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UNIT-III

FREQUENCY HOPPING SS SYSTEM


NON-COHERENT FH SYSTEM MODEL:








FIG: FUNCTIONAL BLK. DIAGRAM OF FH/MFSK SYSTEM PERUBED BY JAMMIMNG
Transmit one of M=2
k
tones, carrier is hopped to one of 2
k
frequencies determined by k-chip
segments of PN code, dehopping requires derived PN reference (pN)^, non coherent detection.
On a single hop, the system occupies a BW similar to conventional MFSK, which smaller than spread
spectrum BW WSS. But with multiple hops the FH/MFSK System occupies the entire SS bandwidth.
Frequency hop BW is of the order of several Ghz, which is larger than direct sequence BW.
With successive frequency hops, coherent demodulation is not possible so, we discuss the system with
non coherent demodulation. The system is said to be fast frequency hopped (FFH), when the hop rate FH
is an integer multiple of the MFSK symbol rate Rs.
The system is said to slow frequency hopped (SFH), when the MFSK symbol rate RS is an integer
multiple of the hop rate Rh.
Chip refers to the individual FH/MFSK tone of shortest duration.
In an FFH system where there are multiple hops per M-ary symbol, each hop is a chip.
In an SSH system, a chip denotes an M-ary symbol,
Chip rate Rc=max (Rh,Rs).
With non coherent detection, the MFSK tons on a given hop must be separated in frequency by an integer
multiple of Rc to provide orthogonality.
M
PN^
FH DE-
MOD
1
2
3
D
E
C
O
D
E
R
M ENERGY
DETECTORS
CODE
R
FH
MOD
MFSK
MOD
JAMMER
BINARY
K-TUPLE
BINARY
K-TUPLE
BINARY
K-TUPLE
BINARY
DATA
Fig. shows the implementation in which the entire SS band it portioned into Nt = Wss/Rc, Equally spaced
FH tones, where PG=NtRc/Rb
Then these are grouped into Nb=Nt/M adjacent, non overlapping M-ary bands, each with Band Width
MRc.
Under this arrangement, any Nb=2
k
carrier frequency is FH modulated by binary k*PN, to produce a
specific, hop invariant M-ary symbol.





Wss=Nt Rc
Frequency structure for FH/MFSK systems with Nt tones equally separated by Rc in M-ary bands
contiguous and non overlapping.






Bands are shifted by Rc, which scrambles the FH tone/M-ary symbol mapping.(M=4 here).
As a method of scrambling, H is allowed to hop the carrier at all M slots of Nt available frequencies only
once. A more jam-resistant approach is to use M=distinct frequency synthesizers.
In addition to anti jam capability, the SS signal is generally difficult to detect and even harder to decipher
by an unauthorized receiver, it is referred as low probability of intercept (LPI)
The LPI advantage of an SS signal is that its power is spreaded over large BW.
The processing gain PG can be defined as the ratio of the SNRs at the output and input of the despreader
and can be expressed as PG = Wss/Rb.
In frequency hop systems, PG can be defined as the number of available frequency choices.
1 3 4 2 2 2 3 4 1 1
MRc
M-ARY BAND
Rc
MRc
Rc
Rc
1 2
Wss=Nt R
In FH/MFSK system, Nt= Wss/Rc and so PG=NtRC/Rb. For BFSK or MFSK with M=2. Rc = Rb, so
PG=Nt.




In MFSK with overlapping bands, with w<0,
Wss = NbMrc-(Nb-1)| w|
When w>0 with non overlapping bands, Wss=Nb M Rc.
UNCODED FH/BFSK SYSTEM:
Taking a basic modulation technique and changing the carrier frequency in some pseudo random manner
is the frequency hopping method of spread spectrum. Most common method of modulation used with
frequency hopping is M-ary frequency shift keying (M-FSK)
Ordinary BFSK signals have the form,
s(t)=2s sin [wot+dnwt];
nTbt<(n+1)Tb, n-integer
here Tb is the data bit time and {dn} are the independent data bits, where
dn= 1, with probability 1/2
-1, with probability
We choose w Tb=, so that the two possible transmitter tones are orthogonal for all phase shift over
the Tb second interval.
Frequency hopping of this BFSK signal is done with pseudo random binary sequence
x(t)=2s sin (w0t+wnt+dnwt);
nTb(n+T)Tb,n-integer
where wn is the hop frequency choosen for the nth transmission interval.
Figure illustrates the basic uncoded FH/BFSK system.


Rc
MRc
M-ARY BAND
w





For simplicity, assume receivers PN sequence generator is synchronized with that of transmitter
The frequency de hop at the receiver removes the effect of pseudo random frequency shifts
A non coherent BFSK receiver follows the frequency dehop
Since the transmitted signal has a shifting carrier frequency, the receiver shifts its center
frequency together with that of the transmitter.
The outputs of energy detectors are e
+
& e
-
.
The non coherent decision rule based on additive white Gaussian noise is,
d^+= 1, e
+
> e
-

-1, e
+
e
-
UNCODED FH/BFSK PERFORANCE UNDER CONSTANT POWER BROADBAND JAMMER:
For each Tb time interval, the bit error probability is the amount of jammer power in the
instantaneous bandwidth of the signal that contributes to the energy term e
+
& e
-
.
The overall bit error probability is the average of these particular bit error probabilities where
average is taken overall frequency hopped shifts.
Assume the jammer transmits broadband noise over the total spread spectrum band with constant
power J.
At any time interval Tb, regardless of the carrier frequency shift, there will be an equivalent white
noise, with spectral density Nj=J/Wss.
Since an equivalent white Gaussian noise process is encountered at all parts, the bit error
probability for all uncoded FH/BFSK system is same as that of conventional BFSK system.
Pb=1/2 e
-(Eb/2Nj)

UNCODED FH/BFSK PERFORMANCE UNDER PARTIAL BAND NOISE JAMMER:
Assume that the jammer transmits noise over a fraction P of the total spread spectrum signal
band.
-P=WJ/Wss1, where WJ is the jammed frequency band and Wss is the total spread bandwidth.
The noise power spectral density can be given by J/WJ=J/Wss,Wss/WJ=WJ/P.
Assume a jammer state parameter Z for each time interval Tb, where
s(t)

J(t)

y(t)

x(t)

BFSK
MODLATION
Frequency
HOP
Wn
PN
Generator
Frequency
De-HOP
Wn

PN
Generator

Energy
detector at
w0-w
Energy
detector at
w0+w

e
-
e
+
dn

r(t)

Transmitter
Receiver

Channel

Z= 1, signal in jammed band
0, signal not in jammed band,
With Pr {z=1} =P and Pr {z=0}=1-P,
Then the bit error probability is Pb=Pr {e+>e-1|d=-1}
=Pr {e+>e-1|d=-1, z=1} pr {z=1}
+Pr {e+>e-1|d=-1, z=1} pr {z=0}
=P/2e
-P (Eb/2Nj)

Where there are no errors when the signal hops out of jammed band.


Fig: FH/BFSK: PARTIAL BAND NOISE JAMMER Fig: FH/BFSK AGAINST JAMMER
The value of P that maximizes Pb is easily obtained by differentiation.
P*= 2/ (Eb/Nj), Eb/Nj>2
1, Eb/Nj2
This yields the maximum value of Pb,
Pb= e
-J
/(Eb/Nj), Eb/Nj>2
1/2e
-(Eb/Nj)
, Eb/Nj2
The partial band noise jammer on uncoded FH/BFSK system is analogous to pulse noise jammer effect on
uncoded DS/BFSK system.
UNCODED FH/BFSK PERFORMANCE UNDER MULTITONE JAMMER:
For the total spread spectrum signal bandwidth Wss, there are N=Wss Tb possible orthogonal tone
position.
Consider a jammer that transmits many tones each of energy S
J
Tb with total power J.
There are almost Nt=J/S
J
jammer tones randomly scattered across the band.
The probability that any given signal tone position is jammed with a jammer tone is,
P=Nt/N= J/ S
J
WssTb, where P is a fraction of the signal tone positions that are jammed.
Assuming jammer tone occurs only in alternate tone position, we may ignore the smaller probability of a
jammer tone in both positions.
Assuming an error occurs only if a jammer tones with power S
J
S occurs in alternate tone position, the
probability of a bit error is
Pb=P=J/S
J
Wss Tb, provided S
J
>S
The worst choice of SJ=S resulting in the maximum bit error probability,
Pb*=J/SWss Tb = 1/Eb/N
J
The bit error probability is slightly larger than the worst partial band noise jammer performance.

CODED FH/BFSK PERFORMANCE FOR PARTIAL AND MULTI TONE JAMMER:
Assume that mFH/BFSK tones are transmitted for each bit.
Assume the simple repeat m code, where for each data bit, m identical BFSK tones are sent, with each
tone are hopped separately.
With m chips make up a single data bit, the chip duration is Tc=Tb/m.
Requiring each of the chip tones to be orthogonal results in, Nc=WssTc=WssTb/m
Choose S
J
=S so that the probability that a particular chip tone postion is jammed is given by,
=Nt/Nc = (J/S)/Wss Tb/m= m/ (Eb/Nj)
at receiver, the error on decision making is made only if a jammer tone occurs in all m of the chip tone
frequencies corresponding to the BFSK frequency that was not transmitted.
This occurs with probability Pb=
m

Pb= (m/ (Eb/Nj))
m
, since each chip is independently hopped.
This analysis ignored the effects of jamming tones occurring in the same frequencies as the transmitted
chips.



The bit error probability is plotted for various values of m.
M=1 case is the uncoded case.
Note that there exists a value of m that achieves a bit error probability close to the baseline case of broad
band noise jamming.
Repeat code is a simple code of rate R=1/m bits per coded bit. It is also referred as diversity of order m.
Diversity technique is useful in combating deep fades in a fading channel. For similar reasons, diversity is
effective for multitone jamming and for worst case partial band jamming. As with DS/BPSK, use of
coding did not change the data rate of total spread spectrum BW Wss. only the instantaneous BW
associated with each coded bit or chip.
PERFORMANCE OF FH/MDPSK IN THE PRESENCE OF PARTIAL BAND MULTITONE
JAMMING:
The average symbol error probability performance of MDPSK on an additive white Gaussian noise
(AWGN) channel is given by,
/2
P
S
(M) = sin/ [1+ (log
2
M) Eb/No (1+cossin )] *exp[-(log
2
M)Eb/No(1-cossin )]dd,
/
M
0
Where Eb/No is the bit energy to noise ratio.

The double integral can be expressible as a single integral as,

/2
Ps (M) = (sin (/m) / ) exp [-(log
2
M) Eb/No (1-cos (/M) cos)]
0 * d
1-cos /m cos
To obtain the performance of FH/MDPSK in partial band noise jamming, we have o replace Eb/Nj by
Peb/N
J
.
So the bit error probability performance of FH/MDPSK in partial band noise jamming is
/2
Pb(m\M)=Pm/2(M-1) (sin (/m)/ ) exp[-(log
2
M)PEb/N
J
(1-cos (/m)cos )]
0 * d

1-cos (/M) cos
/2
(Eb/N
J
)
-1
(M/2(M-1))*[Z (sin (m)/) exp [-(log2M) Z (1-cos (/M) cos )] * d
0
Where Z=PEb/N
J
The worst case jammer strategy corresponds to a partial band fraction,
Pwc=(Eb/N
J
)
-1
Zmax
and the max. bit error probability
Pbmax = (Eb/NJ)
-1
[Mpmax-2(M-1)], Eb/NJZmax
/2
M/2(M-1) (sin(/m)/m) exp[-(log2M)Eb/NJ(1-cos(/m) cos)]
0 *d
1-cos (/m) cos

For 2ary MDPSK,
Ps(2)=Pb(2)=1/2exp(-Eb/NJ)
For FH/DPSK in partial band noise jamming
Pb(2)=P/2.exp(-PEb/NJ)
Differentiating this with respect to P and equating to zero yields the worst case performance.
Pwc=(Eb/NJ)
-1
and
Pbmax= 1/ [2e (Eb/NJ)], Eb/NJ1
1/2exp (-Eb/NJ),Eb/NJ<1

Fig: a plot of Z Ps(M) Vs Zin dB


Figure illustrates the ZPs(M) Vs Zin dB for M=2,4,9 and 16.
Worst case partial band fraction PWC = Kp/(EB/NJ)
Maximum average bit error probability Pbmax= Kp/(Eb/NJ)
M Pmax Kp(Zmax) Kp
2 0.1839 1.000 0.1839
4 0.3176 1.245 0.2118
8 0.7471 3.076 0.426
16 2.171 9.204 1.1519

Asymptotic performance off FH/MDPSK for worst case partial band noise jamming.
For all values of M, FH/MDPSK is more sensitive to worst case partial band multitone jamming
than it is to worst case partial band noise jamming.