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Course Number and Name:

EE 423: Digital Communication

Semester and Year:

Semester Final year

Name of Student:
Muhammad Ghous

Roll No:

Name of Lab Instructor:

Dr. Asim Loan

Date of Report Submitted:

Simulate the 802.11a transmitter and plot the PSD of data.

Fig1: OFDM training Structure


PLCP preamble field is used for synchronization. The PLCP preamble consists
of 10 short symbols and 2 long symbols.
A short training symbol consists of 12 subcarriers which are modulated by the
elements of a know sequence. Period of one short preamble is 0.8us so the total
interval of 10 short symbol is 0.8*10=8us. When we take the 64-point Inverse
Fourier transform of the know sequence, we can see than the resultant in
periodic with period 16(0.8us). So we need to repeat this so that we can have
160 points.
A long training symbol consists of 53 subcarriers (including a zero value at dc)
which are modulated with the elements of a known sequence. One long symbol
is 3.2us. We will use 2 long symbols to improve the channel estimation
accuracy. We will also put a guard interval (GI) between the short symbols and
the long symbols. One long symbol is 64 points so two long symbols and one
guard interval (32 points) gives us 160 points.
The total interval of PLCP preamble (training symbol) is 8+8=16us.


OFDM training symbols shall be followed by the SIGNAL field. It consists of
the RATE field and the LENGTH field. The RATE field conveys the
information about the coding rate and the modulation used in rest of the packet
to the receiver. The LENGTH field tells about the total length of packet (data to
be transmitted) in octets.
SIGNAL field consists of 24 bits. First 4 bits are RATE field. 5
bit is the
reserved bit (it should initialize to 0). Bit 6 to 17 are the LENGTH field. 18
is the even parity bit.bit 19 to 24 are tail bits they shall be initialize to 0.
Using the rate (36 Mbps in our case), we will generate the SIGNAL field. We
dont scramble the SIGNAL field. We will encode this field with coding rate.
Then we will interleave the coded bits to get 48 bits. These 48 bits are BPSK
modulated to get frequency domain representation and then we will insert pilot
carrier at -21,-7, 7 and 21. The time domain representation is get by taking the
64 point IFFT. We also need to put a guard interval between the PLCP header
and the SIGNAL field. GI is of 16 points.


The DATA field consists of SERVICE field, the data to be transmitted, the
TAIL bits and the PAD bits.
The SERVICE field consists of 16 bits out of which first 7 bits are set to all
0s and they are used to synchronize the descrambler at the receiver. The
remaining 9 bits are also set to 0s as they will be used in future.
The tail bit field consists of 6 bits which all are initialized to 0s. Main purpose
of this field is to return the convolutional encoder to all zero-state.
Total bits in the DATA field must be the multiple of Ncbps (coded bits in
OFDM symbol), for that purpose, we pad zero bits at the end of OFDM symbol.

Our data (to be transmitted) is of the length of 800 bits (100 octets). After
prepending and appending different fields of DATA field, our total length of
DATA field is 864 bits.

First of all, we will scramble this data field. The generator polynomial is
known to us and we will generate a sequence of 127 bits. After that, we
will XOR this sequence with 127 bits blocks of DATA field.
The scrambled DATA field will be encoded with the help of
convolutional encoder. Encoder shall use the generator polynomial of
go=1011011 and g1=1111001 at the encoding rate of . But, we will
encode at the rate of so we shall use puncturing to get higher coding
The coded data bits must be interleaved with the help of interleaver
whose length is equal to Ncbps. It is defined by the two-step permutation.
The first permutation ensures that adjacent coded bits are mapped onto
non-adjacent carriers and the second permutation ensures that adjacent
coded bits are mapped onto less and more significant bits of the
constellation diagram.
The interleaved data bits are divided into group of 4 bits and they are 16-
QAM modulated. 4 bits blocks are converted to complex numbers
representing 16-QAM constellation points. The SIGNAL field was BPSK
modulated and now the DATA field is 16-QAM modulated so we will
divide the 16-QAM modulated data with a normalization factor Kmod (it
is 1/sqrt(10) here) to get the same average power for all the mappings.
After modulation, we will have one OFDM symbol. In each OFDM
symbol, we will insert 4 pilot carriers at the location of -21,-7, 7 and 21.
To get the time domain representation, we will pad zeros and take the 64-
point IFFT. We will also append the guard at the start of each symbol (16
In our example, we will have 6 OFDM symbols (total 480 points). We
will plot the PSD of this data field.