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Climate Change Toolkit

02 Carbon Literacy
Briefing
Cover image Jubilee Library,
Brighton. The library is designed
by Bennetts Associates to take
advantage of the natural energy
provided by the south coast setting
– specifically sunshine and wind.
The sun’s energy is gathered
through the south facing front
glazed wall in winter, with built-in
solar shading and automatically
opening vents to reduce solar
gain and glare in summer. Heat
generated by people and
equipment in the building is also
harnessed and re-used. Energy
use has been minimised, and
instead of air conditioning,
natural ventilation refreshes the
atmosphere inside and cools the
building. Wind towers on the roof
use the breeze to draw excess
heat from the floors below.

Photo Peter Cook/VIEW/


Bennetts Associates
About this Document
This is the second of eight components of Climate Change Tools, a
package of guidance developed by the RIBA to encourage architects to
engage with the issue of climate change and to deliver low carbon new
buildings and low carbon refurbishment of existing buildings.
This Carbon Literacy Briefing explores the carbon dioxide emissions
associated with energy use in buildings. The complete toolkit consists of:
01 Climate Change Briefing
02 Carbon Literacy Briefing
03 Principles of Low Carbon Design and Refurbishment
04 Low Carbon Standards and Assessment Methods
05 Low Carbon Design Tools
06 Skills for Low Carbon Buildings
07 Designing for Flood Risk
08 Whole Life Assessment for Low Carbon Design
Each guide summarises its subject and provides links to other sources
of more detailed information.
You can explore all of the RIBA Climate Change Tools at
www.architecture.com/climatechange

1
Introduction Carbon Dioxide Emissions
in Context
In 2003, carbon dioxide emissions In the 1960s, the famous American engineer
associated with energy use in the UK Richard Buckminster Fuller used to ask his Overall, each person in the UK is responsible
were approximately 560 million tonnes. audiences of engineers the question: ‘How for around ten tonnes of greenhouse gas
Almost half of this came from energy much does your building weigh?’ His interest emissions per year.
use in buildings. was in efficient designs that used less material
To provide some context a little closer to
Energy use in housing accounts for but, of course, nobody could ever answer
home, it is interesting to consider some of the
slightly more than half of the emissions his question.
carbon dioxide emissions associated with a
associated with energy use in all In the 1980s, in the wake of the 1981 OPEC oil typical UK family of four:
buildings, amounting to 27% of the embargo, another famous American engineer,
Energy use in the home (for heating, hot
UK total. Fred Dubin, asked his audience of architects
water, cooking, lighting and the use of
This document focuses on carbon literacy and engineers: ‘How will your building
appliances) results in carbon dioxide
related to buildings, but you need to take perform if it has to run on half as much
emissions of approximately six tonnes
into consideration the carbon impacts of energy as you expect it to need?’ Again,
per year2
transport and construction and other few could provide an answer.
Fuel used in an average family car, driven
processes and products, as well as wider Given the now established link between man-
an average number of miles, will produce
environmental impacts such as water made emissions from burning fossil fuels and
approximately four tonnes of carbon dioxide
efficiency, waste minimisation and climate change (see the RIBA Climate
per year (and a second car will account
sustainable drainage systems. More Change Briefing 1 ), the twenty-first century
for between two and four more tonnes)
information appears in the Government equivalent of Buckminster Fuller’s question is:
publication UK Energy Sector Indicators ‘How much carbon dioxide does your Travel by air to a family holiday at a
2008, which can be found at building emit?’ Mediterranean resort will give rise to
www.berr.gov.uk/files/file47147.pdf approximately four tonnes of carbon
When British architects are asked this
dioxide emissions
question, they rarely know the answer, so
they seem unlikely to know the answer to the Food on the family table (including
contemporary equivalent of Dubin’s question cultivation, harvesting, processing,
either. Even when architects do know how packaging, storage and distribution)
much carbon dioxide their buildings are will account for approximately seven
expected to emit, they rarely seem to know tonnes of carbon dioxide per year.
whether the answer is good or bad – perhaps
because they are unaware of benchmarks
against which to assess their buildings. The
advent of Energy Performance Certificates
and Display Energy Certificates is intended to
change this, by exposing the energy
performance of our buildings and comparing it
with appropriate benchmarks. In support of
this process, this guide explains the
relationship between buildings and carbon
dioxide emissions, and summarises some of
the existing benchmarks for building energy
use and the associated emissions.

1 The Climate Change Briefing UK emissions and sets out 2 This is a typical figure for the range of emissions,
that forms part of RIBA the challenge that climate an unimproved 1930s semi- across different types of
Climate Change Tools change presents to our detached house with a houses, is from less than two
explains the mechanisms of society newer, moderately efficient to more than twenty tonnes
climate change, summarises central heating system – but per year

2
Energy Basics If the house is electrically heated, by a 100%
efficient heater, then the delivered energy
The UK Government’s Energy White Energy is measured in joules (J). This is a very required is:
Papers in 2003 and 2007 established an small unit: 4,200 J are needed to raise the
3 kW x 24 hr = 72 kWh per day of electricity
‘aspirational’ target for reducing carbon temperature of 1 kilogramme of water by
dioxide emissions: 1 degree Celsius. However, if the house has an 80% efficient
gas boiler, then the delivered energy
‘to put ourselves on the path to cut the Temperature is a measure of the energy
required is:
UK’s carbon dioxide emissions by some content of a body or substance. It is measured
60% by about 2050, with real progress in degrees Celsius (OC) or degrees Kelvin (K), (3 kW x 24 hr)/0.8 = 90 kWh per day of gas
by 2020.’ which are essentially the same. Heat always The lower the efficiency of the heating
This became known as the ‘carbon 60’ flows from a hotter body or substance to a system, the more delivered energy is required
(or C60) target. cooler one. to supply the useful energy requirement.

However, in response to suggestions by Power is the rate of transfer of energy, or the


Energy Efficiency and Carbon Dioxide
climate change scientists that deeper rate of heat flow, and is measured in Watts (W).
Emissions Factors
cuts in GHG emissions will be required, 1 Watt is 1 joule per second. 1 kilowatt (kW) is
1,000 Watts. Here are typical power ratings for For the purpose of comparing buildings,
the Government has now adopted the
some energy using and energy producing energy efficiency is usually expressed as
target of reducing GHG emissions by 80%
devices: the annual delivered energy requirement per
by 2050, and this target has been made
unit of floorspace, measured in kWh/m2/yr.
statutory under the Climate Change Act Compact fluorescent lamp 20 W
It is often helpful to divide this into two
2008. The Committee on Climate Change Electric room heater 1 to 3 kW
components – electricity, and energy
has been established to advise on the Car engine 100 kW
from fossil fuels.
setting of interim five-year ‘carbon Community-scale wind turbine 1 MW
budgets’, the first three of which will be Coal-fired power station 1 to 5 GW Fossil fuels such as natural gas (methane)
adopted in 2009. are hydrocarbons, which require oxygen
The main units are multiples of Watts:
when they burn, e.g.
1 kW = 1,000 W (103)
CH4 + 2O2 -> CO2 + 2H2O
1 MW = 1,000,000 W (106)
1 GW = 1,000,000,000 W (109) methane + oxygen -> carbon dioxide +
water vapour
Heat Loss From the chemical equation above, it is
A typical house has a heat loss of 10 kW; an possible to calculate the amount of carbon
energy efficient house might have a heat loss dioxide produced for each unit of fuel that is
of 3 kW. burnt. This is the carbon dioxide emission
If heat losses are measured when there is a factor, which is usually expressed in
20OC difference in temperature between inside kilogrammes of carbon dioxide per kilowatt-
and outside, then the specific heat loss of the hour of fuel that is burnt (kgCO2/kWh).
energy efficient house is given by: The carbon dioxide emission factor for mains
3000 W/20 C = 150 W/ C
O O electricity takes into account the fuel mix of
the UK electricity generation system, including
The kilowatt-hour (kWh) is a way of
the use of coal, oil, nuclear energy, renewables,
expressing the amount of energy the house
etc. The emissions factors for other countries
requires; this is the unit used on fuel bills;
are significantly different – France and Norway,
and 1 kWh is equal to 3.6 Megajoules (MJ).
for example, have much lower factors that
Useful Energy reflect their use of nuclear and hydroelectric
power, respectively.
This is the amount of energy that is needed
to keep a building warm. The useful energy Emission Rates
needed to keep the energy efficient house
Another comparative measure of the energy
warm (at 20OC) will be:
or environmental performance of buildings is
3000 W x 24 hr = 72000 Wh per day = the Building Emission Rate (BER – for non-
72kWh per day domestic buildings) or the Dwelling Emission
Rate (DER – for dwellings) measured in
Delivered Energy
kgCO2/m2/yr. These are the measures used
Building systems are rarely 100% efficient. in the Building Regulations Part L and the
So the amount of energy that needs to be Code for Sustainable Homes, where they
delivered to the building will generally need are compared with a Target Emission Rate
to be greater than the useful energy required. (TER) also measured in kgCO2/m2/yr.

3
Existing Buildings and New Build Carbon Dioxide Emissions The next three charts focus on the non-
The data in Figures 1 to 5 relate to from UK Buildings domestic building stock.
the existing building stock, which now
Figure 1 shows UK delivered energy in 2000, Figure 3 shows energy delivered to UK non-
consists of approximately two million
broken down by broad economic sectors. domestic buildings in 2000. Note that offices
non-domestic premises and
Delivered energy is the energy delivered by (including government offices), retail premises,
approximately 25 million dwellings.
the fuel industries to their customers, and the and hotels and catering accounted for over
The average rate of replacement of half of the total of 880 PJ. These sectors are
total across all sectors was 6,695 petajoules
the non-domestic building stock is the ones in which buildings are most likely to
(PJ = 1015 joules). It is clear that many of the
approximately 1% per year, but there be mechanically ventilated or air conditioned.
sectors on the chart will have involved some
is much variation between sectors,
level of energy use in buildings. Figure 4 shows carbon dioxide emissions
and significant growth.
Figure 2 shows energy delivered to UK associated with energy use in non-domestic
The average rate of replacement buildings, broken down by fuel type, in 2000.
buildings in 2000, broken into three sectors:
of the domestic building stock is Nearly two-thirds of the emissions (61%) were
domestic, commercial and public buildings and
approximately 0.5% per year, and associated with the use of electricity, most of
industrial buildings. At 3,122 PJ the total energy
there is significant growth (the number which was used for lighting, mechanical
delivered to buildings was approximately 47%
of dwellings has risen from 18 million ventilation, air conditioning and equipment
of the overall total from Figure 1, so buildings
in 1976 and is expected to reach 27 such as computers.
used nearly half of the energy delivered
million by 2020 – a 50% increase
in the UK. Figure 5 shows UK carbon dioxide emissions
in 44 years).
Note that the UK’s 25 million domestic associated with energy use in non-domestic
Currently the carbon dioxide emissions buildings in 2000, broken down by energy end-
buildings used 63% of the energy delivered
associated with energy use in new use. Note that heating accounted for nearly
to buildings, whilst the two million industrial,
buildings largely cancel out the half (41%) of carbon dioxide emissions and
commercial and public buildings accounted
reductions obtained by improvement lighting accounted for almost one quarter
for the remaining 37%.
of existing buildings. If overall (23%). Cooling and ventilation contributed a
reductions in carbon dioxide relatively modest 5%, but this figure is growing,
emissions are to be made, either and there is a danger of sustained growth if
the rate of improvement or the rate more buildings are air conditioned as an
of replacement of existing buildings adaptation to a warming climate.
must increase, or both.

Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3

Agriculture 1% Government 6%
Industrial buildings 9% Health 5%
Education 13%

Communications
and transport 1%

Commercial
Transport 35% Domestic 29% Commercial offices 11% Hotels and
and public catering 17%
buildings 28%
Warehouses
Domestic 63% 9% Other 15%
Industrial
process 18% Sports and Retail 19%
Commercial leisure 4%
and public
Total 6695PJ buildings 13% Total 3122PJ Total 880PJ
Industrial buildings 4%

Figure 4 Figure 5
Cooling and
Hot water 7%
ventilation 5%
Figure 1 UK delivered energy Figure 5 UK carbon dioxide
in 2000 emissions associated with Computers
Figure 2 Energy delivered to energy use in non-domestic 4%
UK buildings in 2000 buildings, in 2000, broken
Figure 3 Delivered energy in down by energy end-use Gas 31%
UK non-domestic buildings in (Source: CIBSE Guide F)
2000, broken down by sectors Catering 12% Heating 41%
Figure 4 UK carbon dioxide
emissions associated with Electicity 61% Process
energy use in non-domestic Oil 7% 3%
buildings in 2000, broken
Lighting 23%
down by fuel type

Other 5%
Total 81.1 Mt CO2 /year Solid fuels 1% Total 77.8 Mt CO2 /year

4
Carbon Dioxide Emissions Factors have no emissions associated with them, the
use of wood fuel does involve a relatively small
One of the reasons electricity accounts level of emissions. This is because, whilst the
for such a high proportion of carbon dioxide carbon dioxide emitted when wood is burnt is
emissions associated with energy use in almost exactly matched by the carbon dioxide
buildings is that more emissions arise from absorbed by the tree as it grows, the factor
using one unit of energy in the form of takes account of emissions associated with
electricity than, for example, one unit in the the use of fuel in felling (e.g. chainsaws)
form of natural gas. This is because the and transport.
process of generating electricity is relatively Other biofuels, for example biodiesel derived
inefficient, and emissions are calculated from from maize, have much higher emissions
‘primary energy’ – that is the fuel burnt in associated with cultivation, harvesting,
the power station (oil, coal, gas, etc). processing and distribution.
The relative emissions of different types Other renewable energy sources do have
of energy are expressed in terms of a carbon a carbon impact in terms of the materials
dioxide emissions factor. Electricity has a high used, production processes and transport
‘carbon dioxide emissions factor’ compared and distribution. However, the protocol for
with other fuels. Even with a proportion calculating emissions factors does not include
of nuclear generation, and an increasing these. You can find out more about the
contribution from renewable sources such emissions associated with products – known
as wind-power, the emissions factor for as embodied carbon or embodied energy –
grid electricity is more than twice that in The Green Guide to Specification
for mains gas. www.bre.co.uk/greenguide or in the Green
Table 1 sets out carbon dioxide emissions Building Handbook www.ribabookshops.com.
factors for various fuels, and their ratio with When designing a low carbon building, it is
the emissions factor for mains gas. (Note always better to incorporate building services
that these emissions factors do not account that use fuels with low emissions factors –
for emissions of other greenhouse gases.) or better still, use energy from a local
Although in terms of factors, renewable renewable source.
energy sources (e.g. solar water heating,
wind-power, local photovoltaic electricity)

Fuel Carbon dioxide emissions Emissions factor relative


factor (kg CO2/kWh) to mains gas
Mains gas 0.194 1.00
LPG 0.234 1.20
Oil 0.265 1.40
Solid fuel 0.291 1.50
Grid electricity3 0.422 2.20
Renewable energy 0.000 0.00
Wood 0.025 0.13

Table 1 Carbon dioxide 3 The published emissions generation industry, to 2010. be approximately 0.55 2010, and include a significant that North Sea gas is
emissions factors for some factors for electricity are These projections have not kgCO2/kWh, which is 2.84 increase in the factor for grid becoming exhausted.
common fuels (source: based on the Government’s been borne out, and the times that for mains gas. The electricity, due to a reversion
SAP 2005) forward projections of the current emissions factor for published emissions factors to coal-fired generation now
‘dash for gas’ in the electricity grid electricity is thought to are expected to be revised in

5
Energy Use and Emissions For each property type, a table presents
Benchmarks for Buildings the estimated emissions when the house
is designed and specified to meet the
To establish energy efficiency and carbon current Building Regulations4, and the Code
dioxide emissions standards, we need for Sustainable Homes Levels 3, 4, 5 and 6.
‘benchmarks’, or indicators of the levels of Each table incorporates a chart showing
energy use and emissions that might be the relative level of carbon dioxide emissions
considered typical, and those associated for each specification.
with good practice in low carbon design
and refurbishment. About the Tables
The first column identifies the five
Domestic Buildings specifications; the second column shows the
The sections below set out carbon dioxide Dwelling Carbon Dioxide Emissions Rate (DER)
emissions for three typical new-build in kgCO2/m2/year; and the third column shows
dwellings: the carbon dioxide emissions predicted by
A two-bedroom flat (60 m2) SAP, in tonnes/year. These figures only include
emissions associated with energy use for
A three-bedroom semi-detached
heating, hot water and lighting; the emissions
house (83 m2)
associated with cooking and the use of
A three-bedroom, three-storey town domestic appliances are not included. The
house (98 m2). fourth column of each table shows the total
carbon dioxide emissions, in tonnes/year,
including those associated with heating, hot
water, cooking, lighting and the use of
appliances5.

Code for Sustainable Homes If the dwellings are specified to meet


The Code for Sustainable homes sets Level 5 of the Code for Sustainable
broad environmental performance Homes (‘zero carbon’ for heating, hot
standards, including energy efficiency, water and lighting) the appropriate
for new housing. It establishes six levels figures in the second and third columns
of performance and is aligned with of the tables become zero. If the
planned changes to Building Regulations dwellings are specified to meet Level 6
in the period to 2016. of the Code for Sustainable Homes (‘net
zero carbon’ for all uses) the appropriate
Code for Sustainable Homes Level 3
figures in the fourth columns of the
must be achieved by all publicly-funded
tables become zero; in these cases the
new housing, and this is expected to be
use of grid electricity for cooking and
the standard required by the Building
appliances must be offset by electricity
Regulations from 2010, for all new
generated on-site from renewable
housing. Code for Sustainable Homes
sources, and supplied to the grid.
Level 4 is expected to be the standard
required by the Building Regulations More information about the Code for
from 2013, and the Government’s Sustainable Homes can be found in Low
aspiration is that all new housing should Carbon Standards and Assessment
achieve Code for Sustainable Homes Methods, part of the RIBA Climate
Level 6 by 2016. Change Tools package.

4 The house conforms to the the Dwelling Carbon Dioxide 5 All data in figures 6 to 8 BREDEM-12 based NHER Plan were made available for
guidance in the Approved Emissions Rate (DER) is equal have been calculated by Assessor (SAP 2005) analysis courtesy of Bellway
Document to Part L1A of the to the Target Carbon Dioxide Rickaby Thompson software, under standard Homes, BMH Construction
Building Regulations (2006); Emissions Rate (TER) Associates Ltd, using occupancy. Dwelling designs and Careys

6
Figure 6 This example relates to a two-bedroom flat, mid-floor, mid-block with a floor area of 60m2

2 bed flat Dwelling SAP carbon Total carbon


emissions rate dioxide emissions dioxide emissions
(kgCO2/m2/yr) (tonnes/yr) (tonnes/yr)
Building Regulations 19.30 1.17 2.02 2.02
Part L1A (2006)
Code for Sustainable 14.48 0.88 1.73 1.73
Homes Level 3
Code for Sustainable 10.81 0.66 1.51 1.51
Homes Level 4
Code for Sustainable 0 0 0.85 0.85
Homes Level 5
Code for Sustainable 0 0 0
Homes Level 6

Figure 7 This example relates to a two-storey, three-bedroom, semi-detached house with a floor area of 83m2

3 bed house Dwelling SAP carbon Total carbon


emissions rate dioxide emissions dioxide emissions
(kgCO2/m2/yr) (tonnes/yr) (tonnes/yr)
Building Regulations 22.85 1.80 2.96 2.96
Part L1A (2006)
Code for Sustainable 17.14 1.35 2.51 2.51
Homes Level 3
Code for Sustainable 12.80 1.01 2.17 2.17
Homes Level 4
Code for Sustainable 0 0 1.16 1.16
Homes Level 5
Code for Sustainable 0 0 0
Homes Level 6

Figure 8 This example relates to three-storey, three-bedroom, mid-terraced townhouse with a floor area of 98m2

3 bed town house Dwelling SAP carbon Total carbon


emissions rate dioxide emissions dioxide emissions
(kgCO2/m2/yr) (tonnes/yr) (tonnes/yr)
Building Regulations 18.80 1.69 3.15 3.15
Part L1A (2006)
Code for Sustainable 14.10 1.27 2.73 2.73
Homes Level 3
Code for Sustainable 10.53 0.95 2.41 2.41
Homes Level 4
Code for Sustainable 0 0 1.46 1.46
Homes Level 5
Code for Sustainable 0 0 0
Homes Level 6

7
Non-Domestic Buildings The CIBSE benchmarks relate to buildings
The non-domestic building stock is far less without renewable energy systems, and are
homogenous than the domestic stock – not particularly challenging. Other benchmarks
there are far more building types. and best practice standards may be found in
some of the Carbon Trust’s publications7,
Energy use in non-domestic buildings and
and a new but limited set of benchmarks has
the associated carbon dioxide emissions
been developed for Energy Performance
are dependent on five key factors:
Certificates (EPCs) and Display Energy
Building form Certificates (DECs). The Passive House
Building fabric standard (which may be applied to non-
Building services domestic buildings) sets a more challenging
performance target of 15kWh/m2/yr for space
Activity accommodated
heating demand and 120kWh/m2/yr for
Management of the building. primary energy use. See the guide to Low
Even amongst buildings of a common type Carbon Standards and Assessment Methods
such as ‘offices’ there are many different that forms part of the RIBA Climate Change
combinations of these factors: some offices Tools for further information.
are in purpose-built blocks, but many are Figures 9 to 16 illustrate the CIBSE
in converted terraced houses or attached benchmarks for energy use and the
to industrial buildings; some offices have associated carbon dioxide emissions for
central plant HVAC systems, but many have four types of existing buildings: offices, retail
domestic-scale heating systems and rely on buildings, industrial buildings and schools.
natural ventilation. Similar observations may be In each case, ‘typical’ and ‘good practice’
made about retail buildings, industrial buildings, benchmarks are given8. For the reasons
educational buildings and healthcare buildings. explained above the spread of performance
Because of this diversity, it is very difficult of existing buildings is very much wider
to establish benchmarks for building than indicated by the benchmarks – the
performance. A widely-used UK source of this performance of many buildings is worse than
information is CIBSE Guide F Energy Efficiency ‘typical’, and in some cases performance
in Buildings6, Part C of which presents energy is better than ‘good practice’.
benchmarks for many different types of non- Where existing buildings are to be refurbished,
domestic buildings. These benchmarks have it is appropriate to adopt energy standards
been derived from a wide variety of sources equivalent to the appropriate good practice
with a focus on measured (not predicted) benchmark, or better.
energy use in existing buildings.
When new buildings are being designed it is
appropriate to adopt energy standards at least
equivalent to ‘good practice’, and moving
towards low- or zero-carbon standards.

6 CIBSE Energy Efficiency in 7 See 8 In 2007, a review for CIBSE but limited set of stringent buildings. The development intended to have consistent
Buildings Guide F, Chartered www.carbontrust.co.uk/ and CLG concluded that statutory benchmarks has of voluntary benchmarks for technical underpinnings
Institute of Building Services publications these benchmarks are therefore been developed for different building sectors is related to agreed allowances
Engineers, London, 2004 inconsistent, out of date and use on Display Energy also being encouraged. All of for buildings’ needs, rather
overdue for review. A new Certificates for public these new benchmarks are than historical statistics

8
Offices
Figure 9 Energy benchmarks for office buildings (Source: CIBSE Guide F) Typical practice
Figures 9 and 10 illustrate the CIBSE
benchmarks for office buildings. Four Offices energy use Good practice

types of buildings are considered: (kWh/m2/yr)


Naturally ventilated 205
Naturally ventilated, cellular offices 112
cellular
Naturally ventilated, open-plan offices
Naturally ventilated 236
‘Standard’ air conditioned offices 133
open plan
‘Prestige’ air conditioned offices 404
Air conditioned
(e.g. corporate headquarters). 225
standard
Note however that the new benchmark
Air conditioned 568
for offices that is used for Display Energy 348
prestige
Certificates (DECs) ignores the servicing
strategy for the building.
0 100 200 300 400 500 600
The charts illustrate the significant energy
use and emissions penalty associated with Figure 10 Carbon dioxide emissions benchmarks for office buildings (Source: CIBSE Guide F)
air-conditioning and increased services, where
there is much more intensive use of electricity Offices total carbon
than in naturally ventilated buildings. This is dioxide emissions
why low carbon designs should avoid air (kg/m2/yr)
conditioning wherever possible, or limit air Naturally ventilated 52
conditioning to small areas (e.g. computer 29
cellular
suites) where it may be unavoidable. 65
Naturally ventilated
Table 2, which is reproduced from CIBSE 38
open plan
Guide F, presents system and building energy
Air conditioned 130
benchmarks for office buildings – typical and 73
standard
good practice, broken down by end use and
fuel type. This demonstrates the significance Air conditioned 192
121
of cooling, lighting and office equipment/ prestige
ICT suites in the electricity profile of typical
office buildings. 0 50 100 150 200

`System Delivered energy (KWh/m2/yr)


Natural ventilation Natural ventilation Air conditioned Air conditioned
cellular open plan standard prestige
Good Typical Good Typical Good Typical Good Typical
practice practice practice practice
Gas/oil heating and hot water 79 151 79 151 97 178 107 201
Catering gas 0 0 0 0 0 0 7 9
Cooling 0 0 1 2 14 31 21 41
Fans, pumps and controls 2 6 4 8 30 60 36 67
Humidification 0 0 0 0 8 18 12 23
Lighting 14 23 22 38 27 54 29 60
Office equipment 12 18 20 27 23 31 23 32
Catering electricity 2 3 3 5 5 6 13 15
Other electricity 3 4 4 5 7 8 13 15
Computer room 0 0 0 0 14 18 87 105
Total gas or oil 79 151 79 151 97 178 114 210
Total electricity 33 54 54 85 128 226 234 358
Table 2 Detailed energy broken down by end-use and
performance benchmarks for fuel type (Source: CIBSE
four types of typical and Guide F, Table 20.9)
good practice office buildings,

9
Figure 11
Retail Buildings
Figures 11 and 12 illustrate the CIBSE Retail energy use
benchmarks for retail buildings, the stock (kWh/m2/yr)
of which is very diverse. The figures Banks
199
134
demonstrate the significant increase in energy 280
use and the associated emissions with depth Post offices 185
of plan (e.g. in department stores), because 352
DIY stores 276
of the increased use of artificial lighting and 542
mechanical ventilation, and with refrigeration Department stores 431
(e.g. in food stores). Supermarkets are typically 600
Small food shops 480
deep-plan buildings that combine high levels 1287
Supermarkets 0 300 600 900 1200
1115 1500
of artificial lighting with mechanical ventilation
and refrigeration.
0 300 600 900 1200 1500
Figure 11 Energy use Figure 12
benchmarks for retail
buildings (Source: CIBSE
Guide F)
Retail carbon dioxide
emissions (kg/m2/yr)
Figure 12 Carbon dioxide
emissions benchmarks for 62
retail buildings Banks 40
(Source: CIBSE Guide F) 70
Post offices 46
105
DIY stores 83
172
Department stores 138
230
Small food shops 184
484
Supermarkets 425

0 100 200 300 400 500


Industrial Buildings Figure 13

Figures 13 and 14 illustrate the CIBSE Industrial buildings


benchmarks for industrial buildings (excluding energy use (kWh/m2/yr)
process energy). The stock of these buildings
410
is also diverse, ranging from small unheated General manufacturing 290
workshops to very large chilled warehouses.
The figures for storage buildings hide the wide 325
Factory-office 222
variation between unheated warehouses
(which may only be intermittently lit) and chilled 225
warehouses that are continuously cooled. Storage and distribution 164

Figure 13 Energy use 370


benchmarks for industrial Light manufacturing 218
buildings (Source: CIBSE
Guide F)
0 100 200 300 400 500
Figure 14 Carbon dioxide
emissions benchmarks for Figure 14
industrial buildings
(Source: CIBSE Guide F)
Industrial buildings carbon
dioxide emissions
(kg/m2/yr)

125
General manufacturing 91

115
Factory-office 80

76
Storage and distribution 47

110
Light manufacturing 65
Typical practice

Good practice 0 30 60 90 120 150

10
Figure 15 Schools

Schools energy use Figures 15 and 16 illustrate the CIBSE


(kWh/m2/yr) benchmarks for primary and secondary
schools (with and without swimming pools).
196 These figures are for existing schools, in
Primary 135 which energy use is notoriously variable
because of unpredictable, intermittent
177 occupancy patterns (including long unused
Secondary 133 periods) and variations in built form, daylighting
and ventilation.
223
Secondary including pool 171 Recent monitoring and evaluation of energy
use in new ‘low energy’ schools has
0 50 100 150 200 250 suggested that this subject is not as well
understood as had been supposed; electricity
Figure 16 use is increasing because of extended hours
Schools carbon dioxide of use, the growing number of computers,
emissions (kg/m2/yr) electronic whiteboards, server rooms, security
equipment, etc. Schools are also being
45 provided with more building services than
Primary 31 they have had in the past, in order to meet
more exacting environmental standards.
42
Secondary 32
Using the Benchmarks
51
Secondary including pool 40 CIBSE Guide F includes many more
benchmarks based on measured energy
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 use in existing buildings in most sectors,
broken down both by building or activity type
Figure 15 Energy use and by energy end-use (e.g. heating, hot water,
benchmarks for schools
(Source: CIBSE Guide F) ventilation, cooling, lighting and small power).
Figure 16 Carbon dioxide
It is recommended that architects refer to
emissions benchmarks for these benchmarks whenever they are not
schools (Source: CIBSE
Guide F) familiar with the energy performance of a
building on which they are working.
Typical practice
low carbon refurbishments should deliver
Good practice buildings with performance better than the
‘good practice’ benchmark.
low carbon designs for new buildings should
deliver performance significantly better than
the ‘good practice’ benchmarks.
In both cases the use of renewable energy
systems will further reduce carbon dioxide
emissions towards the low- and zero-carbon
standards that are reviewed in the guide to
Low Carbon Standards and Assessment
Methods.

11
Energy Performance Certificates the 2002 Building Regulations, with gas-fired
and Display Energy Certificates heating and hot water services, and in which
each space is heated and cooled to fixed set-
Energy Performance Certificates (EPCs) are points (irrespective of whether the equivalent
required when a new building is first occupied, spaces in the actual building are heated or
and whenever its occupancy changes – cooled or not). A gas-heated building that
that is, when it is sold or when there is is just compliant with the 2006 Building
a new tenancy. Regulations will have an Asset Rating of 100.
Display Energy Certificates (DECs) are A better performing building (i.e. one with
required for some publicly accessible buildings. lower carbon dioxide emissions) will have
a lower Asset Rating. EPCs present Asset
For dwellings, EPCs report the SAP energy
Ratings on a banded A–G scale, where
ratings and Environmental Impact Ratings (EIRs,
A represents excellent performance and
based on the SAP carbon dioxide emissions)
G represents very poor performance:
on a banded A–G scale:
A 0–25
A 92–100
B 25–50
B 81–91
C 51–75
C 69–80
D 76–100
D 55–68
E 101–125
E 39–54
F 126–150
F 21–38
G Over 150
G 1–20
In addition, an A+ rating is assigned to
Band A represents excellent performance
buildings with less than net zero carbon
(i.e. low fuel costs and low emissions) and
dioxide emissions, i.e. buildings that export
band G represents very poor performance
more locally generated renewable energy
(i.e. high fuel costs and high emissions). Note
than they take from the grid.
that a high SAP represents good performance.
EPCs also report the minimum standard
For non-domestic buildings, EPCs report
of performance required by the Building
A
‘ sset Ratings’ and/or ‘Operational Ratings’;
Regulations (the Target Emission Rate, TER)
they are intended to send market signals
and the performance of a ‘typical’ building
about the relative performance of comparable
Energy efficiency and
that would comply with the 1995 Building
buildings.
environmental impact ratings Regulations.
on a domestic EPC The Asset Rating of a new building is the
The Operational Rating of a building is
ratio of the predicted carbon dioxide emissions
determined some time after the building
from the building (the Building Emission Rate,
has been occupied, from measured energy
BER) to a Standard Emission Rate (SER). The
use data according to an assessment and
BER is calculated by approved software (e.g.
reporting methodology developed by CIBSE.
an implementation of the Simplified Building
It is shown on a Display Energy Certificate.
Energy Model, SBEM).
More detailed information about energy ratings
The SER is the Reference Emission Rate (RER)
and emission rates can be found in the RIBA
multiplied by 0.765, and the RER is calculated
Climate Change guide on Low Carbon
for a reference building of the same size and
Standards and Assessment Methods.
shape as the actual building, specified to meet

A sample Display Energy


Certificate showing operational
rating

12
Acknowledgements
The RIBA wishes to thank CIBSE for permission to reproduce
the energy benchmarks from CIBSE Guide F Energy Efficiency
in this guide.

This document is based upon work undertaken for the RIBA by:
Peter Rickaby (Rickaby Thompson Associates Ltd)
Ben Cartmel (SouthFacing Ltd)
Liz Warren (SE2 Ltd)
John Willoughby (Energy and environmental design consultant)
Rachael Wilson (Rickaby Thompson Associates Ltd)

Project Steering Group:


Sunand Prasad (Penoyre & Prasad)
Simon Foxell (The Architects Practice)
Bill Gething (Sustainability + Architecture)
Lynne Sullivan (sustainableBYdesign)

Edited by Ian Pritchard and Ewan Willars

Produced with the kind support of CABE


and the Energy Saving Trust
Royal Institute of British Architects
66 Portland Place
London W1B 1AD
T 020 7580 5533
www.architecture.com

Energy Saving Trust


21 Dartmouth Street
London SW1H 9BP £5.00
T 0845 120 7799 Second edition
www.energysavingtrust.org.uk/housing ISBN 978 0 9561064 3 8