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# Qualitative, Quantitative and Mixed

Methods
By : Ayu Kharizsa

List of Contents

Qualitative, Quantitative and Mixed Methods .......................................................................... 1
Definitions .................................................................................................................................. 1
Triangulation discussion ............................................................................................................ 2
Validity in Triangulation Methods ............................................................................................. 2
Conclusion .................................................................................................................................. 3
Reference ................................................................................................................................... 4

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Qualitative, Quantitative and Mixed
Methods
This essay will briefly define three kinds of research methods, and then it will
emphasize in triangulation method that become a main issue in this context to
resolve research recently. Three common research methods as follows are;
qualitative, quantitative and mixed methods. In brief, this essay divides into four parts.
Firstly, it describes the definition of three research methods include triangulation in
brief. Secondly, discuss about triangulation methods includes types and the strength
and weakness. Thirdly, defines the validity of triangulation methods and finally, sum
up the use of triangulation in general.
Definitions
Qualitative and quantitative methods are quite similar in research worlds.
Qualitative methods using for a research that difficult to quantified. According to
(Manson, 2002) points out that qualitative research has strength instead of
quantitative research, this methods use to examine the understanding context,
various in the results, disparity and potentially values that captured in research
process. Thus, quantitative method is use to examine the incident or variable
relationship using numerical method or in common using statistical analysis. This
method also has strength in calculation and data evidence. Then, besides those both
methods there is mixed research method which is combined qualitative and
quantitative into one research data. This mixed methods research will involve both
elements and complement the weaknesses between them. According to (Johnson
et.al 2007) mixed method is combination of qualitative and quantitative viewpoints,
data collections, analysis, and intervention factors. Refers to (Teddli and Tashakkori,
2011) mixed methods shows that qualitative methods and quantitative methods can
be combines to fill the weaknesses between two methods respectively and this
methods can encourage researcher to define the theories that lays on object
phenomenon.
(Greene et.al 1989 cited in Johson and Onwuegbuzie, 2004) Determine that
mixed methods divides into five majors based on the purpose as follows; (1)
Triangulation to looking for convergence and collaborations from different method
and the out put of this is framework to address similarity of the phenomenon, (2)
Complementary to find out elaboration, enhancement and classification, (3) initiation
to address paradox and discrepancy of the objects, (4) development and (5)
expansion. Then this essay will particularly exposed in triangulation methods.
(stlund et.al 2011) Aggregation between qualitative and quantitative in
empirical level and also establish with theoretical level will resulting convergences
data that can refer to show a conclusion or proving the hypotheses. This
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convergence phenomenon is called triangulation methods. Triangulation method will
use multiple methods, perspective and evidence to prove the relation among
research data and to address the reliability and validity of the data. This methods
commonly used for healthcare research, it will determine the understanding between
lived experience with interviewing patient (qualitative methods) and the factors that
might influence patient with numerical calculation (quantitative method) then the data
will tighten up with the theoretical level that support the research objective.
Triangulation discussion
The basic data that should prepared at triangulation methods are time to
define same phenomenon but in different, space from any different aspect and
person to address different level of perspective (Denzin, 1989 cited in Adami and
Alicekiger, 2005). Then, refers to (Adami and Alicekiger, 2005, Jhalcomb and
Sharonandrew 2005 and Guion et.al, 2011) divides triangulation into six types as
listed bellow;
- Theoretical (use alternative, hypotheses and explanation),
- Data (collecting data that involve the significant time, space and person in
some time period),
- Methodological (use many data but based on one paradigm),
- Investigator (set of researcher join to examine the object),
- Multiple (combine several types of triangulation but works in one
phenomenon) and
- Analysis (multiple approaches exist in one research) triangulation.
The strength of this method is analysis can be very deep and reducing the
gap that might be happen in qualitative and quantitative method, this methods will
filling the weaknesses of those methods. But in otherwise, this method as several
limitations in research time, wide scale data and resource, inadequate skill, and can
draw contradictory findings. In general, before using this method researcher need to
assume time schedule and realize our capability to solve the research.

Validity in Triangulation Methods
In order to establish qualified research, is needed to concern in validity and
authenticity to check the assumption and analysis from researcher was acceptable
or otherwise. Refers to (Guion et.al, 2011 and Patton 2002) states that triangulation
can validate an occurrence within multiple perspectives and the aim of this method is
dedicate to check the data consistency and minimize error when using several
approach. For example when doing change behaviour of employee in a company, it
will require an observation, questionnaire, data analysis and possibility method that
might occurs to assess the changing behaviour. Thus, after the researcher get all
data surveys, group discussion transcript, and interview transcript is necessary to
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compare the results and find out the similarities among those results, if they found
the similarities, constant and convergence data so validity is exist.
According to (Modell, 2005) point out about the key aspect of validation in
triangulation method as follows;
- External validity, this aspect will focusing in the offensive theories about the
research object, critically judgment and situation description,
- Internal validity, rely on the result of data calculation and the links between
dependent and independent data.
- Construct validity, emphasizes in the theoretical aspect in use and empirical
calculation is appropriate for research objective.
Then to sum up the validity of the triangulation method thought several steps
that may involve multiple aspects from depth theoretical, empiric, and observation.
And one aspect to other aspect has a strong aggregate to support each other to
make the data reliable and proving the phenomenon that observed.

Conclusion
Finally, triangulation is one of mixed method research that emphasize in
convergences of phenomenon observed that adapt from qualitative and quantitative
method. This method enhanced with theoretical analysis, empiric calculation analysis
and deep observation by interviewing and group discussion. However, this method
has limitation in long range time and huge data collection because this research
needs significant object to observe and involve many aspects. This methods often
use to finds out the phenomenon that happen in health world, because health
research will involve human, services and time range. And this research needs clear
evidence to set up the policy or the rules. The validity of this research can be seen in
similarity that found in the result, then also looking for convergences and consistency
data at the end of research to minimize the bias data and reinforce validity data.

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Reference
ADAMI, M. & ALICEKIGER 2005. The use of triangulation for completeness
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GUION, L. A., DIEHL, D. C. & MCDONALD, D. 2011. Triangulation: Establishing the
validity of qualitative studies.
JHALCOMB, E. & SHARONANDREW 2005. Triangulation as a method for
contemporary nursing research. Nurse Researcher, 13, 71-82.
JOHNSON, R. B. & ONWUEGBUZIE, A. J. 2004. Mixed methods research: A
research paradigm whose time has come. Educational researcher, 33, 14-26.
JOHNSON, R. B., ONWUEGBUZIE, A. J. & TURNER, L. A. 2007. Toward a
definition of mixed methods research. Journal of mixed methods research, 1,
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MASON, J. 2002. Qualitative researching, Sage.
MODELL, S. 2005. Triangulation between case study and survey methods in
management accounting research: An assessment of validity implications.
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STLUND, U., KIDD, L., WENGSTRM, Y. & ROWA-DEWAR, N. 2011. Combining
qualitative and quantitative research within mixed method research designs: A
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Patton, M.Q. (2002). Qualitative Research and Evaluation Methods. Thousand Oaks,
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