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CE-458: IRRIGATION ENGINEERING (2.5 + 0.

5)
Spring Semester 2014
INSTRUCTOR: Assist Prof. Dr. Shakil Ahmad
Phone: (051) 90854614
Email: engrshakilahmad@hotmail.com

OFFICE: Room No. 103, NICE Building

OFFICE HOURS: Mon -Fri (9:00am-5:00pm); Otherwise Open Door Policy

PREREQUISIE: Nil

TEXT BOOK: Punmia B.C. , Irrigation & Water Power Engineering, Standard
Publishers, Delhi

REFERENCE BOOKS: Santosh Kumar Garg, Irrigation Engineering & Hydraulic
Structures, Khanna Publishers, Dehli
R.K. Sharma & T.K. Sharma, Irrigation Engineering, S. Chand
& Company, New Delhi
Iqbal Ali, Irrigation & Hydraulic Structures (Theory, Design &
Practice), Allied Book Company, Lahore
Asawa G.L., Irrigation Engineering, New Age International
Publishers
Basak N.N., Irrigation Engineering, Tata McGraw-Hill
Publishing Co. New Delhi
Dilip Kumar Majumdar, Irrigation Water Management
(Principles & Practices), Prentice Hall of India, Ltd
Gupta B.L. & Amir Gupta, Irrigation Engineering, Satya
Praheshan, New Delhi
Michael A.M., Irrigation Theory & Practical, Vikas Publishing
Pvt Ltd
MASSCOTE FAO 63
UN Water and Global Water Partnership: Road mapping for
advancing towards IWRM process.
Value of Virtual Water in Food: Principles and Virtues, Daniel
Renault (FAO)
Paper presented at the UNESCO-IHE Workshop onVirtual Water
Trade 12-13 December 2002 Delft, the Netherlands
Coping with water scarcity An action framework FAO Water
Report no 38 fo
Performance Indicators of Irrigation Service, Daniel Renault &
Robina Wahaj FAO NRLWr agriculture and food security
Multiple Uses of Water Services in Large Irrigation Systems:
Auditing and planning modernization The MASSMUS Approach
FAO.
FAO IDP 26 Small hydraulic structures
Masscotte Technical Modules FAO 63: Paul Ankum Operation
methods in canal irrigation delivery systems (Extract from FAO:
Irrigation Scheduling: From Theory to Practice Proceedings
FAO Water Report 8. 1998) & Daniel Renault Operation
Techniques in Canal Systems .
Canal Systems Automation Manual. USBR Vol.1 & 2.
Open Channel Seepage & Control Vol 1.4 Best practice Guidelines
for Channel Seepage Identification and Measurement. Published
by Australian National Committee on Irrigation and Drainage
(ANCID) c/- Goulburn-Murray Water, PO Box 165, Tatura,
Victoria, Australia, 3616. In MASSCOTE CD-ROM 2.
Gertrudys B. Adkins (2006) Flow measurement devices (29 pages)
Bureau of Reclamation, 2001. Water Measurement Manual. 3rd
ed., revised reprint, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington
DC, 20402.
A. J. Clemmens T.L. Wahl M.G. Bos J.A. Replogle 2001 Water
Measurement with Flumes and Weirs ILRI Publication 58
Bureau of Reclamation, 2001. Water Measurement Manual. 3rd
ed., revised reprint, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington
DC, 20402.
Lecture MSU Propagation error
http://lectureonline.cl.msu.edu/~mmp/labs/error/e2.htm

COURSE PURPOSE:
Pakistans economy is agro-based hence the student should be well aware of the importance of
water for this critical area of our economy. The course assembles a body of knowledge such as
irrigation need, practices, modern methods of irrigation, introduction to canal system, irrigation
system management (audit & modernization), etc.

COURSE OUTCOME & OBJECTIVES:
Students should be able to design a simple irrigation project, calculating crop water yield, water
requirements, designing canals and water courses, to audit & modernize approach for irrigation
& water management.

TOPICS COVERED:
1. Water Resources of Pakistan
a. Planning and development of water resources projects
b. Domestic, Industrial, Agricultural and other water usages
c. Water resources in Pakistan
d. Indus Basin Treaty
e. Indus Basin Irrigation System (IBIS)

2. Methods of Irrigation
a. Definition, Need, Importance & Scope of Irrigation
b. Types/Methods/Modes of Irrigation
c. Merits & Demerits of Irrigation

3. Water Requirements of Crops
a. Functions of Irrigation Water
b. Standards & Classification of Irrigation Water
c. Classes & Availability of Soil Water
d. Soil Moisture Constants
e. Soil-Moisture-Irrigation Relationship
f. Principal Crops & Cropping Seasons of Pakistan
g. Duty & Delta of Crops
h. Intensity of Irrigation
i. Irrigation Efficiencies
j. Consumptive Use of Water (i.e. Evapotranspiration)
k. Determination of Irrigation Requirement of Crops using Hargreaves Method

4. Diversion Headworks
a. Weir, Barrage & Headwork
b. Classes of Headwork (Storage & Diversion Headworks)
c. Function of Diversion Headwork
d. Classes of Diversion Headwork (Temporary Spurs, Permanent Weirs & Barrages)
e. Component Parts of a Diversion Headwork (Layout of Diversion Headwork,
Functions of each Component Parts)
f. Causes of Failure of Weirs & their Remedies
g. Design of Weirs on Permeable Foundations (Blighs Creep Theory, Lanes
Weighed Creep Theory)
5. Canal Irrigation System & Design of Irrigation Channel
a. Alluvial & Non-alluvial Canals
b. Classification of Canals
c. Distribution System of Canal Irrigation in Pakistan
d. Losses in Canals
e. Selection of Canal Site, Layout & Alignment
f. Design of Irrigation Channels : Silt Theories (Kennedys Theory, Drawbacks in
Kennedys Theory, Laceys Regime Theory, Defects in Laceys Regime Theory,
Comparison of Kennedys & Laceys Theory)

6. Canal Control, Regulation, Operation, Measurement & Cross Drainage Works
a. Canal Regulation Works, Types & Functions (Canal Head Regulator, Cross
Regulator, Canal Escapes, Metering Flumes, Canal Outlets & Modules, Canal Falls)
b. Irrigation Structures Worldwide (Storage, Conveyance, Diversion, Distribution,
Control, Measurement, Safety, Transmission)
c. Canal Operation & Control (Scheduled/Unscheduled Operation, Operational &
Regulation Modes, Organization of Canal Operation, Upstream Control,
Downstream Control, Volume Control Techniques)
d. Canal Flow Measurements Techniques & Methods (Velocity/Head Measurements,
Weir, Flumes, Electronic Devices, Rated Section, Rated Gate, Floating Devices,
Dilution Method, Gauges Data Sensors, Data Logger)
e. Maintenance of Irrigation Canals
f. Measures Adopted to Control Silt Entry into Canals
g. Silt Ejectors & Excluders
h. Cross Drainage Works, Types & Functions (Aqueduct & Syphon Aqueduct, Super-
passage & Canal Syphon, Level Crossing, Inlets & Outlets)

7. Water Logging & Salinity
a. Causes & Adverse Effects of Water Logging & Salinity
b. Reclamation of Water Logged Soils (Preventive & Curative Measures)
c. Occurrence & Need of Drainage
d. Adverse Affects of Poor Drainage System
e. Drainage Network in Irrigated Areas
f. Types of Drainage Systems
g. Introduction of Salinity Control & Reclamation Projects (SCARPs)

8. Canal Lining: Modern Concepts
a. Canal Lining (Necessity, Suitability, Advantages & Disadvantages, Types)
b. Issues related to Costs/Benefits
c. Brief Review of Advanced Techniques for Canal Lining
d. Measurement of Seepage Losses

9. Uncertainties & Errors
a. Uncertainty & Error: Types, Assessment, Propagation, How to Reduce Them?
b. Measurements: Precision & Accuracy
c. Errors: Calculation, Consequences, Compensation & Service Oriented Management
10. Water Management: Modern Concepts
a. Performance Analysis
b. Multiple Uses of Water
c. Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM)
d. Virtual Water & Water Footprint
e. Water Scarcity
f. Ecosystem Management

11. Practicals/Labs
1. Canal Flow Measurements:
a. Flow Measurements in a Flume Q(H) & Comparison with Qin
b. Slide Gate: Under Free Flow Condition Assess Q(H) & Compare with Qin
c. Slide Gate: Under Submerged Condition Assess Q(H Upstream, H Downstream)
& Compare with Qin
d. WINFLUME: Getting Familiar with the Software & Design a Long Throat Flume

2. Uncertainties and Errors
e. Random & Systematic Errors in Reading Canal Water Depth
f. Investigation of the Deviation in Assessing Discharge due to the Wrong Design of
a Parshall Flume
g. Computing Mannings Roughness Coefficient for Smooth Bed & Walls; and also
for Rough Bed. Calculate Total Errors when Applying Manning Equation using
Water Depth, Mannings Roughness & Geometry Data
h. Assessing Seepage by Inflow-Outflow Measurement to Estimate Diverted
Discharge & Compare with the Measurements of Siphons Flow

GRADING POLICY:
Grades will be assigned in the following manner:
Cr Hrs Evaluation Nature Duration Frequency Weight (%)
Theory Sessionals Assignments 1 1.5 hrs 3 4 10%
Quizes 10 15 min 3 4 10%
OHTs 1 hr 2 30%
End Semester ESE 3 hrs 1 50%
Total 100%
Practical Practical / Lab Attendance During Semester 1 20%
Reports Before Next Lab 8 20%
Quizes After 2 3 Labs 3 30%
Final Quiz After Labs 1 15%
Final Viva After Labs 1 15%
Total 100%


COURSE SCHEDULE:
Textbook: Punmia B.C. , Irrigation & Water Power Engineering, Standard Publishers, Delhi
No. Topics Chapter Textbook / Reference for Study
1. 1
st
Week
a. Planning and development of
water resources projects
b. Domestic, Industrial,
Agricultural and other water
usages
c. Water resources in Pakistan
d. Indus Basin Treaty
e. Indus Basin Irrigation System
(IBIS)
Chapter 1
Water Resources
of Pakistan
(Handouts by instructor)
2. 2
nd
Week
a. Definition, Need, Importance
& Scope of Irrigation
b. Types/Methods/Modes of
Irrigation
c. Merits & Demerits of
Irrigation
Chapter 2
Methods of
Irrigation
Pp 3-34 and
(Handouts by instructor)
3. 3
rd
Week
a. Functions of Irrigation Water
b. Standards & Classification of
Irrigation Water
c. Classes & Availability of Soil
Water
d. Soil Moisture Constants
e. Soil-Moisture-Irrigation
Relationship
f. Principal Crops & Cropping
Seasons of Pakistan
Chapter 3
Water
Requirements of
Crops
Pp 35-48 and
(Handouts by instructor)
4. 4
th
Week
g. Duty & Delta of Crops
h. Intensity of Irrigation
i. Irrigation Efficiencies
j. Consumptive Use of Water
(i.e. Evapotranspiration)
k. Determination of Irrigation
Requirement of Crops using
Hargreaves Method
Chapter 3
Water
Requirements of
Crops
Pp 48-94 and
(Handouts by instructor)
5. 5
th
Week
a. Weir, Barrage & Headwork
b. Classes of Headwork (Storage
& Diversion Headworks)
c. Function of Diversion
Chapter 4
Diversion
Headworks
Pp 527-531, Pp 580-586 and
(Handouts by instructor)
Headwork
d. Classes of Diversion
Headwork (Temporary Spurs,
Permanent Weirs & Barrages)
e. Component Parts of a
Diversion Headwork (Layout
of Diversion Headwork,
Functions of each Component
Parts)
6. 6
th
Week
f. Causes of Failure of Weirs &
their Remedies
g. Design of Weirs on
Permeable Foundations
(Blighs Creep Theory,
Lanes Weighed Creep
Theory)
Chapter 4
Diversion
Headworks
Pp 531-538 and
(Handouts by instructor)
One Hour Test I
7. 7
th
Week
a. Alluvial & Non-alluvial
Canals
b. Classification of Canals
c. Distribution System of Canal
Irrigation in Pakistan
d. Losses in Canals
e. Selection of Canal Site,
Layout & Alignment
Chapter 5
Canal Irrigation
System & Design
of Irrigation
Channel
Pp 597-602, Pp 651-652 and
(Handouts by instructor)
8. 8
th
Week
f. Design of Irrigation Channels
: Silt Theories (Kennedys
Theory, Drawbacks in
Kennedys Theory, Laceys
Regime Theory, Defects in
Laceys Regime Theory,
Comparison of Kennedys &
Laceys Theory)
Chapter 5
Canal Irrigation
System & Design
of Irrigation
Channel
Pp 611-648 and
(Handouts by instructor)
9. 9
th
Week
a. Canal Regulation Works,
Types & Functions (Canal
Head Regulator, Cross
Regulator, Canal Escapes,
Metering Flumes, Canal
Outlets & Modules, Canal
Falls)
b. Irrigation Structures
Worldwide (Storage,
Chapter 6
Canal Control,
Regulation,
Operation,
Measurement &
Cross Drainage
Works
Pp 741-747, Pp772, Pp 774-776,
Pp788-790, Pp725-726 and
(Handouts by instructor)
Conveyance, Diversion,
Distribution, Control,
Measurement, Safety,
Transmission)
10. 10
th
Week
c. Canal Operation & Control
(Scheduled/Unscheduled
Operation, Operational &
Regulation Modes,
Organization of Canal
Operation, Upstream Control,
Downstream Control, Volume
Control Techniques)
Chapter 6
Canal Control,
Regulation,
Operation,
Measurement &
Cross Drainage
Works
(Handouts by instructor)
11. 11
th
Week
d. Canal Flow Measurements
Techniques & Methods
(Velocity/Head
Measurements, Weir, Flumes,
Electronic Devices, Rated
Section, Rated Gate, Floating
Devices, Dilution Method,
Gauges Data Sensors, Data
Logger)
e. Maintenance of Irrigation
Canals
Chapter 6
Canal Control,
Regulation,
Operation,
Measurement &
Cross Drainage
Works
Pp 671-686, Pp664-667 and
(Handouts by instructor)
12. 12
th
Week
f. Measures Adopted to Control
Silt Entry into Canals
g. Silt Ejectors & Excluders
h. Cross Drainage Works, Types
& Functions (Aqueduct &
Syphon Aqueduct, Super-
passage & Canal Syphon,
Level Crossing, Inlets &
Outlets)
Chapter 6
Canal Control,
Regulation,
Operation,
Measurement &
Cross Drainage
Works
Pp586-589, Pp791-798 and
(Handouts by instructor)
One Hour Test - II
13. 13
th
Week
a. Causes & Adverse Effects of
Water Logging & Salinity
b. Reclamation of Water Logged
Soils (Preventive & Curative
Measures)
c. Occurrence & Need of
Drainage
d. Adverse Affects of Poor
Drainage System
Chapter 7
Water Logging
& Salinity
Pp687-696 and
(Handouts by instructor)
e. Drainage Network in Irrigated
Areas
f. Types of Drainage Systems
g. Introduction of Salinity
Control & Reclamation
Projects (SCARPs)
14. 14
th
Week
a. Canal Lining (Necessity,
Suitability, Advantages &
Disadvantages, Types)
b. Issues related to
Costs/Benefits
c. Brief Review of Advanced
Techniques for Canal Lining
d. Measurement of Seepage
Losses

Chapter 8
Canal Lining:
Modern
Concepts
Pp701-707, Pp717-718 and
(Handouts by instructor)
15. 15
th
Week
a. Uncertainty & Error: Types,
Assessment, Propagation,
How to Reduce Them?
b. Measurements: Precision &
Accuracy
c. Errors: Calculation,
Consequences, Compensation
& Service Oriented
Management
Chapter 9
Uncertainties &
Errors
(Handouts by instructor)
16. 16
th
Week
a. Performance Analysis
b. Multiple Uses of Water
c. Integrated Water Resources
Management (IWRM)
d. Virtual Water & Water
Footprint
e. Water Scarcity
f. Ecosystem Management
Chapter 10
Water
Management:
Modern
Concepts
(Handouts by instructor)