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Quick review

St St i d th i l ti hi
Stress: (Sections 1.3~1.6)
Stress, Strain and their relationship
A
F
A
F
= = t o : stress Shear , : Stress Normal
Strain: (Sections 2.1~2.2)
o
Angle
L
xy
= =
o
c : strain Shear , : Strain Normal
Relating stress and strainHookes Law: (Sections 3.1, 3.2, 3.4, 3.7, 4.2)
c o E =
FL
= o
t G =
EA
o
t G =
Lecture 2
Chapter 4: Statically Indeterminate Problems (Sections 4.4 &
) 4.5)
Statically Indeterminate Problems
Parallel Statically Indeterminate Problems
Chapter 5: Thermal Strain (Section 4 6) Chapter 5: Thermal Strain (Section 4.6)
Thermal strain
Chapter 6: Poissons Ratio (Section 3.6)
Poissons ratio Poisson s ratio
Relationship between Youngs Modulus (E), Shear Modulus (G) and
Poissons Ratio () Poisson s Ratio ()
Chapter 4 Statically Indeterminate Problems
T fi d th t l ti d thi
2m 1m
To find the external reactions under this
beam, we drew a free body diagram
and used the equilibrium equations.
20N
W=60N

R
2

20N 3 equilibrium equations: A
R
1
R
3
60N
R
4
0 , 0 , 0 = = =

M F F
V H
N R R F
ve
H
20 0 20 0
2 2
= = + =
+

0 60 0
4 3 1
= + + | =
+

R R R F
ve
V
3 unknown reactions
2 equations:
0 60 5 . 1 3 2 0
4 3
= + =
+

R R M
ve
A
2 equations:
equations of number reactions unknown of no > equations of number reactions unknown of no. >
Statically Indeterminate
Statically Indeterminate Columns
R
1

A
ve
V
F
+
| =

0
A
R
1
B
B 0
2 1
= + F R R
C
F
C F
One equilibrium equation
R
2
Two unknowns (R
1
and R
2
)
equations of number reactions unknown of no. >
Statically Indeterminate
Solution:
R
1

A
V
F | =

0
A
B
ve +

B
0
2 1
= + F R R
C
F
C
R
2
F
R
Equivalent problem
0 = + = o o o
A
R
1

0 =
Top
o
0 = + =
BC AB Top
o o o
B
) 0 (
2 1
=

BC BC
BC
AB AB
AB
E A
L R
E A
L R
C
F
BC BC AB AB
Example 1: Example 1: Determine the reactions at the floor and ceiling Determine the reactions at the floor and ceiling
R
1
A
Aluminium
A=100mm
2
A
F | =

0
B
20kN
A=200mm
2
B
ve
V
F
+
| =

0
) 0 ( = + F R R
C
20kN
Steel
C
20
) 0 (
2 1
= + F R R
Lengths: AB=BC=100mm
Statically Indeterminate
R
2

R
1

0 o
Equivalent problem
g
Statically Indeterminate
A
0 =
Top
o
0 =
Top
o
0 = +
BC AB
o o
B
) 0 (
2 1
=

BC AB
E A
L R
E A
L R
C
F
) (

BC BC AB AB
E A E A
Step 1: Use Statics to relate the unknown reactions: Step 1: Use Statics to relate the unknown reactions:
R
1

V
F | =

0
A
B
ve
V
+

0 20= + R R B
20
0 20
2 1
= + R R
Two unknowns (R
1
and R
2
) One equation
C
R
2

Two unknowns (R
1
and R
2
) One equation
Statically Indeterminate
Step 2: Equivalent problem Step 2: Equivalent problem
A
Aluminium
A=100mm
2
This will normally involve replacing
one of the supports by a force, and
i l i di l hi
B
20kN
A=200mm
2
stipulating a displacement at this
point.
C
20kN
Steel

R
1

0 o
Equivalent problem Additional Equation:
A
1
0 =
Top
o
0 =
Top
o
B
F
BC AB Top
o o o + =
C
F
Step 3: Relate Step 3: Relate
TOP TOP
to the applied loads (including R to the applied loads (including R
11
))

A
R
1
0 =
Top
o
Find the force in each section:
R
1

B
1
R F
AB
=
A
1
For section AB:
C
20kN
F
AB
R
1

A
For section BC:
20 R F
B
20kN
For section BC:
20
1
= R F
BC
20kN
F
BC

Step 3: Relate Step 3: Relate
TOP TOP
to the applied loads (including R to the applied loads (including R
11
))
Fi d th l ti f h ti i
A
R
1
0 =
Top
o
Find the elongation of each section in
terms of (R
1
):
B
For section AB:
L F
AB AB
o
C
20kN
) 8 429 1 (
) 3 100 (
1

=
E R
E R
A E
AB AB
AB AB
AB
o
) 8 429 . 1 (
) 6 100 ( ) 9 70 (
) (
1
1
=

= E R
E E
For section BC:
L F
BC BC
o
) 3 100 ( )) 3 20 ( (
1

=
E E R
A E
BC BC
BC BC
BC
o
) 9 5 . 2 ( )) 3 20 ( (
) 6 100 ( ) 9 200 (
) 3 100 ( )) 3 20 ( (
1
1
=


= E E R
E E
E E R
Step 3: Relate Step 3: Relate
TOP TOP
to the applied loads (including R to the applied loads (including R
11
))
Fi d th di l t f th t
A
R
1
0 =
Top
o
Find the displacement of the top:
+o o o
B
) 8 429 . 1 (
1
=
+ =
E R
BC AB Top
o o o
C
20kN
) 9 5 . 2 ( )) 3 20 ( (
1
+ E E R
Step 4: Use the additional equation to determine the Step 4: Use the additional equation to determine the
applied loads applied loads
0 =
T
o 0
Top
o
0 ) 9 5 . 2 ( )) 3 20 ( ( ) 8 429 . 1 (
1 1
= + E E R E R
N R 2978
1
=
Step 5: Return to the equilibrium equations to find other Step 5: Return to the equilibrium equations to find other
reactions reactions
Equilibrium equation:
0 20000 2978
2
= + R
N R 17021N R 17021
2
=
Parallel Statically Indeterminate Problems

250mm
P
P
P
P
A
5mm
5mm
P
P
A

P
B

5mm
Aluminium
Brass
Aluminium
P ve
H
F
+
=

0
30mm
0 = + + P P P P
A B A
F |

0
0 0
0 2 = + P P P
B A
0 0=
ve
V
F
+
| =

0
0 0=
0 ) 3 5 ( 0 ) 3 5 ( 0 = + + =

E P P E P M
A B A B
0 2 + P P P
B A
One equilibrium equation
0 0
Statically Indeterminate
0 ) 3 5 ( 0 ) 3 5 ( 0 + +
+

E P P E P M
A B A
ve
B
Two unknowns (P
A
and P
B
)
q q
B A
o o =
Example 2: to find stress in brass and stress in aluminium

250mm
P
kN P 30 =
250mm
5mm
GPa E
GPa E
B
A
105
70
=
=
5mm
5mm
Aluminium
B
30mm
Brass
Aluminium
P
Step 1: Use Statics to get the equilibrium equations
0 ) 3 30 ( = + + E P P P
A B A
ve
H
F
+
=

0
0 ) 3 30 ( 2 = + E P P
B A
Step 2: Relate the deformation of each component to
unknown force

P
unknown force
For the brass
250mm
5
P
B B
B
B
A E
L P
= o
5mm
5mm
5mm
Aluminium
For the aluminium
30mm
Brass
Aluminium
P
A A
A
A
A E
L P
= o
A A
Step 3: Additional equation
L P L P
A B
o o =
105 ) 9 105 ( E A E L
A A
A
B B
B
A E
L P
A E
L P
=
70
105
) 9 70 (
) 9 105 (
A A
A
B
A B
P
E
E
P
A
A
E
E
L
L
P P = = =
Step 4: Solve these two equations, to obtain values for P
A
and P and P
B
Equilibrium equation
Additional equation
0 ) 3 30 ( 2 = + E P P
B A
0 ) 3 30 (
70
105
2 = + E P P
A A
70
105
A B
P P =
N E P
A
3 57 . 8 =
q
70
N E E E P
B
3 86 . 12 ) 3 57 . 8 ( 2 ) 3 30 ( = =
70
Step 5: Calculate the corresponding stresses
MP
E P
A
13 57
) 3 57 . 8 (
MPa
E E A
A
A
A
13 . 57
) 3 30 ( ) 3 5 (
) (
=

= = o
E P ) 3 86 12 (
MPa
E E
E
A
P
B
B
B
73 . 85
) 3 30 ( ) 3 5 (
) 3 86 . 12 (
=

= = o
Chapter 5: Thermal Strain Chapter 5: Thermal Strain
Wh thi t h tt it d Th it d f th When something gets hotter, it expands. The magnitude of the
expansion is proportional to the original size of the object and
to the increase in temperature
T LA = o o
THERMAL
to the increase in temperature.
is the constant of proportionality, called the coefficient of thermal
expansion. It is property of the material.
L is the original length.
T is the increase in temperature.
Th l St i
1
) (
ss dimensinle of units
:

C
of Units
o
c
o
Thermal Strain:
T A o
o
c
THERMAL
1
) (
T of units
= =
A
C
C
o
o
T
L
A = = o c
THERMAL
THERMAL
Typical values of are measured in 10
-6
(
o
C)
-1
Typical values of are measured in 10
6
(
o
C)
1
.
For structural steel,
1
) )( 6 12 (

= C E
o
o
Example 3:
A brass bar and an aluminium bar are held between two rigid supports with a gap of
B
Aluminium
A brass bar and an aluminium bar are held between two rigid supports with a gap of
0.5 mm between their ends. The temperature is raised by the 60
o
C. Determine the
stress in each bar and the elongation of the brass bar.
Brass
For the brass bar:
L=300mm
For the aluminium bar:
L=250mm
0.5mm
B
Aluminium
E=105GPa
Diameter=50mm
=(18E-6)(
o
C)
-1
E=70GPa
Diameter=75mm
=(23E-6)(
o
C)
-1
Brass
Touch?
? 5 0 mm = > + = o o o o
0.5mm
Touch?
? 5 . 0
min
mm
Gap ium TAlu TBrass
= > + = o o o o
Brass
Aluminium
Touch!
Load External Thermal Total
o o o + =
Brass
P P
ium PAlu ium TAlu ium Alu
PBrass TBrass Brass
min min min
o o o
o o o
+ =
+ =
Gap ium Alu Brass
o o o = +
min P
Example 3:
Step 1: Determine if the bars will touch
Brass
Aluminium
mm E T L
TBrass
324 . 0 60 300 ) 6 18 ( = = A = o o
Step 1: Determine if the bars will touch.
Brass
mm E T L
ium TAlu
345 . 0 60 250 ) 6 23 (
min
= = A = o o
ium TAlu TBrass
345 . 0 324 . 0
min
+ = + = o o o
0.5mm
mm mm
Gap
ium TAlu TBrass
5 . 0 669 . 0
min
= > = o
Touch! Touch!
Step 2: After the bars touch, a compressive force P will act between
the bars. Calculate the combined elongation due to the temperature
rise and to P.
Elongation due to temperature rise,
mm
ium TAlu TBrass e Temperatur
669 . 0
min
= + = o o o
Elongation due to the compressive force P,
Al Al
Al
Brass Brass
Brass
ium PAlu PBrass P
A E
PL
A E
PL
+ = + =
min
o o o
Example 3:
Brass
Aluminium
5 . 0 = = +
Gap P e Temperatur
o o o
Step 3: To find the value of P by
Total
=
Gap
.
0.5mm
Gap P e Temperatur
5 . 0
) 6 44 4418 ( ) 9 70 (
250
) 6 75 1963 ( ) 9 105 (
300
669 . 0 =

E E
P
E E
P
) 6 44 . 4418 ( ) 9 70 ( ) 6 75 . 1963 ( ) 9 105 ( E E E E
kN P 67 . 74 =
Step 4: Use the value of P to determine the stress in each bar
MPa
E
A
P
Brass
03 . 38
75 1963
) 3 67 . 74 (
= = = o
Stress in the brass bar,
A
Brass
Brass
75 . 1963
Stress in the aluminium bar,
MPa
E
A
P
9 . 16
44 . 4418
) 3 67 . 74 (
Aluminium
Aluminium
= = = o
Example 3:
Brass
Aluminium
S 5 U h li i d i h Step 5: Use the earlier equation to determine the
elongation in each bar
El ti i th b b
0.5mm
Elongation in the brass bar,
E
PB TB B
300 ) 3 67 . 74 (
324 . 0

= + = o o o
mm
E E
PBrass TBrass Brass
215 . 0 109 . 0 324 . 0
) 6 75 . 1963 ( ) 9 105 (
324 . 0
= =

+o o o
Elongation in the aluminium bar,
E 250 ) 3 67 74 (
mm
E E
E
ium PAlu ium TAlu ium Alu
285 . 0 060 . 0 345 . 0
) 6 44 . 4418 ( ) 9 70 (
250 ) 3 67 . 74 (
345 . 0
min min min
= =


= + = o o o
Chapter 6: Chapter 6: Poissons Ratio (Section 3.6) Poissons Ratio (Section 3.6)
P
Poissons Ratio
lateral
c
v =

P
Poissons Ratio
B l t
v is a material property.
al longitudin
c
P
Bulge out
ess dimensionl
ss dimensinle
ss dimensinle
of units
of units
= = =
c
c
v of Units
Becomes thin
A block has a stress in the X direction only and the strain
Typical values of v are 0.25 to 0.4. For structural steel, v=0.32.
Becomes thin
x
o
c =
A block has a stress in the X-direction only, and the strain
in the X direction will be:

x
E
x
c =
z
y
The strain in the Y and Z directions:
x

x
E
x
x y
o
v vc c = =
E
x
x z
o
v vc c = =
Multi Multi- -axial loading axial loading
I l

z
y
x
o
o
o
In general,
z
x y

z

E E E
z
y
x
x
v v c =

x
o

z
E E E
z
y
x
y
o
v
o
o
v c + =
E E E
z
y
x
z
o
o
v
o
v c + =
E E E
Relationships between Youngs Modulus (E), Shear Relationships between Youngs Modulus (E), Shear
M d l (G) d P i R ti ( ) M d l (G) d P i R ti ( )
E
G
Modulus (G) and Poissons Ratio (v) Modulus (G) and Poissons Ratio (v)
) 1 ( 2 v +
= G