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FORUM GEOM

ISSN 1534-1178

Nikolaos Dergiades

Abstract. We study conics tangent to two sides of a given triangle at two vertices, and construct two interesting triads of such conics, one consisting of parabolas, the other rectangular hyperbolas. We also construct a new triangle center, the

barycentric cube root of X25 , which is the homothetic center of the orthic and

tangential triangles.

1. Introduction

In the plane of a given triangle ABC, a conic is the locus of points with homogeneous barycentric coordinates x : y : z satisfying a second degree equation of

the form

(1)

f x2 + gy 2 + hz 2 + 2pyz + 2qzx + 2hxy = 0,

where f, g, h, p, q, r are real coefcients (see [4]). In matrix form, (1) can be

rewritten as

f r q

x

r g p y = 0.

x y z

q p h

z

If we have a circumconic, i.e., a conic that passes through the vertices A, B, C,

then from (1), f = g = h = 0. Since the equation becomes pyz + qzx + rxy = 0,

the circumconic is the isogonal (or isotomic) conjugate of a line.

If the conic passes through B and C, we have g = h = 0. The conic has

equation

(2)

f x2 + 2pyz + 2qzx + 2rxy = 0.

2. Conic tangent to two sides of ABC

Consider a conic given by (2) which is tangent at B, C to the sides AB, AC. We

call this an A-conic. Since the line AB has equation z = 0, the conic (2) intersects

AB at (x : y : 0) where x(f x + 2ry) = 0. The conic and the line are tangent at

B only if r = 0. Similarly the conic is tangent to AC at C only if q = 0. The

A-conic has equation

(3)

f x2 + 2pyz = 0.

Publication Date: May 3, 2010. Communicating Editor: Paul Yiu.

The author thanks Paul Yiu for his help in the preparation of this paper.

42

N. Dergiades

We shall also consider the analogous notions of B- and C-conics. These are

respectively conics with equations

gy 2 + 2qzx = 0,

hz 2 + 2rxy = 0.

(4)

Lemma 1. Let BC be a chord of a conic with center O, and M the midpoint of

BC. If the tangents to the conic at B and C intersect at A, then the points A, M ,

O are collinear.

A

Figure 1.

at innity of the line BC. The center O is the midpoint of every chord passing

through O. Hence, the polar of O is the line at innity. The polar of A is the line

BC (see Figure 1). Hence, the polar of S is a line that must pass through O, M

and A.

From Lemma 1 we conclude that the center of an A-conic lies on the A-median.

In the case of a parabola, the axis is parallel to the median of ABC since the center

is a point at innity. In general, the center of the conic (1) is the point

1 r q

f

1 g p : r

1 p h

q

1 q

f r 1

1 p : r g 1 .

1 h

q p 1

(5)

Hence the centers of the A-, B-, C-conics given in (3) and (4) are the points (p :

f : f ), (g : q : g), and h : h : r) respectively.

We investigate two interesting triads when the three conics (i) are parabolas, (ii)

rectangular hyperbolas, and (iii) all pass through a given point P = (u : v : w),

and shall close with a generalization.

43

3. A triad of parabolas

The A-conic (3) is a parabola if the center (p : f : f ) is on the line at innity.

Hence, p + f + f = 0, and the A-parabola has equation x2 4yz = 0. We label

this parabola Pa . Similarly, the B- and C-parabolas are Pb : y 2 4zx = 0 and

Pc : z 2 4xy = 0 respectively. These are also known as the Artzt parabolas (see

Figure 2).

3.1. Construction. A conic can be constructed with a dynamic software by locating 5 points on it. The A-parabola Pa clearly contains the vertices B, C, and the

points Ma = (2 : 1 : 1), Pb = (4 : 1 : 4) and Pc = (4 : 4 : 1). Clearly, Ma is the

midpoint of the median AA1 , and Pb , Pc are points dividing the medians BB1 and

CC1 in the ratio BPb : Pb B1 = CPc : Pc C1 = 8 : 1.

Similarly, if Mb , Mc are the midpoints of the medians BB1 and CC1 , and Pa

divides AA1 in the ratio APa : Pa A1 = 8 : 1, then the B-parabola Pb is the conic

containing C, A, Mb , Pc , Pa , and the C-parabola Pc contains A, B, Mc , Pa , Pb .

C1

Ma

B1

Pc

Pb

Mb

Mc

Pa

A1

Figure 2.

GAB.

(2) Since A1 is the midpoint of BC and Ma A1 is parallel to the axis of Pa ,

by Archimedes celebrated quadrature, the area of the parabola triangle Ma BC is

4

Ma BC = 2 ABC.

3

3

5

(3) The region bounded by the three Artzt parabolas has area 27 of triangle

ABC.

3.2. Foci and directrices. We identify the focus and directrix of the A-parabola

Pa . Note that the axis of the parabola is parallel to the median AA1 . Therefore,

44

N. Dergiades

the parallel through B to the median AA1 is parallel to the axis, and its reection

in the tangent AB passes through the focus Fa . Similarly the reection in AC of

the parallel through C to the median AA1 also passes through Fa . Hence the focus

Fa is constructible (in the Euclidean sense).

Let D, E be the orthogonal projections of the focus Fa on the sides AB, AC,

and D , E the reections of Fa with respect to AB, AC. It is known that the

line DE is the tangent to the A-parabola Pa at its vertex and the line D E is the

directrix of the parabola (see Figure 3).

A

E

D

E

D

Fa

A1

Figure 3.

Theorem 2. The foci Fa , Fb , Fc of the three parabolas are the vertices of the

second Brocard triangle of ABC and hence are lying on the Brocard circle. The

triangles ABC and Fa Fb Fc are perspective at the Lemoine point K.

Proof. With reference to Figure 3, in triangle ADE, the median AA1 is parallel to

the axis of the A-parabola Pa . Hence, AA1 is an altitude of triangle ADE. The

line AFa is a diameter of the circumcircle of ADE and is the isogonal conjugate

to AA1 . Hence the line AFa is a symmedian of ABC, and it passes through the

Lemoine point K of triangle ABC.

Similarly, if Fb and Fc are the foci of the B- and C-parabolas respectively, then

the lines BFb and CFc also pass through K, and the triangles ABC and Fa Fb Fc

are perspective at the Lemoine point K.

Since the reection of BFa in AB is parallel to the median AA1 , we have

Fa BA = D BA = BAA1 = Fa AC,

(6)

ACFa = ACE = A1 AC = BAFa ,

(7)

45

and the circle Fa CA is tangent to AB at A. From (6) and (7), we conclude that the

triangles Fa AB and Fa CA are similar, so that

AFa B = CFa A = A

(8)

Fa

A1

Figure 4.

If O is the circumcenter of ABC and the lines AFa , CFa meet the circumcircle

again at the points A , C respectively then from the equality of the arcs AC and

BA , the chords AB = A C . Since the triangles ABFa and A C Fa are similar to

triangle CAFa , they are congruent. Hence, Fa is the midpoint of AA , and is the

orthogonal projection of the circumcenter O on the A-symmedian. As such, it is on

the Brocard circle with diameter OK. Likewise, the foci of the B- and C-parabolas

are the orthogonal projections of the point O on the B- and C-symmedians respectively. The three foci form the second Brocard triangle of ABC.

Remarks. (1) Here is an alternative, analytic proof. In homogeneous barycentric

coordinates, the equation of a circle is of the form

a2 yz + b2 zx + c2 xy (x + y + z)(P x + Qy + Rz) = 0,

where a, b, c are the lengths of the sides of ABC, and P , Q, R are the powers of

A, B, C relative to the circle. The equation of the circle Fa AB tangent to AC at

A is

(9)

a2 yz + b2 zx + c2 xy b2 (x + y + z)z = 0,

46

N. Dergiades

a2 yz + b2 zx + c2 xy c2 (x + y + z)y = 0.

(10)

Fa = (b2 + c2 a2 : b2 : c2 ).

It is easy to verify that this lies on the Brocard circle

a2 b2 c2

x

y

z

(x + y + z) 2 + 2 + 2 = 0.

+ b2 + c2

a

b

c

(2) This computation would be more difcult if the above circles were not tangent at A to the sides AC and AB. So it is interesting to show another method. We

can get the same result, as we know directed angles (dened modulo ) from

a2 yz + b2 zx + c2 xy

= (Fa B, Fa C) = 2A,

a2

= (Fa C, Fa A) = A,

= (Fa A, Fa B) = A.

Fa =

=

=

1

1

1

:

:

cot A cot cot B cot cot C cot

1

1

1

:

:

cot A cot 2A cot B + cot A cot C + cot A

sin A sin 2A sin A sin B sin A sin C

:

:

sin A

sin(A + B) sin(A + C)

= (b2 + c2 a2 : b2 : c2 ).

4. Rectangular A-, B-, C-hyperbolas

The A-conic f x2 + 2pyz = 0 is a rectangular hyperbola if it contains two

orthogonal points at innity (x1 : y1 : z1 ) and (x2 : y2 : z2 ) where

x1 + y1 + z1 = 0

and x2 + y2 + z2 = 0.

s1 + s2 = 2p and s1 s2 = 2p . The two points are orthogonal if

f

f

SA x1 x2 + SB y1 y2 + SC z1 z2 = 0.

From this, SA x1 x2 +SB y1 y2 +SC (x1 +y1 )(x2 +y2 ) = 0, SA s1 s2 +SB +SC (s1 +

1)(s2 + 1) = 0, and

SB + SC

p

a2

=

= 2

.

f

2SA

b + c2 a2

This gives the rectangular A-hyperbola

Ha :

with center

Oa = (a2 : b2 + c2 a2 : b2 + c2 a2 ).

47

This point is the orthogonal projection of the orthocenter H of ABC on the Amedian and lies on the orthocentroidal circle, i.e., the circle with diameter GH.

Similarly the centers Ob , Oc lie on the orthocentroidal circle as projections of H

on the B-, C-medians. Triangle Oa Ob Oc is similar to the triangle of the medians

of ABC (see Figure 5).

The construction of the A-hyperbola can be done since we know ve points of

it: the points B, C, their reections B , C in Oa , and the othocenter of triangle

B BC.

Hc

Hb

Ha

Oc

G

Oa

H

Ob

Figure 5.

Let P = (u : v : w) be a given point. We denote the A-conic through P by

(AP ); similarly for (BP ) and (CP ). These conics have equations

vwx2 u2 yz = 0,

wuy 2 v 2 zx = 0,

uvz 2 w2 xy = 0.

(see Figure 6). It is known that the point X is the intersection of Y Z with BC,

and is the harmonic conjugate of X relative to the points B, C; similarly for Y

and Z are the harmonic conjugates of Y and Z relative to C, A and A, B. These

points have coordinates

X = (0 : v : w),

Y = (u : 0 : w),

Z = (u : v : 0),

48

N. Dergiades

z

x y

+ + = 0.

u v w

Now, the polar of A relative to the conic (AP ) is the line BC. Hence, the polar

of X passes through A. Since X is harmonic conjugate of X relative to B, C, the

line AX is the polar of X and the line X P is tangent to the conic (AP ) at P .

Y

Y

E

Z

F

M3

M2

Oa

C

Figure 6.

Remark. The polar of an arbitrary point or the tangent of a conic at the point P =

(u : v : w) is the line given by

f r q

u

x y z r g p v = 0.

q p h

w

Hence the tangent of (AP ) at P is the line

2vw

0

0

u

0

u2 v = 0,

x y z 0

w

0

u2

0

or 2vwx wuy uvz = 0. This meets BC at the point X = (0 : v : w) as

shown before.

49

Then X P is tangent to the conic at P . Let this meet AC and AB at E and F

respectively. Let M2 and M3 be the midpoints of P B and P C. Since AB, AC

and EF are tangents to (AP ) at the points B, C, P respectively, the lines EM3 and

F M2 meet at the center Oa of the conic (AP ). If B , C are the symmetric points

of B, C relative to Oa , then (AP ) is the conic passing through the ve points B,

P , C, B , C .

The conics (BP ) and (CP ) can be constructed in a similar way.

B

G

Figure 7.

innity and the line Y Z is parallel to BC. The center Oa is the symmetric A of A

relative to G. It is obvious that (AP ) is the translation of the Steiner circumellipse

(with center G), by the vector AG; similarly for (BP ), (CP ) (see Figure 7).

Theorem 3. For an arbitrary point Q the line X Q intersects the line AP at the

point R, and we dene the mapping h(Q) = S, where S is the harmonic conjugate

of Q with respect to X and R. The mapping h swaps the conics (BP ) and (CP ).

Proof. The mapping h is involutive because h(Q) = S if and only if h(S) = Q.

Since the line AP is the polar of X relative to the pair of lines AB, AC we have

h(A) = A, h(P ) = P , h(C) = B, so that h(AB) = AC, and h(BC) = CB.

Hence, the conic h((BP )) is the one passing through A, P , B and tangent to the

sides AC, BC at A, B respectively. This is clearly the conic (CP ).

Therefore, a line passing through X tangent to (BP ) is also tangent to (CP ).

This means that the common tangents of the conics (BP ) and (CP ) intersect at X .

Similarly we can dene mappings with pivot points Y , Z swapping (CP ), (AP )

and (AP ), (BP ).

50

N. Dergiades

2vwx + wuy + uvz = 0.

This line meets the conic (BP ) at the point Xb = (u : 2v : 4w), and the conic

(CP ) at the point Xc = (u : 4v : 2w).

Similarly, the tangent Y P of (BP ) intersects (CP ) again at Yc = (4u : v : 2w)

and (AP ) again at Ya = (2u : v : 4w). The tangent Z P of (CP ) intersects (AP )

again at Za = (2u : 4v : w) and (BP ) again at Zb = (4u : 2v : w) respectively.

Theorem 4. The line Zb Yc is a common tangent of (BP ) and (CP ), so is Xc Za of

(CP ) and (AP ), and Ya Xb of (AP ) and (BP ).

Y

Zb

A

Yc

Xc

Xb

P

B

Za

Ya

Figure 8.

Proof. We need only prove the case Yc Zb . The line has equation

vwx + 4wuy + 4uvz = 0.

This is tangent to (BP ) at Zb and to (CP ) at Yc as the following calculation conrms.

4u

0

0

v2

vw

0 2wu 0 2v = v 4wu ,

w

4uv

0

0

v2

2

4u

vw

0

0 w

w2 0

0 v = w 4wu .

2w

4uv

0

0 2uv

Theorem 5. The six points Xb , Xc , Yc , Ya , Za , Zb lie on a conic (see Figure 7).

Proof. It is easy to verify that the six points satisfy the equation of the conic

2v 2 w2 x2 + 2w2 u2 y 2 + 2u2 v 2 z 2 + 7u2 vwyz + 7uv 2 wzx + 7uvw2 xy = 0, (11)

51

(u(11u + 7v + 7w) : v(7u 11v + 7w) : w(7u + 7v 11w)).

u2 (2v 2 7vw + 2w2 )yz + v 2 (2w2 7wu + 2u2 )zx + w2 (2u2 7uv + 2v 2 )xy

2(x + y + z)(v 2 w2 x + w2 u2 y + u2 v 2 z) = 0.

This is a circle if and only if

v 2 (2w2 7wu + 2u2 )

w2 (2u2 7uv + 2v 2 )

u2 (2v 2 7vw + 2w2 )

=

=

.

a2

b2

c2

Equivalently, the isotomic conjugate of P , namely,

of the three conics dened by

1

u

1

v

1

w

is the intersection

2x2 7xy + 2y 2

2y 2 7yz + 2z 2

=

=

.

a2

b2

c2

5.2. The type of the three conics (AP ), (BP ), (CP ). The type of a conic with given

equation (1) can be determined by the quantity

0

1

d=

1

1

1

f

r

q

1

r

g

p

1

q

p

h

(i) a parabola if u2 4vw = 0 (and AP = Pa ),

(ii) an ellipse if u2 vw < 0, i.e., P lying inside Pa ,

(iii) a hyperbola if u2 vw > 0, i.e., P lying outside Pa .

Thus the conics in the triad (AP , BP , CP ) are all ellipses if and only if P

lies in the interior of the curvilinear triangle Pa Pb Pc bounded by arcs of the Artzt

parabolas (see Figure 2).

Remarks. (1) It is impossible for all three conics (AP , BP , CP ) to be parabolas.

(2) The various possibilities of conics of different types are given in the table

below.

Ellipses

3 2 2 1 1 1

Parabolas

1

2 1

1

Hyperbolas

1

1 2 2 3

Note that the conics in the triad (AP , BP , CP ) cannot be all rectangular hyperbolas. This is because, as we have seen in 4 that the only rectangular A-hyperbola

is Ha . The conic AP is a rectangular hyperbola if and only if P lies on Ha , and

in this case, AP = Ha .

52

N. Dergiades

6. Generalization

Slightly modifying (3) and (4), we rewrite the equations of a triad of A-, B-,

C-conics as

x2 + 2P yz = 0,

y 2 + 2Qzx = 0,

z 2 + 2Rxy = 0.

Qa =

Qb =

Qc =

1

QR

2P

2P

1

3

1

3

1

3

1

RP

: 2Q 3 : 2R 3

1

3

: 2Q :

1

3

: 2R 3

1

PQ

1

3

where, for a real number x, x 3 stands for the real cube root of x. Clearly, the

triangles Qa Qb Qc and ABC are perspective at

1

Q = P 3 : Q3 : R3 .

Let XY Z be the cevian triangle of Q relative to ABC and X , Y , Z the

intersection of the sidelines with the trilinear polar of Q.

Proposition 6. For an arbitrary point S, the line X S meets the line AQ at the

point T , and we dene the mapping h(S) = U , where U is the harmonic conjugate

of S with respect to X and T . The mapping h swaps the conics B- and C-conics.

Similarly we can dene mappings with pivot points Y , Z swapping the C- and

A-conics, and the A- and B-conics.

The tangent to at

1

Ca

Qb

Cc

Xc = (RP 2 ) 3 : 2 : 2(R2 P ) 3

Ca

Qc

Cb

Xb = (P 2 Q) 3 : 2(P Q2 ) 3 : 2

Cb

Qc

Ca

Ya = 2(P 2 Q) 3 : (P Q2 ) 3 : 2

Cb

Qa

Cc

Yc = 2 : (Q2 R) 3 : 2(QR2 ) 3

Cc

Qa

Cb

Zb = 2 : 2(Q2 R) 3 : (QR2 ) 3

Cc

Qb

Ca

Za = 2(RP 2 ) 3 : 2 : (R2 P ) 3

1

1

1

Theorem 7. The line Zb Yc is a common tangent of the B- and C-conics; so is

Xc Za of the C- and A-conics, and Ya Xb of the A- and B-conics.

53

The perspector Q is the barycentric cube root of X25 (the homothetic center of the

orthic and tangential triangles). Q does not appear in [3].

Zb

A

Za

Qb

Hc

Hb

Xb

Qc

Xc

Ha

Oc

Q

Oa

Ob

C

Yc Qa

Ya

Figure 9.

References

[1] N. Dergiades, A simple barycentric coordinates formula, Forum Geom., 21 (2009) 225228.

[2] G. Kapetis, Triangle Geometry, Thessaloniki 1996.

[3] C. Kimberling, Encyclopedia of Triangle Centers, available at

http://faculty.evansville.edu/ck6/encyclopedia/ETC.html.

[4] P. Yiu, Introduction to the Geometry of the Triangle, 2001.

Nikolaos Dergiades: I. Zanna 27, Thessaloniki 54643, Greece

E-mail address: ndergiades@yahoo.gr

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