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II

OISD-RP-174
Second Edition
Jul y 2008
For Restricted Circulation







WELL CONTROL

OISD RP 174




Prepared by

FUNCTIONAL COMMITTEE FOR REVIEW OF WELL CONTROL








OIL INDUSTRY SAFETY DIRECTORATE
7
th
Floor, New Delhi House,
27, Barakhamba Road,
New Delhi 110 001.
www.oisd.gov.in



III


NOTE


OISD (Oil Industry Safety Directorate) publications are prepared for use in the Oil
and Gas Industry under Ministry of Petroleum & Natural Gas. These are the property of
Ministry of Petroleum & Natural Gas and shall not be reproduced or copied and loaned or
exhibited to others without written consent from OISD.

Though every effort has been made to assure the accuracy and reliability of the data
contained in the document, OISD hereby expressly disclaims any liability or responsibility
for loss or damage resulting from their use.

The document is intended to supplement rather than replace the prevailing statutory
requirements.






























IV


FOREWORD


The Oil Industry in India is 100 years old. Because of various collaboration
agreements, a variety of international codes, standards and practices have been in
vogue. Standardisation in design philosophies and operating and maintenance
practices at a national level was hardly in existence. This coupled with feed back
from some serious accidents that occurred in the recent past in India and abroad,
emphasised the need for the industry to review the existing state of art in designing,
operating and maintaining oil and gas installations.

With this in view, the Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Gas in 1986 constituted a
Safety Council assisted by the Oil Industry Safety Directorate (OISD) staffed from
within the industry in formulating and implementing a series of self regulatory
measures aimed at removing obsolescence, standardising and upgrading the
existing standards to ensure safe operations. Accordingly, OISD constituted a
number of functional committees of experts nominated from the industry to draw up
standards and guidelines on various subjects.

The recommended practices for "Well Control" have been prepared by the
Functional Committee for revision of Well Control". This document is based on the
accumulated knowledge and experience of industry members and the various
national / international codes and practices.

This document covers recommended practices for selection of well control
equipment, installation requirements of well control equipment, inspection and
maintenance of well control equipment, methods for well control and competence of
personnel. Well Control issues related to both onland and offshore operations have
been covered.

Suggestions are invited from the users after it is put into practice to improve the
document further. Suggestions for amendments to this document should be
addressed


The Coordinator
Functional Committee on
Well Control,
Oil Industry Safety Directorate,
7
th
Floor, New Delhi House,
27, Barakhamba Road,
New Delhi -110 001.

Email: oisd@vsnl.com




V




COMMITTEE FOR PREPARING STANDARD ON
" WELL CONTROL"
1998


-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Name Designation & Position in
Organisation Committee
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

1.S/Shri .A.K. Hazarika GM(D) Leader
ONGC, Mumbai

2. S.L. Arora GM(D) Member
ONGC, Ahmedabad

3. A. Borbora Dy. CE(D) Member
OIL, Duliajan

4. C.S. Verma Dy. CE(D) Member
Oil, Rajasthan

5. A. Verma CE(P) Member
ONGC, Mumbai

6. V.P. Mahawar CE(D) Member
ONGC, Dehradun

7. B.K. Baruah DGM(D) Member
ONGC, ERBC

8. S.K. Ahuja SE(D) Member
ONGC, ERBC

9. P.K. Garg Addl. Director (E&P) Co-ordinator

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

















VI

Functional Committee for Complete Review of OISD-STD-174,
2008

LEADER

Shri K. Satyanarayan Oil and Natural Gas Corporation Ltd., Ankleshwar.



MEMBERS

Shri V.P. Mahawar Oil and Natural Gas Corporation Ltd., Ahmedabad.
Shri R.K. Rajkhowa Oil India Ltd., Duliajan, Assam.
Shri S.K. Ahuja Oil and Natural Gas Corporation Ltd., Mumbai.
Shri B.S. Saini Oil and Natural Gas Corporation Ltd., Sibsagar, Assam.
Shri A.J . Phukan Oil India Ltd., Duliajan, Assam.



MEMBER COORDINATOR

Shri H.C.Taneja Oil Industry Safety Directorate, New Delhi.























VII

Contents

Section Description Page
1.0 Introduction 1
2.0 Scope 1
3.0 Definitions 1
4.0 Planning for Wel l Control 3
4.1 Cause of Ki ck 3
4.2 Cause of Reduction in Hydrostatic Head 3
4.3 Well Pl anning 3

5.0 Diverter Equipment and Control System 3
5.1 Procedures for Diverter Operations 4

6.0 Well Control Equipment & Control System 4
6.1 Selection 4
6.2 Periodic Inspection and Maintenance 5
6.3 Surface Blow out Prevention Equipment 5
6.4 Subsea Blow out Prevention Equipment 7
6.5 Choke and Kill Lines 10
6.6 Wellhead, BOP Equipment and Choke & Kill Lines Installation 12
6.7 Blow out Preventer Testing 13
6.8 Minimum Requirements for Well Control Equipment 14
for Workover Operations (on land)

7.0 Procedures and Techniques for Well Control (Prevention 15
and Control of Kick)
7.1 Kick Indi cations 15
7.2 Prevention and Control of Kick 15
7.3 Kick Control Procedures 17

8.0 Drills and Training 21
8.1 Pit Dri ll (On bottom) 21
8.2 Trip Drill (Drill Pipe in BOP) 21
8.3 Trip Drill (Collar in Blowout Preventer) 22
8.4 Trip Drill (String is out of Hole) 22
8.5 Well Control Training 22

9.0 Monitoring System 22
9.1 Instrumentation Systems 22
9.2 Trip Tank System 22
9.3 Mud Gas Separator (MGS) 23
9.4 Degasser 23

10.0 Under Balanced Dri lling 23
10.1 Procedures for UBD 24

11.0 Well Control Equipment Arrangement for HTHP Wells 26
12.0 References 27
Abbreviations 28
Annexure I to VIII
1

Recommended Practices for Well Control


1.0 Introduction

Primary well control is by maintaining
hydrostatic pressure in the wellbore at
least equal to (preferably more than)
the formation pressure to prevent the
flow of formation fluids. During drilling
and workover operations flow of
formation fluids into the wellbore is
considered as kick. If not controlled, a
kick may result in a blowout. For
safety of personnel, equipment and
environment, it is of utmost
importance to safely prevent or handle
kicks.

This document provides guidance on
selection, installation and testing of
well control equipment. The
recommended practices also include
procedures for preventing kicks while
drilling and tripping, safe closure of
well on detection of kicks, procedures
for well control drills, during drilling
and workover operations.

Recommendations for the surface
installations are applicable to sub-sea
installations also unless stated
otherwise.

All the sections / sub-sections of this
document mentioning drilling are
relevant to workover operations also,
wherever applicable. Terms like
drilling fluid means workover fluid in
the context of workover operations.


2.0 Scope

This document covers selection,
installation and testing of well control
equipment both surface and sub-sea,
and recommended practices for kick
prevention, and control and
competence requirement (training and
drills) for personnel, in drilling and
workover operations.


3.0 Definitions

3.1 Accumulator (BOP Control Unit)
A pressure vessel charged with
nitrogen or other inert gas and used to
store hydraulic fluid under pressure for
operation of blowout preventers and/or
diverter system.

3.2 Annular Preventer
A device, which can seal around
different sizes & shapes object in the
wellbore or seal an open hole.

3.3 Blowout
An uncontrolled flow of well fluids
and/or formation fluids from the
wellbore.

3.4 Blowout Preventer
A device attached to the casinghead
that allows the well to be sealed to
confine the well fluids to the wellbore.

3.5 Blowout Preventer Stack
The assembly of well control
equipment including preventers,
spools, valves, and nipples connected
to the top of the casing head.

3.6 Bottomhole Pressure (BHP)
Sum of all pressures that are being
exerted at the bottom of the hole and
can be written as:
BHP = static pressure + dynamic
pressures
Static pressure in a wellbore is due to
mud column hydrostatic pressure and
surface pressure.
Dynamic pressures are exerted due to
mud movement or the pipe movement
in the wellbore.
BHP under various operating
situations is:
Not circulating (static condition)
BHP = hydrostatic pressure due to
mud column
While drilling (over balance)
BHP = Hydrostatic pressure of mud
+annular pressure losses.
While drilling (MPD/UBD)
BHP = Hydrostatic pressure of mud
+ annular pressure losses +
Surface annular pressure
While shut-in after taking kick
BHP = Hydrostatic pressure +
surface pressure
While killing a well
BHP = Hydrostatic + surface press.
+annular pressure losses
Running pipe in the hole
BHP = Hydrostatic pressure + surge
pressure
2

Pulling pipe out of hole
BHP = Hydrostatic pressure - swab
pressure.

3.7 Choke manifold
The assembly of valves, chokes,
gauges, and piping to control flow
from the annulus and regulate
pressures in the drill string / annulus
flow, when the BOPs are closed.

3.8 Degasser
A vessel, which utilizes pressure
reduction and/or inertia to separate
entrained gases from the liquid
phases.

3.9 Diverter
A device attached to the wellhead or
marine riser to close the vertical
access and direct flow into a line away
from the rig.

3.10 Fracture Pressure
The pressure required to initiate a
fracture in a sub surface formation
(geologic strata). Fracture pressure
can be determined by Geo-physical
methods; during drilling fracture
pressure can be determined by
conducting a leak off test.

3.11 Hydrostatic Pressure
Pressure exerted by the fluid column
at the depth of interest is termed as
hydrostatic pressure. The magnitude
of hydrostatic pressure depends upon
the density and the vertical height of
liquid column. Hydrostatic pressure
can be calculated by the following
formula.
Hyd. pressure (psi) = 0.052 x mud
wt.(ppg) x TVD (feet)
Hyd. pressure (kg/cm2) =Mud
wt.( gm/cc) x TVD (mtrs)/10
where TVD =True vertical depth.

3.12 Influx
The flow of fluids from the formation
into the wellbore.

3.13 Kick
A kick is intrusion of unwanted
formation fluids into wellbore, when
hydrostatic head of drilling fluid
column is / becomes less than the
formation pressure. Kick can lead to
blowout, if timely corrective measures
are not taken.

3.14 Kill Rate
Reduced circulating rate (kill rate) is
required when circulating kicks so that
additional pressure to prevent
formation flow can be added without
exceeding pump liner rating. Kill rate
is normally half of the normal
circulating rate. For subsea stacks in
deep water, kill rates less than half of
the normal circulating rate may be
required to avoid excessive back
pressure in the choke flow line.

3.15 Kill Rate Pressure
The circulating pressure measured at
the drill pipe gauge when the mud
pumps are operating at the kill rate.

3.16 Marine riser system
The extension of the wellbore from the
subsea BOP stack to the floating
drilling vessel which provides for fluid
returns to the drilling vessel, supports
the choke, kill, and control lines,
guides tools into the well, and serves
as a running string for the BOP stack.

3.17 Maximum Allowable Annular
Surface Pressure (MAASP)
It is maximum allowable annular
surface pressure during well control;
any pressure above this may damage
formation / casing / surface
equipment.

3.18 Mud Gas Separator
A device that removes gas from the
drilling fluid returns, when a kick is
being circulated out. Mud gas
separator is also known as gas buster
or poor-boy degasser.

3.19 Pipe-light
Pipe-light occurs at the point where
the formation pressure across the pipe
cross-section creates an upward force
sufficient to overcome the downward
force created by the pipes weight- a
potentially disastrous scenario.

3.20 Pore Pressure
Pressure at which formation fluid is
trapped in the pore (void) spaces of
the rock is termed as formation
pressure or pore pressure. It can be
expressed in various ways like:
In term of pressure - psi or kg/cm
2

In term of pressure gradient - psi /ft or
kg/cm
2
/meter.
3

In term of equivalent mud wt. - ppg or
gm/cc.

3.21 Shall
The word shall is used to indicate
that the provision is mandatory.

3.22 Should
The word should is used to indicate
that the provision is recommendatory
as per sound engineering practice.

3.23 Underbal anced Drilling (UBD)
Drilling operation, when the
hydrostatic head of a drilling fluid is
intentionally (naturally or induced by
adding natural gas, nitrogen, or air to
the drilling fluid) kept lower than the
pressure of the formation being drilled
with the intention of bringing formation
fluids to the surface.



4.0 Planning for well control


4.1 Cause of Ki ck
Kick may be caused due to:
i. Encountering higher than
anticipated pore pressure.

ii. Reduction in hydrostatic
pressure in the wellbore.


4.2 Cause of Reduction in Hydrostatic
Head

I. Failure to keep the hole full of
drilling fluid
II. Swabbing,
III. Loss of circulation
IV. Insufficient drilling fluid
density.
V. Gas cut drilling fluid
VI. Loss of riser drilling fluid
column.

4.3 Well Pl anning

I. Well planning should include
conditions anticipated to be
encountered during drilling /
working over of the well, the well
control equipment to be used, and
the well control procedures to be
followed.

II. For effective well control the
following elements of well planning
should be considered:

a. Casing design and kick
tolerance
b. Cementing
c. Drilling fluid density
d. Drilling fluid monitoring
equipment
e. Blowout prevention equipment
selection
f. Contingency plans with
actions to be taken if the
maximum allowable casing
pressure is reached
g. Hydrogen sulphide
environment, if expected.


III. During well planning shallow gas
hazard should also be considered.
Well plan should include mitigating
measures considering the following:

a. Pilot hole drilling,
b. Use of diverter.
c. Riserless drilling (with
floater)



5.0 Diverter Equipment and Control
System

A diverter system is used during top-
hole drilling; it allows routing of the flow
away from the rig to protect persons
and equipment. Components of diverter
system include annular sealing
device, vent outlet(s), vent line(s),
valve(s), control system.

Recommended practices for diverter
system:

I. The friction loss should not exceed the
diverter system rated working pressure,
place undue pressure on the wellbore
and /or exceed other equipments
design pressure, etc., e.g. marine riser.
The diverter system should be
accordingly designed.

II. To minimise back pressure (as much as
practical) on the wellbore while diverting
well fluids, diverter piping should be
adequately sized.

4

III. Vent lines should be 10 or above for
offshore and 8 or above for onshore.

IV. Diverter lines should be straight as far
as possible, properly anchored and
sloping down to avoid blockage of the
lines with cuttings etc.

V. The diverter and mud return (flow line)
lines should be separate lines.

VI. Diverter valves should be full opening
type either pneumatic or hydraulic with
automatic sequencing / manual
sequencing.

VII. The diverter control system may be self
contained or an integral part of the
blowout preventer control system. It
should be located in safe area.

VIII. The diverter control system should be
capable of operating the diverter system
from two or more locations - one to be
located near the driller's console.

IX. When a surface diverter system and a
sub-sea BOP stack are used, two
separate control / accumulator systems
are required. This will allow the BOPs
to be operated and the riser
disconnected in case the diverter
control system gets damaged.

X. Size of the hydraulic control lines should
be as per manufacturers
recommendations.

XI. Control systems of diverter should be
capable of closing the diverter within
maximum 45 seconds and
simultaneously opening the valves in
the diverter lines.

XII. Telescopic/slip joints (in case of floating
rigs) should be incorporated with double
seals, to improve the sealing capability
when gas has to be circulated out of the
marine riser.

XIII. Alternate means to operate diverter
system (in case primary system fails)
should be provided.


5.1 Procedures for Diverter Operations

Following procedure is recommended
for use of diverter:

I. Stop drilling

II. Pick up Kelly until tool joint is above
rotary.

III. Open vent line towards downward
wind direction, close diverter packer
and close shale shaker inlet valve.

IV. Stop pump and check for flow through
open vent line.

V. If flow is positive, pump water or
drilling fluid as required moderating
the flow.

VI. Monitor and adjust packer pressure as
and when required.

VII. Alert the personnel on the rig.

VIII. Take all precautions to prevent fire by
putting off all naked flames and
unnecessary electrical systems.

Additional l y following are applicabl e in
case of subsea wells:

I. Monitor and adjust slip joint packer
pressure as and when required.

II. Watch for gas bubbles in the vicinity of
drilling vessel.


6.0 Well Control Equipment &
Control System


6.1 Selection

I. All the equipment including ram
preventers, lines, valves and flow
fittings shall be selected to withstand
the maximum anticipated surface
pressures. Annular preventer can have
lower rating than ram BOP.

II. Welded, flanged or hub end
connections are only recommended on
all pressure systems above 3000 psi.

III. In sour gas areas H
2
S trim (refer NACE
MR0175 / ISO 15156) equipment
should be used.

IV. Kill lines should be of minimum 2
nominal size and choke line should be
of minimum 3 nominal size.

5

V. Size of choke line and choke manifold
should be same.

VI. Closing systems of surface BOPs
should be capable of closing each ram
preventer and annular preventer up to
18 size within 30 seconds and
annular preventer above 18 size
within 45 seconds.

VII. Closing systems of sub-sea BOPs
should be capable of closing each ram
preventer within 45 seconds and
annular preventer within 60 seconds.

VIII. Ram type subsea preventers should be
equipped with an integral or remotely
operated locking system. Surface ram
preventer should be equipped with
mechanical / hydraulic ram locks.


6.2 Periodic Inspection and Maintenance

I. The organisation should establish
inspection and maintenance procedures
for well control equipment. Inspections
and maintenance procedures should
take into consideration the OEMs
recommendations.

II. Inspection recommendations, where
applicable, may include:

a. Verification of instrument
accuracy
b. Relief valve settings
c. Pressure control switch
settings
d. Nitrogen precharge pressure
in accumulators
e. Pump systems
f. Fluid Levels
g. Lubrication Points
h. General condition of
i) Piping systems
ii) Hoses
iii) Electrical conduit/cords
iv) Mechanical components
v) Structural components
vi) Filters/strainers
vii) Safety covers/devices
viii) Control system adequacy
ix) Battery condition

III. Inspections between wells: after each
well, the well control equipment should
be cleaned, visually inspected,
preventive maintenance performed
before installation at the next well. The
inspection should include the seal area
of the connectors (Choke and kill lines)
for any damage.

IV. Major inspection: after every 5 years of
service or as per OEMs
recommendation. The BOP stack,
choke manifold, and diverter assembly
should be disassembled, and inspected
in accordance with the OEMs
guidelines.

V. Spare parts requirement as per OEM
should be considered. However,
minimum spare parts as listed below
should be readily available:

i) A complete set of ram seals for
each size and type of ram BOP in
use.
ii) A complete set of bonnet or door
seals for each size and type of
ram BOP in use.
iii) Ring gaskets to fit end
connections.
iv) A spare annular BOP packing
element and a complete set of
seals.

VI. During storage of BOP metal parts and
related equipment, they should be
coated with a protective coating to
prevent rust. Storage of elastomer parts
should be in accordance with
manufacturers recommendations.

VII. System should be in place to control
use of rubber / elastomer parts, having
limited shelf life.

VIII. Separate maintenance history / log
book of all the BOPs, Choke manifold
and Control unit should be maintained.

IX. All pressure gauges on the BOP control
system should be calibrated at least
every three years.


6.3 Surface Blow out Prevention
Equipment

Surface blow out prevention
equipment is used on land operations
and offshore operations where the
wellhead is above the water level.

I. Well control equipment can be classified
under the following categories based on
pressure rating:
6


a) 2000 psi WP
b) 3000 psi WP
c) 5000 psi WP
d) 10000 psi WP
e) 15000 psi WP, and
f) 20,000 psi WP


II. Refer Annexure-I for recommended
2000 psi BOP stack. One double, or two
single ram type preventers - one of
which be equipped with correct size
pipe rams the other with blind or blind-
shear rams.

III. Refer Annexure-II for recommended
3000/5000 psi BOP stack. The stack
comprises of, besides annular BOP,
one double, or two single ram type
preventers - one of which should be
equipped with correct size pipe rams
and the other with blind or blind-shear
rams.

IV. Refer Annexure-III for recommended
10000 / 15000 / 20000 psi BOP stack.
The stack comprises of, besides
annular BOP, three single, or one
double and one single ram type
preventers: one of which be should be
equipped with blind or blind-shear rams
and the other two with correct size pipe
rams.

V. When the bottom ram preventer is
equipped with proper size side outlets,
the kill and choke lines may be
connected to the side outlets of the
bottom preventer. In that case the
drilling spool may be dispensed with.

VI. Inspite of the above, a drilling spool use
may be considered for the following two
advantages:

a. Stack outlets at drilling spool
localizes possible erosion in
less expensive drilling spool.

b. It allows additional space
between preventers to
facilitate stripping, hang off,
and / or shear operations.


6.3.1 Control System for Surface BOP
Stacks (Onshore and Bottom-
supported Offshore Instal lations)

I. Control systems are typically simple
closed hydraulic control systems
consisting of a reservoir for storing
hydraulic fluid, pump equipment for
pressurizing the hydraulic fluid,
accumulator banks for storing power
fluid, manifolding, piping and control
valves for transmission of control fluid
for the BOP stack functions.

II. A suitable control fluid should be
selected as the system operating
medium based on the control system
operating requirements, environmental
requirements and user preference.

III. Two (primary and secondary) or more
pump systems should be used having
independent power sources. Electrical
and / or air (pneumatic) supply for
powering pumps should be available at
all times such that the pumps will
automatically start when the system
pressure has decreased to
approximately ninety percent of the
system working pressure and
automatically stop within plus zero or
minus 100 psi of the system design
working pressure.

IV. With the accumulators isolated, the
pump system should be capable of
closing annular BOP on the drill string
being used, open HCR valve on choke
line and achieve the operating pressure
level of annular BOP to effect a seal on
the annular space within 2 minutes.

V. Each pump system should be protected
from over pressurisation by a minimum
of two devices designed to limit the
pump discharge pressure. One device
should limit the pump discharge
pressure so that it will not exceed the
design working pressure of a BOP
Control System. The second device
normally a relief valve, should be sized
to relieve at a flow rate of at least equal
to the design flow rate of the pump
systems, and should be set to relieve at
not more than ten percent over the
design pressure.

VI. The combined output of all pumps
should be capable of charging the entire
accumulator system from precharge
pressure to the maximum rated control
system working pressure within 15
minutes.

7

VII. The hydraulic fluid reservoir should
have a capacity equal to at least twice
the useable hydraulic fluid capacity of
the accumulator system.

VIII. In the field, the precharge pressure
should be checked and adjusted to
within 100 psi of the recommended
precharge pressure during installation of
the control system and at the start of
drilling each well (interval not to exceed
sixty days).

IX. The BOP control system should have a
minimum stored hydraulic fluid volume,
with pumps inoperative, to satisfy the
greater of the following two
requirements:

a) Close from a full open position at
zero wellbore pressure, all of the
BOPs in the BOP stack, plus 50
% reserve.

b) The pressure of the remaining
stored accumulator volume after
closing all of the BOPs should
exceed the minimum calculated
(using the BOP closing ratio)
operating pressure required to
close any ram BOP (excluding the
shear rams) at the maximum
rated wellbore pressure of the
stack.

X. All rigid or flexible lines between the
control system and BOP stack should
be fire resistant including end
connections, and should have a working
pressure equal to the design working
pressure of the BOP control system. All
control system interconnect piping,
tubing hose, linkages etc. should be
protected from damage from drilling
operations, drilling equipment
movement and day to day personnel
operations.

XI. The control unit should be installed in a
location away from the drill floor and
easily accessible to the persons during
an emergency.

XII. A minimum of one remote control panel
accessible to the driller to operate all
system functions during drilling
operations should be installed at
onshore rigs. In offshore, one control
panel shall be available at a non
hazardous area preferably tool pusher
office for BOP stack functions, besides
the one near the driller.

XIII. Remote control panels should have
light indicators to show open/close/block
position of each BOPS and
Hydraulically operated choke and kill
valves. For onshore it is optional and for
offshore unit it is must.

XIV. For offshore units emergency backup
BOP control system should be
available. A backup system consists of
a number of high pressure gaseous
nitrogen bottles manifolded together to
provide emergency auxiliary energy to
the control manifold. The nitrogen
backup system is connected to the
control manifold through an isolation
valve and a check valve. If the
accumulator pump unit is not able to
supply power fluid to the control
manifold, the nitrogen back-up system
may be activated to supply high
pressure gas to the manifold to close
the BOPs.



6.4 Subsea Blow out Prevention
Equipment

Subsea BOP stack arrangements
should provide means to:

I. Close in on the drill string and on the
casing or liner and allow circulation.

II. Close and seal on open hole and allow
volumetric well control operations.

III. Strip the drill string using the annular
BOP(s).

IV. Hang off the drill pipe on a ram BOP
and control the wellbore.

V. Shear logging cable or the drill pipe and
seal the wellbore.

VI. Disconnect the riser from the BOP
stack.

VII. Circulate the well after drill pipe
disconnect.

VIII. Circulate across the BOP stack to
remove trapped gas.


8


6.4.1 Subsea BOP Stack

Subsea blow out prevention
equipment is used on subsea
wellhead.

I. Well control equipment can be classified
in following categories based on
pressure rating.

a) 2000 psi WP
b) 3000 psi WP
c) 5000 psi WP
d) 10000 psi WP
e) 15000 psi WP and
f) 20,000 psi WP

II. Arrangements for subsea BOP stack at
Annexure IV and V should be
referred.

III. Annular BOPs are designated as lower
annular and upper annular. Annular
BOP may have a lower rated working
pressure than the ram BOPs.

IV. Choke and kill lines are manifolded
such that each can be used for either
purpose. The identifying labels for the
choke and kill lines are arbitrary. When
a circulating line is connected to an
outlet below the bottom ram BOP, this
circulating line is generally designated
as kill line. When kill line is connected
below the lowermost BOP, it is
preferable to have one choke line and
one kill line connection above the
bottom ram BOP. When this bottom
connection does not exist, either or both
of the two circulating lines may
alternately be labeled as a choke line.

V. Some differences as compared to
surface BOP systems are:

a. Choke and kill lines are normally
connected to ram preventer body
outlets to reduce stack height and
weight, and to reduce the number
of stack connections.

b. Spools may be used to space
preventers for shearing tubulars,
hanging off drill pipe, or stripping
operations.

c. Blind-shear rams are used in
place of blind rams.

d. Ram preventers should be
equipped with an integral or
remotely operated locking system.


6.4.2 Control System for Subsea BOP
Stack

For subsea operations, BOP operating
and control equipment should include:

I. Floating drilling rigs experience vessel
motion, which necessitates placement
of the BOP stack on the sea floor. The
control systems used on floating rigs
are usually open-ended hydraulic
systems (spent hydraulic fluid vents to
sea) and therefore employ water-based
hydraulic control fluids.

II. An independent automatic accumulator
unit for subsea BOP control system
complete with an automatic mixing
system to maintain mixed fluid ratios
and levels of mixed hydraulic fluids.

III. The accumulator capacity should be
sufficient for closing, and opening all
ram type preventers, annular preventers
and fail-safe-close valves without
recharging accumulator bottles, and the
remaining pressure should be either
200 psi above recommended precharge
pressure or value based on the closing
ratio of ram preventer in use, whichever
is more.

IV. The unit should be equipped with two or
more pump system driven by
independent power source. Capacity of
the pumps should meet following:

a. With accumulator isolated, each
pump system should be capable
of closing annular preventer and
opening fail-safe-close valve of
choke within 2 minutes time.

b. Combined output of all the pumps
should be capable of charging
accumulator to the rated pressure
within 15 minutes.

V. Accumulators should be installed on the
BOP stack for quicker response of the
functions, and its precharge pressure
should be compensated for water
gradient.

9

VI. Two full function remote control panels
to operate BOP stack functions should
be available, out of which one should be
accessible to driller on the rig floor. A
flow meter for indicating control fluid
flow should be located on each remote
control panel.

VII. The remote panels should be
connected to the control manifold in
such a way that all functions can be
operated independently from each
panel.

VIII. Two independent control pods with all
necessary valves and regulators to
operate all BOP stack functions should
be available. Two separate and
independent sets of surface and subsea
umbilicals should be used, one
dedicated to each control pod. Main
hydraulic fluid line should be of
minimum 1 size.

IX. An emergency control system, either
acoustic system or remotely operated
vehicle (ROV) operated control system
should be used in the event that the
BOP functions are inoperative due to a
failure of the primary control system.
Emergency control system should
charge and discharge stack mounted
accumulator, close at least one ram
type preventer, blind shear ram and
open Lower Marine Riser Package
(LMRP) hydraulic connector.

X. The BOP control system should be
capable of closing each ram BOPs and
opening or closing fail-safe-close valves
within 45 seconds. For annular
preventer, closing time should not
exceed 60 seconds. Time to unlatch the
LMRP should be less than 45 seconds.

XI. Precharge pressure of accumulator
bottle in case of 3000 psi WP unit
should be 1000 +/- 100 psi and in case
5000 psi WP unit should be 1500+/- 100
psi. Only Nitrogen should be used for
precharge.

XII. Separate diverter control panel should
be available at rig floor to operate all
diverter control functions. Second
control panel should be provided in the
safe and approachable area away from
rig floor.

XIII. If diverter control system is not self
contained, hydraulic power may be
supplied from BOP control system.

XIV. The diverter control system should be
designed to prohibit closing the diverter
packer unless diverting lines have been
opened.

XV. Air storage backup system should be
provided with capability to operate all
the pneumatic functions at least twice in
the event of loss of rig air pressure.

XVI. The drilling BOP shall have two
annular preventers. One or both of the
annular preventers shall be part of the
LMRP. It should be possible to bleed off
gas trapped between the preventers in
a controlled way.


6.4.3 Deep Water Dri lling Operations

For Deep water drilling operations
following additional requirements should
be met:

I. If two or more different size strings are
run, blind-shear ram should be able to
shear all sizes of string.

II. Use of two blind-shear rams is preferred
for ensuring the backup seal in case of
unplanned disconnect.

III. In addition to choke and kill lines, a
dedicated boost line shall be provided
for riser cleaning with necessary boost
line valves above the BOP stack.

IV. In the event of full or partial evacuation
of mud from the riser, to combat riser
collapse, an anti-collapse valve should
be provided in the riser system allowing
automatic entry of seawater.

V. ROV should be able to perform
following functions:

i. LMRP and wellhead connector
unlatch.
ii. LMRP and wellhead ring gasket
release.
iii. Methanol / Glycol injection.
iv. Opening and closing of pipe
rams and blind-shear rams.
v. LMRP and Accumulator Dump.

10

VI. The need to utilize a multiplex BOP
control system to meet the closing time
requirements should be evaluated for
application, if required.

VII. The kill-/choke line ID should be verified
vis--vis acceptable pressure loss, to
allow killing of the well at predefined kill
rates. The kill-/choke line should not be
less than 88.9 mm (3 inches).

VIII. It should be possible to monitor the
shut-in casing pressure through the kill
line when circulating out an influx by
means of the work string / test tubing /
tubing.

IX. It should be possible to monitor BOP
pressure and temperature at surface,
through appropriate means.

X. It should be possible to flush wellhead
connector with antifreeze liquid solution
by using the BOP accumulator bottles
or with a ROV system or other methods.

XI. Detailed riser verification analysis
should be performed with actual
environment and well data (i.e. weather
data, current profiles, rig characteristics
etc.) and should be verified by a 3
rd

party.

XII. A simulated riser disconnect test should
be conducted considering manageable
emergency weather / operational
scenarios.

XIII. The riser should have the following:
current meter;
riser inclination measurement
devices along the riser;
riser tensioning system with an
anti-recoil system to prevent
riser damage during
disconnection;
flex joint wear bushing to reduce
excessive flex joint wear.
riser fill-up valve.

XIV. Parameters that affect the stress
situation of the riser should be
systematically and frequently collected
and assessed to provide an optimum rig
position that minimizes the effects of
static and dynamic loads.

XV. Wellhead and riser connector should be
equipped with hydrate seal.

XVI. During drilling operations, to avoid any
damage to drilling equipment in the
event of station keeping failure, there
should be prescribed emergency
disconnect procedures, clearly
indicating the point at which disconnect
action is to be started.

XVII. In general, preparation for disconnect
should begin at a distance with
reference to well mouth, when it is 2.5
% of water depth and disconnect should
be initiated at 5.5 % of water depth.

XVIII. Emergency disconnect should include
the following:

i. Hang up of the drill pipes on pipe
rams.
ii. Shearing the drill pipe.
iii. Effect seal on the wellbore.
iv. Disconnect the LMRP.
v. Clear the BOP with LMRP.
vi. Safely capture the riser.

XIX. For monitoring riser angles, flex joint
angle reading should be available at the
driller console on a real time basis and
connected to an alarm on derrick floor.

XX. In variance to 0.5 ppg kick margin
normally considered, for deep water a
variance of upto 0 .2 ppg for conductor
casing interval and 0.3 ppg for surface
casing interval can be considered.

XXI. When using tapered drill pipe string
there should be pipe rams to fit each
pipe size. Variable bore rams should
have sufficient hang off load capacity.

XXII. Bending loads on the BOP flanges
and connector shall be verified to
withstand maximum bending loads (e.g.
highest allowable riser angle and
highest expected drilling fluid density.)


6.5 Choke and Kill Lines

6.5.1 Choke Lines and Choke Manifold
Installation with Surface BOP

I. The choke manifold consists of high
pressure pipe, fittings, flanges, valves,
and manual and/or hydraulic operated
adjustable chokes. This manifold may
bleed off wellbore pressure at a
controlled rate or may stop fluid flow
11

from the wellbore completely, as
required.

II. For working pressure of 3000 psi and
above, flanged, welded or clamped
connections should be used on the
component subjected to well pressure.

III. Choke line from BOP to choke
manifold and bleeding line should be
of minimum 3 inches nominal
diameter.

IV. In down stream of choke line alternate
flow and flare routes should be
provided so that eroded / plugged or
malfunctioning parts can be isolated
for repair without interrupting flow
control.

V. When buffer tanks are employed in
down stream of chokes, provision
should be made to isolate a failure or
malfunctioning without interrupting
flow.

VI. The choke manifold should be placed
in a readily accessible location,
preferably outside of the rig structure.

VII. All the choke manifold valves should
be full opening and designed to
operate in high pressure gas and
drilling fluid service.

VIII. All the connections and valves in the
upstream of choke should have a
working pressure at least equal to the
rated working pressure of ram
preventer in use.
IX. Choke manifold should be pressure
tested as per the schedule as fixed for
blowout preventer stack in use.

X. The spare parts for equipment subject
to wear or damage should be readily
available.

XI. Pressure gauges and sensors
compatible to drilling fluid should be
installed so that drill pipe and annular
pressures may be accurately
monitored and readily observed at the
station where well control operations
are to be conducted. These should be
tested / calibrated as per documented
schedule.

XII. Preventive maintenance of the choke
assembly and controls should be
performed regularly, checking
particularly for corrosion, wear and
plugged or damaged lines.

XIII. Spare parts requirement as per OEM
should be considered. However,
minimum spare parts as listed below
should be readily available:

i. One complete valve for each
size installed.
ii. Two repair kits for each valve
size installed.
iii. Parts for manually adjustable
chokes, such as flow tips, seat
and gate, inserts, packing,
gaskets, O-rings, disc
assemblies, and wear sleeves.
iv. Parts for remotely controlled
choke(s).
v. Miscellaneous items such as
hose, flexible tubing, electrical
cable, pressure gauges, small
control line valves, fittings and
electrical components.

XIV. The following are the
recommendations for choke
installation upto 5000 psi WP rating:

i. Use two manually operated
adjustable chokes (out of two
chokes, use of one remotely
operated choke is optional).
ii. At least one valve should be
installed in upstream of each
choke in the manifold.

XV. The following are the
recommendations for choke
installation of 10000 psi WP and
above rating:

i. One manually operated
adjustable choke and at least
one remotely operated choke
should be installed. If prolonged
use of this choke is anticipated,
a second remotely operated
choke should be used.
ii. Two valves should be installed
in upstream of each choke in the
manifold.
iii. The remotely operated choke
should be equipped with an
emergency backup system such
as a manual pump or nitrogen
12

for use in the event rig air
becomes unavailable.

6.5.2 Kill Lines and Kil l Manifold
Installation with Surface BOP

I. The kill line system provides a means
of pumping into the wellbore when the
normal method of circulating down
through the Kelly or drill pipe cannot
be employed. The kill line connects
the drilling fluid pumps to a side outlet
on the BOP stack.

II. All lines valves, check valves and flow
fittings should have a working
pressure at least equal to the rated
working pressure of the ram BOPs in
use. The equipment should be tested
on installation and periodic operation,
inspection; testing and maintenance
should be performed as per the
schedule fixed for the BOP stack in
use, unless OEMs recommendations
dictate otherwise.

III. Line size should be minimum 2 inches
nominal diameter.

IV. Two full bore valves (manual / HCR)
should be installed for up to 3000 psi
manifold. Use of check valve is
optional.

V. Two full bore manual valves and a
check valve or one full bore manual
and one HCR valve should be used in
kill line in 5000 psi and above
pressure rating manifold.

VI. Spare parts requirement as per OEM
should be considered. However,
minimum spare parts as listed below
should be readily available:

i. One complete valve for each
size installed.
ii. Two repair kits for each valve
size utilised.
iii. Miscellaneous items such as
hose, flexible tubing, electrical
cable, pressure gauges etc.


6.5.3 Choke and Kill Lines Installation
with Subsea BOP Stack

I. Subsea BOP choke and kill lines are
connected through choke manifold to
permit pumping or flowing through
either line.

II. Choke and kill line should be of
minimum three inches nominal
diameter.

III. One kill / choke line should be
connected to lower most side outlet of
BOP.

IV. There should be minimum one choke
line and one kill line connection above
lower ram BOP.

V. The ram BOP outlet connected to
choke or kill line should have two full
opening hydraulically operated fail-
safe-close valves adjacent to
preventer.

VI. Connector pressure sealing elements
should be inspected, changed as
required, and tested before being
placed in service. Periodic pressure
testing is recommended during
installation. Pressure rating of all lines
and sealing elements should be at
least equal to the rating of ram BOP.

VII. Periodic flushing of choke and kill line
should be carried out to avoid
plugging since they are normally
closed.

VIII. Flexible connections required for
choke and kill lines should have
pressure rating at least equal to the
rated working pressure of ram BOP.

IX. Spare parts requirement as per OEM
should be considered. However,
minimum spare parts as listed below
should be readily available:

i. One complete valve of each
size installed.
ii. Two repair kits for each valve
size in use.
iii. Sealing elements for choke
and kill lines.

6.6 Wellhead, BOP Equipment and
Choke & Kill Lines Instal l ation

I. Wellhead equipment should withstand
anticipated surface pressures and
allow for future remedial operations.
Wellhead should be tested on
installation.
13


II. Prior to drilling out the casing shoe,
the casing should be pressure tested.
Pressure test of all casing strings
including production casing / liner
should be done to ensure integrity of
casing.

III. When the well head and BOP stack
used are of higher working pressure
than the required as per design of the
specific well, the equipment may not
be tested to its rated pressure.

IV. When ram type preventers are
installed the side outlets should be
below the rams.

V. All connections, valves, fittings, piping
etc. exposed to well pressure, should
be flanged or clamped or welded and
must have a minimum working
pressure equal to the rated working
pressure of the preventers.

VI. Always install new and clean API ring
gaskets. Check for any damage in the
ring as well as grooves before use.

VII. Correct size bolts/nuts and fittings
should be used and tightened to the
recommended torque. All connections
should be pressure tested before
drilling is resumed.

VIII. All manually operated valves should
be equipped with hand wheels, and
always be kept ready for use.

IX. Ram type preventers should have
locking arrangement manual or auto
lock.

X. Wellhead side-outlets should not be
used for killing purpose, except in
case of emergencies.

XI. Kill lines should not be used for
routine fill up operations.

XII. All sharp bends in high pressure
lines should be of targeted type.

XIII. All choke and kill lines should be as
straight as practicable and firmly
anchored to prevent excessive whip or
vibration. Choke and Kill manifolds
should also be anchored.

XIV. All control valves of BOP control unit
be either in the fully close or open
position as required and should not be
left in block or neutral position during
operations.

XV. Control valve of blind / blindshear
ram should be protected to avoid
unintentional operation from the
remote panel.

XVI. Recommended oil level should be
maintained in the control unit reservoir.

XVII. Outlets of all sections of well head
should have at least one gate valve.


6.7 Blow out Preventer Testing


6.7.1 Function Test

I. All operational components of the BOP
equipment systems and diverter (if in
use) should be function tested at least
once a week to verify the components
intended operations.

II. The test should be preferably conducted
when the drill string is inside casing.

III. Both pneumatic and electric pump of
accumulator unit should be turned off
after recording initial accumulator
pressure.

IV. All the blow out preventers and
hydraulically operated remote valve
(HCR) in choke / kill line should be
function tested. Closing time of rams
and opening time of HCR should be
recorded.

V. For surface BOP stack closing time
should not exceed 30 seconds for each
ram preventers and annular preventers
smaller than 18" and 45 seconds for
annular preventer of 18" and larger
size. For sub-sea BOP stack closing
time should not exceed 45 seconds for
all ram preventers and 60 seconds for
annular preventers.

VI. Operating response time for choke and
kill valves (either open or close) should
not exceed the minimum observed ram
BOP close response time.

14

VII. Function test should be carried out
alternately from main control unit / rig
floor panel / auxiliary panel.

VIII. Record final accumulator pressures
after all the functions. It should not be
less than 200 psi above the
recommended precharge pressure of
accumulator bottles.

IX. All the gate valves and blow out
preventers should be returned to their
original position before resuming
operations.

X. All the results should be recorded in the
prescribed format (Annexure-VII).


6.7.2 Pressure Test

I. All blowout prevention components that
may be exposed to well pressure should
be tested first to a low pressure and
then to a high pressure. These include
blowout preventer stack, all choke
manifold components, upstream of
chokes, kill manifold / valves, kelly
valves, drill pipe and tubing safety
valves and drilling spools (if in use).
Pressure test (both low and high) on
each component should be of minimum
5 minutes duration, each. All the results
should be recorded in the format.
(Annexure - VIII)

II. Test BOP using cup tester or test plug.

III. Before pressure testing of BOP stack,
choke and kill manifold should be
flushed with clean water.

IV. Clean water should be used as test
fluid. However for high pressure gas
wells, use of inert gas such as N
2

(nitrogen) as test fluid is desirable.

V. High pressure testing unit with pressure
chart recorder be used for pressure
testing.

VI. Use test stump for sub-sea BOP stack
pressure testing.

VII. Well control equipment should be
pressure tested:

a. When installed.
b. After setting each casing string.
c. Following repairs that require
breaking a pressure connection.
d. But not less than once every 21
days.

VIII. Low pressure test should be carried out
at 200-300 psi.

IX. Once the equipment passes the low
pressure test, it should be tested to high
pressure.

X. Initial pressure test of blowout preventer
stack, manifold, valves etc., should be
carried out at the rated working
pressure of the preventer stack or well-
head whichever is lower. Initial pressure
test is defined as those tests that should
be performed on location before the well
is spudded or before the equipment is
put into operational service.

XI. Subsequent high pressure tests should
be carried out at a pressure greater
than maximum anticipated surface
pressure. Exception is the annular
preventer which should be tested to
70% of its rated pressure or maximum
anticipated surface pressure whichever
is lower.

XII. The pipe used for testing should be of
sufficient weight and grade to safely
withstand tensile, yield, collapse, or
internal pressures.

XIII. Precaution should be taken not to
expose the casing to pressures in
excess of its rated strength. A means
should be provided to prevent pressure
build up on the casing in the event the
test tool leaks (wellhead valve should
be kept open when pressure testing
with test plug).

XIV. Pressure should be applied from the
direction in which all the BOPs, choke
and kill manifold, FOSV / Kelly cock etc.
would experience pressure during kick.


6.8 Minimum Requirements for Well
Control Equipment for Workover
operations (on land)

For workover operations:

I. BOP stack should have at least one
double or two single ram type
preventers - one of which must be
15

equipped with correct size pipe/tubing
rams and the other with blind or blind-
shear ram. Working pressure rating of
BOP stack should exceed anticipated
surface pressure.

II. Kill line should be of minimum 2 inch
size.

III. One independent automatic
accumulator unit with a control manifold,
clearly showing open and closed
positions, for preventer(s) to be
provided. The accumulator capacity
should be adequate for closing all the
preventers without recharging
accumulators. Unit should be located at
safe easily accessible place.

IV. The BOP stack should have remote
control panel clearly showing open and
closed positions for each preventer.
This Control Panel should be located
near to the drillers position.

V. Trip tank should be installed on
workover rig deployed for servicing of
high pressure/ gas wells for continuous
fill up and monitoring the hole during
round trips. Indicator to monitor tank
level can be either mechanical or digital
and clearly visible to driller.

VI. Full opening safety valve of drill string /
tubing size and matching thread
connection should always be available
at derrick floor during well servicing. It
should be kept ready in 'open' position
for use with operating wrench.
Operating wrench(s) should be kept at a
designated place.

VII. Sufficient volume of the workover fluid
should be available in reserve during
workover operations.

VIII. During conventional production testing,
well should be perforated with adequate
overbalance.

IX. After release of the packer the string
should be reciprocated, to ensure
complete retraction of packer elements,
prior to pull out of string. It should be
ensured that there is no swabbing
action.


7.0 Procedures and Techniques for
Well Control (Prevention and
Control of Kick)


7.1 Kick Indi cations

Indications of kick can be:

I. Increase in drilling fluid return
rate
II. Pit gain or loss
III. Changes in flowline temperature
IV. Drilling breaks
V. Pump pressure decease and
pump stroke increase
VI. Drilling fluid density reduction
VII. Oil show
VIII. Gas show


7.2 Prevention and Control of Kick

In case of overbalance drilling:

I. The planned drilling safety margin is
difference between planned drilling
fluid weight and estimated pore
pressure.

II. To maintain primary well control,
drilling personnel should ensure that
the hydrostatic pressure in the
wellbore is always greater than the
formation pressure by safety margin.

III. The use of trip margin (which is in
addition to safety margin) is
encouraged to offset the effects of
swabbing and equivalent circulating
density (ECD). The additional
hydrostatic pressure will permit some
degree of swabbing without losing
primary well control.

IV. Successful well control (Blowout
prevention programme) includes
following elements:

a. Training of personnel and
drills.
b. Monitoring and maintaining
drilling fluid system.
c. Selection of appropriate well
control equipment.
d. Installation, maintenance and
testing of well control
equipment.
e. Adoption of established well
control procedures.
16

7.2.1 Precautions before Trippi ng Out

I. Conditioning of drilling fluid prior to
tripping out should be ensured. This
should include:

a. No indication of influx of
formation fluids.
b. The drilling fluid density in and out
should not differ more than 0.024
gm/cc (0.2 ppg.) in open hole. In
cased hole there should not be
any difference.

II. A trip tank shall be lined up and
function tested. Trip sheet shall be
ready to be filled during tripping out
(Annexure-VI).

III. Full opening safety valve(s) with
suitable working pressure and with
proper connections and size, to fit all
drill string connections, must be
available on the rig floor. They should
be kept ready in 'open' position for use
with operating wrench. Operating
wrench(s) should be kept at a
designated place.

IV. An inside BOP, drill pipe float valve or
drop in check valve should be
available for use whenever stripping is
required to be done.

V. As far as possible tripping out should
be dry. If tripping out is wet, proper
mud bucket should be used enabling
mud to flow back to the return
channel.


7.2.2 Precautions During Tripping Out

I. Well should be checked for swabbing
during pulling out. If positive, suitable
corrective measures such as change
in tripping speed, tripping out with
pump on, change in drilling fluid
properties etc should be taken.

II. Trip tank volume should be monitored
and same should be recorded in the
trip sheet (Annexure -VI).

III. If hole is not taking proper amount of
mud (as per trip sheet), stop tripping
and conduct flow check to ensure
whether the well is self-flowing. If
positive, shut the well, record the
pressures and circulate out the kick by
suitable well control method. If no self
flow is observed, run back to the
bottom and circulate and condition the
drilling fluid.

IV. Flow checks should be carried out:

i. Prior to all trips out of the
hole.
ii. During first 10 stands.
iii. At the casing shoes.
iv. Prior to tripping out of drill
collars through BOP stack.

V. Any time a trip is interrupted, safety
valve should be installed on the drill
string.


7.2.3 Precautions During Tripping In

I. Regular flow checks and monitoring of
level in annulus should be done.
Where situation requires trip tank may
be used to monitor drilling fluid
loss/gain.

II. Circulation should be given to break
gelation of mud as per requirements
especially in deep wells and where
heavy mud is used.

III. With a float valve in the string, drill
pipe should be filled up intermittently.


7.2.4 Precautions During Casing
Lowering

I. Regular flow checks and monitoring of
level in annulus should be done and
fill up schedule of casing pipe / liner
should be followed as per the plan and
use clean mud for casing/liner filling.

II. Running in speed of casing/liner
should be maintained considering
allowable surge pressure.


7.2.5 Pre-kick Pl anning

I. A plan detailing what actions are to be
taken should a kick occur must be
available. Plan should consider
equipment limitations, casing setting
depths, maximum fluid density,
pressures that may be encountered,
fracture gradients and expected
hazards.
17


II. This should also include roles
responsibilities of the personnel during
kick.

III. The following information should be
pre-recorded for use in kill sheet
preparation: casing data (properties),
safe working pressure limit for surface
blowout preventer equipment,
wellhead, casing string, approved
maximum allowable casing pressure
(MAASP) and contingency plan, pump
rate for killing operation (SCR),
system pressure losses, capacities-
displacement, mud pump data, drilling
fluid mixing capability, trip margin,
water depth (offshore), well profile and
shut-in method to be used (soft / hard
shut in).

IV. Record slow circulating rates at 1/3
and 1/2 the pump speed of drilling
SPM at:

a. the beginning of every shift
b. any time the mud weight is
changed
c. after drilling 500 feet/150 mtrs. of
new hole
d. after bit change
e. after pump repairs
f. after each trip due to change in
BHA, bit nozzle.

V. LOT / PIT after each casing should be
known. Whenever LOT / PIT is to be
carried out, 2-3 meters of fresh
formation should be drilled.

VI. Distance from rotary table to blowout
preventer (s) be noted and sketch
displayed in dog house and
Toolpusher's office.

VII. Based on the risk assessment of the
well and depending upon the situation,
well control method to be used should
be selected. Plan and procedures for
special situations such as casing
pressure reaching maximum allowable
annular surface pressure (MAASP)
should be available at the installation
(contingency plan).

VIII. Shut in method to be used should also
be pre-selected in the kill sheet.

IX. Sufficient quantity of drilling fluid
weighting materials and chemicals
must be stored to meet any kick
situation.


7.3 Kick Control Procedures

Following are recommended well
control procedures for surface stack
and sub-sea.

7.3.1 Surface Stack

For onshore and bottom-supported
offshore installations:

A. During Dri lling

I. Stop drilling
II. Pick up Kelly to position tool joint
III. Stop mud pump.
IV. Check for self-flow.
V. If positive, proceed further to
close the well by any one of the
following procedures (Refer Table-
1).
v Soft shut in
v Hard shut in

TABLE - 1



Sl. No.

Soft Shut in

Hard Shut in
1. Open hydraulic control valve
(HCR valve) / manual valve on
choke line.
Close Blow out Preventer.
(Preferably Annular Preventer)

2. Close Blowout Preventer. Open HCR/Manual valve on choke line
when choke is in fully closed position.
3. Gradually close adjustable
/remotely operated choke,
monitoring casing pressure.
Allow pressure to stabilise and record
SIDPP, SICP and Pit Gain.
4. Allow the pressure to stabilize and
record SIDPP, SICP and Pit gain.

-------------
18




VI. Monitor the casing pressure. If the
casing pressure is about to exceed
MAASP, follow the contingency plan.

VII. Calculate the drilling fluid density
required to kill the kick.

VIII. Initiate the approved / selected well
kill method.

IX. Check rig crew duties and stations.

X. Review and update the well control
worksheet.

XI. Check pressures of all annuli of the
well.


B. During Tripping

During tripping whenever flow is observed:

I. Position tool joint above rotary table
and set pipe on slips.

II. Install Full Opening Safety Valve
(FOSV) in open position on the drill
pipe and close it.

III. Close the well following any one of the
procedures as per above table. (table
- 1)

IV. Monitor the casing pressure. If the
casing pressure is about to exceed
MAASP, follow the contingency plan.

V. Calculate the drilling fluid density
required to kill the kick.

VI. Initiate the approved / selected well kill
method.

VII. Check rig crew duties and stations.

VIII. Review and update the well control
worksheet.

IX. Check pressures of all annuli of the
well.


C. When String is out of Hole

I. Close blind / blind-shear ram.

II. Record shut in pressure.

III. Monitor the casing pressure. If the
casing pressure is about to exceed
maximum allowed (MAASP), follow
the contingency plan.

IV. Calculate the drilling fluid density to kill
the kick.

V. Initiate the approved /selected well kill
method.

VI. Check rig crew duties and stations.

VII. Review and update the well control
worksheet.

VIII. Check pressures on all annuli of the
well.



7.3.2 Floating Installations (Sub Sea)

A. During Dri lling

I. Stop drilling

II. Position the tool joint for the BOPs
operation.

III. Shut down the drilling fluid pump(s).

IV. Check the well for flow if it is flowing,
follow shut in procedure.

V. If the soft shut-in procedure has been
selected: open the choke line, close
Annular BOP and close the choke.

VI. If the hard shut-in procedure has been
selected: close Annular BOP and
open the choke line with the choke in
closed position.

VII. Observe the casing pressure, if it
exceeds MAASP, follow the
contingency plan.

VIII. Check for trapped gas pressure.

IX. For release of trapped gas, close the
uppermost rams below the choke line
and close the diverter, open the
annular preventer to allow trapped gas
19


to rise, displace riser with kill fluid and
close the annular preventer, reopen
the ram preventer.

X. Adjust the closing pressure on the
annular preventer to allow stripping of
tool joints.

XI. Hang off the drill pipe as follows:

a. With a motion compensator:

i. Position a tool joint above the
hang-off rams leaving the lower
Kelly cock high enough above the
floor to be accessible during the
maximum expected heave and
tide when the selected tool joint
rests on the hang-off rams.

ii. Close the hang-off rams.

iii. Carefully lower the drill string until
the tool joint rests on the hang-off
rams.

iv. Reduce support pressure on the
motion compensator to support
about half of the weight of drill
string above the BOPs plus some
overpull to provide drill string
tension to assist shearing, if
required.

b. Without a motion
compensator:

i. Set the slips on the top joint of drill
pipe.

ii. Close the lower Kelly cock.

iii. Break the Kelly/top drive
connection above the lower Kelly
cock and put it in the rat hole.

iv. Pick up the assembled space-out
joint, safety valve, and circulating
head with the safety valve closed.
Make up the space-out joint on the
closed lower Kelly cock.

v. Open the lower Kelly cock,
remove the slips, and position tool
joint above the hang-off rams
leaving the safety valve high
enough above the floor to be
accessible during the maximum
expected heave and tide when the
selected joint rests on the hang-off
rams.

vi. Close the hang-off rams.

vii. Carefully lower the drill string until
the tool joint lands on the closed
hang-off rams. Slack off the entire
weight of drill string while holding
tension on the circulating head
with a tension device.

viii. Connect the circulating head to
the standpipe, open the safety
valve.

XII. Allow the shut-in pressure to stabilise
and record pressures.

XIII. Determine the volume of the kick.

XIV. Calculate the drilling fluid density
required to kill the kick.

XV. Select a kill method.

XVI. Check rig crew duties and stations.

XVII. Review and update well control
worksheet.

XVIII. Inspect the BOP stack with television,
if feasible.


B. During Tripping

I. Install safety valve.

II. Position the tool joint for the BOPs
operation.

III. Check the well for flow if it is flowing,
follow shut in procedure.

IV. If the soft shut-in procedure has been
selected: open the choke line, close
Annular BOP and close the choke.

V. If the hard shut-in procedure has been
selected: close Annular BOP and
open the choke line with the choke in
closed position.

VI. Observe the casing pressure, if it
exceeds MAASP, follow the
contingency plan.

VII. Check for trapped gas pressure.

20


VIII. For release of trapped gas, close the
uppermost rams below the choke line
and close the diverter, open the
annular preventer to allow trapped gas
to rise, displace riser with kill fluid and
close the annular preventer, reopen
the ram preventer.

IX. Adjust the closing pressure on the
annular preventer to allow stripping of
tool joints.

X. Hang off the drill pipe as follows:

a. With a motion compensator:

i. Position a tool joint above the
hang-off rams leaving the safety
valve high enough above the floor
to be accessible during the
maximum expected heave and
tide when the selected tool joint
rests on the hang-off rams.

ii. Close the hang-off rams.

iii. Carefully lower the drill string until
the tool joint rests on the hang-off
rams.

iv. Reduce support pressure on the
motion compensator to support
about half of the weight of drill
string above the BOPs plus some
overpull to provide drill string
tension to assist shearing, if
required.

b. Without a motion compensator:

i. Pick up the assembled space-out
joint, safety valve, and circulating
head with the safety valve closed.
Make up the space-out joint on the
string.
ii. Open the safety valve, remove the
slips, and position tool joint above
the hang-off rams leaving the
safety valve high enough above
the floor to be accessible during
the maximum expected heave and
tide when the selected joint rests
on the hang-off rams.

iii. Close the hang-off rams.

iv. Carefully lower the drill string until
the tool joint lands on the closed
hang-off rams. Slack off the entire
weight of drill string while holding
tension on the circulating head
with a tension device.

v. Connect the circulating head to
the standpipe, open the safety
valve.

XI. Allow the shut-in pressure to
stablise and record pressures.

XII. Determine the volume of the kick.

XIII. Calculate the drilling fluid density
required to kill the kick.

XIV. Select a kill method.

XV. Check rig crew duties and stations.

XVI. Review and update well control
worksheet.

XVII. Inspect the BOP stack with
television, if feasible.


C. When String is Out of
Hole

I. At the first indication of the well
flowing, close the blind / blind-shear
rams.

II. Open the gate valve on the subsea
BOP stack to open the choke line,
close the choke line at the surface.

III. Record shut-in pressures. Wt.
(specific gravity) of fluid in the choke
line should be considered for
calculating shut-in casing pressure.

IV. Record the kick volume.

V. Run the drill string in the hole to the
top of the BOPs with NRV.

VI. Add the hydrostatic pressure of the
fluid in the choke line to the surface
pressure to determine the pressure
below the blind rams.

VII. Determine if the pressure below the
blind rams can be overbalanced by
hydrostatic pressure of the drilling fluid
that can be safely contained by the
riser. If so, adjust the riser tensioners
to support the additional drilling fluid
weight and displace the drilling fluid in
21


the riser with drilling fluid of the
required density.

VIII. Close the diverter. Open the BOPs
and watch for flow. If the well does not
flow, open the diverter and trip in the
hole.

IX. If the well starts to flow, close the blind
ram preventer, displace the choke and
kill lines with heavy drilling fluid, and
circulate until the riser contains drilling
fluid of the desired density.

X. Continue going in the hole. Stop
periodically, close the pipe rams, and
circulate the riser by pumping down
the kill line to maintain the required
drilling fluid density in the riser.

After well killing and before resuming
normal operations, density of drilling
fluid should be reviewed to include
trip margin above kill mud weight.


8.0 Drills and Training

I. The competence with which drilling
personnel respond to well control
situations and follow correct procedures
can be improved by carrying out
emergency drills.

II. While drilling in H
2
S / sour gas prone
area, detectors shall be installed and
breathing apparatus in sufficient
quantity and cascade system shall be
made available. Crew shall be trained
to handle situations in this environment.

III. Organisation should assign specific
responsibilities to the identified /
designated persons, for actions required
during an emergency related to well
control, which would be part of rig ERP.

a. Following drills should be
performed:
i. Pit drill
ii. Trip drill

b. To conduct drill, a kick should
be simulated by manipulating
primary kick indicator such as
the pit level indicator or the
flow line indicator by raising its
float gradually and checking
for the alarm.

c. The reaction time from float
raising to the designated crew
member's readiness to start
the closing procedure should
be recorded and response
time should not be more than
60 seconds.

d. Total time taken to complete
the drill should be recorded
and it should not be more than
2 minutes.

e. Drill should be initiated without
prior warning during routine
operation.

f. Drill should be conducted
once a week with each crew.

g. Drill should be initiated at
unscheduled times when
operations and hole condition
permits.


8.1 Pit Dri ll (On bottom)

I. Raise alarm by raising mud tank float -
automatic or oral.

II. Stop drilling / other operation in
progress.

III. Position tool joint for BOPs ram closing.

IV. Stop mud pump

V. Secure brake

VI. During / after the above steps, as
applicable, designated crew should
move to assigned positions

VII. Check for self flow

VIII. Record the response time.


Trip Drill (Drill Pipe in BOP)


I. Give signal by raising alarm.

II. Position tool joint above rotary and set
the pipe on slips

III. Install full opening safety valve in open
position.

22


IV. Close FOSV after installation

V. Designated crew members should move
to assigned position, during / after the
above steps, as applicable.

VI. Close BOP

VII. Record response time.

Note: Trip drill should be carried out preferably
when bit is inside the casing. A full opening
safety valve for each size and type of
connection in the string shall be available on
derrick floor, in open position. Safety valves
may be clearly marked for size and
connection.


Trip Drill (Collar in Blowout
Preventer)

I. Give signal by raising alarm.

II. Position upper drill collar box at rotary
table and set it on slips.

III. Connect a drill pipe joint or stand of drill
pipe on drill collar tool joint with change
over sub and position drill pipe in BOP.

IV. Install FOSV in open position.

V. Close FOSV.

VI. Close BOP.

VII. Record response time.

Note: Under actual kick conditions (other
than drills) if only one stand of drill
collar remains in the hole it would be
probably faster to simply pull the last
stand and close the blind ram. If
numbers of drill collar stands are more
and well condition does not permit
step III than install FOSV with change
over sub on drill collar, close it and
close annular preventer.
Preparation for step III above should
be done in advance prior to starting
pull out of drill collar - make one single
/ stand of drill pipe with drill collar
change over sub.


Trip Drill (String is out of Hole )


I. Give signal by raising alarm.

II. Close blind/ blind-shear ram.

III. Record response time.


Well Control Training

Asstt. Shift Incharge / Asstt. Driller and above
supervisory personnel should have valid
accredited well control certificate (of the
appropriate level).

At least one trained person should always be
present on derrick floor to observe well for any
activity even during shutdown period


9.0 Monitoring System

9.1 Instrumentation Systems

I. Driller's console should have gauges
and meters including drillo-meter, SPM
meters, pump pressure gauge, rotary
torque. The Record-o-graph should
record parameters like weight, SPM,
pump pressure, rotary torque, rate of
penetration. Drillers console should be
positioned in such a way that driller can
see all the gauges without any
obstruction.

II. Flow rate sensor should be installed for
monitoring return mud flow with high /
low alarms.

III. Mud / pit volume totaliser should be
installed for all the reserve and active
mud tanks to detect mud tank level's
deviation with an accuracy of + one
barrel. Mud volume totaliser should
have high / low alarm (visual or audible
setting).

IV. Gas detector should always be
available. Gas measurement should be
carried out near the point where the
mud from the well mouth surfaces
(Shale shaker and rig sub structure).


9.2 Trip Tank System


I. On a drilling rig, the trip tank shall
always be in operation during tripping
operation, particularly during pulling out
operation, for early detection of a kick.

23


II. The primary purpose of the trip tank is
to measure the amount of drilling fluid
required to fill the hole while pulling pipe
to determine if the drilling fluid volume
matches pipe displacement.

III. A trip tank is a low-volume calibrated
tank which can be isolated from the
remainder of the surface drilling fluid
system and used to accurately monitor
the amount of fluid going into or coming
out from the well. A trip tank should be
calibrated accurately and should have
means for reading the volume contained
in the tank at any liquid level. The
readout may be direct or remote,
preferably both. The size of the tank
and readout arrangement should be
such that volume changes in the order
of can be easily detected.

9.3 Mud Gas Separator (MGS)

Atmospheric Mud Gas Separator
should be installed. Liquid seal should
be maintained to prevent gas blow
through shale shaker. Vent line should
be away from derrick floor. The rig
maintenance and inspection schedule
should provide for periodic non-
destructive examination of the mud
gas separator to verify pressure
integrity. This examination may be
performed by hydrostatic, ultrasonic,
or other examination methods.


9.4 Degasser

A degasser should be used to remove
entrained gas bubbles in the drilling
fluid that are too small to be removed
by the mud gas separator. Most
degassers use some degree of
vacuum to assist in removing the
entrained gas.

All flare lines should be as long as
practical with provision of flaring
during varying wind directions. Flare
lines should be straight as far as
possible and should be securely
anchored.

Degasser should be function tested at
least once a week




10.0 Under Balanced Dri lling

Primary well control during Under
Balanced Drilling (UBD) is maintained
by flow and pressure control. The
bottomhole pressure and the reservoir
influx is monitored and controlled by
means of a closed loop surface
system. This system includes rotating
control device (RCD), flowline,
emergency shutdown valve (ESDV),
choke manifold and surface
separation system.

The following are the recommended
equipment for UBD operations:

I. The RCD shall be installed above the
drilling BOP and shall be capable of
sealing the maximum expected
wellhead circulating pressure against
the rotating work string and containing
the maximum expected shut-in
wellhead pressure against a stationary
work string. The RCD is a drill through
device with a rotating seal that is
designed to contact and seal against
the work string (drill string, casing,
completion string, etc.) for the purpose
of controlling the pressure and fluid
flow to surface. Its function is to
contain fluids in the wellbore and
divert flow from the wellbore to the
surface fluids handling equipment
during underbalanced operations
(drilling, tripping and running
completion equipment).

II. The return flowline shall have two
valves, one of which shall be remotely
operated and fail-safe-close (ESDV).
The flowline and the valves shall have
a working pressure equal to or greater
than the anticipated shut-in wellhead
pressure. At least one valve should be
installed in the diverter/flow line
immediately adjacent to the BOP
stack.

III. A dedicated UBD choke manifold shall
be used to control the flow rate and
wellbore pressure, and reduce the
pressure at surface to acceptable
levels before entering the separation
equipment. The choke manifold shall
have a working pressure equal to or
greater than the anticipated shut-in
wellhead pressure. The choke
manifold should have two chokes and
isolation valves for each choke and
24


flow path. Applied surface
backpressure should be kept to a
minimum to reduce erosion of chokes
and other surface equipment.

IV. A surface separation system shall be
selected and dimensioned to handle
the anticipated fluid/solids in the return
flow. Plugging, erosion or wash-outs
of surface equipment should not
impact the ability to maintain primary
well control.

V. The drill pipe and casing should be
designed for exposure to hydrogen
sulphide (H
2
S) gas.

VI. The BOP stack, flow / diverter line,
and bleed off and kill lines should be
designed for exposure to H
2
S in
accordance with NACE (MR 075) /
ISO 15156 specifications.

VII. Blind-shear rams should be
considered for underbalanced drilling
of wells with high Hydrogen Sulphide
(H
2
S) potential.

VIII. A stab-in safety valve for the string in
use should be available on the rig
floor.


10.1 Procedures for UBD

I. Procedures for UBD operations should
be developed based on risk analysis
and risk assessments. These
procedures should include:
i. Kicking of the well
ii. Making connections
iii. Live well tripping
iv. Trapped pressure in equipment.

II. When running a work string under
balanced, two NRVs, shall be installed
in the string, as deep in the work string
as practical and as close together as
possible. The NRVs should prevent
wellbore fluids from entering into the
work string. Installation of additional
NRVs should be considered depending
on the nature of the operation (ie high-
pressure gas). The NRV should have a
minimum working pressure rating equal
to the maximum expected BHP.

III. Snubbing facilities should be used or
the well should be killed with a kill
weight fluid prior to tripping pipe, if the
shut-in or flowing wellhead pressure can
produce a pipe light condition and a
downhole isolation valve (DIV), a
retrievable packer system or similar
shut-in device, is not in use or is not
functioning as designed. The DIV is a
full-opening drill through valve, installed
down-hole as an integral part of a
casing / liner string, at a depth either
below the maximum pipe light depth for
the work string being tripped in the
underbalanced operation (drill string,
casing, completion string, etc.) or at a
depth that allows the maximum length
of BHA, slotted liner or sand screen
required to be safely deployed, without
having to snubin or kill the well prior to
deployment. DIV should have working
pressure rating of more than maximum
expected differential pressure after
closure.

IV. Sufficient kill fluid of required density
should be available on site at any time
to enable killing of the well in an
emergency.

V. While still in the design stage, a meeting
including all key personnel should be
held to discuss the proposed operation
so that everyone clearly understands
their responsibilities with respect to
safety. A key element in planning a safe
operation is the site layout. The
following considerations should be
made when designing the well-site
layout:
i. Prevailing winds
ii. Access to fluids handling
equipment
iii. Equipment placement
iv. High pressure line placement

VI. At no time the well should be left open
to the rig floor when the well is live.

VII. Trapped gas below the float should be
removed safely before removing the
float from the drill string during pulling
out.

VIII. If a well is killed prior to tripping,
traditional tripping procedures including
the completion of trip sheets should be
followed.

IX. Round the clock supervision by
competent persons should be ensured.
All personnel involved in operations
25


should be trained in UBD operations,
and training should be documented.

X. The Well Site Supervisor should have
valid accredited well control certificate
for underbalanced drilling and well
intervention operations.

XI. Appropriate PPE should be used by all
personnel on the site.

XII. A site-specific emergency contingency
plan should be prepared to a level of
complexity that the operation warrants,
prior to any underbalanced drilling
taking place.

XIII. The following table describes incident
scenarios for which well control action
procedures should be available (as
applicable) to deal with the incidents
should they occur (This list is not
exhaustive; additional scenarios may be
applied based on the actual planned
activity):

i. Bottomhole or surface pressure
and / or flow rates detected
which could lead to the pressure
rating of the rotating control
device (static or dynamic) or the
capacity of the surface
separation equipment being
exceeded.

ii. NRV failure, influx into work
string during making connection
or tripping in live well.

iii. Leaking connection below
drilling BOP.

iv. Leaking rotating control device
or flowline before ESDV, seal
elements, connection to flowline,
drilling BOP or high pressure
riser.

v. Erosion or wash out of choke.
Consider the case where
isolation for repair of the choke
cannot be achieved.

vi. Failure of surface equipment
after RCD. This can be leaks or
plugged equipment and lines.

vii. Work string failure.

viii. Emergency shut-in.

ix. Emergency well kill.

x. Lost circulation.

xi. H
2
S in the well.

XIV. When hydrocarbons are being
produced or when they are used in the
drilling fluid, supplementary fire fighting
equipment should be considered. This
may require as little as additional hand-
held fire extinguishers to as much as
having a fire fighting vehicle on-site.

XV. Regardless of the concentration of H
2
S,
no sour gas may be released to
atmosphere at any time.

XVI. Produced fluids containing H
2
S or
drilling fluids contaminated with H
2
S
should not be stored in open tanks.

XVII. The flare stack shall be as per
regulatory requirements.

XVIII. If H
2
S is expected to be encountered
in the well, a monitoring program shall
be in place. As a minimum, monitoring
stations should include the rig floor,
inside the rig substructure adjacent to
the BOPs, and near separation vessels
and storage or circulating tanks.

XIX. A pressurized tank or a tank truck
equipped with a functional H
2
S scrubber
should be used for the transportation of
sour fluids off location.

XX. Adequate provision should be made for
the safe storage and / or disposal of
produced fluids and drill cuttings.
Reservoir liquids should not be stored in
an earthen pit. Refer to MOEF
guidelines for handling of drilling fluids
and drill cuttings (OISD-RP-201)

XXI. Explosive potential monitoring should
be conducted at all the points where
there is a potential of release of
combustible vapours to atmosphere.

XXII. For wells which contain H
2
S, drill
cuttings should be held in tanks
equipped with vapour control. Vapour
shall either be vented to a flare stack or
through an H
2
S scrubbing system.

Another related technique of UBD is Managed
Pressure Drilling (MPD). While UBD is mostly
26


focused on maximizing the performance of the
reservoir, MPD is more focused on
successfully drilling the well, while minimizing
the time and money spent on non-productive
time (NPT), in addition to not damaging the
formation in the process.

While MPD utilizes some of the same surface
equipment used in UBD; MPD, particularly in
offshore environments, is not intended to
produce hydrocarbons while drilling but rather
to more precisely manage wellbore pressure
and annulus returns while drilling through
sections with very narrow margins between
reservoir pore pressure and fracture pressure
gradients. Any influx incidental to the operation
is safely contained using an appropriate
process.


11.0 Well Control Equipment Arrangement
for HTHP Wells

I. The installation should be equipped
with:

a. A fail-safe-open, remotely
operated valve in the overboard
line.
b. A cement line pressure gauge in
the choke panel, a remote camera
in the shaker house, with display
in the driller's house.
c. A choke / kill line glycol injection
system.
d. High pressure and / or high
temperature resistant seals should
be installed in choke and kill lines,
including flexible line hoses and
the choke and kill manifold,
packing in the kelly cock / internal
BOP, packing / seal in the marine
riser.

II. Flexible kill-/choke line hoses should be
inspected and pressure tested to
maximum well design pressure prior to
HPHT mode.

III. Specification and qualification criteria
for equipment and fluids to be used or
installed in a HPHT well should be
established, with particular emphasis on
deterioration of elastomer seals and
components as function of temperature
/ pressure, exposure time and wellbore
fluids.

27



12.0 References

1. Alberta Energy and Utilities Board- ID 94-3: Under Balanced Drilling

2. API-RP 16E: Recommended Practices for Design of Control Systems for Drilling
Well Control Equipment

3. API-RP 53: Recommended Practices for Blowout Prevention Equipment Systems
for Drilling Wells

4. API-RP 59: Recommended Practices for Well Control Operations

5. API-RP 64: Recommended Practices for Diverter Systems Equipment and
Operations

6. API-SPEC 16C: Specifications for Choke and Kill Systems

7. API-SPEC 16D: Specifications for Control Systems for Drilling Well Control Equipment

8. API-SPEC 16R: Specification for Marine Drilling Riser Couplings

9. HSE-OTH 512: HPHT Wells: Perspective on Drilling and Completion from the Field

10. IADC: IADC Deepwater Well Control Guidelines

11. IADC: UBD and MPD Operations - HSE Planning Guidelines
28



Abbreviations



BOP Blowout preventer

LOT Leak off test

LMRP Lower marine riser package
NRV Non return valve
OEM Original equipment manufacturer
PIT Pressure integrity test
SCR Slow circulating rate
UBD Underbalanced drilling
WP Rated working pressure





































29



Annexure-I




















Arrangements for 2000 psi Surface BOP Stack











30




Annexure-II
















Arrangements for 3000 psi and 5000 psi Surface BOP Stack



31



32



33



34





Annexure-VI


TRIP SHEET




Rig----------------------------------------------- Location / Well -----------------------------------

Date and time--------------------------------- Depth------------------- Sp. Gr. of DF-------------

DP Size & Displacement-------------------------DC Size & Displacement-------------------

Name of shift incharge / Driller --------------------------------------------------------------------------

Reason for trip----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


Drill pipe
stand
Theoretical Volume

Displacement /
Volume filled in
Discrepancy Remarks
No. of
stand
Per _Stand Total Per _Stand Total
1 2 3 4 5 6 7












Note
Column 5 - Actual vol. of drilling fluid taken by hole (diff. of trip tank reading )
Column 6 Diff. of column 3 and 5
35



Annexure-VII


BOP FUNCTION TEST REPORT AND ACCUMULATOR DRILL

RIG : DATE :
WELL :
BOP STACK DETAIL (as applicable):

1. Annular BOP -
2. Single / Double / Triple ram type BOP -
3. Upper pipe ram size -
4. Lower pipe ram size -

S.NO. DESCRIPTION




FUNCTION
CLOSED/
OPEN
TIME
Seco
nds
ACCUM-
ULATOR
INITIAL
PRESSURE
psi
ACCUM-
ULATOR
FINAL
PRESSURE
Psi
REMARKS
01. Annular preventer
02. Lower pipe ram
03. Upper pipe ram
04. Blind/shear ram
05. Hyd. Valve on choke line
06. Hyd. Valve on kill line

01. Conduct BOP function test/accumulator drill once in a week
02. a) Record initial accumulator pressure
b) Turn off both electric and pneumatic pumps
c) Close annular and pipe rams one by one and record time to close each preventer
d) Open the hydraulic Valve on choke line and kill line
e) Open pipe ram to compensate for blind ram close
f) Record the final accumulator pressure after each operations
g) Turn on electrical/ pneumatic pump and open all the preventer. Record the opening
time.
03. Carry out function test alternatively from rig floor panel / auxiliary panel / main control unit.
04. Final accumulator pressure should be not less than 1200 psi or 200 psi above precharge pressure of
accumulator bottles.

Special attention needed to address the following:






SIGNATURE : SIGNATURE :

NAME : NAME :
SHIFT INCHARGE/ : DIC/TOOL PUSHER :
DRILLER