) and
earthly (the terms earthly, sensual, devilish - 3:15 characterize the world 1:27; 4:4).
Unfortunately, false wisdom represents societys purposes, attitudes and values in general.
James 1:19b comprises an exhortation in which practical wisdom is presented in a
threefold form: the wisdom of the swift to hear (1:22-2:26); the wisdom of the slow to
speak (3:1-18); the wisdom of the slow to wrath (4:1-5:6). It can indeed be
acknowledged that this Old Testament piece of wisdom is perceived by James as sapiential
logos for Christian every day conduct.
As early as Jewish tradition of sapiential teaching, Wisdom and Torah have come
to be closely connected. Still, it is difficult to say exactly up to what extant James relates
the law to what he calls wisdom (1:5; 3:13-17). Most probably, wisdom is the ability given
by God to a heart transformed by distinguishing and applying Gods will. It is the way in
which the Torah is internalized, so that external obeying of the Torah becomes an internal
understanding and an embracement of Gods will expressed in the Torah. It is embodied in
the qualities of life (3:17), which emphasize Gods will for human life in a much more
comprehensively than obeying certain commandments can. For a more practical view, we
can state that the role of wisdom in James is similar to the role of the Hole Spirit in St Paul.
To conclude, we can say that the canonical relation of James with the law and wisdom of
the New Testament is a relation determined both by the teaching of Jesus, and by two
hermeneutical key-texts (Lev 19:18b; Proverbs 3:34) which make the interpretation of the
Old Testament along the same line with the teaching of Jesus. Thus, there is a moral
approach to law and wisdom, as well as a radical or intensified interpretation of the two in
the light of Gods inaugurating Kingdom. Perfection is the goal (1:4) which the Christian
community is called to acquire, as their way of life is determined by the values of Gods
Kingdom (cf. Bauckham, 1999, p. 155).


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Marcu, G. (1957). Actualitatea Epistolei Sfntului Iacov. Mitropolia Ardealului, nr. 1-2.
McCartney, D. G. (2009). James, Grand Rapids: Baker Academic.
Moo, D. J. (1985). The Letter of James: An Introduction and Commentary. Grand Rapids,
Michigan: Eerdmans.
Perkins, P. (1995). First and Second Peter, James, and Jude. Westminster John Knox
Richards, K. James. The New American Commentary, vol. 36, B & H Publishing Group
Richardson, K. A. (1997). James, B & H Publishing Grou.
Sleeper, F. (1998). Abingdon New Testament Commentary. James. Nashville: Abingdon
Towns, E. L. & Gutierrez, B., editors (2012). The Essence of the New Testament: A Survey,
Nashville: B&H Publishing Group.
Wall, R. W. (1997). Community of the Wise: The Letter of James. Trinity Press

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- adjusting and explaining some syntagms -

In the present paper, the author corrects certain phrases and syntagms, as well as
vocables, from the Romanian version of the Gospel, according to the Greek original
version, obviously, but also in accordance with the nature of the Romanian language. The
above-mentioned corrections will be certainly useful when the Holy Bible is republished in
a Romanian version.

KEY WORDS: comparisons, remarks, nuances, corrections.

In the present communication, I shall make use of the Synodial version of the
Bible (The Bible, 2008), the New Testament exclusively, and the Holy Gospel (The Gospel,
2010). In the following lines, I shall endeavour to correct certain phrases, syntagms or
vocables, so as to give an improved version of the sacred text.
In Matthew 1:2, instead of Abraham begat Isaac, we could accept the
expression Abraham begat Isaac (through his wife) etc. I could notice that, in a New
Testament issue (belonging to an unorthodox publishment), there is an interesting
rephrasing of the type: Isaac was born to Abraham... At the same place (Matthew 1:16,
19), in connection with the name of the God-fearful Joseph, there appears the attribute
husband, whereas in the Romanian Bible approved by the Holy Synod, the translation
favours the term fianc; in this case , we are confronted with an interpretative translation
(from an orthodox point of view) (The Gideons, 1993, p. 5).
Also, I can notice that the syntagm from some issues of the Bible: (Joseph) had
no intercourse with her until, was more recently substituted by Romanian scholars in
theology with the words: (Joseph) had no intercourse with her, (and) Mary had brought
forth her first born Son... (Mathew 1:25) (The Bible, 2008, p. 1098). This is, certainly, in
the spirit orthodox way of thinking and mentality (see also The Gospel, 2010, p. 322, as

Father Ph.D. Prof. University of West, Timioara, Faculty of Letters, History and
Theology, email: munteanv30@yahoo.com.
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well as the comment of the late metropolitan Bartolomeu Anania, 1995, p. 4, note 5).; I
personally consider that the respective interpretation is not abusive.
In the present-day, lay language, the syntagm, or more precisely, the vocable the
poor in spirit (Matthew 5:3) means ignorant people, lacking knowledge; we consider
that it would be useful to rephrase this as the humble ones, according to the appreciation
of Saint John Chrysostom (The Orthodox Faith, 1996, p. 414 - with bibliographical
guidance; see also the documented explanations of I. Mihoc, 2010, pp. 70-74).
Again, in Matthews Gospel (6:11), the phrase for being from the Lords Prayer,
should be left out; it would be suggested to go back to the usual syntagm our daily bread,
which represents more accurately the original Greek text (Bartolomeu, 1995, p. 11, note 1;
see also Nestle - Aland, p. 13; Das Neue Testament: tgliches Brot, pain quotidien,
daily bread. Moreover, see Elian, 1981, p. 119; The Orthodox Faith, 1996, p. 258, line 4
up downwards). Similarly, in Matthews Gospel 6:32, the word the nations should be
replaced with the pagans(in the manner of the Metropolitan Anania, 1995, p. 12). In a
different chapter (8:14) with fever (The Bible, 2008, p. 1105) shall be lectured as sick of
high fever (The Gospel, 2010, p. 74; p. 379).
The highly controversial problem regarding the brothers and the sisters of our
Lord is seen somewhat sorted out in Matthew 13:55-56, where, in brackets, we can read
the male and female cousins (The Bible, 2008, p. 1114; The Gospel, p. 84). Certainly, in
this case we have reference to two stepbrothers of our Saviour, as specialists in this field of
expertise have demonstrated (Savin, 1961, pp. 271-296; Drguin, 1985, pp. 381-389;
Bondalici, 2005, p. 453-454, 458, 513).
According to the Greek original text in Matthew (15:22), we read: And, behold,
a Canaanite woman from those parts, came to Him, crying out; this should be reread in
this way: And, behold, a Canaanite woman came out of those borders and cried unto
Him... (Nesle-Aland, 1969, p. 40; The Gospel, 2010, p. 132; Anania, 1995, p. 29; V.
Mihoc, 2001, p. 142).
In Matthew 16:25, we should definitely replace soul/ losing your soul with life
(This is the version of the ex-hierarch B. Anania, 1995, p. 32) (if you give up your life for
Me, you will find true life); this will carry out the message more accurately.
Again, the term insane (see also The Gospel, 2010, p. 130, p. 309) referring to
the ten bridesmaids in the parable (Matthew 25:2), as it has been recently translated, does
not supply the real meaning, that of foolish, irresponsible. The Greek word morai might
more appropriately translated throught: unwises, dunces.
In the Gospel according to Luke, in 1:39, it is erroneous to translate it as
mountain country, as the reference is made to the Orini Citadell (details and bibliography
in Mircea, 1984, p. 348-349; also see The Gospel, 2010, p. 298) located at about 6 km from
In Luke 2:32, the word Apokalypsis was wrongly translated by discovery(see
also The Gospel, 2010, pp. 340-341). In the previous editions, the version was adequate to
the original.
Even if, originally, the word means revelation, realization, for the sake of
clarity, we would recommend a light to reveal God to the heathen, or the Enlightment of
nations; in the New Testament in German, French, English, this word has been interpreted
as Enlightment, Illumination.

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It is noteworthy that the word glory from the glory of your people, Israel
confronts us with a shade of meaning in Martin Luthers German version: if we refer to
Israel, we find Preis (praise, appraisal), but in the end of the Prayer Our Heavenly
Father, we find a different term, with a different meaning: Herrlichkeit, meaning glory,
magnificence. Since we are not able to grant the same glory both to God and to the people,
before the Israel people, in the Prayer of God-fearful Simeon, we could use the world
Referring to Pilatus, in Luke 3:1 (compare with The Gospel, 2010, p. 322), we
should say he was a prefect (Lemonon, 2002, pp. 187-189), not a procurator. In chapter
16:2, 3 (The Gospel, 2010, p. 173), the word economy is difficult to understand by the
members of the Church; it could be substituted by administration or economat, both
existing in the present-day Romanian dictionaries (For example, Encyclopaedic Dictionary,
1996, sub voce). At any rate, the iconom (administrator), should be read econom.
Finally, we refer to Zacchaeus in Luke 19:8; we should correct the phrase
Zacchaeus stood there and said to the Lord by Zacchaeus stood up there, addressing
the Lord as the Greek verb statheis (from istemi) suggests (a meaning that could be
noticed by Metropolitan B. Anania as well, 1995, p. 132).
I personally consider that soul belonging to Saint John Theologian (12:25)
should be fully understood as life; therefore, we should read as follows: Those who love
their life in this world will lose it (Anania, 1995, with the necessary explanations).
The word preaslvire (12:23.28)

(cf. The Gospel, 2010, p. 46 and 302) (engl.
overpraise) does not even exist in Romanian dictionaries; instead, we find proslvire
(engl. glorifying unto smb.) from the Slavonic word proslaviti. Instead, the word
preamrire is recommended (glorifying, giving high praise); unfortunately, preamrire is
seldom used.
From the title chapter 19, in the Gospel according to John, The Passions of Our
Lord, we should actually understand the words The Sufferings of Jesus Christ on the
Cross (in The Gospel, 2010, p. 263 et al. we read as such).
I therefore presented supra some syntagms and vocables from some new texts of
the Gospel (the New Testament) which deserved special attention, with a view to
satisfactorily improving the Romanian version of the Bible, including the Gospel.


*** (1987). Das Neue Testament, Le Nouveau Testament, The New Testament, The
Gideons International.
*** (1996). Encyclopaedic dictionary. vol. II, Editura Enciclopedic, Bucureti, sub voce.
*** (2008). The Bible or the Holy Book. Ed. Institutului Biblic i de Misiune Ortodox,
*** (1993).The Gideons International, Ed. Shinil Ltd. (Korea).
*** (1996). The Orthodox Faith, Editura Trinitas, Iai, (with bibliographical guidance).
*** (2010). The Sacred and Godly Gospel (see also: The Gospel), EIBMO, Bucureti.
Bartolomeu Anania, (1995). in The New Testament, 2
edition, EIBMBOR, Bucureti.

The Annals of Eftimie Murgu University of Reia

Bondalici, Dumitru, (2005).The Encyclopaedia of the great personalities in the Old & New
Testament, Editura Diecezan, Caransebe.
Drguin, Valeriu (198)5. <Lords Brothers> in the light of the orthodox exegesis,
Theological Studies, 5-6/1985, p. 381-389.
Elian, Al. (1981). The Faith Confession of the Orthodox Church 1642 (translation).
EIBMBOR, Bucureti.
Lemonon, Jean-Pierre, PilatusInscription. (2002). The Origins of Christianity (Romanian
translation), Editura Polirom, Iai p. 187-189.
Mihoc, Ioan (2010). A Study of the New Testament, vol. I: The Gospels according to
Matthew and Mark. Editura Eftimie Murgu, Reia.
Mihoc, Vasile, (2001). Sermons based on exegesis on Sundays throughout the year, Ed.
Teofania, Sibiu.
Mircea, Ioan, Dictionary of the New Testament. EIBMBOR, Bucureti, 1984, p. 348-349.
Nestle, E. (1969). Aland, K., Novum Testamentum graece et latine. United Bibles Societies,
Savin, Ioan G., (1961). Remarks and reconsiderations around the problem: Lords
Brothers, in Theological Studies, 5-6/1961, p. 271-296.

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Adrian Murg


The following study, dealing with baptism in Luke-Acts, starts with a comparison
between John's baptism in Luke 3 and Christian baptism in Acts. This helps us see that for
St. Luke baptism in water and baptism in Spirit are not mutually exclusive but merge into
the same sacramental act mystically performed by Christ Himself. We examine then the
baptismal formula "in the name of Jesus Christ / Lord Jesus" which conveys the idea of
Christ being the foundation of baptism as well as its aim. In the end we present the effects
of baptism: forgiveness of sins, receiving the gift of the Holy Spirit and incorporation into
the Church.

KEY-WORDS: New Testament, baptism, Luke-Acts, Christ, Spirit, Church

In his monograph dedicated to the scholarship of Acts, Mark Allan Powell noted
that "The paucity of literature dealing with the subject of baptism in Luke-Acts is
surprising" (Powell, 1991, p.74). On his turn, Francois Bovon, in his massive survey of
scholarship, claims to be able to count on his fingers the studies devoted to Luke's concept
of baptism (Bovon, 1987). Nevertheless, there are some general directions of understanding
baptism in Luke, followed by the authors that dealt with this topic.
Kevin Giles notes that baptism appears to be nonsacramental in Acts (Giles
(1982)). He argues that it is never mentioned alone as a condition for being saved, but only
in connection with something else, such as repentance (2, 38) or calling on the Lord's name
(22, 16). Luke never depicts baptism as taking place in a cultic or liturgical setting (see 5,
12.36; 8, 36-38; 10, 44-48; 16, 13-15.33). Luke typically narrates baptism in passive voice,
so that it is impossible to tell exactly who does the baptizing (16, 14-15.30-34; 18, 8; 19, 1-
7). Furthermore, Giles says, there is no suggestion that baptism incorporates a person into
the community. I. H. Marshall contests this last point (Marshall, 1970). Marshall thinks the
function of water baptism in Acts is specifically to relate the experience of the individual to
that of the Church. In any case, Giles and Marshall agree that baptism in Acts is a public

PhD, Lecturer at the Faculty of Orthodox Theology "Ilarion V. Felea" from the "Aurel
Vlaicu" University in Arad, Romania; email: adrian.murg@yahoo.com
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confession of Jesus as Lord, an outward indication of the existence of faith. So also
Schweizer: "For Luke baptism is simply a natural episode in what he regards as much more
important, namely conversion" (Schweizer, 1969, p.443).
G. Beasley-Murray indicates that, compared to other New Testament writings,
Luke holds a "primitive" concept of baptism (Beasley-Murray, 1963). There is no idea, for
instance, of participation of the believer in the death and resurrection of Christ (cf. Rom 6).
Baptism in Acts is performed in the name of Jesus, not in the name of Father, Son and Holy
Spirit (Matt 29, 19).
The connection of baptism to the reception of the Holy Spirit in undeveloped.
Luke seems to think that baptism and the Spirit go together (Acts 2, 38; 9, 17-18; 10, 47-48;
19, 2-6) but there are too many anomalies for this to appear as the means by which the
Spirit is bestowed. Sometimes, baptism and the gift of the Spirit are intentionally separated
(8, 16) (Powell, 1991).
In what follows we shall try to sketch the main coordinates of Luke's conception
of baptism and underline its importance as a means for appropriation of salvation, against
some of the ideas listed above.
If Luke's doctrine of baptism is ambiguous (or at least elusive to modern scholars),
this does not mean he thinks baptism unimportant. The frequency with which he reports the
event indicates he regards it as normative Christian experience. Baptism is mentioned in
almost all the reported conversions in Acts, exceptions being Acts 2, 47; 4, 4; 6, 7; 9, 42;
11, 21-24; 13, 48; 14, 1.21; 17, 34, about which we must take into account that they are
mostly narrative summaries where the focus is not on conversion but on the growth of the
Church (Marshall, 1970). The general pattern of conversion that we see in Acts assures us
that baptism is indispensable for Luke, and there is no reason to believe that this would not
be universally true for the early Church. The solemn declaration of the necessity of baptism
is made for the first time by St. Peter, in Acts, in that verse 2, 38, in which, as we know, St.
Luke expresses the demands of God's plan of salvation: "Repent and be baptized each of
you in the name of Jesus Christ for the remission of sins, and you shall receive the gift of
the Holy Spirit".
The words of St. Peter point to St. John the Baptist's ministry, which is said by
Luke to have preached "a baptism of repentance for the forgiveness of sins" (Lk 3, 3). Jesus
never baptized and, unlike Mark and Matthew, in the Gospel of Luke the risen Jesus
commanded His disciples not to baptize, but to "preach forgiveness of sins in His name to
all nations", witness the fulfillment of the Scriptures and wait for the "promise" of the Holy
Spirit (Lk 24, 47-49) (Quesnel, 1985). That is why the baptism of the Church could seem at
a superficial look a resumption of the Johannine practice. The specifics of the Christian
baptism in Lukan thought can be evidenced by a comparison revealing the differences and
similarities between how the Evangelist presents the baptism of John in Luke 3 and the
baptism of the Church in Acts.

It should be noted first that the term "baptism" (baptisma) is used by St. Luke, as
the other evangelists, only for the baptism of John and the metaphoric description of Jesus'
death (Lk 12, 50). The Evangelists never use this noun for the Christian baptism. If for
Matthew and Mark that may seem accidental, given the fact that after resurrection of the

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Lord they have only one single reference to baptism (Mt 29, 19, Mk 16, 16), for St. Luke it
is intended. The six occurrences of baptisma in Acts are related only to the baptism of
John; when he speaks about Christian baptism Luke systematically avoids this noun and
uses only its verbal form, baptizein (Quesnel, 1985). But even the use of the verb is
ambivalent, being encountered in connection with both baptisms. For John's baptism the
verb is used both in the active voice with John as the subject, and in the passive voice with
John preceded by hypo as the agent (Lk, 3, 7). The active form is found in the statement of
John that Jesus would baptize in the Holy Spirit (Lk 3, 16) and in the story of the Ethiopian
eunuchs baptism by Philip (Acts 8, 38). But, generally, in referring to Christian baptism,
Luke uses the passive voice, as if he would want to point out that the gift transmitted
through this liturgical act is more important than its human agent. "Baptism is received
rather than given by the Church" (Quesnel, 1985, p.36).
Lk 3, 16 allows us to make a step forward in distinguishing the two rites. It is an
antithetical saying that the Evangelist attributes to St. John: "I baptize you with water
(hydati). (...) He will baptize you with the Holy Spirit (en pneumati hagio) and with
fire"(for analysis, see Imschoot, 1936; Turner, 1996). This saying also appears twice in
Acts but in a different form. It is spoken first by the risen Jesus before the ascension: "John
baptized with water (hydati), and you will be baptized with the Holy Spirit (en pneumati
hagio), not many days from now "(1, 5), and the second time by Peter who recalls Jesus'
words: "John baptized with water (hydati), but you will be baptized with the Holy Spirit (en
pneumati hagio)" (11, 16). We find Jesus saying these words only here, in Acts. Lk 3, 16
has a parallel in both Mk and Matt: "I have baptized you with water (hydati), but He will
baptize you with the Holy Spirit (pneumati hagio)" (Mk 1, 8); "I baptize you with water (en
hydati) for repentance, (...) He will baptize you with the Holy Spirit (en pneumati hagio)
and with fire " (Matt 3, 11). In the Gospels of Mark and Matthew the Baptist's preaching
and the baptism in the Holy Spirit, which he announces, have especially an eschatological
dimension. Matthew makes this clear by the images he uses in the tirades of the Forerunner:
the axe, the fire (3, 10) and winnowing fork (3, 12) have unequivocally an eschatological
symbolism. These images frame the antithetical saying about the baptism in water and the
baptism in the Spirit and fire (see Edsman, 1940), which is thus placed in the immediate
context of the eschatological judgement. St. Luke also uses these symbolic images (Lk 3,
9.17), but he binds them less directly to the saying at issue; the first one, at least, is clearly
detached from it. And from the way this saying is used in Acts 1, 5; 11, 16 we understand
that in the whole of the Lukan work it has acquired a new dimension: baptism in the Holy
Spirit (and fire) is no longer linked to the eschatological judgment, but represents the
historical event of Pentecost, the descent of the Holy Spirit which must take place "not
many days from now" (Acts 1, 5) (Bruce, 1973). In Acts 11, 16, the words of St. Peter
confirm that the descent of the Holy Spirit at Pentecost is indeed the baptism with the Holy
Spirit (Cullmann, 1950) announced by the risen Jesus (Acts 1, 5), and, before him, by St.
John the Baptist (Lk 3, 16). Thus, even if using images similar to those of Matthew, St.
Luke announces a different reality. For him the fire is not the fire of judgment but the
tongues of fire of Acts 2, 3. Baptism with the Holy Spirit and with fire is no longer deferred
to the end of this age, but is performed in the historical, as well as eschatological, event of
Pentecost, replicated in the descent of the Holy Spirit upon the centurion Cornelius and his
house (cf. 11, 15-17).

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One can notice a further difference between St. Luke and the other two Synoptics.
These latter use for water baptism and baptism in the Holy Spirit identical grammatical
constructions: Mark baptizein + simple dative (hydati, pneumati hagio), and Matthew
baptizein + dative with the preposition en (en hydati, en pneumati hagio). Thus water and
the Spirit are exclusively opposed in the sense that baptism in the Holy Spirit replace water
baptism. At St. Luke, however, the antithesis between water and the Spirit is not so radical
since the evangelist is careful that in the three citations of the saying he uses different
constructions for the two terms of the antithesis: simple dative (hydati) and dative with the
preposition en (en pneumati), respectively. Water and Spirit are no longer placed on the
same level; baptism in the Holy Spirit does not exclude baptism in water. The opposition
between them is not exclusive anymore but inclusive (Wilkens, 1967; Kremer, 1973), so
that baptism in the Holy Spirit surpasses water baptism, but does not abolish it. What St.
John the Baptist announces matches well what we find in Acts: in the age of the Church
baptism in water and in the Holy Spirit does not coexist as two different spiritual itineraries,
but are united in the same liturgical act, actualizing two different levels of the salvation
worked out by Jesus Christ.
The union between baptism in water and in the Holy Spirit is achieved in Jesus'
Baptism. St. Luke introduces this episode after the imprisonment of John. We know that
"an interesting feature of the Lukan style is that he wishes to complete the subject matter
before moving to another" (Mihoc et al., 2001, p. 146), and therefore, historically speaking,
we cannot say that Jesus was not baptized by John. However, presenting the baptism of
Jesus after the outgoing of John and using the verb baptizo in the passive voice, without
any agent, from a literary point of view St. Luke inserts a certain distance between Jesus
and John and takes out the baptism of Jesus from the influence area of the Johannine
movement. The outcome is that the baptism of Jesus acquires the role of a bridge: it is the
highest achievement of Johns baptism and the archetype of baptism in the Holy Spirit
spoken of in Acts (Quesnel, 1985).
From what has been said so far we can draw some important conclusions. The
passive used to describe Christian baptism is a "Christological" passive, showing that its
true minister is Christ; the identity of its human minister matters less because the risen
Jesus is its main agent. A fundamental difference between John's baptism and the Christian
one is that the former one is a Jewish rite of ablution, whereas by the latter the
eschatological gift of the Holy Spirit is given. Baptism in the Holy Spirit does not exclude
water baptism, but assimilates it, making water the material vehicle of the Spirit.

In Acts Christian baptism is performed "in the name of Jesus Christ" (epi / en to
onomati Iesou Christou, 2, 38; 10, 48) or "in the name of Lord Jesus" (eis to onoma kyriou
Iesou, 8, 16; 9, 5). The origin and meaning of these formulae are not fully clarified and
have been an object of study for scholars for more than a century. An extensive survey of
the research and of the pre-Christian sources has been made by Michel Quesnel (Quesnel
(1985)) and therefore we shall restrict ourselves to the presentation of his conclusions. The
expression epi /en to onomati used in Acts 2, 48 and 10, 48 certainly comes from an Jewish
environment. This is well documented in the Septuagint, in the Greek Apocrypha of the Old

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Testament and in the writings of Josephus, that is in the Jewish writings in Greek. But the
Hebrew version beem also occurs often enough in the Jewish writings in Hebrew or
Aramaic (Masoretic text, Targums, Qumran, etc.) so as to exist the probability that this
term may have been taken in the New Testament in its Greek translation en to onomati.
Whether it has a causal or instrumental sense, this phrase suggests that Jesus Christ is a
premise of the baptismal act. Christian baptism is founded on Christ, His authority and His
work of salvation, therefore it was not possible before His exaltation. The very specific
instrumentality contained in the ancient meaning of the word beem suggests the possibility
that baptism in the name of Jesus Christ implies the invocation of Jesus Christ in
performing its ritual. It's a possibility but not a certainty; however St. Luke does not seem
concerned with the ceremony of the baptism, but rather with its nature. Regarding the eis to
onoma kyriou Iesou formula (8, 16; 9, 5), it doesnt seem likely for it to come from
Judaism. From all possible proveniences, the most likely is that proposed by the great
Hellenist Adolf Deissmann, i.e. the Hellenistic commercial language in which this phrase
indicates taking possession of a good by a person (Deissmann, 1910). In the case of
baptism the meaning is that the neophyte becomes Lord Jesus property (Oepke, 1964).
Unlike epi / en to onomati, that sets Christ as the foundation of the sacrament of baptism,
the eis to onoma formula points to Jesus as the aim of baptism. Baptism is oriented towards
Christ and leads to Christ; He is not only the basis of baptism but also its goal. The
formulation of Michel Bouttier captures well the nature of baptism eis to onoma kyriou
Iesou: "The believer is baptized eis to einai en Christo" (Bouttier, 1962, p.37). Therefore,
this baptismal terminology indicates, on the one hand, that Christian baptism is based on
the person and finished work of salvation of Jesus Christ, and on the other hand, that
through baptism the believer becomes Christs property (cf. I Cor 6, 20; 7, 23).

4.1. Forgiveness of sins (Acts 2, 38)
This is a typical Lukan expression, whose importance is paramount in Luke-Acts.
In Acts forgiveness of sins often appears as the content of salvation (2, 38; 5, 31; 10, 43;
13, 38; 26, 18). Using this phrase brings closer the preaching of the Church to that of St.
John the Baptist (Lk 3, 3) and of Jesus (Lk 5, 24; 7, 48). Christian baptism is a fulfillment
of John's baptism - which only predicted forgiveness of sins and prepared the people for the
receiving it - because John was teaching people to "believe on him which would come after
him, that is Jesus Christ" (Acts 19, 4).

4.2. Receiving the gift of the Holy Spirit (Acts 2, 38)
This is the aspect that most clearly distinguishes Christian baptism from all the
other previous purification rituals, and which best indicates its sacramental character. A
mere human work could not provide such a gift. This sacramental character pertains to the
ontological level of baptism, namely to the restoration by grace offered to its receiver
(Corbu (2004)). The fact that receiving the Spirit is a result of baptism is grammatically
proved by the use in 2, 38 of the conjunction kai followed by a verb in future tense ("You
shall receive the gift of the Spirit"), which is a classical construction to designate the
consequence, called "consecutive kai" (Blass and Debrunner (1965)). An association
between Spirit and baptism is also made in Acts 9, 17 sq, 10, 47 sq, 19, 5 sq. In the rest of

The Annals of Eftimie Murgu University of Reia

the New Testament this relationship is explicitly stated only in Jn 3, 5. But no rash
conclusions should be drawn from this. St. Paul often refers metonymically to baptism,
meaning that he indicates baptism by its effects, and in at least two passages he associates it
with the Holy Spirit (I Cor 6, 11, Titus 3, 5). That possession of the Spirit is the clearest
mark of a Christian is axiomatic for Pauline, Johannine and Petrine theology. "If someone
does not have the Spirit of Christ, he does not belong to Him" (Rom 8, 9) - is a statement
which would be confirmed by any New Testament author. A Christian without the Holy
Spirit is a contradiction in terms (Marshall, 1970).
The moment the believer receives the gift of the Spirit has been a matter of heated
dispute for a long time. Due to a certain unevenness in Lukan baptism stories (cf. Acts 8,
12-17; 10, 44-48; 19, 1-7), Acts has become the battlefield of those who championed a
"confirmation" position, according to which the gift of the Spirit was given through the
laying on of hands by apostles or bishops (Thornton, Dix, Adler), against those who take a
"sacramental" position, claiming that the Spirit of Pentecost is given normally by the rite of
baptism" (Lampe, 1967 and Beasley-Murray, 1963). The theories currently supported are:
1) In Acts we cannot find a standard norm, but we are dealing with a variety of traditions
and practices (e.g. Quesnel (1985)); 2) the norm is established under the conversion-
initiation pattern, in which faith or the repentance that leads to conversion materializes in
baptism, and the reception of the gift of the Spirit is related to the whole process (so Dunn
(1970)); 3) the norm is that the Spirit is received after conversion and "salvation" (i.e. as a
donum superadditum, such as the prophetic endowment for mission; so Menzies (1991) and
others). The evidences support the second option because: a) Acts 2, 38-39
paradigmatically associates the gift of the Spirit to repentance and baptism; b) the only
passage in which the gift of the Spirit is given with a significant delay after baptism is Acts
8, 12-17, and 8, 16 suggests that this is an exception (the notification would be redundant if
normally the Spirit were not given by baptism); c) the paradigm of 2, 38-39 must be
assumed for the passages (before and after Acts 8; cf. 2, 41; 8, 36-38; 16, 15.33; 18, 8 etc.)
which talk about people coming to faith or being baptized, without mentioning receiving
the Holy Spirit (i.e. the reader should understand that the conversion-initiation process is
always accompanied by the gift of the Spirit, unless otherwise specified).
Acts 19, 1-6 was often used as an argument against this theory, but a closer look
clarifies things. In stark contrast to Apollo, who was a charismatic preacher of Jesus
although he knew only the baptism of John (Acts 18, 24-28), the twelve "disciples" in
Ephesus, who also knew only the baptism of John, had not even heard of the gift of the
Spirit and did not know that Jesus was the Messiah. As disciples of John, they knew that he
preached repentance and the coming of the Messiah (otherwise St. Paul would not have
considered them Messianic "disciples"); the novelty which the apostle announces is that
Jesus was the Messiah they were expecting (19, 4). As a result, the twelve were baptized in
Lord Jesus' name (19, 5). Immediately afterwards Paul laid hands on them, and the Spirit
came upon them, and they began to speak in tongues and prophesy (19, 6). Two
observations are important for our discussion: a) from St. Paul's question in 19, 3 it appears
that receiving the Holy Spirit is linked to faith in Jesus and baptism; b) baptism and laying
on of hands are not presented as sacraments corresponding to different epochs of the
Christian life, but are both included in the process of Christian initiation, without any delay

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between them. Therefore this pericope confirms, not denies, that, as a rule, the gift of the
Spirit belongs to the conversion-initiation paradigm.
Therefore, in all cases of baptism found in Acts (2, 41; 8, 36-38; 16, 15.33; 18, 8)
we must assume that the neophytes received on that occasion the Holy Spirit, unless the
author says that things happened differently (cf. 8, 16). When talking about people or
groups of people who came to faith in Jesus (or turned to the Lord, were added to the Lord,
etc.), St. Luke does not usually say that they have received the Spirit (or even that they
were baptized), because according to the rule of 2, 38-39, it is assumed that they have
received the gift of the Spirit in the conversion-initiation process (Turner, 1996).

4.3. Incorporation into the Church

We saw that the Lukan baptismal terminology indicates that the newly baptized
become the property of Christ. This is equivalent to the integration in the "church of God
which He purchased with His own blood" (Acts 20, 28), namely the messianic community
having as Lord the risen Christ. When he talks about someone entering the Church, St.
Luke uses the verb prostithemi, to add (Maurer (1972)). In Acts 2, 41 the author says that
"those who received his (Peters) word were baptized, and there were added (to the Church)
that day about three thousand souls". This verse shows that an immediate consequence of
baptism is "the addition" of the recipient to the Church. In 2, 47 we have a complementary
statement: "Lord added to their number day by day those who were being saved". From the
comparison of the two verses it follows, on the one hand, that receiving the apostolic
preaching and baptism are the means by which salvation is appropriated, and, on the other
hand, the idea of divine initiative, which manifests itself throughout the whole process of
becoming a Christian (Verzan (1994)), is brought to the fore. In 11, 24 the same verb
occurs, prostithemi, by which Saint Luke indicates incorporation in the Church (cf. 5, 14,
too), but having as an indirect complement "the Lord": "And large company was added to
the Lord". By corroborating this verse with those above we notice the parallelism or even
the identification between God and the Church (cf. Acts 9, 5): in 2, 46 believers are added
to the Church, and in 11, 24 to God. Hence, through baptism it is not a property relationship
of legal or economic type that is being established, but it's more about communion and
intimacy: the Lord Jesus unites the baptized to Himself and His Church.

What was said above first proves that, for Luke, as for all the early Church,
baptism is essential for salvation. The general practice of the Church in Acts, either
explicitly stated or presumed, is to baptize those who came to believe in Jesus Christ. As
regards the nature of Christian baptism, its Christological dimension is most obvious in
Acts: it is based on Christ, it leads to Christ, and it also has Christ as its mystic performer.
The consequences of baptism, in which resides its necessity, are important: forgiveness of
sins, receiving the gift of the Holy Spirit and incorporation into the Church.

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Beasley-Murray, G.R. (1963). Baptism in the New Testament. New York: St. Martin's Press
Blass, F. & Debrunner A. (1965). Grammatik des neutestamentlichen Griechisch.
Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht..
Bouttier, M. (1962). En Christ. Paris.
Bovon, F. (1987). Luke the Theologian: Thirty-three Years of Research (1950-1983).
Allison Park, PA: Pickwick Publications.
Bruce, F.F. (1973). The Holy Spirit in the Acts of the Apostles. Interpretation, vol. 27: 166-
Corbu, A. (2004). Sfintele Taine n Biserica Faptelor Apostolilor. Arad: Editura Sfntul
Cullmann, O. (1950). Baptism in the New Testament. Studies in Biblical Theology no. 1,
London: SCM.
Deissmann, A. (1910). Light from the Ancient East. London.
Dunn, J.D.G. (1970). Baptism in the Holy Spirit: A re-examination of the New Testament
Teaching on the Gift of the Spirit in Relation to Pentecostalism Today. London:
SCM, 1970.
Edsman, C.-M. (1940). Le baptme de feu. Leipzig-Uppsala.
Giles, K. (1982). Is Luke an Exponent of Early Protestantism?. The Evangelical
Quarterly, vol. 54.4: 194-204.
Imschoot, P. van (1936). Baptme d'eau et baptme de l'Esprit. Ephemerides Theologicae
Lovaniensis, vol. 13: 633-666.
Kremer, J. (1973). Pfingstbericht und Pfingstgeschechen. Stuttgart.
Lampe, G.W.H. (1967). The Seal of the Spirit. 2nd edn. London: SPCK
Marshall, I.H. (1970). Luke: Historian and Theologian. Grand Rapids, Michigan:
Zondervan Publishing House.
Maurer, C. (1972). Tithemi. G. Kittel, G.Friedrich (eds.) (1964-1976). Theological
Dictionary of the New Testament (abr. TDNT), vol. I-X, trans. G. Bromiley, Grand
Rapids, Michigan: W. B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, vol. 8: 152-168.
Mihoc, V. & Mihoc, D. & Mihoc, I. (2001). Introducere n Studiul Noului Testament, vol.
1. Sibiu: Teofania
Oepke, A. (1964). Bapto, baptizo. TDNT , vol. 1: 529-546.
Powell, M.A. (1991). What Are They Saying About Acts. New York: Paulist Press.
Quesnel, M. (1985). Baptiss dans l'Esprit: Baptme et Esprit Saint dans les Actes des
Aptres. Lectio Divina 120, Paris: Cerf.
Robert Menzies, R. (1991). The Development of Early Christian Pneumatology, with
Special Reference to Luke-Acts. Journal for the study of the New Testament,
Supplement series 54, Sheffield: JSOT Press.
Schweizer, E. (1969). Pneuma. TDNT, vol. 6: 332-455.
Turner, M. (1996). Power from On High: The Spirit in Israel's Restoration and Witness in
Luke-Acts. JPT Monograph series 9, Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press.
Verzan, S. (1994). Faptelele Apostolilor (capitolele 1 i 2). Note exegetice. Ortodoxia, vol.
46, no. 1: 28-115.
Wilkens, W. (1967). Wasertaufe und Geistempfang bei Lukas. Theologische Zeitschrift,
vol. 23: 26-47.

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Nichifor TNASE


The return to the biblical faith should be correlated to Return to the
Fathers. Early Christian thought is biblical, and one of the lasting accomplishments of the
patristic period was to forge a way of thinking, scriptural in language and inspiration.
Instead, we isolated the Holy Fathers from the Scripture and we are not trying to relate
them to it. The exegetical vision of the Holy Fathers was an inspired one, an understanding
of God, which we called theoria. Their works have been shaped by a particular
hermeneutical perspective called theoria - an "inspired vision" of the Divine Truth. For
Holly Fathers exegesis had never had a purpose in itself, patristic hermeneutics directly
addresses to the reader's life situation. To the chasm between modern and pre-modern
exegesis we propose the Christopher A. Halls phrase Read the Bible holistically with
the Fathers, which means that the Church possess a living Truth, which cannot be limited
by purely biblical wording. Christ Himself is the "hermeneutic" principle or the principle of
interpretation. The Bible doesnt contain its interpretation in itself. Orthodoxy operates in a
closed "hermeneutic circle" by the existing dynamic between Scripture and Tradition (the
permanent presence of God). Todays biblical scholars do not see this circular process as
an obstacle in biblical exegesis, but as a "hermeneutical spiral" (G. Osborne), which
describes the interaction between text and interpreter. The hermeneutical spiral take
place: via the interaction of inductive and deductive research and via the movement from
biblical to systematic and to homiletical theology. The "hermeneutical bridge" between the
word of Scripture and the present life of the Church could be built up by rediscovering the
"hermeneutic function" of the Holy Spirit, His continues work of inspiration that allows the
Word of God to be interpreted again, in any time and for each new generation.

Patristic Hermeneutic, Pre-critical Exegesis, Theoria, Revelation and Truth,
Relation between Church, Tradition and Scripture

Lecturer PhD., Eftimie Murgu University, Resita, Romania, n.tanase@uem.ro
ANUL I, NR. 1/2013, ISSN 2286 0711, ISSN-L 2286 0711

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We can easily fall into the trap of our own methodology, believing that we can
maintain cohesion between objective and subjective readings, a critical and spiritual
reading of Gods Word, against spiritual and artificially approach of the Bible which tends
to an arbitrary subjective reading of Holy Scripture. The return to the biblical faith
(P. Zimmerling (2003, p. 32; Christo Lombaard (2012, p. 27-53, 71-91) should be
correlated to Return to the Fathers. There is a tendency to repeat Fathers almost
literally what they said or wrote, we are dealing increasingly with so-called "patristic
fundamentalism", something like Protestant biblical fundamentalism - we are behaving
toward to the Fathers as the archaeological objects on which we are trying to conserving.
That is why we need, says Zizioulas, to "inculturate" the Holy Fathers in our time, that
is to bring in contemporary culture, contemporary to do with us. Return to the Fathers in
Orthodox theology created another problem: we isolated the Holy Fathers from the
Scriptureand we are not trying to relate them to it. Thus, on the one hand, the Fathers are
not placed in a relation with Scripture and, on the other hand, they are not linked to
contemporary culture (and reflected in it). It almost threatens to suffocate patristic
message, cancel the Holy Fathers and make them irrelevant. To correct this, we must take
the Holy Fathers as guides. In other words, today we can not truly be Christians unless we
dont let ourselves to be guided by the Holy Fathers. In this case, we must creatively
interpret what the Fathers said our time. So, we need creative freedom (Ioannis Zizioulas
(2010), p. 7). We will be able to do this this exegetical approach only through the
rediscovery of the Holy Fathers (Bertrand De Margerie, 2002, Manlio Simonetti, 1994,
Elizabeth A. Clark, 1999, Marie-Josphe Rondeau, 1982-1985) whose critical gift of
discerning multiple layers of meaning in the biblical text makes so actual the patristic
hermeneutics in which the literal and historical meaning, as the author understood it, as
well as the spiritual level of meaning, which directly addresses to the reader's life situation
(Robert Louis Wilken, 2004). Always so important to Wilken's depiction of patristic
reflection on Scripture, within the developing faith (regula) of the church, is that it be
narratively seen and heard within the circumstances and relations in which the Fathers
worked and lived. Recent researches in the history of exegesis require such a direction,
noticed by Brian E. Daley: Patristic exegesis has become almost fashionable again. After
centuries of neglect, even hostile dismissal, on the part of Christian preachers and scholars
of virtually every theological hue and stripe, the efforts of early Christian writers to
interpret the Bible have recently been watered into life again (Brian E. Daley, S.J. (2002,
p. 185). He speaks, also, about the atheistic-modern methodology opposite to the patristic
theologically, pre-critical approach: Historical criticism, including the criticism of
Biblical texts, is methodologically atheistic, even if what it studies is some form or facet of
religious belief, and even if it is practiced by believers. Only natural, inner-worldly
explanations of why or how things happen, explanations that could be acceptable to
believers and unbelievers alike, are taken as historically admissible. So God is not
normally understood to count as an actor on the stage of history; Gods providence in
history, the divine inspiration of Scriptural authors and texts, even the miracles narrated in
the Bible, are assumed to be private human interpretations of events, interior and non-
demonstrable, rather than events or historical forces in themselves (ibidem, p. 191).

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The Orthodox biblical interpretation usually choosed for an homiletical approach
more than a purely exegetical one of God's Word: Early Christian ascetical practices and
the Fathers non-historical mode of Scriptural interpretation make the 19th-century Anglican
writers to defense the patristic exegesis (Ephraim Radner, 2000, p. 216). Robert Louis
Wilken, Professor of the History of Christianity at the University of Virginia wants to show
that Christianity is "inescapably ritualistic," "uncompromisingly moral," and
"unapologetically intellectual." He controversy Adolf von Harnack's idea of "Hellenization
of Christianity" that made his career, influencing the interpretation of early Christian
thought: The notion that the development of early Christian thought represented a
hellenization of Christianity has outlived its usefulness. Then advocates a more
appropriate expression, namely "Christianization of Hellenism", but neither though that
phrase does not capture the Christian originality where life and doctrine are immediately
one: But what has impressed me most is the omnipresence of the Bible in early Christian
writings. Early Christian thought is biblical, and one of the lasting accomplishments of
the patristic period was to forge a way of thinking, scriptural in language and
inspiration, that gave to the church and to Western civilization a unified and coherent
interpretation of the Bible as a whole. Needless to say, this means that any effort to mount
an interpretation of the Bible that ignores its first readers is doomed to end up with a
bouquet of fragments (Robert Louis Wilken, 2005, p. 6-7).
There are numerous biblical commentaries in Orthodox tradition too, but they are
not recognized as such today because they assume what is often called (pejoratively) a
"pre-critical" attitude to the biblical narrative. After a closer examination of the makers
of this early inner-biblical exegesis, M. Sb says: First, a History of biblical
interpretation may have an appropriate starting-point in its own basis, which is the Hebrew
Bible / Old Testament, the Holy Scripture of Jews and Christians. Since it was within the
scriptures that became the Scripture that a process of inner, scriptural interpretation really
started, a description of the interpretation history should not ignore this early beginning
although it also, for certain reasons, may be called the pre-history of biblical
interpretation" (Magne Sb, 1996, p. 731). The rising Christianity doubled the
traditional Judaism in a way that caused a fundamental shift of paradigm" (Ibid., p. 736).
The intrinsic cultural elements became not least at the transition the inner-biblical
interpretation to a broad extra-canonical literary activity (Ibid., p. 733). For Holly Fathers
exegesis had never had a purpose in itself, unlike Catholics. A Catholic understanding of
pre-critical method gives us Thomas O Loughlin: A more adequate way to describe pre-
modern exegesis, than of seeing method as characteristic, is to note what exactly the
exegete wanted to find the final cause of search to use scholastic terms. One thread
running right through patristic and medieval exegesis is that every single line in the
scriptures tells us something about Christ although to get at this one had to use an
armoury of methods strategies, and skills. The common element between modern and past
exegesis is that for both the meaning of the text was not always obvious and had to be

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uncovered using a variety of methods (many of which are far older than their modern
practitioners realise); what separates them is the object that is obscure. To the modern
exegete it is the meaning of a text written at a particular time in a specific culture; to the
earlier exegete all the texts have as their true object the incarnate Word" (Thomas O
Loughlin, 1998, p. 477). Notice here the summing of Augustinian understanding of
revelation as a transmition of scholastic concepts and the idea of continuous development
of the doctrine that makes the biblical exegesis to discover obscure senses, rationing the
revelation into knowledge of God fuller than in the time when it was initially offered in an
obscure form.
David C. Steinmetz claiming the superiority of pre-critical exegesis (David C.
Steinmetz, 1980, p. 27-38), want to suggest an alternative hypothesis, because the medieval
theory of levels of meaning in the biblical text (distinction between "things" and "signs"
made by Augustine, or that of a double literal sense: a literal-historical sense and a literal-
prophetic), have undoubted defects, while the modern theory of a single meaning, is false.
Biblicist attempt, to capture in the biblical text, the meaning that the author initially
thought, perceives the pre-critical exegetical tradition as an intelligible obstacle in
deciphering correctly the true sense of text, and historical-critical method is the key that
can unlock this primitive meaning of the text. In the complex phenomenon of the meaning
of a text, where the question of truth can endlessly be deferred, it is is required a
hermeneutical theory capable to avoid the Scylla of extreme subjectivism, on the one
hand, and the Charybdis of historical positivism, on the other. Illustrating the theory of
four senses of Scripture (Jerusalem as: city in the Middle East literal sense, the church
allegorical, the faithful soul tropological, and the center of God's new creation
anagogical), Steinmetz makes reference to John Cassian: From the time of John Cassian,
the church subscribed to a theory of the fourfold sense of Scripture. The literal sense of
Scripture could and usually did nurture the three theological virtues, but when it did not,
the exegete could appeal to three additional spiritual senses, each sense corresponding to
one of the virtues. The allegorical sense taught about the church and what it should believe,
and so it corresponded to the virtue of faith. The tropological sense taught about
individuals and what they should do, and so it corresponded to the virtue of love. The
anagogical sense pointed to the future and wakened expectation, and so it corresponded to
the virtue of hope (Ibidem, pp. 28, 30, 38 and 40).
Claiming that pre-critical exegesis is no monolith, Daniel J. Treier is
contradicting with David C. Steinmetz, drawing attention to the challenges of reading the
OT Christianly in the early Patristic exegesis: First of all, pre-critical exegesis is no
monolith. It is, rather, an unfolding story, a quest full of twists and turns, even substantial
disagreements. The NT itself manifests the challenges of reading the OT Christianly"
(Daniel J. Treier, 2003, p. 79). Christopher A. Halls phrase Read the Bible holistically
talks about the unifying message on which The fathers insist, that the narrative of the
Bible is a continuous. The fathers insist that the narrative of the Bible is a
continuous, deeply connected story from Genesis throught Revelation. The Old Testament
is not discontinuous with the New. Rather the themes presented in the Old Testament find
their fulfillment in the narrative structure of the New Testament. Continuity and
fulfillment characterize the entire story. Most importantly, the fathers insist that the
biblical narrative reaches its culmination, its thematic climax, with the incarnation,

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crucifixion and resurrection of the Son of God. Indeed, the incarnational, soteriological and
eschatological foci of the New Testament further clarify and deep the Old Testament
witness itself. We will read the Bible ineffectively and incorrectly, the fathers warn, if we
fail to read its individual parts in the light of its overarching, unifying message"
(Christopher A. Hall, 1998, p. 191).
Frances Young believes that the ancient scholars have not made a distinction
between the two methods categorical and exegetical typology as such is a "modern
building": The modern divorce between biblical exegesis and systematic theology, or
indeed between biblical exegesis and praxis, would have been unthinkable in the day of the
Fathers, To deplore the influence of Greek philosophy or contrast the Hellenic and
Hebraic approaches, as scholars have done in this century, is to do less than justice to the
fascinating cultural interpenetration which took place as the Bible become the literary
foundation of a new totalising discourse" (Frances M. Young, 1997, p. 7). To discern
the mind of scripture did involve two things: (1) the assembly of texts pointing to the same
coclusion, and (2) respect for the normal earthly meaning od words, appropriately
modified, or perhaps I sould say elevated, for their theological context. The interpretation
may not be literal, but in the majority of cases, it is also far from allegorical. The
categories usually used to discuss patristic exegesis are inadequate to the task" (Ibidem,
p. 35) and they learn to read properly (kalos) with the sens (dianoia) right (Ibid., p. 38).
The Athanasius exegetical strategies and hermeneutical principles was neither literal,
nor typological, nor allegorical. Rather it is deductive. The deductive process involves
attention to the meaning of the words, their particular biblical sense, the syntax and the
context of the text in question the basic techniques of the grammaticus attending to the
verbal configuration of a pasage demands innovative exegesis (Ib., p. 40). The type
contains "a mimetic seal" so that the antitype is already mirrored or content into type.
Although rooted in history, the type transcends history to the extent that bears the
"seal" of his own eschatological perfection (John Breck, 2008, pp. 48, 51).

The exegetical vision of the Holy Fathers was an inspired one, an understanding of
God, which we called theoria. Modern commentators starting from the synthesis of
Language, hermeneutic and Word of God, want to study more recently the way in which
phenomenology of language attends in particular to the voice of Jesus as exemplified by the
parable and the voice of Paul as expressed in the letter. For Robert W. Funk the voice of
man of his linguistic nexus is the focal interest of phenomenology of language, as well as of
some recent theology" (Robert W. Funk, 1966, p. 197). Avoiding the trap of "verbal
inerrancy," they knew that every word of the text was created through "synergy", a mutual
effort between human author and the Holy Spirit. The ancient Christian exegesis of East
and West, the writings of the Fathers, approached the problem from a holistic point of view.
Their works have been shaped by a particular hermeneutical perspective called theoria - an
"inspired vision" of the Divine Truth.

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The Church define the canon, not to compose inspired writings, because she
never believed in any continuous revelation (as a direct inspiration to write books that
communicate a biblical, additional revelation), but in the unique historical act of God:
Tradition, says Meyendorff, is the sacramental continuity in history of the communion of
saints, in a way it is the Church itself (John Meyendorff, 1978, p. 14). Another function of
holy Tradition is to make Scripture available and understandable to a changing and
imperfect world. Therefore the word homoousios express, in a language understandable in
his time, a truth which Scripture presuposed. This example clearly illustrates the Chruchs
awareness of possesing a living Truth which cannot be limited by purely biblical wording.
The verbal freedom which the Nicene Fathers demonstrated was not, however, an internal
liberty in relation to the evidence of Scripture. The Orthodox Chruch has never proclaimed
dogmas which are not direct interpretations of historical facts related in the Bible
(Ibidem). This illustrate the Orthodox approach to the problem of doctrinal
development, whose meaning consists neither in a sort of continuous revelation, nor in
making additions to Scripture, but in solving concrete problems related to the one eternal
Truth, the latter remaining essentially the same before and after the definition. These
definitions are final and cannot be changed inasmuch as they express the absolute Truth of
Christ, living in His Church, also Tradition is an expression of the permanent presence
of God in the community of the New Israel (Ibidem). Then the new theology, breaking
with Tradition and continuity, would be meaningless.
The Holly Scripture took shape in the matrix of the Early Tradition of the Church,
without seeing the Tradition and the Scripture complementary or mutually exclusive.
Orthodoxy sees the relationship between the two in a way that can be described not by
Scripture or Tradition, nor through Scripture and Tradition, but by the Holly Scripture in
the Tradition of the Church, because Scripture is Tradition, a "spiritual" reading correctly
the Scriptures: a reading based on the work of the Holy Spirit who is the source of
inspiration in the Church (John Breck, 2008, p. 17).
"All Scripture is God-breathed" (2 Timothy 3, 16), this work of inspiration
involves synergy between the Holy Spirit and the man who receives divine revelation and
translates it into announcing of the gospel. Tradition can be equated with "apostolic
gospel" being called also Church's living memory (S. Bulgakov). The biblical writings
can only be interpreted correctly in the light of Holly Tradition. Tradition offers the original
content of Scripture. It includes the oral and written paradosis, meaning all "that is
sent/transmited "from the beginning revelation began as Christian reflection over the
mystery of Christ. Christ Himself is the "hermeneutic" principle or the principle of
interpretation. The Bible doesnt contain its interpretation in itself (Ibidem, p. 23-24).
Orthodoxy operates in a "hermeneutic circle" closed by the existing dynamic
between Scripture and Tradition. Todays biblical scholars do not see this circular process
as an obstacle in biblical exegesis, but as an "hermeneutic spiral" (G. Osborne), which
describes the interaction between text and interpreter. But we draw two meanings in
Grant Osbornes understanding of his concept: a. "hermeneutical spiral" like
comprehension up (interaction between inductive and deductive) but also, b. so-called
upward spirals of application and contextualization for Christian life today. The movement
is from biblical theology in the systematic theology to homiletics: Biblical theology
integrates individual passages in a archetypal "theology"; Historical theology studying how

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the church has historically contextualized biblical theology; Systematic Theology Biblical
Theology recontextualizes for the current generation; Theology and homiletics apply the
results of each of these stages. The hermeneutical spiral take place: via the interaction of
inductive and deductive research and via the movement from biblical to systematic to
homiletical theology. Biblical theology collates the partial theology of individual
passages and books into an archetypal theology of Israel and the early church (thus
integrating the Testaments). Historical theology studies the way the church throughout
history has contextualized biblical theology to meet the challenges and needs of the church
at various stages of its historical development. Systematic theology recontextualizes
biblical theology to adress current problems and to summarize theological truth for the
current generation. Finally, homiletical theology (so called to stress that the sermon
preparation is part of the hermeneutical task) applies the results of each of these steps to
the practical needs of the Christians today (Grant Osborne, 1991, p. 14). Osborne refers to
the fact of ignoring the understanding of the Early Church: While the hermeneutic of
the early church cannot be deteminativ for the modern methods, since we are hardly bound
to their modes of thinking, it is worthwhile to note that de earliest universally considered
the biblical stories to be historical (Ibid., p. 167). The hermeneutical circle has a pre-
heideggerian sense: the issue of circularity in the process of understanding: the term
hermeneutical circle, for the classical formulation of the hermeneutical circle got its form
for the first time in Johann Gustav Droysens work and this form was repeated by others
writers. It consist in the tule that the whole can be understood only through its parts, but
the parts can be understood only through the whole (Johann Gustav Droysens, 1985, p.
119-131). For scholars such as Humboldt, Boeck, Palmer and Lonergan, the
hermeneutical circle seems to be a vicious circle. In contrast, for some other scholars
such as Schleiermacher, Heidegger and Gadamer, there is no real circularity in the
process of understanding (apud, Mohammad Motahari, 2008, pp. 100, 103).
The Complementarity between the Word and Sacraments is being told in the
episode from Emmaus (Lk 24, 13-35), The Word must be celebrated in order to be heard.
The accent centered on the fulfillment of God's Word through liturgical celebration marks
the unique character of Orthodox hermeneutics (Michael Pasquarello, 2013, p. 58-67). By
preaching the gospel and liturgical celebration, the believers celebrate the Liturgy through
which the Word, as any Eucharist gift, is received and given back to God as a sacrifice of
praise. The only way to avoid "pseudomorphosis of biblical spirit" (objectifying Scripture)
involves placing the Word of God again in its own ecclesial and liturgical context, where
He is updated, internalized and assimilated. The first symptom of Crisis of the
hermeneutical approaches is that very few of today's biblical researches directly address
to the spiritual needs of the believers. As John Breck says "we bordered ourselves to the
questioning leave biblical text instead of letting the alive and life-giving Word of God to
speak to us and to call us (John Breck, 2008, pp. 28-30, 33-35). As a reaction appeared
after disintegrator initiative of modern biblical criticism, the new literary criticism, in a
particularly way the narrative and reception theories, however, manifests a tendency
towards relativism. As structuralists, they abandon the interest for the literal sense of the
biblical text, stopping rather on the meaning established by the reader, the so-called
"aesthetic pole." In an attempt to determine the literal meaning, the text is drawn from the
historical context in which it was produced, and "exegesis" is reduced to a modern and

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sophisticated form of allegorizing. Grant R. Osborne enumerate the weaknesses of the
methodology of narrative criticism: 1. A dehistoricizing tendency; 2. Setting aside the
author; 3. A denial of intended or referential meaning; 4. Reductionistic and disjunctive
thinking; 5. The imposition of modern literary categories on ancient genres; 6. A
preoccupation with obscure theories; 7. Ignoring the understanding of the early church [Cf.
Grant R. Osborne, 2006, p. 212-216].
In a pre-critical culture such as that of early monastic readers, allegory remained
very important: To interpret allegorically is to read expectantly, to listen to the text with
a certainty that it will carry meaning for the reader. It is a hermeneutical strategy based
upon not suspicion but critical trust of the text. The practice of allegorical reading requires
the reader's receptivity to the text's continual ability to generate meaning in the present.
Such an interpretation need not, of course, be uncritical (Mark S. Burrows, 2002, p. 171
and Karen B. Westerfield Tucker, 2013, p. 4-13). Hillels second rule, gezera shawa
(analogy), is abundantly illustrated by Pauls frequently recurring practice of pearl
stringing, Midrash exegesis characterizes the apostles hermeneutical procedures more
than any other. Having been trained as a Pharisee, Paul shared with the Judaism of his day
many of the then current hermeneutical conventions and procedures: The earliest
believers, following the teaching and exegetical procedures of their Master, seem to have
placed the revelation of God in Jesus the Messiah neben dem Text, so that both stood
starkly side-by-side. Pauls treatment of the Old Testament, however, evidences not quite
such a simple juxtaposition, but, rather, a more nuanced exposition of the Jewish scriptures
within a larger context of Christological awareness... Paul in his major letters usually
begins with the biblical text itself and then seeks by means of a midrashic explication to
demonstrate Christological significance (Richard N. Longenecker, 2007, pp. 81-82; see
7.1 Phenomena of biblical usage p. 87).
Due to permanent hermeneutic function of the Holy Spirit, Jesus continues "to
speak" to the Church through the voice of the Spirit (John 16:13). Tradition is a living
reality in which the Spirit brings into the Church all (panta) what Jesus taught His disciples
up to His passions and His death, but He also speaks about the fullness of truth (aletheia
pase) which represents nothing else but words of Christ who is resurrected, raised and
glorified/praised (John 16, 13-15). Seeking ipsissima verba Jesus in the phrase "in search
of the historical Jesus" becomes a nonsense. Through the dynamic quality of the work of
Holy Spirit in the space between the text and the reader, the Bible becomes a living book,
a place/medium for sharing the life-giving knowledge or communion with God that
reveals Himself in and through it (John Breck, 2008, pp. 36-38). In De Doctrina
Christiana, Augustine draws the distinction between the mode of understanding (modus
inueniendi) and the mode of communicating (modus proferendi) Scripture (cf., Michael C.
McCarthy, 2007, p. 322). Theres not such a distinction in orthodox view. The Bible, says
McCarthy, is not conceived as an object of formal study: Rather, scripture is inhabited,
and Augustines comment that we are your books suggests precisely the dynamism he
thought scripture ought to have within his congregation as well (Ib., p. 333). This is what
McCarthy calls embodied exegesis.
Holy Scripture can not be understood, therefore, in vacuo, apart from
illumination provided by the whole churchs tradition, because only into Church the
Holy Spirit updates the Word at the Holy Liturgy, into the sacraments and into preaching

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of the Holy Gospel. He does this under "his hermeneutic function", under His continues
work of inspiration that allows the Word of God to be interpreted again, in any time and
for each new generation. The Holy Spirits work of inspiration the is not only limited to
Scripture, all authentic tradition (paradosis) is in some way "inspired": "Thus, we are
forced, says John Breck, to distinguish two levels or degrees of inspiration: that of
Scripture and that of the Tradition ... To distinguish Scripture from Tradition in terms of
the Spirit's work, we could talk about revealing inspiration and about the anamnesis
inspiration" (John Breck, 1999, pp. 43-47, 109-110). Tradition, is the Church's own
testimony about Jesus and of the meaning of life, death and resurrection. It is, however, an
inspired testimony: a remembrance (anamnesis) and interpretation (hermeneut), a true
lighting ("light / photismon glorious gospel of Christ," II Cor. 4:4) to incarnate the one truth
revealed in the person God's Word.
Holy Spirit, as Spirit of Truth, is the only one who can break the "hermeneutic
circle", serving as a "bridge" or a hermeneutic connection which updates and makes
available the Word of God in every moment of the continuous Churchs life, through her
liturgical preaching and ministry. Thus, theoria, not being a method of exegesis, is a
"view" of the divine truth communicated by the Holy Spirit to the Church. While the
Hebrew prophet received his revelatory vision in a state of ecstasy, Christian exegete
becomes an instrument of the Spirit through contemplation, an opening to God's grace
both at the level of heart and mind.

The first symptom of Crisis of the hermeneutical approaches is that very few of
today's biblical researches directly address to the spiritual needs of the believers. By
preaching the gospel and liturgical celebration, the believers celebrate the Liturgy through
which the Word, as any Eucharist gift, is received and given back to God as a sacrifice of
praise. The only way to avoid "pseudomorphosis of biblical spirit" (objectifying Scripture)
involves placing the Word of God again in its own ecclesial and liturgical context, where
He is updated, internalized and assimilated. Due to permanent hermeneutic function of
the Holy Spirit, Jesus continues "to speak" to the Church through the voice of the Spirit
(John 16:13). Only a spiritual vision, a theoria, unites, in one hermeneutical program
both typology and a certain allegorical perspective. For correctly interpreting the
Scriptures and to understand the profoundness of the truth contained within them, the
exegete must interpret them from inside. In other words, Scripture prescribes a way of life
- "Christ in us" in terms of the Apostle.
We have distinguished two levels or degrees of inspiration: that of Scripture
(revealing inspiration) and that of the Tradition (anamnesis inspiration). Holy Spirit, as
Spirit of Truth, is the only one who can break the "hermeneutic circle", serving as a
"bridge" or a hermeneutic connection which updates and makes available the Word of God
in every moment of the continuous Churchs life, through her liturgical preaching and
ministry. Thus, theoria, not being a method of exegesis, is a "view" of the divine truth
communicated by the Holy Spirit to the Church. While the Hebrew prophet received his
revelatory vision in a state of ecstasy, Christian exegete becomes an instrument of the
Spirit through contemplation.

The Annals of Eftimie Murgu University of Reia

The biblical-patristic hermeneutic principle refers therefore to the need of reading
the Scriptures "from inside". The word should be "lived". Scripture is a fundamental
environment for revelation. Thus, there isnt what is being called "personal" reading, it is an
ecclesial act. Phronma ekklsias or "thought of the Church" is at the same time "thought
of the Scripture".
There is a intimate relation between holistic reading of Scripture and
contemplative prayer. The "prayer of the Scriptures" is a gift, an epiklesis of the Spirit.
According to the ascetic tradition, Scripture and prayer enlighten each other, thing that
does not build a closed circle, but rather an upward spiral. In Fathers hermeneutics, "the
Prayer of the Scriptures" involves Christological, ecclesiological and trinitarian reading of
Bible. Isaac the Syrian doesnt use Alexandrian allegorical method, but rather the
category of symbol and mystery. His intention isnt to give the text coherence interpretation
but, for the reader to discern the "exteriority of the Scripture" in its intimate significance.
It's beyond Scripture, but still in Scripture, in its most secret heart. This is called "inner
reading". Between reading and prayer we sees a continuous synergy, reading and praying
feed each other. We discovered the relationship between discovery / revelation and truth.
The Greek theoria (contemplation), indicates "deep understanding" of a reality that is born
of silence, contemplation as "spiritual view". Word has a limit. We asks God the gift to
"hear the word of silence". "Astonishment" is an understanding power where the Intellect
receives divine discoveries.


Breck, John (1999). The Power of the Word in Worshiping Church. Bucharest: EIBMBOR
Breck, John (2008). Scripture in Tradition: The Bible and Its Interpretation in the
Orthodox Church. Cluj-Napoca: Patmos
Burrows, Mark S. (2002). To Taste with the Heart: Allegory, Poetics, and the Deep
Reading of Scripture. Interpretation, vol. 56, no. 2:168-180.
Clark, Elizabeth A. (1999). Reading Renunciation. Asceticism and Scripture in Early
Christianity. Princeton: Princeton University Press
Daley, Brian E., S.J. (2002). Is patristic exegesis still usable?: Reflections on early christian
interpretation of the Psalms. Communio, vol. 29, no.1: 185-216.
Droysen, Gustav (1985), The Hermeneutics Reader: Texts of the German Tradition from
the Enlightenment to the Present. New York: Continuum
Funk, Robert W. (1966). Saying and Seeing: Phenomenology of Language and the New
Testament. Journal of Bible and Religion, vol. 34, no. 3: 197-213.
Hall, Christopher A. (1998). Reading the Scripture with the Church Fathers. New York:
InterVarsity Press
Lombaard, Christo (2012). The Old Testament And Christian Spirituality. Theoretical and
Practical Essays from a South African Perspective. Atlanta: Society of Biblical
Longenecker, Richard N. (2007). Early Church Interpretation. Dictionary of Biblical
Criticism and Interpretation, (ed. Stanley E. Porter), Routledge Taylor & Francis
Group: 78-89.

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Loughlin Thomas O (1998). Christ and the Scriptures: the chasm between modern and pre-
modern exegesis. The Month, vol. 31: 475-85.
Margerie, Bertrand De (2002). An Introduction to the History of Exegesis: Greek Fathers.
Volume 1. Peru, Illinois: St Bede's Publications
McCarthy, Michael C. (2007). We Are Your Books: Augustine, the Bible, and the
Practice of Authority. Journal of the American Academy of Religion, vol. 75, no.
2: 324-352.
Meyendorff, John (1978). Living Tradition: Orthodox Witness in the Contemporary World.
New York: St. Vladimirs Seminary Press, 1978
Motahari, Mohammad (2008). The Hermeneutical Circle or the Hermeneutical Spiral?. Intl.
J. Humanities, vol. 15, no. 2: 99-111.
Osborne, Grant R. (2006). The Hermeneutical Spiral: A Comprehensive Introduction to
Bibical Interpretation. Madison: Intervarsity Press, 1991.
Pasquarello, Michael (2013). Doxological Reading and Eschatological Imagination.
Liturgy. A Journal of The Liturgical Conference, vol. 28, no. 2: 58-67.
Porter, Stanley E. (2007). Dictionary of Biblical Criticism and Interpretation. Mondon and
New York: Routledge Taylor & Francis Group
Radner, Ephraim (2000). The Discrepancies of Two Ages. Thoughts on Kebls Mysticism
of the Fathers. The Anglican, no. 4: 10-15.
Rondeau, Marie-Josphe (1982-1985). Les commentaires patristiques du Psautier (III Ve
sicles). Rome: Orientalia Christiana Analecta 219 and 220
Sb, Magne (1996). Church and Synagoge as the Respective Matrix of the Development
of an Authoritative Bible Interpretation. Hebrew Bible, Old Testament: The
History of Its Interpretation, Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht: 731-748.
Simonetti, Manlio (1994). Biblical Interpretation in the Early Church: an Historical
Introduction to Patristic Exegesis. Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark
Steinmetz, David C., The Superiority of Pre-Critical Exegesis, Theology Today, 1980,
vol. 37, no 1: 27-38.
Treier, Daniel J. (2003). The superiority of Pre-Critical Exegesis? Sic Et Non. Trinity
Hournal, vol. 24, no. 1: 77-103.
Westerfield Tucker, Karen B. (2013). Scriptural Typology and Allegory in Liturgical
Prayer. Liturgy. A Journal of The Liturgical Conference, vol. 28, no. 2: 4-13.
Wilken, Robert Louis (2004). The Spirit of Early Christian Thought: Seeking the Face of
God. New Haven and London: Yale University Press
Young, Frances M. (1997). Biblical Exegesis and the Formation of Christian Culture.
Cambridge: University Press
Zimmerling, Peter (2003). Evangelische Spiritualitt. Wurzeln und Zugnge. Gttingen:
Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht
Zizioulas, Ioannis (2010). Patristic Theology in the Modern World. Revista Ortodox, 24: 7

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Marian VILD


Armed with the philological method, modern biblical science has contested the
authenticity of half of the Epistles in the Pauline corpus. Despite its scale, claims, and
implications, this phenomenon has of yet received no original response from Romanian
Orthodox Bible scholars. In this paper I will try to provide some ideas for such a response.
First I draw attention to the fact that the issue of authenticity of the Epistles in the Pauline
corpus must be evaluated against ancient norms of authorship and paternity - the secretary
hypothesis, for example, would explain all the perceived lexical, stylistic, and theological
variations across the Pauline corpus. In light of the first point, the massive disputation by
modern biblical scholarship of half of the epistles preserved under the name of St Paul
based solely on the philological method is unsupportable the external testimony of the
Church must be taken into account too. Lastly, modern biblical scholarship claims to
methodological infallibility need to be reconsidered in light of the more cautious self-
evaluation criteria of the exact sciences.

KEY WORDS: Pauline Epistles, authenticity, deutero pauline letters, pauline

The question regarding the authenticity of the Pauline Epistles is topical and
challenging for any Bible scholar concerned with Pauline studies. For an Orthodox Bible
scholar, this question is all the more important since the Eastern way of interpretation
resorts to evaluation criteria that do not necessarily involve the philological method,
whereas modern biblical research tends to rely exclusively on it. Trying to answer this
question is therefore not a vacuous nor an unjustified attempt: the fact that modern biblical
research has contested the authenticity of some of the Epistles in the Pauline corpus

Fr. PhD. Associate Professor, Department of Historical and Biblical Theology, and
Philology, Justinian Patriarhul Faculty of Orthodox Theology, University of Bucharest,
Romania, Mail: marianvild@yaho.de.
ANUL I, NR. 1/2013, ISSN 2286 0711, ISSN-L 2286 0711

Fascicle III - Humanities-Social Sciences, Anul I, Nr. 1/2013

specifically, their paternity - could potentially affect not only their canonicity but also their
It is interesting to say that, although Romanian scholars have occasionally tackled
the topic, they never really took an individual stance or tried to engage with the debate. The
attitude of Romanian Bible scholars can be summed up as oscillating between a total
acceptance of the results of modern biblical scholarship and a complete dismissal of the
said results. For example, Fr Dionisie Stamatoiu's commentary on 2 Thessalonians argues
for its authenticity, the sole argument being Church tradition (Stamatoiu, 23-55). At the
same time, in his work The Metamorphoses of the Antichrist in the Fathers of the Church,
Cristian Bdili considers 2 Thessalonians to be deutero-Pauline (Bdili, p. 42, fn 1 esp.).
Neither stance resides on the authors' individual analysis. As for the attitude of Romanian
Bible scholars as evinced from their presentations in conferences or their opinions as
expressed in personal communications, the prevailing stance seems to be that the
authenticity of the Epistles can be approached not only stricto sensu but also in a wider
sense: the reason why some Epistles have been called by the Church 'Pauline' although
research seems to indicate otherwise is explained if we assume that the Church recognized
the footprint of Pauline thought in them and therefore included them in what is now called
the Pauline Corpus even if they weren't in fact written by the Apostle himself; if we
continue to call them 'Pauline' it is because of agreement with the rationale of the Church
and because that is the name under which She has passed them down to us. Although
interesting, such a stance is often superficial and doesn't follow through the implications of
such an approach.
To my knowledge, therefore, there is no serious attempt in Romanian Bible
scholarship to solve the question regarding the authenticity of Pauline Epistles. The
immediate aim of this small paper is to draw attention to this question and to propose some
research ideas, to be explored in detail in future research.

For very many Bible scholars, the Pauline Epistles are divided into two major
categories: (1) Pauline (or protopauline) written by Paul (1 Thessalonians, 1 and 2
Corinthians, Galatians, Romans, Philippians, and Philemon) and (2) deutero-Pauline not
written by Paul but ascribed to him, probably written by some Christians from the first
generations, at any rate, in a post-Pauline era (2 Thessalonians, Colossians, Ephesians, 1
and 2 Timothy, Titus, and Hebrews) (As for the distinction between pauline and
deuteropauline, also see: Becker, 1989, pp. 6-11; Berger, 2002, p. 12; Bornkamm,
pp. 245-246; Fenske, 2003, pp 16-18; Kirchschlger,
1995, pp 124-127; Lohse, 1996, pp,
167-174; Lindemann,1999; a.o.). Specialized literature also mentions trito-Pauline epistles,
this category including what we call the Pastoral Epistles (1 and 2 Timothy and Titus). It is
believed that they belong to a later era, although opinions on this are divided (Mounce,
2000, p. lxxxiii-cxxii). The tables below sum this up concisely, along with details about the
place and the time of their writing as suggested by the latest research findings:

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1 Thessalonians Corinthus 50
1 Corinthians Ephesus Spring of 55
2 Corinthians Macedonia Fall of 55
Galatians Macedonia Fall of 55
Romans Corinthus Spring of 56
Philippians Rome 60
Philemon Rome 61

Colossians South-East of Asia Minor 70
Ephesians Asia Minor Between 80 and 90
2 Thessalonians Asia Minor or Macedonia End of the 1
1 Timothy Ephesus 100
2 Timothy Ephesus 100
Titus Ephesus 100
Hebrews Rome End of the 1
(The data in the tables synthesizes information drawn from: Schnelle, 1996)

While scholars do not all agree on this, we may nevertheless say that, in the
German scholarship, this opinion is nowadays with few exceptions accepted, whereas in
the Anglo-Saxon literature one can detect more reserve, the authenticity of many of the
Epistles listed as 'deutero-Pauline' being defended. As for the scholarship in other
languages, this is typically polarized between these two sides. Both sides, of course, have
their arguments. Those who argue against authenticity admit that none of their arguments is
sufficient on its own, the claim rather resides on the sum of a number of arguments
(Trilling, 1972, p. 45). The most remarkable case in point for their debate on authenticity is
2 Thessalonians often discarded but also defended for more than 200 years (P. Metzger,
2005, p. 51). After the publication in 1972 of Wolfgang Trilling's work: Untersuchungen
zum zweiten Thessalonicherbrief, the contestation of 2 Thessalonians in specialized
literature became more and more widely accepted (for a solid critique of Trilling's
arguments and position please see: Wanamaker, 1990, pp. 21-28). Orthodox exegesis
generally adopts a traditional path, considering all the Epistles in the Pauline corpus
sometimes with the exception of the Epistle to the Hebrews as belonging to St Paul.
Translations of Western scholarship aside, in Romania the number of authors who accept
this distinction between proto- and deutero-Pauline is negligible.
The distinction between Pauline (proto-Pauline) and non-Pauline (deutero-Pauline)
which has become common in contemporary Bible exegesis has important consequences
for the Pauline corpus, for the individual Epistles, as well as for of the topics they tackle.

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This distinction basically imposes a certain hierarchy within the Pauline corpus, some texts
being thus considered 'first-hand' and others 'second-hand' or even 'third-hand' that is,
more disposable. This hierarchy becomes particularly obvious when one tries to tackle a
certain individual Epistle. For example, in the West this would lead separate treatments. For
example, a commentary might have an introduction, first, for the Epistles considered
authentic, then for the Gospels, for Acts, and only then for the disputed Epistles (so
Schnelle, 1996, p. 323-328). Even more serious is the consequence whereby, when treating
a certain Pauline topic, scholars may consider only the Epistles considered authentic. A
case in point is, for example, Joseph Plevnik's treatment of parousia in Pauline thought
(Plevnik, 1997).

3.1 The secretary hypothesis
Ancient epistolography comprised at least four manners of writing a letter (Brown
et. al., 2005, p. 973):
(a) the author wrote in person, with his own hand;
(b) the author dictated the contents of the letter to a scribe or secretary, word for
word or even syllable for syllable;
(c) the author gave the scribe or secretary an outline of what he wanted to convey,
leaving it up to him to dress up the contents, that is, to write the letter proper;
(d) the author authorized the secretary (or even a friend or a collaborator) to write
a letter or a reply to a letter on his behalf, without indicating what the contents should be.
Of these four, the most common seem to have been (a) and (b).
The question arises, then: how did Paul write his letters? Did he always write by
his own hand?
An example of a Pauline letter of type (a) from the Pauline corpus is the Epistle to
Philemon, which is in fact just a brief note at the end of which the Apostle signs: I, Paul,
have written this with my own hand (v. 19).
From Romans 16:22 we understand that the Epistle to the Romans was written by
Tertius's hand although the contents were dictated to him, word for word, by Paul. Romans
is then a type (b) letter. Since Tertius (probably with the Apostle's permission) takes the
liberty to add his own greeting (16:22), we may also consider this Epistle a letter of type (c)
or a combination of types (b) and (c).
In Corinthians 16:21 and Colossians 4:18 Paul adds his greeting with his own
hand, which leads us to believe that he dictated the rest of the contents to a scribe or a
secretary, which would make these Epistles type (b) letters too.
Considering their length, some authors believe that the Epistle to the Romans and
1 Corinthians are, at least partially, type (c) (Brown et. al., 2005, p. 973).
In what regards the Epistles to the Thessalonians, they both list Paul's associates,
Sylvan and Timothy, in the introductory greetings. This is an important clue that these two
may have played a secretarial role in the writing of these Epistles. If we add to this the fact
that 2 Thessalonians 3:17 mentions Paul's signature, we may assume that at least in the
writing of this Epistle one of Paul's two disciples may have acted as a secretary. Silas, in
fact, is specifically mentioned in this role in 1 Pt 5:12: I have written these few things to

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you through Silas. It is possible that Silas was already used to this secretarial position,
especially if he had already played this role on occasion of the writing of some other of St
Paul's Epistles. At any rate, if we admit that 2 Thessalonians was not dictated in its entirety
by the Apostle (that is, if we admit that it is a combination of types (b) and (c)), especially
in regard to the introduction, then we are in a better position to explain the similarities
between the two Epistles to the Thessalonians but also some of the differences regarding
their style and vocabulary.
But this reasoning can be applied to other Epistles in the Pauline corpus contested
by modern biblical scholarship as well. Hypothesizing that some of Paul's disciples wrote
some of his Epistles that is, positing that these Epistles are of type (b), (c), or (d) would
explain some of the differences in style and vocabulary, solving thus, much more
straightforwardly the question of their authenticity. Otherwise put, the internal arguments
regarding the style and the vocabulary of the contested Epistles would be easier to
harmonize with those of the Epistles considered genuinely Pauline if we take into account
the ancient practice of letter writing, where the contribution of a scribe was not only
common but even indispensable.
Starting from these observations, here are the five types of paternity accepted in
contemporary biblical theology:
(1) An author is someone who has written a book/letter with his own hand (e.g.
(2) An author is someone who has dictated the letter/book to a scribe who then
transcribed it exactly (possibly 2 Thessalonians).
(3) An author is someone who has provided the ideas for a book/letter that was
eventually written by someone else (this could have been the case of the longer Epistles like
Romans or 1-2 Corinthians).
(4) A person is considered the author of a work if that work was written by his
disciples who were guided by his teaching and spirit.
(5) A person is considered the author of a work if that work was written in the
literary tradition promoted by him.
In my opinion, the last two types of paternity are not acceptable as proof of the
authenticity of the Pauline Epistles. Rather, they are at best types of literary relatedness.

3.2 The case against: a matter of internal arguments
A review of the literature on this subject will reveal that the case against the
Pauline paternity of some of the Epistles in the Pauline corpus are exclusively internal and
concern the vocabulary, the style, the approach, and the theology. As for the external
arguments, they are actually unfavorable to this case since, historically speaking, from the
Early Church all the way through the 19
century the Pauline corpus has not been
contested, except for the Epistle to the Hebrews. Only about this one were there any doubts,
as witnessed by Eusebius of Caesarea in Church History, Book III, 3, 5: Paul's fourteen
epistles are well known and undisputed. It is not indeed right to overlook the fact that some
have rejected the Epistle to the Hebrews, saying that it is disputed by the Church of Rome,
on the ground that it was not written by Paul. (Eusebiu, 1987, p. 100). Therefore this
would be the only epistle regarding which Church history and tradition would support an
attempt to question its Pauline paternity. With no further comments on its authenticity, I

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would just like to point out that it is the only Epistle from the Pauline corpus regarding the
paternity of which there existed doubt in the first centuries (About the authorship of the
Epistle to the Hebrews see: Tofan, 1996, pp. 29-48). For this claim I have taken into
account only the faith of the Church, leaving out the various heresies. As for other heretical
positions regarding the canon of the New Testament, the most important one was that of
Marcion - 2
century heretic, promoter of a heresy of Gnostic origin now named after him -
, who came up with his own version of the canon of the New Testament. In this version
Marcion eliminates everything related to the Old Testament. As for the Pauline Epistles, he
lists only ten of the fourteen known Epistles. As for the other epistles preserved under
Paul's name, the entire history of the Church does not provide any hint that their
authenticity may have been in doubt. The importance of this fact cannot be overstated.
Thus, although we do not know whether, at the time when they were establishing the canon,
the Fathers of the Church counted as authentic epistles with paternity of type (2) and (3)
(see above), what we do know for sure is that the Church has considered them authentic,
and not in the sense of paternity type (4) or (5). To this effect we can also cite St John
Chrysostom's homilies on the Pauline Epistles, where, among other things, he tries to give
an account of the historical context in which they had been written.

3.3 Remarks regarding the modern scientific methods
The claim of being scientific and precise has traditionally belonging with the
sciences (mathematics, chemistry, physics, biology, computer science, etc.). In the field of
literature, philosophy, or philology, historically there hasn't traditionally been any claim to
quantifiable accuracy.
The scientific trend in the humanities only really started with historical criticism
century) when historical rationalism started being promoted. As for the field of Bible
studies, one notices a tidal kind of cycle, dependent on the stage of knowledge and the tools
available to a particular time (Brune, 2011, p. 11-15). Thus, after the massive disputation of
New Testament books there followed a stage of rehabilitation, at least of some of them. The
most famous example in this sense happened right at the beginning of modern biblical
criticism. F. Chr. Baur (1792-1860), the most important representative of the Tbingen
School, applies the principles of literary criticism radically, questioning the paternity of
many of the New Testament books and dating them at a very late date. According to Baur,
scholars only had two clear options left: to accept the Scripture in the traditional manner
and abdicate from the historical-critical method or to accept the latter and destroy
Christianity in its then form. Bible scholars from the second half of the 19
however suggested a third option: to pursue research by the historical-critical method but
without accepting Baur's principles and conclusions (Brown et. al., 2005, p. 874-876). This
third option was fruitfully explored especially through the efforts of J.B. Lightfoot (1828-
1889), on the English side, and Adolf von Harnack (1851-1930), on the German side. J.B.
Lightfoot refuted the Tbingen theories, showing that the epistles of Ignatius of Antioch
and Clement the Roman, dated relatively early, make allusions too many of the books of
the New Testament. As for Adolf von Harnack, he simply chose to ignore completely the
conclusions of the Tbingen school, declaring: Let us go back to tradition! (Brown et. al.,
2005, p. 876). However, this did not mean abandoning the historical-critical method but
rather exerting more caution in its application. Harnack thus reevaluated Baur's method and

The Annals of Eftimie Murgu University of Reia

reached the conclusion that Baur hadn't been exactly objective in his dating of the books of
the New Testament. This episode shows that the methods of modern philology are not as
exact and infallible as some may claim, and that their blind application as we have seen,
focused entirely on internal arguments and ignoring the exegesis of the Church - is at least
dangerous. At this point it is also worth citing Bruce Metzger: noting this instability of the
state of the art, he once stated that, had scholars known about P
150 years earlier they
wouldn't have dated the Fourth Gospel at year 160 AD in the 19
century (B. M. Metzger,
1992, p. 39). Papyrus 52 is a fragment that contains John 18: 31-33 and 37-38. It is one of
the oldest fragments preserved today, being dated sometime in the first half of the 2nd
century of the Christian era. Observations like this are also a warning that error through
lack of sufficient information may happen again if the sole criterion remains philological
research and the historical-critical method.
If we are truly to approach this problem in a scientific way, then, as shown by
Pavel Florenski, to trust the rational demonstrability of historical theses is to be
methodologically nave as it would mean incautiously and uncritically neglecting the notion
of probability and its derivatives from the theory of probability: mathematical hope and
moral hope. It is not sufficient, notes Florenski, to say I know you must also determine
your degree of knowledge. If the 19
century invented the critique of knowledge, the 20

developed the critique of methods of acquiring knowledge! In the sciences it has been
clearly established that there is no rational certainty in the field of a posteriori sciences but
only a degree of probability; the passage from effects t cause and from facts to their genesis
is only probable (Florenski, 1999, 337-338). But let us allow Florenski to speak to us in his
own words: It is possible to be able to take into account, relatively 'objectively', the
probability of a hypothesis (always hypothesis!) regarding the composition of a mineral;
but it would be a blatant absurdity to claim that we are judging 'objectively' the authenticity
of a historical relic, the provenance of the Holy Scripture, or even the date when Plato's
dialogues or Homer's poems were written. And whoever imagines that he has irrefutably
'proven' something in this regard that person has probably never even considered the critical
problem of the nature of historial methods. [] The procedures of historical criticism,
which may seem immutably logical, are in fact grounded in faith (in logic and the laws of
the universe and of how things work) just like religious persuasions. It is not the procedures
that differ but rather the faiths or the orientation of faith. (Florenski, 1999, 337-338).

In this paper my aim has not been to deny or dismiss philological analysis or, in
general, the historical-critical method I do believe a Christian should have a genuine
passion for the truth! My intention has been solely to draw attention to the question
regarding the paternity of the New Testament Epistles that have been passed down to us
under his name and to offer some suggestions as to why the results of an exegesis relying
exclusively on the historical-critical method may be less objective and scientific than
claimed and therefore may pose less of a challenge than previously believed or than
generally assumed in the Western scholarship.
As for the Orthodox participation in research on this topic, ultimately, the reason
why Orthodox literature has never cared too much about the controversy is because of the
external argument that the testimony of the Church, who has compiled the Pauline corpus,

Fascicle III - Humanities-Social Sciences, Anul I, Nr. 1/2013

preserved it, and passed it down to us, is a testimony that cannot be easily discarded. If the
interpretation of these Epistles may differ from one scholar to another, one fact about them
nevertheless remains constant: they belong to St Paul! If there is any incentive at all for an
Orthodox scholar to engage with this topic, that is to reach his or her own conclusions in
light of Western scholarship, on the one hand, and Church history and tradition, on the
other hand, and to formulate an Orthodox response to the Western state of the art. Such an
incentive is certainly worthwhile, and I very much hope that future research by Romanian
Orthodox scholars will consider it.


Bdili, Cristian (2006). Metamorfozele Antihristului la Prinii Bisericii [The
Metamorphoses of the Antichrist in the Fathers of the Church], Iassy: Polirom.
Becker, Jrgen (1989), Paulus: der Apostel der Vlker, Tbingen: Siebeck Mohr.
Berger, Klaus (2002). Paulus, Mnchen: Beck.
Bornkamm, Gnther (
1993). Paulus, Stuttgart-Berlin-Kln: W. Kohlhammer.
Brown, Rajmond E.; Fitzmyer, Joseph A.; Murphy, Roland E. (2005). Introducere i
comentariu la Sfnta Scriptur [Introduction and commentary to the Holy
Scripture], vol. I, trans. P. Dumitru Groan, Trgu Lpu: Galaxia Gutenberg.
Brune, Francois (2011). Sfntul Pavel: Mrturia mistic [St Paul: The mystic testimony],
trans. erban Velescu, Bucureti: Univers Enciclopedic Gold.
Eusebiu de Cezareea (1987). Scrieri, Partea nti, Istoria Bisericeasc [Writings, Part I,
Church History], trans. Pr. Prof. T. Bodogae, col: PSB 13, Bucureti: IBMBOR.
Fenske, Wolfgang (2003). Paulus lesen und verstehen. Ein Leitfaden zur Biographie und
Theologie des Apostels, Stuttgart: W. Kohlhammer.
Florenski, Pavel (1999). Stlpul i Temelia Adevrului. ncercare de teodicee ortodox n
dousprezece scrisori [The Pillar and the Foundation of Truth. Attempt at an
Orthodox Theodicy], trans. Emil Iordache and Pr. Iulian Friptu, Iassy: Polirom.
Kirchschlger, Walter (
1995). Einfhrung in das Neue Testament, Stuttgart: Katholisches
Lindemann, Andreas (1999). Paulus, Apostel und Lehrer der Kirche, Tbingen: Mohr
Lohse, Eduard (1996). Paulus: eine Biographie, Mnchen: Beck.
Metzger, Bruce M. (1992). The Text of the New Testament. Its Transmission, Corruption
and Restoration, New York/Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Metzger, Paul (2005). Katechon. II Thess 2, 1-12 im Horizont apokalyptischen Denkens,
BZNW 135, Berlin/New York: Walter de Gruyter.
Mounce, W. D. (2000). Pastoral Epistles, WBC 46, Nashville:Nelson.
Plevnik, Joseph (1997). Paul and the Parusia. An Exegetical and Theological Investigation,
Massachusetts: Hendrickson Publishers.
Schnelle, Udo (1996). Einleitung in das Neue Testament, 2. durchgesehene Auflage,
Gttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht.
Stamatoiu, Pr. Prof. Dionisie, (1995). Epistola a II-a ctre Tesaloniceni: Introducere,
traducere i comentariu, teologia i actualitatea Epistolei [2 Thessalonians:

The Annals of Eftimie Murgu University of Reia

Introduction, translation, and commentary. The theology and relevance of the
Epistle], in Teologie i via, V, no. 4-6, p. 23-55.
Tofan, Pr. Dr. Stelian (1996). Iisus Hristos Arhiereu venic dup Epistola ctre Evrei
[Jesus Christ, the Eternal Priest according to the Epistle to the Hebrews], Cluj-
Napoca: Presa Universitar Clujean.
Trilling, Wolfgang (1972). Untersuchungen zum zweiten Thessalonicherbrief, EThSt 27,
Leipzig: St. Benno.
Wanamaker, Charles A. (1990). The Epistles to the Thessalonians. A Commentary on the
Greek Text, col. NIGTC, Michigan: Grand Rapids William B. Eerdmans Company
/ Exeter: The Paternoster Press.

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Lately, the theoreticians in the sport field and especially those in football have
rather avoided revising the specialized knowledge regarding the selection process, more
concretely the stages of this process. The present stages of selection in sport and especially
in football, which existed and are known for years in the specialized literature, are
nowadays rather out-of-date, a minimal argument being that the selection is not a process
which is finished only when the player says good-bye to football. In this direction, we
consider that a reconsideration of the selection process is more than necessary and those
directly involved in the instructional-educational process should give more importance to
the selection process after the finish of junior years.

KEYWORDS: selection stages, performance selection, internal selection,
external selection

Sport in general and football in particular represent fields of activity in which the
final product - the performance athlete represents the sum of the effects of an ample
process of instruction supported by a favourable genetic background and by a good
somatic-functional state of the body.
Whatever the moment in which the player enters the preparation system, this
should be done on the basis of a scientific selection criteria which should be very well
achieved, avoiding the subitising criteria which are so much used in the football world.
Once this selection stage passed and after the co-optation of the player in a team, this does
not mean that he will not be evaluated and subsequently subject to the selection criteria
corresponding to the level of age and merit category. We understand that the main
characteristic of this selection process is continuity. In other words, during the whole
period of formation, the selection and the training process go together, only in this way

Lecturer PhD., University Eftimie Murgu of Resita, Romnia, a.bichescu@uem.ro
ANUL I, NR. 1/2013, ISSN 2286 0711, ISSN-L 2286 0711

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we can keep in the system those players who can guarantee that by the end of the junior
period, they will step towards the performance football.

Figure 1. The relation between the preparation and the selection process

Selection in sport in general and selection in football in particular represent a topic
approached and presented in the specialised literature. Whoever is the author quoted, N.
Alexe and colab. (1993), A. Dragnea (1996), C. Cernianu (2000), D. Apolzan (2000), A.
Dragnea and S. Mate-Teodorescu (2002), S. F. Todea (2006), A.D. Moan coord. (2011),
the opinions of the specialists are not divergent, on the contrary, they all highlight the four
important tasks of the selection:
- to track down;
- to orient;
- to recruit;
- to promote.
In football, these tasks of selection aim, on the one hand, the identification and
attraction, from outside the system of the gifted children, and on the other hand, the
recruitment and promotion of the players from an age group to an older one, from juniors to
seniors, from a team to another or for a representative team which can be: at local level,
County, regional or national level.

Figure 2. The sources of the selection process

Registration in a
sport club
Training process
Selection process
Tracking and
From outside the
and promotion
From one group to
From juniors to
Tracking and
From seniors to
From within the

Fascicle III - Humanities-Social Sciences, Anul I, Nr. 1/2013

Thus, we can say, without the fear of making a mistake, that the process of
selection is formed by the activities which aim the exterior of the system (for the childrens
attraction), but especially, activities within the system (for the promotion of the players).
The activities of tracking/orientation have a larger weight in the initial selection and even in
the first part of the secondary selection as the players progress in training, the supremacy
starts to revert to the promotion of the players from an age group to another one or from
one team to another, there are very few cases of new players appearing without having
practised football until then.

Figure 3. Selection and selection sources during the process of the players training and

During the years, the stages of the selection process were widely approached being
presented the characteristics for each stage, based on their age delimitations.

Figure. 4. The stages of the selection process
Selection process
Final selection

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Here, we need to have a more profound analysis and discussion of the objectives
aimed at during these stages and even their temporal redimensioning.

When we refer to the initial selection we should not only have in view the tracking
moment and the inclusion of the children in a club, in an organised training process. This
would be only a first stage of primary selection, which can be achieved, either as a result of
an action initiated by the club, or as a recommendation of the specialists (teachers, coaches,
trainers, scouters). During the whole 1
stage of preparation, this selection process is
permanently open, being achieved not only on scientific criteria, under the care of the coach
and also on a natural way, if we have in view that during this period a large percentage of
the trainees give up the trainings. Despite all these, the role of the coaches who activate in
these age groups (initiation: 6-7 years and beginners: 8-10 years) supposes a large
responsibility but also a very good preparation in order to track in the players all those
skills which are necessary for the future formation as a football player.
The initial selection must aim at, first of all, the somatic-functional and psycho-
motric development, the specific criteria for the football game being on a second plan. This
statement is sustained by the idea that the specialization of the athletes for the football game
starts in the second stage of training where the secondary selection is aimed at. Thus, in this
stage the specialists must aim at:
- tracking down and attraction of children to practise football;
- the identification of the players with skills and abilities to practice football;
- the determination of the childrens health state;
- tracking down possible problems in the physical development.
In order to increase as much as possible the basis of selection, of tracking dowm
and of attracting the children to practice football, those responsible for this process will
have to develop some fundamental actions in order to guarantee the success:
- to take part in the football competitions organised at the level of schools;
- to watch, in the parcs or playgrounds, the children who play football in their
free time;
- to witness the physical education classes in schools;
- to discuss with the teachers of physical education on the topic of tracking
down and guiding the children with skills and abilities in football, these being
the ones who can sportively orient the children during their classes;
- to organise at community level, in neighbourhoods, some competitions
through which to attract children to practise football;
- to discuss with the parents of the remarked children and who are to be
included in an organised training process.
D. Colibaba-Evule and I. Bota (1998, pp. 188-189), highlight the fact that
although the orientation and initial selection aims at well gifted children, physically and
applicability developed, we must not neglect the mass of children with an average
development in whom certain capacities have not defined their value yet. This is why,
the initial selection must be more indulgent letting enlist in the organised training process a
number of average children who are susceptible to obtain good sport results.

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Figure 5. The normal distribution of the school population according to the compatibility
of available performance
Source: D. Colibaba-Evule and I. Bota (1998, p. 189)

Even if it is considered the second stage of the selection process, the intermediate
selection represents the selection in which the specific criteria of football start to be more
and more worth than in the initial selection. This is possible especially due to the fact that
the process of training starts to be one specific for football, from this second stage starting
the specialisation for this game.
The objectives of this stage consist of:
- the determination of the level of somatic-functional development;
- the determination of the level of education and development of psycho-
somatic aptitudes;
- the appreciation of the level of development of aptitudes and skills specific for
the football game;
- the evaluation of the psychic development of the players;
- the placement of the players according to the players model on age level.
Once with the process of growing, becoming older and the cover of new training
stages, the secondary selection plays an important part in the exact identification of the
athletes with potential for the football game. A scientific, objective, strict selection must
have as result the keeping in the training process of those players with real chances of
getting in the high performance football and the least gifted to be re-oriented towards
other sport activities, if the case.

Naming the third stage of selection as the final selection is a mistake that
specialists of this field must try to avoid in the future. This denomination, in a moment
when the players only begin the performance football is more or less in contradiction with
the main characteristic of the selection process and namely: continuity. Talking about the
final selection we understand that this would be the last evaluation for the players. This is
Very poor Poor Average Good Very good

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totally untrue, the more so as the junior period, promoting to a senior team does not mean
the end of the selection process. This is permanently done until the end of the football
career, the playersevaluation in order to be maintained at certain teams, transfered from
one team to another or selected in the representative national teams is achieved on the basis
of some criteria which have in view the model of player highlighted at world level. This is
why, we consider this third stage as the performance stage, the players performance
being continuously appreciated, from a stage to another, from a year to another, in the case
of a transfer from one team to another.
Consequently, in this stage of selection we aim at:
- the determination of the health state of the playersbody;
- the determination of the functional level of the body;
- the determination of the level of aptitudes, abilities and skills specific for the
football game;
- the apreciation of the psychic development of the players;
- the evaluation of the psychic-motric aptitudes of the players;
- the comparison of the players potential with the model highlighted at world

When we want to achieve an action of selection we must clearly define the
purpose of that activity. Meaning, the reason of that selection:
a. For the identification and attraction of children with aptitudes and skills for
b. For the promotion of some players from one age group to a higher one or from
a merit level to a superior one?
c. For the formation of a representative team, on certain age groups, at local,
county, regional or national level?

Each selection action present certain particularities which should be taken into
account when we want to organise and unfold it in best conditions, hoping that finally the
achieved selection can be considered a success.

a. Selection actions for tracking down and attracting gifted players
This kind of activities are achieved in the centre, clubs or sport association, being
complementary to the situation in whch the children come alone or with their parents.
Usually there are two kinds of actions:
- spontaneous when the coaches find by chance in parcs or in the schoolyard,
children who are passioned about this sport and who have the necessary
- organised- in this case, the actions suppose some organisational measures well
established by those who achieve the selection, namely:
the identification of the age group for which the action of selection
takes place;
establishing the date, time and place where the action of selection
will be;

Fascicle III - Humanities-Social Sciences, Anul I, Nr. 1/2013

establishing the team of specialists responsible for the selection;
informing the local community about the organised action by the
mediatization of the selection action: in mass-media (local press,
local radio, local television, the web page of the club etc), in schools,
through discussions with the specialised teachers, with students, by
sharing some promotional materials (fliers, brochures, posters etc.).
the preparation of the material base and the equipments which are
necessary for the good development of the selection action;
inviting some famous players and coaches at the organised actions
and the popularization of their participation;
ensuring some promotional materials with the signs of the club in
order to be offered to the participants at the action of selection;
offering information referring to the means of transport with which
you can get to the place of the action.

b. Selection actions for the promotion to a superior level
This category of selection actions are achieved in the centres, clubs or sport
associations when the age requirements foreseen by the competitional system or the merit
level of players impose their passing in some superior groups. In fact, this internal selection
means to subject the players to a detailed evaluation by the interdisciplinary team of
specialists: coaches-doctors-psychologists. The evaluation has the role to highlight the
players potential at that moment, where he is placed as compared to the age model, if he is
in the graphic of a players formation established at the level of the centre for children and
juniors. These actions of selection are due to mobilize the players in the process of training,
through their means, the coaches can achieve certain hierarchies which can represent a
prize for their work for those with superior results but also a scolding for those with inferior
Each club has the obligation to organise and develop periodically some selection
actions trying even to attract other players to participate from outside the club, players who
are worthy and would be interesting for the club.

c. Selection actions for the formation of some representative teams
The formation of a representative team can be achieved at local, county, regional
or national level, thus, when we want to constitute such teams, in the action take part
players from different teams, having the same age level.
The convocations for this kind of actions are achieved by the Romanian Federation
of Football The Central Commission of Children and Juniors or by the County
Associations of Football/ The Municipal Association of Football Bucharest, on the basis of
some phone information or written convocations, sent to the head office of the players
These selection actions should be based, first of all, on an analysis of the
playersevaluation achieved by their club, subsequently they are assessed by the criteria
established at the level of representative national teams.

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Figure 6. The process of formation of junior representative teams

For this, the Federal School of Coaches should elaborate and impose the
observation of some models on age groups because as it is shown by A. Dragnea and S.
Mate-Teodorescu (2002, p. 112), the model represents an instrument with real diagnosis
functions and in the same time of prognosis of the young people availability for the
performance sport, of their possibilities of evolution towards the requirements of high

After our analysis, we have to highlight that this new vision of the selection
process must be strictly linked to the instructional-educational process, to all the
preparation stages in which the players are or the stages they pass through. It is high time to
surpass that phasing which finishes when the junior phase ends and the players accede to
seniors because the criteria of selection become tougher when we want to obtain high value
sport performances. Such a phasing of the selection process, according to the instruction
stages, can be observed in table 1 and the continuity of this selection process must be
extended until the end of the football career.

Table 1. The stages of the selection process
Age 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
stages of
Category Initiation
J D J C J B J A Seniors
stages of
Initial selection
Performance selection
of the

proposed for
the national
The larger
team of
The national
team on age
The players
Regional /

The players

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Apolzan, D. (1999). Fotbal 2010. Editura Federaiei Romne de Fotbal, Bucureti.
Bichescu, A.I. (2013). Fotbal: strategia instruirii n centrele de copii i juniori. Editura de
Vest, Timioara.
Cernianu, C. (1997), Fotbal. Teoria i practica jocului i antrenamentului modern. Editura
Fundaiei Romnia de Mine, Bucureti.
Colibaba-Evule D. & Bota I. (1998). Jocuri sportive teorie i metodic. Editura Aldin,
Dragnea A. & S. Mate-Teodorescu. (2002). Teoria Sportului. Editura FEST, Bucureti.
Drgan, I., (coord.), (1979), Selecia medico-biologic n sport. Editura Sport-Turism,
Drgan, I., (1996). Antrenamentul sportiv. Editura Didactic i pedagogic, Bucureti.
Moan, A.D. coord. (2011). Selecia pentru sportul de performan. Editura Discobolul,
Todea, S. F. (2006). Teoria sportului. Editura Fundaiei Romnia de Mine, Bucureti.

The Annals of Eftimie Murgu University of Reia


PhD. Lecturer Liliana DACICA


The paper analyses the increased importance of this motric quality, skillfulness,
applied both in the daily and sport life, which is developed during gymnasium, meaning
until 13-14 years old. Starting from the idea that any exercise which contains some new
aspects can contribute to the development of skillfulness it was necessary to do some small
adjustments according to the level of instruction. The most efficient were the asymmetric
exercises achieved with the unskillful segment, the exercises on music because they were
achieved in its rhythm, the applied elements because they use life skills, relay races and
sport games because the competition stimulates. The achieved study is a real work
instrument which helps us at the level of the physical education and sport department for
the projecting of skillfulness as a learning unit at each class level.

KEYWORDS: motric qualities, skillfulness, pupils, sport preparation

D. Colibaba-Evule, L. Dacica, i A.I. Bichescu (2011) consider that sport
activities contribute to the bio-psycho-motric development of young people and the
formation of the pupils capacity to act on these individually or in group, independently or
organized, with a prophylactic, educational or recreational purpose. The involved human
resource teacher-parent-pupil has the most important role in the promotion of physical
education and sport activities. The sport preparation of pupils in school represents an
integrant part of the physical education system and extra-school activities corresponding to
the present requirements. This form applied in the secondary school, scientifically achieved
has an influence on the development and physical preparation of pupils representing a way
to cultivate the sport talents.
The motric qualities are features of the human body. They are not acquired but the
people are born with certain coefficients of motric qualities. These coefficients are
developed through a special process of instruction up to a certain age, then they start to
decrease in a differentiated rhythm. Gh. Crstea (1997) considers that motric qualities are
of two types: basic motric qualities, respectively speed, force, skillfulness, resistance and

Lecturer PhD., University Eftimie Murgu of Resita, Romnia, lilianadacica@yahoo.com
ANUL I, NR. 1/2013, ISSN 2286 0711, ISSN-L 2286 0711

Fascicle III - Humanities-SocialSciences, Anul I, Nr. 1/2013

specific motric qualities Skillfulness is an individuals aptitude to learn fast a new
movement, being in this case synonymous with elementary motric competence according
to Matveev i Novikov (1980). According to I. iclovan (1979) and M. Epuran (1977) it is
a very complex motric quality which contains an assembly of qualities according to E.
Scarlat i M.B. Scarlat (2002): coordination, mobility, gracefulness, balance, space
orientation and it represents the bodys capacity to act and do complex motric actions
precisely achieved in space and time.
The paper presents the increased importance of this motric quality, applied both in
the daily and sport life which is developed during the secondary school, meaning until 13-
14 years old. It has a character of general manifestation which is present in all the motric
acts starting with the simple ones, such as walking (coordinating the action of arms with
that of legs) and a character specific for the sport branches, according to the complexity
degree of these ones. It can be manifested isolated by coordination in simple motric acts but
also in the service of other motric qualities especially speed of reaction and execution.
Skillfulness can be practiced in any moment of the lesson, during the whole period of the
year both outdoors and indoors. It was much improved in the process of formation of
motric skills and competences, thus any motric act or motric action can directly or
indirectly contribute to the development of skillfulness, if it aims at least one of its
component elements. We have mostly pursued simultaneously more component elements
both in general skillfulness met in: utilitarian motric skills, basic motric skills, specific
(sport, professional) motric skills, and in specific skillfulness in sport tests and branches
(the spears, fighters, handball players, runners, basketball players, acrobats,
motorcyclists, the pianists skillfulness, if we speak about the skillfulness dependent on
certain utilitarian motric actions) but also the skillfulness in the service of other motric
Starting from the idea that any exercise which contains new aspects can contribute
to the development of skillfulness, some small adjustments were needed to be done
according to the level of ambidexterity execution, the change of frequency and rhythm of
movement , the execution of exercises in ever changing conditions, the combination of
exercises with technical elements from structures with enhanced complexity degree,
hindering the exercises with supplementary movements, the application of skills and
competences in new conditions.
In the selection of action means we have used the pedagogical principles: from simple to
complex, from easy to difficult, from known to unknown and the action technology for the
development of skillfulness in the gymnasium contained:
- simple or complex motric acts which have solicited the coordination of segments;
- technical procedures and structures in handball, basketball, football, gymnastics,
tumbling, jumps and some athletic trials;
- relay races and dynamic games especially conceived with certain dominants;
- games with different objects (balls, sticks, cords, circles, pegs);
- simple and complex balance exercises, using different objects;
- Relay races with passages over and between obstacles.
The most efficient were the asymmetrical exercises achieved with the unskillful
segment, the exercises on music because they were executed on its rhythm, the applied
elements because they use life competences, the relay races and sport games the

The Annals of Eftimie Murgu University of Reia

competition stimulates and the special action for the development of skillfulness has also
involved different percentages the education of other motric qualities. The neglect of the
adequate preparation of this quality can visibly affect the qualitative level of execution of
different procedures and technical elements specific to the sport branches. For the grades 7
and 8 where we had a high level of motric qualities the length of the acquirement was
shortened and where we had a low level (the grade 5 and 6) the length of the process was
We have planned an education of skillfulness for each class according to the data
obtained according to:
- the initially determined values by measurements at the beginning of the preparation
period or every time the content of the action system was changed; example: the
execution of some basic motric skills or specific to some complex sport branches in
condition of speed, resistance or force.
- the intermediate values where the initial partial or total tests were repeated at the end
of a certain preparation period. These values gave us the guarantee that we are on a
good way or not, thus the maintenance or modification of the system of used means.
- the final values which refer to the tests at the end of the year or of the preparation
period and which show us the activity efficiency. These values become for the next
period either comparison elements or initial values and as methods we have used:
1. The achievement of some acts or motric actions in relatively constant
conditions, used in the initiation period in the framework of motric learning
- the acquisition of new acts determines the increase of the motric volume which
constitutes the basic factor which conditions the value of skillfulness;
- by the specific solicitations that the learning action involves it ameliorates the
activity of analyzers and it adjusts different functions of the body involved in the
- The perceptions and motric representations are enhanced by improving the
capacity of motric adequacy for the given situations. Along with the establishment,
the consolidation of motric acts, their achievement is automatically done and the
influence on the development of skillfulness significantly diminishes.
2. The achievement of acts, motric actions in hindered conditions (it was achieved
by the gradual enhancement of execution difficulties and the movement structures)
- the modification of the initial execution positions,
- the modification of the execution succession of different motric skills,
- the change of the execution rhythm,
- the decrease of the work space dimensions,
- the increase of the number of executions on the same space,
- the introduction of some tasks of supplementary work,
- motric structures and skills in 2, 3 or more pupils
- motric actions in the presence of passive, semi-active and active opponents
- motric structures in conditions of increased effort.
3. The achievement of some acts, motric actions in variable conditions of
- movement games, relay races, applied pathways

Fascicle III - Humanities-SocialSciences, Anul I, Nr. 1/2013

For the efficient application of methodic procedures of developing skillfulness, the
accent was put on the continuous enlargement of the pupils; motric experience, the
motric structures of the presented exercises had a higher degree of difficulty. The
repose intervals (the breaks between repetitions) were long enough in order to allow
the bodys recovery after the achieved effort and they had an active character in order
to keep the central nervous system in excitability state. The sport materials used:
gymnastics benches, beams, semi-elastic springboards, circles, balls, cords, sticks, gym
box, mattresses etc.
Examples of exercises:
a) Coordination exercises:
- standing elevation on tiptoes and descending on heels simultaneously with the
achievement of symmetric and asymmetric movements with the arms and the
- standing moving, steps forward and backward with asymmetric movements at
each step;
- standing - the rotation of the arms upwards and then squat, raising with a leg
supported on the tiptoe backwards and the arms raised;
b) Exercises for the development of mobility and gracefulness:
- tiptoe arms rotation with a bending of knees;
- standing backwards to a fixed ladder, caught at the wood lath at shoulder level, step
forward with a pronounced extension of the body and come-back;
- by twos, one pupil in kneeling position, the other one executes the bridge over him
- by twos staying back to back legs distant, arms laterally, hands in hands:
simultaneously twist right-left;
- laid down on the belly, arms stretched holding the ends of a stick; extensions and
twists of the body;
- faced - hanged on a fixed ladder: lateral balancing of the body;
- standing repeated bending of the body laterally with the arms raised;
- balance from the position knelt on one knee and from standing position;
- different rolling;
For the articulation of the shoulders:
- free balance, alternating an arm raised, the other one behind;
- free balance and simultaneous movement of the arms up and backwards through
- free rotation alternating one arm and both arms simultaneously;
- by twos face to face, one executes the rotation of an arm and the other one helps by
enhancing the amplitude of the rotation;
For the articulation of the hips:
- standing on a leg: the rotation of the leg inwards and outwards;
- sitting on a knee, the other leg stretched behind: successive raising of the stretched
c) Balance exercices

- criss-crossed tiptoeing on a traced line on the ground
- tiptoeing, squat, faced or back to the ground, on the gym bench on the broad side;

The Annals of Eftimie Murgu University of Reia

- standing with a stick kept vertically in balance on the palm;
- standing on one leg, the other one stretched ahead, making a circle
- running interposed with simple and double pirouettes;
d) Exercises for the development of skillfulness, soliciting two or more components of
this one:
- walking, at the signal jump on the vertical and speed running 8-10 m;
- slow running in a line, at the signal squat, turning around180 acceleration;
- running by twos- at each signal the pupils change places laterally;
- individual walking leading a ball with the leg simultaneously with the rotation of the
- throwing the ball upwards, rolling ahead and catching the ball before it touches the
- continuous running over different objects (bench, filled balls, fences etc.) throwing
and catching a ball;
- in pairs face to a wall, one with a ball. This pupil throws the ball with different
intensities, trajectories and angles in the wall while the partner tries to catch it without
touching the ground, after which the roles are reversed;
- jumps with legs apart simultaneously with clapping hands ahead and backwards;
- by twos face to face: passes with the basketball simultaneously with hitting a plastic
ball with the leg;
- cord jumps with movement ahead, backwards, laterally with a maximal speed 10-
- cord jumps keeping legs crossed then with alternative change of crossing and the
change of the way of handling the cord.
e) Relay races and games for the development of skillfulness
- the players compete by rolling a circle on a given track;
- the pupils divided on groups execute shuttle passes by moving towards the front
queue, crossing several obstacles variously disposed;
- relay race with two obstacles, one led with the hand, the other one with the leg;
- relay race with two obstacles, one led with dexterous hand and the other one under
the armpit;
- two teams in a range, in front of each team we draw on the ground 2 circles at 1 m
distance from each other, in one of the circles we put a number of tennis balls, their
number being equal to the number of the pupils in a group and a ball; at the signal the
first pupil runs, takes the ball, throws it upwards and before it reaches the ground, he
moves a tennis ball from one circle to the other one, catching the ball which he puts on
the ground and he runs at the end of the queue;
- relay race the doer passes alternatively and continuously a ball under each
stretched leg that he/she raises;
- the race on starshaped numbers. The pupils divided into several groups are put in
queues in the form of a star; the pupils of each group being numbered the teacher
calls a number, all the pupils who have that number run to the right in a circle,
each one passing through the empty place of each group;

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- The pupils on groups having in front of them a different object at a signal they
turn 180 and run until they hear another signal when they stop in squat, head on
the knees, the objects are changed and differently disposed. At the next signal, all
the pupils come back and they gather on groups around their own object.
- Exercises for the 5
and 6
grades, for learning and consolidation of the technical
procedures in handball, acrobatic gymnastics, jumps on apparatus and other
athletic trials.
- Exercises for the consolidation and improvement of technical-tactical structures
for the 7
and 8
grades, in handball, football, basketball, acrobatic gymnastics
jumps on apparatus and some athletic trials.

1. Skillfulness has an important role in the development of the mans individual
2. The motric qualities give the continuous state and physical condition of each
3. There is no age limit for the beginning, education of motric qualities and there are
only adequate means and methods.
4. The achieved study is a work instrument which helps us at the level of the
department of physical sport and education having in view the projecting of the
skillfulness at each class level.
5. The establishment of the action means and the achievement of the unitary lesson
plans ensure a continuity in preparation;
6. The physical education in school during the classes must be completed by the free
time sport activity which supposes the same sanogenic objectives.


Crtea, Gh., (1997), Educaia fizic Teoria i bazele metodicii, Editura Bucureti, p. 89.
Colibaba-Evule, D., Dacica, L., Bichescu, A., Strategic Development Project for Specific
Activities of the Sport for all in Cara-Severin County. Journal of Social Sciences
7 (3): 326-330, July 2011, ISSN 1549-3652, Imprint: ELSEVIER, pp. 326-330.
Dacica, L., (2009), Implicarea familiei n educaia fizic a copilului. Revista coala Cara-
Severinean - Didactica Seminar european, Reia, mai 2009, ediia a XVIII-a,
ISSN:1583-5529, p.12.
Epuran, M., (1976), Psihologia educaiei fizice, Editura Sport-Turism, Bucureti.
M.E.C.,(2001), Ghid metodologic de aplicare a programei de educaie fizic i sport
nvmnt gimnazial, Editura Aramis Print SRL.
M.E.C.,(1999), Programe colare pentru clasele V-VIII Aria curricular educaie fizic i
sport, Bucureti.
Novikov, A.D., Matveev, L.P., (1980), Teoria i metodica educaiei fizice, Editura Sport -
Turism, Bucureti, p. 89.
Rdoi, M., Dacica, L., Bichescu, A. (2011). The role of extra-curricular sport-recreative
activities in the education and formation of young people, 4th Annual International

The Annals of Eftimie Murgu University of Reia

Conference: Physical Education, Sport and Health, Pitesti, 18th-19th of November
2011, Pitesti, Romania, Scientific Report Series Physical Education and Sport, Nr.
15 (1/2011), ISSN: 1453-1194, p. 918-921.
Scarlat, E. Scarlat, M.B. (2002). Educaie fizic i sport, Editura Didactic i Pedagogic,
Bucureti, p.141.
iclovan, I., (1979). Teoria educaiei fizice i sportului, Editura Sport - Turism, Bucureti,

Fascicle III - Humanities-Social Sciences, Anul I, Nr. 1/2013


Zoltan KISS


The present paper presents the main causes of accidents on the ski slopes. In
order to do this, we have started from the fact that the number of people practising skiing is
higher and higher and thus, the number of accidents has increased as well.

KEY WORDS : alpine skiing, accidents, factors

Every day the number of persons practising skiing increases. The lack of
information regarding the difficulty of some tracks, the state of the snow, the appearance of
some obstacles on the slope (crevice, avalanches, rocks, logs) can contribute to the
occurence of accidents on the slope. Likewise, the poor technique and an inadequate degree
of physical preparation lead to injuries and can put in danger the integrity of other
participants as well (I. Matei, 1988).
On the other side, big crowds and the chaos which rules in the slopes traffic on
weekends requires us to know some elementary traffic rules without which the danger of
accidents is permanently present and the organisation of a training activity is totally
compromised. Thus, on all the slopes in the world there are measures taken for the safety of
those who practise skiing:
- Traffic indicators;
- Ambulances with the necessary instruments;
- Salvamont teams;
- The unfolding of an educational work among those who practise skiing.
In many skiing resorts in Austria, Switzerland, France, Germany, there are skiing
traffic agents who supervise a correct traffic on the slopes and they forbid the imprudent

Asist.Phd student., Faculty of Theology, Social Sciences and Education, Eftimie Murgu
University of Resita, Romania, e-mail z.kiss@uem.ro
ANUL I, NR. 1/2013, ISSN 2286 0711, ISSN-L 2286 0711

The Annals of Eftimie Murgu University of Reia

people to attempt on the other peoples security. The legislation in force has effect in the
case of accidents, the guilty people being subject to the strictness of law.

2. The causes of accidents occurence in alpine skiing
Despite all the efforts done in order to prevent the accidents and the limitation of
their consequences, a part of risk will always exist when practising skiing. The accidents
can be caused either by a technical error of the skier or by other factors which escape from
his/her control. Putting the skis on a wrong cant, the straddling or the dangling of skis
(which leads to impacts and brutal torsions), the occurence of an obstacle in front of the
skier are unpleasant situations which can have tragic results (I. Matei, 1988).
The skiing requires a maximum concentration during the whole duration of the
activity. This problem requires a special importance when we work with children, knowing
that their capacity of concentration cannot be maintained on a long period of time. This is
the reason why, the self-preservation instinct is less developed in children, their vital force
and courage being very often difficult to be stopped. However, without stopping these
qualities, otherwise indispensable for a skier, it is recommended to temper the
supererogation, especially when the technical baggage and the level of physical preparation
are poor. There is also another category, that of the prudent beginners who, fearing the
field and speed, prefere to ski out-of-the-way, thus, exposing themselves to injuries.
Among the main factors which predispose to accidents we can enumerate:
The lack of a medical examination before practising skiing. Duly tracking down
certain anatomic-physiologic deficiencies or even of psychologic origin, sight
deficiencies, deficient neuromuscular coordination etc eliminates the danger
represented by the presence of these deficient people on the slopes and prevents
them on the risk they take by skiing. There are also some temporarily disabled
people, for whom the skiing represents a remedy. They must be carefully guided
and strictly supervised.
Deficiencies of the locomotive apparatus and lack of muscular control. The skier
must have well-developed muscular and ligament support if we take into account
the solicitation of the locomotive apparatus (pressures, torsions, concussions), the
nature of the static and dynamic effort, speed. Unequality of the inferior members
length, articular laxity or other bones or ligament deficiencies can favourise the
accidents. On the other side, even if the muscles are well developed, the skier must
have a permanent control of his/her musclar contractions, especially during falls
when the total relaxation or crispening can lead to severe injuries.
Poor level of general physical preparation and lack of warming-up before effort.It
is recommended that before starting the proper activity to achieve a warming-up of
the body for the effort.

Fascicle III - Humanities-Social Sciences, Anul I, Nr. 1/2013

The use of a poorly adapted material. The quality of the material, the length of the
skis and of the ski sticks, the adjustment of the ties, the maintainance and waxing
of skis are elements which must not be neglected. It is recommended that the
beginners should use shorter skis. The competition ski has its exigencies, the ties,
the boots and other accessories being particularised for each person.
The insufficient development of the technique. The coordination capacity of a skier
develops only progressively once with the mastery of the technique and the
gathering of experience. The enrichment of the technical baggage and knowing all
the elements connected directly or indirectly to skiing increase the coefficient of
personal safety.
The tiredness excess. The skiers who do not know when to stop, increasing the
number of descents, enhancing the difficulties, skiing without pause, are the most
exposed to accidents. Another category is formed by the beginners, who due to the
strain, they get tired very fast. According to ski specialist Bekett Horvath, almost
50% of the accidents happen to beginners.
According to the achieved researches, we have reached the conclusion that
regarding the hour of the accidents, 10-15% of them happen at the end of the
morning, 30% occur between 1-3 p.m and around 80% from the number of
accidents happed between 5-6 p.m.
A survey of the injured people has highlighted the fact that the highest number of
accidents coccur in the week-end when the slopes are too crowded. During the
winter holiday camps, most accidents occur on the first day of ski, on the fourth
day from the arrival (when the tiredness phenomenon appears) and on the last day
when the participants overestimate their possibilities.
Improper layout of the slopes and the snow of poor quality. Skiing on the
improvised slopes around trees, on very rough slopes with hidden obstacles, in
poor visibility conditions, in a snow storm or on spring snow, without having the
neccessary skills and knowledge, represents a big danger.
Overestimation of ones possibilities and the speed excess.
Not observing the elementary norms of traffic on slopes.

The ski practice supposes a good physical condition and knowing the basic notions
in order to avoid some prospect accidents. The most injuries are recorded because of the
disrespect of safety rules, because of the inapropriate equipment or due to the poor
preparation (P. Bania, 2005). In this direction, the International Ski Federation has
imposed some rules on the ski slopes which must be respected by the snowborders and the
skiers.. First of all, the speed should be adapted according to the state of the slope, of
weather conditions and the degree of preparation. The person in front of you always has
priority. Likewise, the skis ties should be adjusted correctly and before practising skiing,

The Annals of Eftimie Murgu University of Reia

you should do some exercises to firm your muscles. Over 50% of the injuries happen to
legs, especially knees, more precisely ligaments. Although the equipemnt is advanced (ties,
ski boots, ski sticks, gloves), still the most frequently met injuries are at interior lateral
ligament, meniscus, cross ligament because of rotative injuries, front falls and back falls.
Fortunately, the construction of modern ski-boots allows the prevention of fractures at the
ankles level. In the same time, the ties protect against both front and back falls. Thus, there
are ski boots and ties which open up in time and do not allow the knee to follow the
abnormal rotation of the ski, thus, saving the skier from the accidents. In the case of using
the helmets, the statistics have proved that the head accidents have decreased with 40%.
This is why, the helmets are recommended not only for children (obligatory until 12 years)
but also for adults.

In order to prevent the ski accidents, it is important to choose correctly the
equipment and the slope appropriate for your level of preparation and to respect the norms
and regulations on the slopes and ski, but also to respect them outside the slopes.


Andersen, R.E. & Montgomery, D., L. (1988) Physiology of Alpine Skiing, Sport Medicine.
Bania. P. (2005). Specializare schi-curs. Timioara.
Br,M. (1999). Schiul pentru toi. Editura Stadion, Bucureti.
Berry,W. (1984) The Great Nord American Schi Book. Charles Scribners, New York
Nagy.E. & Nagel. A. & Domoko. M. (2006) Aspecte teoretice i practice ale schiului
modern. Editura Universitii de Vest, Timioara.
Yacenda, J. (1992), Alpine skiing-steps to succes. Leisure Press, Illinois.

Fascicle III - Humanities-Social Sciences, Anul I, Nr. 1/2013


Roxana Emanuela MILCU


The volleyball game, together with other sport games represent one of the means
of achieving the objectives of physical education in school, framed in the general
methodology of teaching and learning of this game. It is in a permanent evolution, adapting
the instruction methods and the preparation means, respecting the general principles of
applying them.
In the volleyball game, the motric qualities (speed, handiness, force, resistance)
are in an interdependance, overlaping and mutual conditioning relationships manifesting
as a result of the combination between two or more motric qualities speed in resistance
service, force in speed service, handiness in resistance and speed service etc.
The practical research regarding the problems of the paper was based on an
experiment on a number of 18 pupils. For this experimental group we worked with a
special stress on learning and consolidation of technical procedures, of developing the
necessary motric qualities for this game using exercises and structures of adequate

KEY WORDS: volleyball, game, motric qualities, consolidation.

The volleyball game, together with other sport games represent one of the means
of achieving the objectives of physical education in school, framed in the general
methodology of teaching and learning of this game. It is in a permanent evolution, adapting
the instruction methods and the preparation means, respecting the general principles of
applying them.

Assistant teacher at EftimieMurgu University, Reia, PhD candidate ANEFS Bucureti,
e-mail: mlcroxana@yahoo.com
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The Annals of Eftimie Murgu University of Reia

Due to the multiple and complex aspects which must be solved in the framework
of the learning process, we must appeal to principles, methods, organisation forms and
adequate means which should ensure a maximum efficiency. This is why, the optimization
of learning and consolidation of game actions in volleyball during the physical education
class in gymnasium and the aware participation of the pupil become stringent requirements.
This paper tries to contribute to the improvement of physical education activity
and the achievement of physical education objectives in gymnasium, at the same time,
constituting a plea for the approach of volleyball in the physical education class.

It was intended to verify if, by optimizing the learning means and consolidation of
actions game in volleyball, the possibilities of expression for pupils in the bilateral game
(4x4, 6x6) will record increased coefficients of efficiency.
The technique of volleyball game consists in knowing the following game actions:
1. Postitions and movement in the field
2. Pass
3. Kicking with both hands from below (taking up)
4. Plunge
5. Service
6. Attack kick
7. Block
In the volleyball game, the motric qualities (speed, handiness, force, resistance) are
in an interdependance, overlaping and mutual conditioning relationships manifesting as a
result of the combination between two or more motric qualities speed in resistance
service, force in speed service, handiness in resistance and speed service etc. This supposes
a development of all motric qualities with a stress on the dominant ones. The specific
motric qualities which are based on multilateral physical preparation must be in accordance
with the structure of the volleyball game and with the characteristics of effort.
The practical research regarding the problems of the paper was based on an
experiment on a number of 18 pupils. For this experimental group we worked with a special
stress on learning and consolidation of technical procedures, of developing the necessary
motric qualities for this game using exercises and structures of adequate exercises.
In the experiment, we have used the following tests of physical and technical
1. Speed:
- movement forward-backward 6x6 metres
- movement 6x4 metres lateral-left-right
2. High jump on both feet
3. Throwing the 2 kg medicative ball
4. Resistance: successive jumps on both feet from the ground over an obstacle

Fascicle III - Humanities-Social Sciences, Anul I, Nr. 1/2013

Table 1


6x4 m (sec)
6x6 m (sec)
ce (nr
1. B.A.
28 33 11.6 11.2 14 13.5 24 26 5.09 5.31
2. B.E.
22 30 10.2 9.6 13.4 12.9 24 25 6.41 6.63
3. C.V.
29 30 10.8 10.2 14.4 13.9 32 33 6.09 6.22
4. F.O.
30 35 10.7 10.1 14.2 13.7 26 28 6.73 6.89
5. F.V.
30 33 10.3 10 14.4 13.9 27 28 6.11 6.25
6. G.G.
20 26 10.8 10.4 14.8 14.5 22 23 6.15 6.70
7. L.D.
32 38 10.7 10.2 13.4 12.9 20 23 5.51 5.70
8. M.M.
22 26 11 10.6 14.2 14.2 19 21 5.21 5.30
9. P.A.
29 33 10.5 10.1 14.3 13.9 18 21 6.63 6.76
10. P.M.
23 27 10.9 10.6 15 14.7 16 19 4.95 5.05
11. P.F.
28 34 10.8 10.4 13.8 13.2 20 22 6 6.15
12. P.C.
28 33 10.7 10.3 13.8 13.3 18 21 6.51 6.74
13. P.I.
40 47 9 8.6 13 12.4 50 55 6.82 7.04
14. P.R.
33 39 10.1 9.6 12.2 11.9 40 45 6.79 7.01
15. T.G.
25 31 10.8 10.2 14.2 13.8 23 25 6.51 6.70
16. U.I.
27 33 11 10.6 14.8 14.2 18 20 6.49 6.63
17. U.N.
28 32 10.7 10.3 13.5 13.1 19 21 6.61 6.80
18. V.E.
30 32 10.6 10.2 14 13.5 21 23 5.27 5.33

28 32.8
10.6 10.1 13.9 13.1 24.
6.12 6.33
4.67 4.56 0.02
550 0.66
0.22 1.76 4.96 6.21 13.
8.99 10.5

Figure 1. High jump on both feet
High jump on both
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18


The Annals of Eftimie Murgu University of Reia

After the research, we have reached the following conclusions:
1. The initiation in the volleyball game must start as soon as possible (from the 3rd or
4th grade), because only in this way we can acquire the game actions and in the
same time in the framework of competitions they are much better, the length of
preparation being 6 years.
2. It is a must have to take into account the application of exercises and structures of
exercises for the learning and consolidation of the game, because only where the
technical-tactical procedure was acquired, we can consolidate; where it was
incorrectly acquired we obtain a deformation of the game.
3. Playing with a ball creates very special affective states to the pupil, the
intervention of the ball being an important impulse which contributed very much
to the possibility of increasing and proportioning of effort so that the pupils do not
feel the tiredness.


Bc, O. (1999). Volleybal. Editura Universitatea din Oradea, Oradea.
Colibaba. (1998). Jocuri sportive-Teorie i metodic. Editura Aldin, Bucureti.
Dragnea, A. (1984). Msurarea i evaluarea n educaie fizic i sport. Editura Sport-
Turism, Bucureti.
Dragnea, A. & Bota, A. (1999). Teoria aciunilor motrice. Editura Didactic i pedagogic,
Grdinaru, S., Voicu, S. (1996). Jocuri motrice pregtitoare pentru nvarea voleiului n
coal. Editura Mirton, Timioara.
Herczeg, L. (1995). Teoria educaiei fizice i sportului. Editura Mirton, Timioara.
Scarlat, E. (1993). Educaia fizic a copiilor de vrst colar. Editura Sport-Turism,
Teodorescu, L. (1975). Probleme de teorie i metodic n jocurile sportive. Editura Sport-
Turism, Bucureti.

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Gianina Ctlina PRODAN

Lavinia Maria NIULESCU


The theory curriculum in Romania is characterized by methodological pluralism
and theoretical evidence in a symphony of voices, each voice trying to proclaim the
superiority of theoretical and practical utility. Romanian teachers have adopted the word
"curriculum" have conceptualized; they established extensive semantic coordinates,
intermediate and restricted stating viewpoints sometimes different about "curriculum
theory".Thus, the success of a curricular model, however, is determined by its impact on
the educational practice. These points have determined us to analyse, within this paper the
curricular models, according to which, the schools and teachers from the Western Region
of Romania, orient themselves towards implementing and developing the curricular offer.
The conclusions of this research highlight the theoretical and methodological pluralism,
but also a unitary vision on educational goals.

KEY WORDS: educational phylosophy, educational curriculum, curricular
model, educational reform.

The reform of educational process from Romania began in early 1990 with
measures to purge ideology from school (Bocos and Jucan, 2008, 22). Since that time Sorin
Cristea teacher, teacher training reforms, proposed to seize all power sources on education,
"interdisciplinary design plans, programs and textbooks in order to correlate information
and achieve operational transfer of methods, concepts, and points view etc. Trans-
disciplinary ... opening required for coordination by a common goal, to school tomorrow,
based on the principle of lifelong learning (Cristea 1991, 57). However, major gaps within
the system and willingness to adapt to European standards, requiring an intensive process,
often characterized as tumultuous and spontaneous

Lecturer PhD., University Eftimie Murgu of Resita, Romnia, g.prodan@uem.ro
Lecturer PhD., University Eftimie Murgu of Resita, Romnia, l.nitulescu@uem.ro
ANUL I, NR. 1/2013, ISSN 2286 0711, ISSN-L 2286 0711

The Annals of Eftimie Murgu University of Reia

After 18 years of reform, Romanian teacher I. Negre Dobridor analyzes, the first
book in Romania focused on curriculum theory, efforts made in terms of two key
processes: development of curriculum and curricular optimization (Negre - Dobridor 2008,
190). According to his opinion, in Romania's case we are not dealing with a "curriculum
development" because it was not designed a completely new curriculum, but a number of
components. Furthermore, consider that the Romanian school teacher had not improved at
times, through assimilation of "forms without substance", "Romanian school should be
optimized." Thus, enhancements and improvements are accused by teachers of being
"benign, but insufficient to establish a school of the future" (Idem, 191). His accusations
based on an analysis of national reform limits repercussions on the entire undergraduate
school population. Expected impacts listed in curricular documents were not "closely
correlated with socio-economic trends and technological Romanian society for the next 20-
30 years" (Idem, 191). Moreover, the Romanian curriculum documents ignored unintended
effects of several bad decisions. These decisions were due, in part, involved in curriculum
change, with outstanding specialists, a few "amateurs".
In concept of I. Negre- Dobridor teacher reform generated a real confusion,
mainly through the curriculum using the term "abusive and quite often, wrong."
Contemporary Romanian teachers have not been spared the dilemma flow neologisms,
"except for a few elite theorists, Romanian teachers were surprised by curricular bomb
blast" (Idem, 16).
The influences on the public policies generated by the discussions and disputes
regarding the efficiency of the curricular actions have had a direct involvement on an often
neglected aspect: the utility of research. The specialty literature proposes a multitude of
beautiful theories, idealistic ones, however, important remains the practical utility.It is
obvious discrepancy between reality and the ideal theoretical educational practice set out in
the work of the curriculum. C. Cuco that "ideology and philosophy explicit teaching
National Curriculum fall on a line postmodern deconstruction of the ideal of a single,
aggregated and sweepstakes" (Cuco 2006, 182). In practice, however, even the term
education curriculum is approved by teachers, much less a postmodern vision. The
emphasis is mostly on imported non-reflective educational content of programs and
textbooks and happiness where the curriculum objectives and competences.

The teachers from the West Region consider education and training as summing:
- Real learning experiences correlated with the needs and expectancies of this
- A scientific content, directed through clear, ordered and rigorous objectives,
- Human values,
- Traditions and history,
- Personal and social empowerment.
Teachers from the West Region of Romania agree and mostly agree with
educational philosophies that influenced and still influence education. Differences in
perceptions and agreement between the five philosophies are not meaningful. The highest
score registered was for experimentalism, fact which suggests that at the level of practice
community, the accent is put on real learning experiences, on a post-modern approach of

Fascicle III - Humanities-Social Sciences, Anul I, Nr. 1/2013

teaching and learning, visible in the way of thinking about education and society. The
closest score to this one was the one obtained for realism which may suggest the perception
of a scientific education, characterized by objectives, order and rigour. This aspect may also
be correlated to the history and specific of a national education, but also with an initial and
continuous formation of teachers. The points offered for idealism suggest the need for
teaching and promoting education and training. The presence of traditionalism and
existentialism in equal percentages shows a conservation of educational practice, but also
openness towards postmodernism in education, flexibility towards subjectivity and towards
the human specific and the will to empower education.

Diagram 1 - Educational philosophies of teachers form
the West Region

Source: Prodan G. C., 2013

1. traditionalism
2. idealism
3. realism
4. experimentalism
5. existentialism

P. Jackson analyses this problem in terms of permission and capacity: Who can
afford nowadays (.) to consider himself only humanist, only a self-actualizer, exclusively
social Reconceptualist or strictly academic? (Jackson, 1992, p.17). The answer is
categorically No one! Each of us has particular ideologies. Thus we respect a
methodological and paradigmatic pluralism. If all of us could be Reconceptualist, the
general preoccupation would be an implication in understanding education through creative
and critical demarches. But conceptualists are also engaged in creative and critical
educational actions.
It is difficult to adopt only one philosophy traditionalist, contemporaneous,
pragmatic, idealist, existentialist because not just one philosophy serves as guide
exclusively for education. All intellectual voices are interesting, but practitioners will
legitimate their use in educational practice. At the end, practitioners will decide which
philosophy offers the best advice for practice.
The curricular model of application and development, confirmed at the scale of the
practical community is founded on rational principles, open towards flexibility, dynamism,
sensibility for the great human values. R. W. Tylers conception (1949), based on
progressiveness (highlighting the needs of the educated, using scientific procedures, the
principles are applied in various situations) and behaviourism (the importance of behaviour
objectives), is presently a marker for the educational practice in Romania. This influence
may be due to the fact that Tylers rational model embraces a real spirit of the practical

The Annals of Eftimie Murgu University of Reia

Curricular models by which teachers in the Western Region of Romania work are
focused on developing curricular offer provides a diversity methodological activities aimed
at designing, implementing and evaluating curriculum.

Diagram 2
Curricular models from the Western Region

Source: Prodan G. C., 2013
1- Bobbitts curricular model
2- Bobbitts and Charters
curricular model
3- Tylers curricular model
4- Hilda Tabas curricular
5- Walkers naturalist
curricular model
6- McGees dynamic curricular
7- Comprehensive curricular

Thus, in educational practice in schools in the Western Region, a model
curriculum and meets the following means:
Vision multidimensional complex realizing the educational impossible
characterized by a single design.
targeted goals a reality, translated into scientific content, shaped by modern
methods and techniques and evaluated through effective strategies,
experiential learning, coupled with the demands of society, real learning
actions, statements of teaching, learning , assessment , in close interaction and
interdependence , forms and continuous reformulation , process open to change,
a technical process in which the main scientific result is professional preparation
for adult roles,
A deliberative process with respect to subjectivity and human specific.

To educate critical thinking necessary in forming a conception curricular teacher I.
Negre Dobridor suggestion is welcome, the deconstruction of the myth of "curriculum":
"What dazzles the Romanian educational literature is actually almost hallucinatory:
presentation of curriculum theory as a unified discipline and infallible panacea. However,
evidence cacophony of voices, cannot be considered far as universal cure of diseases
practice, curriculum theory simply because not possessed and do not possess this recipe yet
miraculous. "Option to start right from the "bricks thinking curriculum: concepts, basic
ideas, backgrounds etc." It is overwhelmed by the abundance of Educators useful
conceptualization of curriculum theory (Negre Dobridor 2008, 16).

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The success of a curricular theory is determined by its impact on the educational
practice. However, the attempt to impose a general theory does not confer efficiency, for
the dynamic of the field does not offer the fundament to the endurance of decisions. It is
important to discover the essence, the axis from which we can develop a curriculum, in
concordance with the national specific and the international evolutions.


Boco M. & Jucan D. (2008). Fundamentele pedagogiei. Teoria i metodologia
curriculum-ului. Piteti: Paralela 45.
Bobbitt F. (1918). The Curriculum. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
Cristea S. (1991). Pai spre reforma colii. Editura Didactic i Pedagogic, Bucureti.
Cuco C. (2006). Pedagogie (ediia a II-a revizuit i adugit). Editura Polirom, Iai.
Jackson P. (ed). (1992). Handbook of research on curriculum. Macmillan, New York, p.17
Negre - Dobridor I. (2008).Teoria general a curriculumului educaional. Editura Polirom,
Taba H. (1962). Curriculum Development: Theory and Practice. New York: Harcourt
Brace Jovanovich.
Tyler R.W. (1949). Basic Principles of Curriculum and Instruction. Chicago: University of
Chicago Press.

The Annals of Eftimie Murgu University of Reia


Gianina Ctlina PRODAN


Recent debates have brought into question the relevance of university studies. Low
percentages of employability on the labor market, low percentages of civic participation
require approaches to reconsider educational goals, curricular practices and theories.
The consequences are obvious-a troubled society that generates an education
labile. Formal education products generate parallel effects with the real problems of the
youth. They are building their own education, by focusing it on financial matters and on
individual satisfaction.
In this sense, the aim of the study is to identify to identify the degree of satisfaction
of the students ' professional choices. We will present the beliefs about the role of
education, schooling, and the relevance of school competences. The finding will reveal the
major problem facing national education is essentially the lack of prospect for curricular
actors: pupils, teachers and the community.

KEY WORDS: career counselling, education for a career, competence,
educational skills and interests

Studies, research and practice at a European level point to the deficit correlation of
the educational system and the professional formation one, from Romania with the
dynamics of the labor market. Education institutions concentrate on instruction, on the
acquisition of information and less on competencies that will ensure an increase of
employment percentage of pupils on a dynamic and competitive labor market. For this
reason, during the years 2014-2020, the general objective of financing European programs
in the educational domain is represented by an increased number of persons attending an
educational program or an initial professional training one, and increased qualifications for
persons employed on the labor market. The specific objectives aim at education promotion
and at quality of initial and continuous formation, the promotion of entrepreneur culture
and an increase in labor quality and productivity, the improvement of professional guidance

Lecturer PhD., University Eftimie Murgu of Resita, Romnia, g.prodan@uem.ro
ANUL I, NR. 1/2013, ISSN 2286 0711, ISSN-L 2286 0711

Fascicle III - Humanities-Social Sciences, Anul I, Nr. 1/2013

and counseling, the promotion and development of partnerships between schools,
university, enterprises and other institutions in order to facilitate a transition from school to
an active life (www.fseromania.ro).
Keeping in mind the need for pupils socio-professional insertion and a correlation
of training offers with permanent demands from the labor market, a need for quality
increase and an adaptation of counseling and professional guidance for pupils registered in
our national educational system, can result. In this context counseling and professional
guidance are services meant to complete knowledge and competencies gained by pupils
during specialty studies and to assist them in an early planning of their career and an
insertion with increased chances on the labor market.

The goal of research is to identify the degree of satisfaction of the students '
professional choices.
In this study have been questioned a number of 205 students enrolled in the first
year of university, as follows:

Table 1 - Age of respondents
Frequency Percent
Cumulative Percent
18-23 142 69,3 69,3 69,3
24-29 36 17,6 17,6 86,8
Over 29 27 13,2 13,2 100,0
Total 205 100,0 100,0
Frequency Percent
Cumulative Percent
Male 68 33,2 33,2 33,2
Female 137 66,8 66,8 100,0
Total 205 100,0 100,0

Most students interviewed consider that the role of education is preparing for a
profession, purpose stated as early as 1918 by F. Bobbitt (1918). Preparation for a
profession, characteristic of industrial societies, brings into question the fact that education
is a rational, productive process, in accordance with social requirements.
According to F. Bobbitt, a teacher should guide and assist students in their own
learning, an education that does not ends with graduation from school or employment. The
school's purpose is to assist students to develop habits of intellectual stimulation of the
mind, not to insist on predetermined standards. The development of intellect liberates
people from the constraints of thought control. People who rely on their superiors thinking

The Annals of Eftimie Murgu University of Reia

develops individual potential, are addicted, fails to take its own responsibilities, are
intellectually immature and, finally, they cannot live a good life.
35, 1% from respondents considers that education involves not only empirical,
logical information, but also the deeper issues, such as: knowledge of self, personal
reflection, psychology of consciousness, spiritual and moral introspection. Education is
simultaneously content and experiences that emphasizes communication skills, personal
biography, art, poetry, literature, psychology, spiritual, aesthetic themes and humanities.
Such education is defined as personal development, autonomy, heart and soul,
mature personality, truth and love (Pinar 1975, p.381).

Table 2 - Do you think that the role of undergraduate studies is
yes no partial I do not know
to develop the intellect 60,0% 2,93% 30,73% 6,34%
to prepare us for a profession 78.05% 2,44% 13.17% 6,34%
to integrate into the society in which
we live
58,5% 6,8% 30,7% 3,9%
help us to know ourselves 43,41% 11,22% 37,56% 7,32%

Table 2.1. Age of respondents * What is your main purpose (reason) to follow university
studies Cross tabulation
What is your main purpose (reason) to follow
university studies

for a
self-knowledge others
18-23 Count
% within Age of
7,7% 61,3% 29,6% 1,4% 100,0%
24-29 Count
% within Age of

13,9% 52,8% 33,3% ,0% 100,0%
% within Age of

7,4% 25,9% 66,7% ,0% 100,0%
Total Count 18 113 72 2 205
% within Age of
8,8% 55,1% 35,1% 1,0% 100,0%

To the question What is the main reason why you have chosen specialization you
follow? a 46.3% of respondents took this decision depending on the required
qualifications on the labor market. The choices for education studies and professions are

Fascicle III - Humanities-Social Sciences, Anul I, Nr. 1/2013

included in most curricula, but the students knowledge of the world of professions and
occupations required by the society is a complex process. That's why students need support
and guidance on:
- Types of professions and occupations in existence at some point in society,
- Mutations in the world of work trends and dynamics of the trades in the future,
- Requirements, requirements for practicing a profession,
- Skills necessary for practice a profession,
- Correlations between professions, so as to be able to build a professional and
social route, a specific career. (Dumitru, 2008, p. 208-209)

Table 3 The main reason why you have chosen specialization you follow is

Frequency Percent Valid Percent
Valid Influence of close persons
(parents, etc.)
35 17,1 17,1 17,1
of vocation (it's what I like) 69 33,7 33,7 50,7
it will give me a skill in
demand on the labor market
95 46,3 46,3 97,1
others 6 2,9 2,9 100,0
Total 205 100,0 100,0

Other factors discussed regarding the influencing of school options of pupils from
the 8
grade these are of a social and psychological nature, situation which highlights the
fact that family and school mostly influence the pupils options, still pupils make choices at
the suggestion of others or advised by parents or school and many choose according to
their own interests, motivation or aptitudes that every individual has. Formation of the
personality and the achievement of a qualification of vocational training, active and
responsible are the result of an effective school and professional guidance. In order for a
student to choose the best school and profession, he needs a specialized counseling.

Table 4 - At this point, consider that faculty profile

Frequency Percent Valid Percent
Valid It was a good choice. 164 80,0 80,0 80,0
If I could turn back time,
I'd choose a different
32 15,6 15,6 95,6
I don't know, I'm not
9 4,4 4,4 100,0
Total 205 100,0 100,0

The Annals of Eftimie Murgu University of Reia

The key question debated and analyzed by specialists, media-mass media and
society remains however the following: To what extent our school prepares the individual
for a real life? The answer may be in the form of statistics, mainly formulated in moments
of balance with the diagnostic role-what was- and finding-what is- and design- what it can
be. The findings of these balances, not at all happy, if we bring into question the
percentages of employability on the labor market, a voluntary, civic participation,
implementation of entrepreneurship, lead us to bring into question the principles of
effective education: to be consistent with the interests, needs, students ' skills, to meet the
requirements of today and tomorrow. In the present work we analyzed these ideas, from the
perspective of the main actors of education-students.
The question What is essential to teach in schools? caused, in all societies,
extensive debates. In industrial societies were promoted the objective subjects of study, to
ensure technical progress; during periods of economic and social crisis, were promoted
socio-human disciplines which empower people to adapt to the intense changes. In
conceptions of R. W. Tyler and J. Dewey, the essential is based on three elements: the
nature of the learner (factors of development, needs, interests and life experiences),
society's values and goals (democratic principles, values, and attitudes), subjects of study
(what it's worth and is useful to known).
Education in Romania took the frame of reference of the European Union on 8
competences: communication in the mother tongue, communication in a foreign language,
mathematical skills and skills based on science and technology, computer skills, learning by
learning, social and civic competences, initiative and entrepreneurship, consciousness and
cultural expression.

Table 5- To what extent do you think that the following skills are developed in society
very much much somewhat little at all
Theoretical knowledge 16,6 % 36,1 % 32,7 % 11,7 % 2,9 %
Accomplishments and skills 38,0% 36,6 % 16,1 % 8,8 % ,5 %
The use of computer technologies 36,1 % 38,5 % 19,0 % 5,9 % ,5 %
Communication in foreign
41,5 % 26,8 % 23,4 % 7,8 % ,5 %
Entrepreneurship 15,6 % 36,6 % 38,5 % 8,8 % ,5 %
Team Spirit 30,7 % 42,9 % 20,5 % 5,4 % ,5 %
Moral and civic attitudes 26,3 % 35,1 % 29,3 % 8,3 % 1,0 %
Interpersonal skills 20,5 % 38,0 % 32,2 % 8,8 % ,5 %
Knowing ourselves 30,2 % 39,5 % 22,9 % 6,3 % 1,0 %
Learning to learn 32,7 % 38,0 % 22,9 % 5,4 % 1,0 %

Table 6 - To what extent do you think that the following skills are developed in the
very much much somewhat little at all
Theoretical knowledge 25,4 % 49,3 % 19,5 % 3,9 % 2,0 %
Accomplishments and skills 13,7 % 33,2 % 37,6 % 12,7 % 2,9 %
The use of computer technologies 11,7 % 32,7 % 42,4 % 11,7 % 1,5 %

Fascicle III - Humanities-Social Sciences, Anul I, Nr. 1/2013

Communication in foreign
13,2 % 26,8 % 45,9 % 11,7 % 2,4 %
Entrepreneurship 9,8 % 27,8 % 41,0 % 18,0 % 3,4%
Team Spirit 18,5 % 35,1 % 29,8 % 13,7 % 2,9%
Moral and civic attitudes 17,1 % 32,7 32,2 % 14,1 % 3,9 %
Interpersonal skills 20,0 % 26,8 % 39,5 % 11,7 % 2,0 %
Knowing ourselves 18,5 % 33,7 % 34,1 % 11,7 % 2,0 %
Learning to learn 19,5 % 35,1 % 31,2 % 10,2 % 3,9 %

Occupational projections of the students are not happy at all. The major role of the
University is preparing for a profession, but the end result-labor market-employment not
confirmed. We note, however, that the majority of respondents stated that the students will
continue their studies in master. Concerning the self-development, E. Vallance brings into
question the personal success model is the conception of education hopefully wills
student himself when formal schooling ends ... is the conception that sees the purpose of
schooling by creating a personal commitment of learning (Vallance, 1986, p. 27).

Table 8 - How likely is the following after graduating
I'm not
I'll take a job in the
21,5 42,0 22,4 8,8 5,4
I will continue the
studies of master
43,4 29,3 18,5 3,9 4,9
I will follow another
specialization degree
5,4 11,2 29,2 20,5 33,7

The law on education No. 1 of 2011 presents the educational goal of Romanian
school - free development, harmonious and full of human formation still retaining any
individual personality and autonomous in taking on a system of values that are necessary
for the fulfillment and development of entrepreneurship, active citizens ' participation in
society, social inclusion and employment in the labor market. According to this quote,
expressions like to hold many knowledge to be endowed with intellectual abilities, to
be a good professional perceived in isolation, does not constitute the current challenges of
society. Cognitive side does not ensure a fully successful; important are the social aspects,
in terms of values.
Society is evolving, its demands are more diversified, and the labor, professions
and occupations world is more dynamic, imposing a proper education and a continuous
adapting. The ensemble of changes that can appear in the professions areas and in the
humans professional life determine the school and professional guidance to take into
consideration the entire development of his professional life and to prepare the young for
change and adaptability. This is why orientation is also synonym to the youngs, the
teenagers education in elaborating personal projects in connection to his career, to

The Annals of Eftimie Murgu University of Reia

understand multiple factors that participate in the determining of a successful career, to
prepare him in for adaptation and success. Thus the use of more complex concepts is
imposed career guidance and career education. The definite note of career guidance is
represented by its education character. Career guidance needs a long educational process
that follows the pupils personality development for a proper school and professional
guidance and the choice of a future career. Career education refers to an ensemble of
educational activities and intervention with the purpose of developing the pupils/students
personalities, for form abilities, necessary skills and competencies for the management of
their own career (Dumitru, 2008, p. 234).


Bobbitt F. (1918). The Curriculum. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
Dumitru I.Al., (2008). Consiliere psihopedagogic. Iasi: Polirom, p.234
Pinar W. (1992). Curriculum as Social Psychoanalysis: The Significance of Place. in
Kincheloe J. & Pinar W. (eds). Curriculum as social psychoanalysis: Essays on
the significance of place. Albany. NY: State University of New York Press.
Tyler R.W. (1949). Basic Principles of Curriculum and Instruction. Chicago: University
of Chicago Press.
Vallance E. (1986). A second look at Conflicting Conceptions of Curriculum. Theory
Into Practice. Vol XXV. Berkeley, CA: McCutchan.
www.fseromania.ro, accessed on 01.10.2013

Fascicle III - Humanities-Social Sciences, Anul I, Nr. 1/2013


Rohozneanu DAN MIHAI


This study aims at determining the role of handball specific means in secondary
school for Physical Education subject by: investigating driving capabilities in terms of
learning the specific handball technique for middle school pupil; selecting the optimal
means to improve the training in order to meet the proposed objectives; evaluating the
research sample. There were used general methods and also methods particular for
physical education and sports which constituted the pathways for the settled goals
(literature review / bibliographic documentation method, observation method, pedagogical
experiment, statical -mathematical method, graphical method). The results of the research
confirm the proposed tasks, thus achieving the proposed goal.The gymnasium age is an
optimal period for physical and motor development and we have acted as much on that
direction. So two hours per week prescribed in the curriculum are insufficient. I believe
that the submitted paper and research data highlight the important role of handball as
means to achieve the objectives of physical education, fact that confirms the research

KEY WORDS: handball, physical education and sports, objectives, means

Physical education is geared towards social integration of youth. To achieve this
purpose, the physical education is focused together with other activities to contribute to
the training and education of pupils. Therefore it is a key component in the integrated
education to increase potential health and physical robustness (Albu, V.,1999).
The most important role of physical education and sports is that of ones
harmonious physical development, health improvement, driving capability improvement
necessary at this stage of children evolution (Ra, G. and Ra, B., 2006).

Assistant PhD student, Faculty of Theology, Social Sciences and Education, Eftimie
Murgu University of Resita, Romania, e-mail mihairohozneanu@yahoo.com
ANUL I, NR. 1/2013, ISSN 2286 0711, ISSN-L 2286 0711

The Annals of Eftimie Murgu University of Reia

Handball is a game accessible to all pupils. Its technique elements are executed by
the hand and the ball size allows to be easily mastered; the running, the catching and the
throwing, the jumping, the basic elements of handball game are natural forms of the human
motor acts (P. Cercel, 1980).
Its rules are simple and easy to apply. Due to direct contact with the opponent, this
game requires hard work and a lot of nervous energy (C. Rizescu, 2000).
Handball, as complex means of physical education, contributes with high
efficiency to solving specific physical education objectives (I.K. Ghermnnescu and
V.,Hnat 2000).
The outdoor handball practice, the effort characteristics particular to this game
directly and positively influence the morphological and functional components of ones
body with natural consequence of better health, quenching and strengthening the body (C.
Predescu, 2011).

2.1. The background of the research
Handball creates a connection between the pupil's driving capabilities and mental
capacities, contributing to the formation of skills such as (Ghermnescu et al., 1983):
- Skill development, reflected in the ease with which the ball is handled under high
- Development of detent;
- Increase the general body strength and the strength particular to the handball
- Improvement of speed in all its forms.

Talking about the morpho-functional aspect, the handball practice favors:
- Increase of the waist (a basic requirement);
- Increase of the wing span;
- Development of the muscle tissue proportional to the upper and lower limbs,
especially the long fibers, specific for speed effort;
- Increase of the vital capacity and the elasticity of the chest;
- Positive influence for analyzers (forming what we call: ball sense, gate sense,
peripheral vision) as a result of analyzers specialization (Golu, P. et al., 1981).
As means of physical education, the handball game greatly contributes to
achieving the goals and objectives of this item if there are met certain conditions, among
which (Colibaba-Evule, D and Bota, I., 1998):
- The attractiveness and variety of lessons;
- At the begining, the youngest will start with a handball game and a "play of
- The emulation feature which is decisive for learning the game.

Parallelly, the activity of the vegetative organs is improved, the entire body
strengthens, gradually increasing children resistance to diseases (Cretu, T., 2005).

Fascicle III - Humanities-Social Sciences, Anul I, Nr. 1/2013

2.2. Organizing and conducting the research
The study aims at examining the handball teaching strategy in secondary schools
by selecting the means that lead to the achievement of physical education objectives.
Systematically ordering the means of handball teaching as a didactic model is equivalent to
the main purpose of self-improvement and teaching improvement.
This study aims at determining the role of handball game to fulfill the specific
objectives of physical education in secondary school.
The research should confirm or deny that pupils who systematically practice
handball in physical education classes, have optimal indices for morpho-functional
development and good physical and motor development.

In conducting this research there were established the following tasks:
studying the theme in literature and the sequencing of work;
investigation of driving capabilities in terms of specific properties of handball
elements for middle school child;
optimal selection for a better training in order to achieve the objectives;
evaluating the research sample;
processing and interpreting the data;
formulating of research findings.

The hypothesis of this research is to settle the handball as basic means of physical
education with an outstanding contribution in maintaining optimal health status, the
formation of multiple skills and abilities that are doubled and the optimum level of motor
skills development: skill, speed, resistance and strength.
There were used general methods and also methods particular to physical
education and sports in secondary school, which constituted the pathways for developing
the objectives. The methods used were (Gage, 1999):
- Literature review / bibliographic documentation method;
- Pedagogical observation method;
- Pedagogical experiment method;
- Statical-mathematical method;
- Graphical method.

The research sample was represented by the 22 pupils of the seventh grade B class
from the School of Art "Sabin Pauta" in Resita (Professor Silviu Izvernar) during the 2012-
2013 school year (second semester).
The research was conducted between 20th of October 2012 and 26th of April 2013
in sports base of the School of Art "Sabin Pauta" in Resita.
During this research, pupils had two PE classes every week.
The initial testing was performed in January 2013 at the beginning of the learning
unit for handball teaching and final testing in April 2013.
The research took place between 20th of October 2012 and 26th of April 2013 and
included the following steps:
- Phase I - the documentation was done by studying the theoretical literature
(October-November 2012).

The Annals of Eftimie Murgu University of Reia

- Phase II - took into account the selection of a sample of subjects included in the
study (December 2012).
- Phase III there were applied the proposed training programs and the initial and
final testing were conducted (January-April 2013).
- Phase IV - analyzing and interpreting the obtained results, formulating the
conclusions and drafting the work study (May 2013).
To obtain data about the driving capacity of the pupils, there have been applied the
following evaluation tests: 50 meters speed running, standing long jump; iona ball
throwing; resistance run - 800 meters for girls and 1000 meters for boys; shuttle. With this
tests there were checked the indices evolution used for driving skills development
(Dragnea, A. (2002)).
The shuttle is a combined test involving execution speed, displacement and speed
In the initial testing, the study female group achieved an average of 22.13 seconds
and 21.86 seconds in the final testing, the men's initial testing arithmetic mean was of 20.98
seconds, and in the final testing there was an average of 20.49 seconds (Figure 1).
There is a progress of 0.29 seconds for girls and 0.49 seconds for
boys. The variability coefficient values indicate greater homogeneity of the
group (3-4%). The progress indicates a 8 grade performance for girls and 9
grade performance for boys, according to the scale of the national
evaluation system.

Female Male

Figure 1 - Average results obtained for the the Shuttle
(Source: realized by the author, own calculations)

The 50 m speed run test for the female group had an average result of 8.67 seconds
in the initial testing and of 8.49 seconds in the final testing (Figure 2). Reported to school
scales for seventh grade, the girls group average is equivalent to grade 8.
For boys, the first result was of 8.22 seconds, and at the end, the progress was of
0.18 seconds (8.04 seconds). The value of the final testing indicates a 9 grade performance
boys (Figure 2).

Fascicle III - Humanities-Social Sciences, Anul I, Nr. 1/2013

Female Male

Figure 2 - Average results obtained for the 50m Speed Run
(Source: realized by the author, own calculations)

The driving skill resistance is assessed by the running test on the distance of 800 m
for girls and 1000 m for boys.
For girls the progress between the two tests was of 5 seconds (IT-4.41, FT-4.36), a
9 grade performance.

Female Male
4.36 4.36

Figure 3 - Average results obtained for the Resistance run
(Source: realized by the author, own calculations)

For boys, the average result of the initial testing was of 4 minutes and 36 seconds,
and at the end we obtained an average performance of 4 minutes and 31 seconds, so a 5
seconds progress and the grade 9, according to the scales (Figure 3). The results indicate an
improvement in aerobic capacity of pupils.
For the standing long jump the speed strength intervenes which is also called
explosive strength. Test values are as it follows (Figure 4):
- for girls: in the initial testing, the group had an average result of 1.69 m, and in
the final testing the arithmetic mean of the group was of 1.73 m, a difference of 4 cm.
- for boys: the progress was of 7 cm, from 1.93 to 2.00 m from initial testing to
final testing.

The Annals of Eftimie Murgu University of Reia

Female Male

Figure 4 - Average results obtained for the Standing long jump
(Source: realized by the author, own calculations)

With this test, there was evaluated the explosive strength of the arm. In oina ball
throwing test the girls obtained the value of 21.42 m in the initial testing, and the final
testing - 23.33 m, a progress of 91 m; for boys the progress was of 2.3 m progress between
the initial testing (28.3 m) and the final testing (30.6 m) (Figure 5).
Reported to the scales of the curriculum, the girls have achieved an average
performance of 9 grade, and the boys of 10 grade. It is a test where boys generally easily
obtain maximum score due to a better coordination and to the strength of their arm.

Female Male

Figure 5 - Average results obtained for the Oina ball throwing
(Source: realized by the author, own calculations)

This research allowed to find out that the goals and objectives of physical
education included in the secondary school curriculum are available in any conditions of
material facilities with good results only if the teacher is concerned with finding the most
appropriate teaching technologies.
The structures recommended by the curriculum take into consideration this aspect.
Thus, the ones for sports games can be used in certain conditions also as means for motor

Fascicle III - Humanities-Social Sciences, Anul I, Nr. 1/2013

skills development, or for the education of initiative, imagination, anticipation capacity and
The development objective of improving driving skills and motor skills must be
permanent for the physical education teacher.
The educational value of sports games is recommended, given their positive
multilateral action for human personality and especially for teenagers.
The research outcomes confirm the proposed tasks, thus achieving the purpose.
The results are higher for motor skills development. This was achieved through a
well-organized activity, with specific means, means of which the handball fully disposes
(Tables 1 and 2).

Table 1 Results obtained at the initial and final testings (female)
(Source: realized by the author, own calculations)
Shutlle (s)
Speed run
run (min)
long jump
Oina ball
Average 22.13 21.86 8.67 8.49 4.41 4.36 168.75 173.33 21.42 23.33
0.870 0.733 0.314 0.291 0.353 0.372 9.564 9.374 3.088 3.447
The coeficient
of variability
3.93 3.35 3.63 3.42 8.02 8.55 5.67 5.41 14.42 14.77

Table 2 Results obtained at the initial and final testings (female)
(Source: realized by the author, own calculations)
Shutlle (s)
Speed run
run (min)
long jump
Oina ball
Media 20.98 20.49 8.22 8.04 4.36 4.31 193.40 200.50 28.30 30.60
0.884 0.860 0.297 0.250 0.349 0.336 15.679 16.236 3.743 3.806
Coeficient de
4.21 4.19 3.62 3.11 8.02 7.79 8.11 8.10 13.23 12.44
Through this activity there are performed the physical education objectives
superior indeces of physical and motor development, wide range of basic motor skills and
also skills particular to handball, independent habit to practice physical exercise in leisure,
knowledge concerning the organization and conduct of the game.
The age of secondary school is an optimal period for physical and motor
development and we must act as much on this line. So two hours per week prescribed in the
curriculum are insufficient.

The Annals of Eftimie Murgu University of Reia

I believe that the submitted study and research data highlight the important role of
handball as means to achieve the objectives of physical education, fact that confirms the
research hypothesis.
The most effective feature for learning the handball game is the global one,
combined with its analytical feature, the pupils can practice the game with simplified rules
starting even in elementary school.


Albu, V. (1999). Teoria educaiei fizice i sportului (ediia a-II-a). Editura Ex-Ponto.
Cercel P. (1980). Handbal exerciii pentru fazele de joc. Editura Sport-Turism, Bucureti.
Colibaba-Evule, D., Bota, I. (1998). Jocuri sportive, teorie i metodic. Editura Aldin,
Creu T. (2005). Psihologia copilului. MEC.
Dragnea, A. (2002). Msurarea i evaluarea n activitile motrice. Editura Universitii
din Piteti, Piteti.
Gagea A. (1999). Metodologia cercetrii tiinifice n educaie fizic i sport. Editura
Fundaiei Romnia de Mine, Bucureti.
Ghermnescu I.K., Gogltan V., Jianu E., Negulescu I. (1983). Teoria i metodica
handbalului. Editura Didactic i Pedagogic, Bucureti.
Ghermnescu I.K., Hnat V. (2000). Handbal I. Editura Fundaiei Romnia de Mine,
Golu, P., Zlate, M., Verza, E. (1981). Psihologia copilului. Editura Didactic i
Pedagogic, Bucureti.
Predescu, C. (2011). Fiziologia i biochimia efortului fizic. Bucureti: Editura Discobolul.
Ra, G., Ra, C.B. (2006). Aptitudinile n activitatea motric. Editura Edu-Sport, Bacu.
Rizescu C. (2000). Handbal. Editura Ovidius University Press, Constana.

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The education for social work uncovers in spite of all unification tendencies in the
consequence of 'Bologna' a wide spectrum of different education institutions. Basically we
can distinguish between basal vocational education at vocational schools as well as
academic education in the tertiary sector at technical college and universities.

KEY WORDS: Quality of education, structure of the study course, Bologna
processes, Social professions.

With the formation of the welfare state as a reaction on the precarious, often
miserable situation of the working class (Engels 1845), the development of modern social
politics and social work walked along in the German empire. Through the introduction of
the wage labour-centered work insurance and of the resulting financial transfer
achievements, material and financial resources were released at the carriers of the poor
relief, which led that to an expansion and differentiation of the social arrangements,
measures and achievements in the poor relief (P., Hammerschmidt, F., Tennstedt, 2002).
Similar developments have taken place in the other industrialized countries of Europe.
Since the development of social work as a profession and the establishment of the
first schools of social work in London and Amsterdam (1896), the social science
department at the University of Liverpool (1904), the Practical School of Social Education
in Paris (1907) and the Social Women's School in Berlin (1908) is training stamped in
almost all European countries up to the recent presence with great diversity and
In almost all countries have been parallel courses at university level (eg in
Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, Great Britain, the Netherlands, Norway,

Institut fr Erziehungswissenschaft, Johannes Gutenberg-Universitt Mainz, Germany,
ANUL I, NR. 1/2013, ISSN 2286 0711, ISSN-L 2286 0711

The Annals of Eftimie Murgu University of Reia

Portugal, Sweden and Switzerland), while in Italy and Spain, the former schools for social
work have been transferred in university courses. Also in other countries (such as Finland,
Ireland, Iceland and Turkey), the social studies are offered exclusively to universities,
whereas in Austria the training of social workers only is possible at private colleges.
In east/central east/South-east Europe quite different developments are to be
observed in the context of the social transformation processes: In some countries it was tied
on to the found tradition of the social-educational university study, in others the schools
developed in the 1920s for social work reestablished.

The tertiary education sector and concomitantly the landscape of the training for
social occupations in Europe got rapidly in motion in the last decade: University political
among other things by the Sorbonne declaration over a common European university
policy (1998) and the Bologna declaration of the European Union Secretaries of
Education for the standardization of the academic education (1999), forces however
probably particularly by the material social-economic development and the admission of
new countries into the European union in the course of the East-expansion.
From the Europeanizing and internationalization of social problems, of the social
policy and social work result new qualification requirements in the practice as well as in the
education. This process covered in the meantime all European countries, not only the UE
member states.
In order to keep the education scenery transparent and to allow thus the
international comparison, a complete overview about the situation of the education in
(almost) all 46 European lands, thus not only in EU Europe was compiled within the
research project Education for social occupations in Europe at the university of Mainz
(Franz Hamburger, Sandra Hirschler, Gnther Sander, Manfred Wbcke in 1999 to 2006).
The test results are published in four volumes in the publishing house Frankfurt
institutes for social work and Social pedagogy (EAT) (F. Hamburger, S. Hirschler, G.
Sander, M. Wbcke, 2004) (2004 to 2007) and can be studied in detail there. The
contributions met in the first volume with contributions on Iceland, Estonia, Lithuania,
Great Britain, Germany, Austria, Serbia, Turkey and Portugal treat the situation of the
training in rather more familiar countries, as well as in countries, over which so far no or
only scarce information was present.
The second volume reports the training landscape in Sweden, Ireland, Denmark,
Latvia, Poland, Norway, Slovakia, Croatia, Bulgaria, Macedonia, Greece and Spain. The
third volume puts the emphasis on central and Eastern European countries, it contains
reports from Russia, Czech Republic, Ukraine, Hungary, Romania, Moldavia, Finland,
Belgium (Flanders), France, Luxembourg and Liechtenstein.
Der abschlieende vierte Band dokumentiert die Ausbildungssituation in Andorra,
Belgien (Wallonien), Bosnien-Herzegowina, Italien, Malta, Monaco, den Niederlanden,
San Marino, der Schweiz, Slowenien, dem Vatikanstaat, Weirussland und Zypern.
The concluding fourth volume documents the training situation in Andorra,
Belgium (Wallonia), Bosnia-Herzegovina, Italy, Malta, Monaco, the Netherlands, San
Marino, Switzerland, Slovenia, the Vatican, Belarus and Cyprus.

Fascicle III - Humanities-Social Sciences, Anul I, Nr. 1/2013


The implementation of the Bologna process is particularly realized at the Eastern
European universities to a large extent. The politically wanted introduction of the BA/MA
structure progresses however in some countries obviously more slowly, than expected or
feared. Like in Germany we can also observe that the universities react rather rejecting, and
the colleges rather euphorically.
Fr die Zukunft freilich wird entscheidend sein, welche Qualitt der Ausbildung
sich hinter den Etiketten verbirgt. Diese Diskussion hat noch nicht einmal begonnen.
For the future it will be certainly crucial, which quality of the training hides itself
behind the labels. This discussion did not even begin.
In der Erklrung der EU-Bildungsminister vom 19. Juni 1999 in Bologna wurde
die Harmonisierung des Hochschulwesens in Europa und damit die Etablierung eines
europischen Bildungsraumes als Ziel festgelegt. Realisiert werden sollte dies prozesshaft,
wobei folgende Manahmen im Mittelpunkt stehen sollten:
In the explanation of the European Union Secretaries of Education from 19 June
1999 in Bologna the harmonization of the university nature in Europe and thus the
establishment of a European education area as a goal was specified. It should be performed
process-like, whereby the following measures should be located in the center:
the creation of a system of comparable conclusions,
the creation of a two-stage system of study conclusions (undergraduate/graduate,
Bachelor and master),
the introduction of a system of point of achievement (European Credit transfer
system - ECTS),
the introduction of the modularity,
the promotion of the mobility by removal of mobility obstacles as well as,
the promotion of the European dimension in the university education.
Over the development of the training after the implementation of the Bologna
explanation only tendencies can be determined for many European countries, since the
realization is not yet everywhere final.
This had a set of reasons: Besides employability, the goal of the occupation ability
and the scientificness (P. Buttner, U. Bartosch, W. Hosemann, 2004) of the Bachelors and
the high personnel expenditure, the master is regarded by some professors as a prestigious
course of studies. Thus emerged the tendency to Spezialmastern, but not employability
In Germany ended in 2006 from 112 evaluated Master students for social
occupations only approx. a quarter with the certificate social work, half of the master
concerns social management, consultation, health and therapy (Deutscher Berufsverband
fr Soziale Arbeit e.V., Hrsg., 2007). This tendency seems to relate itself at some
universities - in particular after the computation of the existing personnel capacities (S.
Hirschler, W. Lorenz, 2006).
Regarding the implementation of the Bologna Processes, the analysis showed
clearly that for the Scandinavian countries Sweden the reform of the tertiary education

The Annals of Eftimie Murgu University of Reia

sector did not finally convert yet, Norway however - also in the European comparison
belonged with implementation of the quality reform to the outriders.
Something similar is to be determined for Denmark, there are also Bachelor
certificates offered. Germany is still in the transitional phase from the diploma to the
Bachelor and master; the transformation should be final in the year 2009. In Hungary the
conversion took place in August 2004 via a decree, for Ukraine is something similar to be
stated (T. Semigina, I. Gryga, O. Volgina, 2005).
Of interest is also the question, which consequences the new course of studies
structure which can be introduced to 2010 will have. The first study stage is to lead to an
occupation-qualifying Bachelor certificate (undergraduate). With the degree of the
Bachelor, a certificate relevant for the European job market is acquired.
After the Bachelor certificate follows a second study stage of one and a half or two
years, which is to end with a second, occupation-qualifying or research-oriented master
certificate (graduate). For Germany it is to be stated that the career launch for Bachelor
graduates of the colleges and masters in universities will presumably encounter no
problems (B. Alesi, S. Brger, B. M. Kehm, U. Teichler, 2005).
In Flanders exist two different Bachelors since the academic year 2004/05:
Professional bachelor, which prepares for a career launch, and academic bachelor, which
has rather a scientific adjustment (A. Desmet, 2005). In Estonia the university program of
the first stage (BA) will contain general knowledge and the university teacher program of
the second stage (mA) [] serves particularly as starting point of the research work (T.
Tulva, A. Leppiman, 2004).
It becomes visible in the analysis that uncertainties are to be stated about the
chances of the university Bachelor in many countries, since the Bachelor is understood
often as a certificate incomplete without the master. Here the United Kingdom does not
seem where the topic no topic is and Germany where the concern is above average
to set the two European extremes.
Regarding the master cycle no consent exists within the fundamental relationship
of this stage to the occupation qualification and within the European countries whether an
additional occupation suitability should be achieved directly' by means of appropriate
recess subjects or indirectly by means of academic research impulses. The clear
separation suggested in Bologna is accomplished so far only in few countries such as
Latvia and France.
One Scurrility which can be registered is also that at some universities the past
relationship of basic and main study is turned inside out: Specialization without basic
knowledge in the short time study, basic knowledge without specialized relevance in the
master course of studies. A material-existing example from Italy from the University of
Bari clarifies this impressively: the Specialist Degree in Veterinary Medicine is opposed
to the Degree in breeding Science, Hygiene and well-being of dogs and cats (University
of Bari, 2007).
Bologna should cause comparable university education and thus a system of
comparable certificates. The mutual acknowledgment of the certificates and the
occupation admission in each European Union country should be made possible, the latter
were by the way already guaranteed by the principle of the generosity in the contract of

Fascicle III - Humanities-Social Sciences, Anul I, Nr. 1/2013

The acknowledgment practice of the university certificates looks however
differently. Jn Figel, (15 November 2007, Brussels) European Union education
commissioner, says to it:
People in Europe encounter much too often obstacles, if they want to go into
another country for study or work. Also the change of a range of the education system of
their country into another, e.g. from the vocational training to the university formation, can
be problematic. The EQR will make the different qualifications in the European countries
more easily understandable (Magazin fr Soziales, 2007). Whether comprehensibility
also means acknowledgement, remains further open.

The training for social occupations is characterized in entire Europe by
Academization (thus integration into the tertiary education system) and scientification. The
authors of the Mainz study rate this development as a success, as a qualification extension
through science, as a condition for the revaluation of the occupation and the vocational
field. Another aspect becomes clearly visible, i.e. that the high-school participants
themselves experienced a revaluation.
This comes in the efforts to establish a social work graduation course of studies.
Central interest is at the same time presented by the establishment of a scientific guidance
discipline for an occupation understood as a profession. A second, associated tendency is
the tendency to conceive the training for social occupations less than addition of different
subjects and more to develop an integrative discipline of the social work, be it social
pedagogy or social work. In the curricula we can still find the constitutive subjects
(psychology, sociology, pedagogy, jurisprudence, economics among other things), but the
social work special branch of science derives from the earlier methods of teaching.


Alesi, B. / Brger, S. / Kehm, B. M. / Teichler, U. (2005): Stand der Einfhrung von
Bachelor- und Master-Studiengngen im Bologna-Prozess sowie in ausgewhlten
Lndern Europas im Vergleich zu Deutschland. Endbericht: Vorgelegt am
28.02.2005. Im Auftrag des Bundesministeriums fr Bildung und Forschung. Entn:
www.bmbf.de/pub/bachelor_u_master_im_bolognaprozess_in_eu.pdf, 25.06.07
Buttner, P./Bartosch, U./Hosemann, W. (2004): Ein Blick in die Zukunft. Zehn Thesen ber
die Folgen von Bologna und was sich alles ndern muss. In: Sozialmagazin, 29, Jg.,
7-8/2004, S. 22-28.
Desmet, A. (2005): Training for Social Work in Flanders. In: Hamburger, F./Hirschler,
S./Sander, G./Wbcke, M. (Hrsg.): Ausbildung fr Soziale Berufe in Europa. Band
3. Frankfurt/Main: ISS-Verlag, S. 5166.
Deutscher Berufsverband fr Soziale Arbeit e.V. (Hrsg.) (2007): Masterstudiengnge fr
die Soziale Arbeit. Verfasst von Wilfried Nodes. Ernst Reinhardt Verlag Mnchen
Hammerschmidt, P./Tennstedt, F. (2002): Der Weg zur Sozialarbeit: Von der Amenpflege
bis zur Konstituierung des Wohlfahrtsstaates in der Weimarer Republik. In: Werner

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Thole (Hrsg.): Grundriss Soziale Arbeit. Ein einfhrendes Handbuch. Opladen:
Leske u. Budrich.
Hamburger, F./Hirschler, S./Sander, G./Wbcke, M. (Hrsg.) (2004): Ausbildung fr Soziale
Berufe in Europa. Band 1. Frankfurt/Main: ISS-Verlag.
Hamburger, F./Hirschler, S./Sander, G./Wbcke, M. (Hrsg.) (2005a): Ausbildung fr
Soziale Berufe in Europa. Band 2. Frankfurt Main: ISS-Verlag.
Hamburger, F./Hirschler, S./Sander, G./Wbcke, M. (Hrsg.) (2005b): Ausbildung fr
Soziale Berufe in Europa. Band 3. Frankfurt/Main: ISS-Verlag.
Hamburger, F./Hirschler, S./Sander, G./Wbcke, M. (Hrsg.) (2007): Ausbildung fr Soziale
Berufe in Europa. Band 4. Frankfurt/Main: ISS-Verlag.
Hirschler, S. (2008): Fllt Gallien? Die Ausbildung fr soziale Berufe in Europa
Gegenwart und Zukunftstendenzen. In: Amthor, R.-Chr. (Hrsg.): Soziale Berufe im
Wandel.Gegenwart und Zukunft Sozialer Berufe, Impulse fr die kommenden 25
Jahre. Hohengehren: Schneider .
Hirschler, S./Lorenz, W. (2006): Einfhrung: Beobachtungen zum Bologna-Prozess, in:
Hamburger, F./Hirschler, S./Sander, G./Wbcke, M. (Hrsg.): Ausbildung fr
Soziale Berufe in Europa. Band 3. Frankfurt/ Main: ISS-Verlag 2005, S. 1-15.
Magazin fr Soziales, Familie und Bildung Nr. 58, 12/2007: Qualifikationen werden in
Europa besser vergleichbar
Semigina, T./Gryga, I./Volgina, O. (2005): Social Work Education in Ukraine, in:
Hamburger, F./Hirschler, S./Sander, G./Wbcke, M. (Hrsg.): Ausbildung fr
Soziale Berufe in Europa. Band 3. Frankfurt/Main: ISS-Verlag, S. 152170.
Tulva, T./Leppiman, A. (2004): ber Entwicklung und Probleme der selbstndig
gewordenen Sozialarbeit und die Ausbildung von Sozialarbeitern im sich
vernderten Estland, in: Hamburger, F./Hirschler, S./Sander, G./Wbcke, M.
(Hrsg.): Ausbildung fr Soziale Berufe in Europa. Band 1. Frankfurt/Main: ISS-
Verlag, S. 1828.
University of Bari: Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Entn.:
e.htm, 24.06 .07

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Alina VIAN


In this article, we have presented some general considerations about old age and
how they are reflected in one of Doris Lessings masterpieces Love, Again. We have tried
to highlight the fact that old age can eventually mean not only disadvantages and stigma
but also a successful period in a womans life

KEY WORDS: old age, love, woman, Lessing

1. INTRODUCTION - General considerations about aging
In our everyday life we often hear or use words like: old, young, middle-
aged. We can ask ourselves what they mean.
WHAT is old? What is young - or middle aged? Easy! To be old is to be over sixty
years of age, middle age is from forty-five to sixty years, young people are those under
thirty. What about the period from thirty to forty-five years? Shall we call that adulthood?
Or youthful maturity? All these divisions are, of course, arbitrary. We label segments of
life's flow of years and the labels themselves acquire a reality which, in turn, makes "real"
the division of time. Yet we all know people who are "old" at twenty, or "young" at
seventy, according to our own typifications of "old" and "young." To be old is, perhaps, to
be dull and inflexible, or to be interested in the serious rather than the frivolous, whereas
young people conversely are bright, fun oriented, lively, and flexible. Each of us seems to
view age differently, depending upon his or her own age and experience. (Morris, 1977:
Usually older people are presented as tiresome nuisances and younger people do
not want to lose their time with their elder peers. Although elders are now protected legally
from age discrimination, socially the artificial divisions between youth and age still exist,
with patriarchal culture assigning identity and social value to individuals on the basis of age
and elders being devalued.
Old age is, in May Sarton's words, a "foreign country" that youth, particularly the
young woman, knows nothing about, has nothing in common with, fears, and

Lecturer PhD., University Eftimie Murgu of Resita, Romnia, a.visan@uem.ro
ANUL I, NR. 1/2013, ISSN 2286 0711, ISSN-L 2286 0711

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xenophobically avoids. Hence age adds to the burden of women's oppression in a culture
that still valorises youthful beauty as a major source of a woman's power. Gender and age
together are an example of what Paula A. Treichler calls "interlocking oppressions," which
feminist theory is committed to examine in order to envision "possible futures" (Treichler
59). Feminist theory can examine older women's dual oppressions in order to eliminate
them and move society toward a utopian future without the stigma of old age. (Waxman
Frey, 1980: 8)
Kathleen Woodward (1991) observes that although "aging is represented primarily
in negative terms" (p. 17) in Western culture, the fact that it "is represented primarily in
terms of the visual, in terms of the surface of the body" (p. 169), has a much greater effect
on women than on men. She argues that it is an "incontrovertible fact that in our society
women are more disadvantaged in old age in terms of social opportunities and resources
than are men. In our culture, the sexual allure of a woman, still taken to be one of a
woman's most important 'economic' possessions, is understood to diminish much more
rapidly with age than does that of a man." (Deats Munson, 1999: 91)
Given such societal expectations, the number of literary works written by women
that focus upon an aging woman engaged in what Gail Sheehy (1995, 419) would call
"successful aging" rather than "passive aging" (certainly not disastrous aging) is
remarkable. Many of these women are pursuing interesting new identities in their later
years. They are involved in self-discovery, self-affirmation, and new commitments. There
is no sense of the last stages of life being ones in which women simply reap the rewards of
former years, no sense of culmination; rather, these women are very much living in the
present and pursuing new goals and self-realization. (op. cit, p. 92)

But one other characteristic that aging female characters in literature have in
common is troubling. The women are often not understood by the people around them,
some of whom may be family members who should know them very well, some of whom
are strangers; that is, just figures in a crowd. This tension - between an elderly woman who
sees herself living a satisfying and meaningful life and a world that sees little value in her
life - is important. It suggests that the young and the middle aged not only can be
inadvertently cruel to the aging but also do not anticipate the quality of life possible to
human beings as they age. The younger fictional characters, who react to the elderly as
inconveniences or jokes assume the qualities in aging women that most of the aging men in
literature display, even though the female characters lack these qualities. (op. cit, p. 93)
Doris Lessing has presented this aging process for three of her heroines Kate
Brown in The Summer Before the Dark, Jane Somers in The Diaries of Jane Somers and
Sarah Durham in Love, Again. In this article we shall analyse the character Sarah Durham
in Love, Again.

Lessing's novel Love, Again may be read in light of the "master narrative" of aging
as it exposes assumptions about the female body, erotic desire, and the enduring traces of
earlier experiences that continue to influence inner growth beyond maturity. In fact,
Lessing explicitly introduces a version of the master narrative early in Love, Again, as
Sarah Durham is drawn to the memoir of an unnamed "society woman once known for her
beauty" (3), published nearly a hundred years after its authors death. (op. cit, p. 29)

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Over the course of Lessing's novel, the central character confronts the dark side of
her erotic longings. The reawakening of desire stimulates the main heroine to reflect on her
past and obliges her to consider the relationships among aging, gender, desire, and loss.
The protagonist of the novel is an attractive, successful woman in her midsixties:
Sarah Durham, a scriptwriter and partner in a small London theatrical agency. She has
grown children who are absent from the narrative, although Sarah is occasionally sought
out by an emotionally troubled niece for whom she has for years been the "effective parent"
(p. 13). Though Sarah has not had a serious romantic relationship since her husband's death
twenty years earlier, she finds herself suddenly impelled into a state that imitates adolescent
longing for such an experience:
Her erotic self had been restored as if the door had never been slammed
shut. Above all, she was no longer divided. Her fantasies were as romantic
now as when she was adolescent, and as erotic as when she had been a love
woman, and were of herself, herself now, and this was because embraced by
Bill, she had felt his desire for her so strongly announce itself. (Love,
Again, p. 140)
Lessing places the action of the novel in a theatrical setting, a location that
exemplifies an underlying psychological premise of the narrative. Over time, the roles one
plays, the masks one assumes, drive the authentic self into ever deeper and more hidden
regions, until the task of recovering that self becomes so urgent that it ultimately displaces
all others. Images of the ancient paired theatrical masks of tragedy and comedy recur
throughout Love, Again, underscoring the contradictory nature of love as "sweet poison"
and "cold fever" (p. 116). Indeed, depending on the reader's predilection, the novel may be
read through the comic or the tragic mask.
The story, based on the tragic life of a beautiful, talented woman who suffers - and
loses - three lovers of different social ranks and ultimately ends her life by suicide, offers a
perfect subject for operatic treatment. Virtually every participant in the production of the
opera Julie Vairon is affected by the romantic story on which they collaborate. The
melodramatic narrative of hearts broken and loves lost thus provides a text for Lessing's
exploration of romance and aging. While the intimacy and unreality of the production
situation influence the group's personal lives and associations, Sarah Durham finds herself
erotically reawakened and uncontrollably attracted to two men in the company, who are
young enough to be her son and grandson, respectively. In turn, several men, though not the
same ones, are attracted to her.
The narrative suggests a kind of ghost story, for each character in Love, Again
brings to the experience of love a whole cast of phantoms of earlier attachments. Initially,
Sarah observes these phantoms in other members of the company; soon, however, she is
prompted by the seductive power of the collective theatrical experience to confront her own
phantoms. She struggles both against old age and a womans bodily decline but also against
love, as a primitive and irrational force.
Sarah is attracted to far younger men, as Lessing illuminates the reality of a double
standard that obtains far beyond youth. While it is easy and socially acceptable for older
men to form relationships with young women, the reverse remains both unconventional and

The Annals of Eftimie Murgu University of Reia

During the course of Lessing's narrative, Sarah frequently examines her "double" -
her reflection in the mirror - attempting to reconcile her still-youthful inner image with her
outward appearance:
She dressed carefully. Women of a certain age (and older) have to do this.
What she wore became her, certainly. In the glass she saw a handsome
woman in white linen who had about her a dewy look far from the competent
asperities appropriate to her real age. (Love, Again, p. 141)
When one feels oneself a conscious, active, free being, the passive object on which
the fatality of aging or death is operating seems necessarily as if it were another.., this
cannot be I, this old woman reflected in the mirror! ... The woman puts her trust in what is
clear to her inner eye rather than in that strange world where time flows backward, where
her double no longer resembles her, where the outcome has betrayed her.
The discrepancy between inner and outer realities is what Thomas R. Cole calls
the fundamental paradox of aging - "the tragic and ineradicable conflict between spirit and
body." (op. cit, p. 34)
It is precisely those absolute and irreducible discrepancies - between outward
appearance and inward self, between negating cultural script and inner self-regard, between
corporeal and spiritual dimensions of being - that animate Lessings narrative exploration
of the problematic negotiation, for self-realized women in particular, between Eros and
aging. (op. cit, p. 35) Lessing's Sarah "makes herself return to the glass, again, again,
because the person who is doing the looking feels herself to be exactly the same (when
away from the glass) as she was at twenty, thirty, forty. She is exactly the same as the girl
and the young woman who looked into the glass and counted her attractions. She has to
insist that this is so, this is the truth: not what I remember this is what I am seeing, this is
what I am. This. This." (Love, Again, p. 236).
Sarah acknowledges that youth is a "privileged class sexually" that one takes for
granted at the time, only to relinquish it involuntarily as the peak of eroticism and physical
attractiveness give way, inevitably and regretfully, to a "desert of deprivation"(p. 141).
In these fictional representations of the trajectory of aging, the woman's reading of
her body's decline is also powerfully influenced by the unfinished business of past
attachments. The experiences of childhood and even infancy increasingly break through
both women's previously "solid and equable" positions as emotionally self-sufficient
women (113). Sarah, prompted by the gap the mocking mirror exposes between her
chronological age and her attraction to young men, concludes that old age is "a secret hell,
populated with the ghosts of lost loves, former personalities" (177). During her state of
infatuation with first one and then another younger man, she is haunted by "apparitions" (p.
265); one night, "ghostly lips kissed hers. A ghost's arms held her" (p. 253).
Though Lessings female protagonist regards her condition as a kind of illness,
Lessing goes further to establish links between what are ostensibly two different kinds of
sensual longing:
For people are often in love, and they are usually not in love equally, or
even at the same time. They fall in love with people not in love with them as
if there were a law about it, and this leads to... if the condition she was in
were not tagged with the innocuous in love, then her symptoms would be
those of a real illness. (Love, Again, p. 136)

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In Love, Again, the "again" is significant: the affections of adulthood are
inevitably mapped onto submerged but still influential emotional patterns of attachment and
affection (or their absence) experienced literally from the cradle. (op. cit, p. 35) Sarah,
aroused at one point by a young male company member's physical presence, feels her body
reacting sensually:
"Alive and vibrant, but also painful. Her breasts burned, and the lower part
of her abdomen ached. Her mouth threatened to seek kisses - like a baby's
mouth turning and turning to find the nipple" (Love, Again, p. 186).
Even the vocabulary of passion reflects the ambivalence of such erotic feelings:
the expression "raging with desire" (p. 120) captures the sense that a reserve of (infantile)
rage may lie just beneath Eros's mask. (op. cit, p. 36)

Sarah's further descent into the vortex is analogous to a kind of psychological
regression: "Forgotten selves kept appearing like bubbles in boiling liquid....She was
obviously dissolving into some kind of boiling soup, but presumably would reshape at some
point" (Love, Again, p. 212). Through feelings and sensations awakened from a long
dormancy, she experiences nostalgia for the idealized bliss of infancy, coloured by the
inevitability of loss: "Perhaps the paradise we dream of when in love is the one we were
ejected from, where all embraces are innocent" (Love, Again, p. 187). Lessing locates
Sarah's in the very earliest stage of emotional attachment, approaching the "desolation of
being excluded from happiness" (p. 197) that dates from her earliest years of childhood.
Significantly, virtually all of what occurs in the passionate drama of the narrative
takes place only within the women's own imaginations: Scarcely a single embrace or kiss is
actually exchanged between Sarah and the young men whom she privately desires, apart
from a single fraternal kiss on the cheek from Henry. Acutely aware of the age gap between
herself and the objects of her longing, she feels prohibited from acting on her desires, a fact
that only intensifies her emotional distress as she retreats from impossible erotic liaisons.
Lessing engages pessimistically with the narrative of decline, interrogating the relations
among desire, aging, and loss that, while initially seeming unrelated, are ultimately
revealed to be inextricably entangled. First, Sarah questions Nature's obscure purpose in
drawing an older person of either sex into intoxicated longing for a younger one. Later, the
question assumes another form as she is consumed by grief not only for her friend Stephen,
a casualty of unrequited (and unrequiteable) love, but for all of her own past loves and past
selves. (op. cit, p. 36) She wonders, "Why grief at all? What is it for?" (p. 327).
Accordingly, following an interval of several months after the conclusion of her
involvement with the production of Julie Vairon, Sarah examines her image in a mirror
again. She appears to have "aged by ten years.... Her hair, which for so long remained like
a smooth dulled metal, now has grey bands across the front. She has acquired that slow
cautious look of the elderly, as if afraid of what they will see around the next corner" (Love,
Again, p. 349).
Lessing's novel exposes the darker subtext in which these matters are embedded.
By contrast, the cost of Sarah's descent into the whirlpool is the defeat of her resistance to
the master narrative of decline. In place of the self-renewing energy of Eros is a much more
muted process: the resolution of mourning for her lost younger selves, marked by her
acceptance of the older woman she has become. (op. cit, p. 36)

The Annals of Eftimie Murgu University of Reia

Just behind Sarah Durham stands Doris Lessing wrestling equally - along with
other women of their generation - with the unappeased phantoms of early life and the not-
entirely-appeaseable demons of advancing age. Intrepid pathfinders in the less willingly
traversed terrains of what Lessing terms "love's country," the author dares to chart the
hazards she discovers in the landscape - or what Colette V. Browne terms the "agescape."
Through her imaginative exploration of deeply imbedded, and conflicting, cultural scripts
associated with desire and decline, Lessing enables us to imagine women's capacity for
emotional renewal and growth during and beyond midlife. In illuminating the midlife
version of "the problem that has no name," she demonstrates the power of forces, both
internal and external, that hinder women's progress towards true erotic equity. (op. cit, p.

After presenting the disadvantages and stigma of old age especially on women, we
have analysed the character Sarah Durham and we have reached the following conclusions:
- Indeed, Old age represents a "foreign country" about which Sarah Durham knows
nothing about
- Aging represents a woman's oppression for Sarah because she lives in a culture
that still valorises youthful beauty as a major source of a woman's power
- The novel ends reassuringly because Lessing enables us to imagine women's
capacity for emotional renewal and growth during and beyond midlife.


Deats Munson, Sara; Lenker Tallent, Lagretta (1999). Aging and Identity: A Humanities
Perspective, chapter Work, Contentment, and Identity in Aging Women in
Literature, Praeger Publishers.
Lessing, Doris (1997). Love, Again, London: Flamingo.
Morris, Monica (1977). An excursion into Creative Sociology, Chapter 5, The Social
meaning of Aging, New York: Columbia University Press.
Waxman Frey, Barbara (1990). From the Hearth to the Open Road: A Feminist Study of
Aging in Contemporary Literature, Santa Barbara: Greenwood Press .

Fascicle III - Humanities-Social Sciences, Anul I, Nr. 1/2013


Silvia Sorina ZUIAC


Anxiety in athletes is considered one of the most common entity occurring
psychiatric practice, but also the family doctor. Anxiety affects thinking, perception and
learning, can produce distorted perceptions, reducing the power of concentration, memory,
association and evocation. Another important aspect is its effect on the selectivity of
attention. Thus, athletes anxious select certain things and events around us and exaggerate
the importance of others in an attempt to justify anxiety in response to a fearful situation.
One of the general symptoms present in athletes is anxiety, common (most days) , persistent
, difficult to control , on different moments or sports activities during the day . Anxiety
disorders have a high prevalence in primary care. About 20 % of the athletes that address
the primary medical disorders and of these the most affective disorders, anxiety disorders
following the frequency. Thus, we can state that there is a marked increase in anxiety
syndrome among athletes even if they have an ordered life and most team sport, and
because of the pace of work to do too much performance anxiety daily stress is increasingly
present. Athletes with anxiety should be treated as early as possible to prevent worsening of
the disease. Anxiety in athletes occurs most frequently after cessation sports.

KEY WORDS: sport team, anxiety disorders, athletes, anxiety syndrome.

1. Introduction
Anxiety to athletes is considered one of the most common entity occurring
psychiatric practice, but also for family doctor. Janet has been defined as "fear no object",
then Delay as "a painful experiences an immediate and indefinite, as a state of tense
expectation" (Daly, JM, et al, 2011, p. 176).
Anxiety is characterized by a diffuse feeling, unpleasant, vague fear or anxiety,
accompanied by autonomous symptoms such as headache, sweating, palpitations,
tachycardia, stomach pain etc. It consists of two components, one physiological and one
psychological, the athlete is aware of the existence of both. Anxiety affects thinking,
perception and learning, can produce distorted perceptions, reducing the power of
concentration, memory, association and evocation. Another important aspect is its effect on
the selectivity of attention (Hansenne, M., et al., 2004, p. 331-341) Thus; athletes anxious

Assistant. univ. PhD, University "Eftimie Murgu" Resita, s.zuiac@uem.ro
ANUL I, NR. 1/2013, ISSN 2286 0711, ISSN-L 2286 0711

The Annals of Eftimie Murgu University of Reia

select certain things and events around us and exaggerate the importance of others in an
attempt to justify anxiety in response to a fearful situation. One of the general symptoms
present in athletes is anxiety, common (most days), persistent, difficult to control, on
different moments or sports activities during the day.
Anxiety is a conditioned response to a specific environmental stimulus. Behavioral
theorists assume that anxiety is a learned response , and learning occurs either through
classical conditioning (Pavlovan) or with parental behavioral model (social learning
theory). Recall that the first stage of classical conditioning is the combination of a noxious
stimulus (electric shock) - unconditioned stimulus - a hitherto neutral event (eg , entering a
crowded store or crossing a bridge ). Concomitant and repeated association of the two
events leading to the emergence of fear (conditioned response), which will then occur in the
absence of unconditioned stimulus. Another specific way of conditioning is operant
conditioning, which explains why sometimes behaviors are reinforced by their
consequences. This phenomenon occurs when an individual avoids situations anxious
alleged by him as anxious , which reduces his anxiety, but encouraging him and reinforces
the danger imaginary anxiety is a conditioned response to a specific environmental stimulus
. Behavioral theorists assume that anxiety is a learned response , and learning occurs either
through classical conditioning or with parental behavioral model (social learning theory) .
Recall that the first stage of classical conditioning is the combination of a noxious stimulus
(eg electric shock) - unconditioned stimulus - a hitherto neutral event (entering a crowded
store or crossing a bridge) . Concomitant and repeated association of the two events leading
to the emergence of fear (conditioned response), which will then occur in the absence of
unconditioned stimulus. Another specific way of conditioning is operant conditioning ,
which explains why sometimes behaviors are reinforced by their consequences. This
phenomenon occurs when an individual avoids situations anxious alleged by him as
anxious, which reduces his anxiety, but encouraging him and reinforces the danger
imaginary flight. Operant conditioning can maintain in captivity anxiety anxious. flight .
Operant conditioning can maintain in captivity anxiety anxious.

The perception of an event as stressful sport depends on the nature of the event
and subject resources. An athlete with ego -functioning is adaptive balance between the
external world and internal world. Imbalance of generating anxiety. Anxiety plays a
warning, cautioning athlete of the hazard and helping her to organize to deal with. Fear,
another signal that alters the body, occurs in response to a known threat, foreign, or
non-conflictual final at home, while anxiety occurs in response to a known threat, internal,
vague or conflicting origin. The distinction between the two terms appeared only
accidentally, the first English translators translating Freuds German word angst with
"anxiety" and not scared" (Freud S., 1940, p. 237). Anxiety and fear share many subjective
and physiological characteristics, so that a clear difference between them is still a matter for
Currently, there are inconsistencies in the group of anxiety disorders which,
combined with high comorbidity between them, and between anxiety disorders and
depression, suggesting that this area is not yet a definitive classification of these disorders
is an open field for a more detailed exploration (Weissman, M. M., 1990, p. 36). He even

Fascicle III - Humanities-Social Sciences, Anul I, Nr. 1/2013

put the question whether anxiety disorders in athletes is separate diagnostic entity, some
researchers even propose the term "general neurotic syndrome". No specific
neurobiological dysfunctions identified on which to be able to distinguish between anxiety
disorders and depression or between them.
Anxiety disorders are a group of disorders that include:
- Panic disorder (PD) with/without agoraphobia;
- Social phobia (social anxiety disorder, social anxiety TAS);
- Disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder (reaction) acute stress;
- Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD);
- Substance-induced anxiety disorder.
Anxiety disorders have a significant impact on the daily life of an athlete, causing
much suffering, but at the same time present an important economic impact. Anxiety
disorders are the most common mental disorders in athletes.
In most cases, female athletes were more likely to have an anxiety disorder than
male athletes, this phenomenon having a satisfactory explanation.
Anxiety disorders have a high prevalence in primary care. About 20% of the
athletes that address the primary medical disorders and of these the most affective
disorders, anxiety disorders following the frequency of disorder (Podea, D, 2005, p. 135).
Although anxiety disorders are currently for effective treatments, only a third of
people suffering from these disorders receive appropriate treatment.
Anxiety can take various forms. It can be seen as an inexplicable feeling of
impending doom as unfounded and exaggerated worries about life (health status of
children, professional problems, financial, etc.) or as an unjustified fear to a specific
situation (bus trip) , an activity (driving the car) or object (fear of sharp objects, animals).
Usually, athletes describe the following physical and mental conditions (Alexander F.,
2008, p. 238):
- Unrealistic and excessive concern;
- Feeling of fear without cause;
- Unrealistic fears about the anticipation of danger unknown;
- Flashbacks of past trauma;
- Compulsive behaviors (rituals) as a way to reduce anxiety;
- Trembling, muscle aches, sweating, dizziness, tension, fatigue, palpitations, dry
mouth, digestive disorders, feeling of "lump in the throat" increased frequency of sweating;
- Loss of mental and physical relaxer;
- Insomnia.
Anxiety disorders are included central symptom (panic disorder and generalized
anxiety disorder) and secondary disorders in which anxiety is cognitive schemes and
misconduct, as in obsessive compulsive and phobic disorders (Angst. J., et al., 1990, p.78).
Also in anxiety disorders and anxiety are described that are abnormal responses to various
stressors (adjustment disorder) as well as psychological reactions to traumatic events (acute
stress disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder).
In classic psychiatry after recognition of symptomatology was mandatory release a
preliminary diagnosis, classification of symptoms in syndromes. So anxious was defined
syndrome that occurs not only in different forms of anxiety disorders but also in other
psychiatric and somatic diseases. Anxiety syndrome was grouped together with other

The Annals of Eftimie Murgu University of Reia

specific syndromes, and other mental disorders, anxiety disorders outside (depression or
schizophrenia), being absent in others (manic episode or personality disorders in cluster A
and B).
Also, anxiety can present as a personality trait personality disorders in cluster C.
At present, it is considered that there is a clear separation anxiety syndrome in various
anxiety disorders. These can be diagnosed accurately, but there are numerous comorbidities
between them and each can be explained by depression and substance abuse or dependence
different (DiNardo.I.A., Barlow D.H., 1990, p. 67). Thus, we can state that there is a
marked increase in anxiety syndrome among athletes even if they have an ordered life and
most team sport, and because of the pace of work to do too much performance anxiety daily
stress is increasingly present.

Assessment as early as possible to determine athletes anxiety.
Athletes with anxiety should be treated as early as possible to prevent worsening
of the disease.
Anxiety in athletes occurs most frequently after cessation sports.
Anxiety is considered a syndrome in athletes quite often.


Angst. J., Vollrath, M. & Mcrikangas, K. R., & Ernst, C., (1990). Comorbidity of anxiety
and depresaion. 111 Yurich Cohort study of Young adults. In J.D. Meeser & C.R.
Cloninger (Eds). Comorbidity of mood and anxiety disorders. American Psycheatric
Press Whashington DC; p.78.
Daly, JM, Levy BT. & Ely JW. & Swanson K,. & Bergus GR. & Jogerst GJ. & Smith TC.
J. (Sep-Oct 2011). Am Board Fam Med.; 24(5):524-33;
DiNardo. I. A.. & Barlow. D. H. (1990). Syndrome and symptom co-occurrence in the
anxiety disorders. In J. D. Maser & C. R. Cloningcr (Eds.). Comorbidity of anxiety
and depresaion, American Psychiatric, Washington. DC; p.67.
Franz, A. (2008). Psychosomatic Medicine, Principles and its Applicability. Chapter 14, Ed
Three, Bucharest , p.238.
Freud, S. (1940). The Justification for detaching from neurasthenia a Particular Syndrome:
Ch 5, in Colected Papers, Volume I, Second Edition, Hogarth Press and Institute of
Psychoanalysis, London, p.233-5.
Hansenne, M. & Mardaga, S. & Laloyaux, O.,& Ansseau, M. (2004). Impact of Low
Frequency Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation on Event-Related Brain Potentials.
Biological Psychology, 67, 331-341.
Podea, D, (2005). Anxiety Disorders. Editura Mirton, Timisoara, p. 135.
Weissman, M. M. (1990). Evidence for comorbidity of anxiety and depression: family and
gentic studies of children. In J. D. Maser & C. R. Cloninger (Eds.), Comorbidity of
mood and anxiety disorders., American Psychiatric Press, Washington. DC; p. 36.