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Timeline of Indian history
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
This is a timeline of Indian history, comprising important legal and territorial changes and political events in
India and its predecessor states. To read about the background to these events, see History of India. See also
the list of Governors-General of India, list of Prime Ministers of India and Years in India.
Millennia 500th BCE 9th BCE 5th BCE 4th BCE 3rd BCE 2nd BCE 1st BCE 1st 2nd 3rd
5000th 90th 75th 70th 45th 43rd 40th 37th 35th 34th 33rd 32nd 31st
30th 29th 28th 27th 26th 25th 24th 23rd 22nd 21st 20th 19th 18th 17th
16th 15th 14th 13th 12th 11th 10th 9th 8th 7th 6th 5th 5th 4th 3rd
2nd 1st
1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th 7th 8th 9th 10th 11th 12th 13th 14th 15th
16th 17th 18th 19th 20th 21st
5000th century BC
Year Date Event
Isolated remains of Homo erectus in Hathnora in the Narmada Valley in central India
indicate that India might have been inhabited since at least the Middle Pleistocene era,
somewhere between 500,000 and 200,000 years ago.
Tools crafted by proto-
humans that have been dated back two million years have been discovered in the
northwestern part of the subcontinent.
The earliest archaeological site in the
subcontinent is the palaeolithic hominid site in the Soan River valley.
Soanian sites are
found in the Sivalik region across what are now India, Pakistan, and Nepal.
Some of the Bhimbetka shelters were inhabited by Homo erectus more than 300,000
years ago.
90th century BC
Year Date Event
Early Neolithic culture with first confirmed semi permanent settlements appeared 9,000 years
ago in the Bhimbetka rock shelters in modern Madhya Pradesh, India. Some of the Stone
Age rock paintings found among the Bhimbetka rock shelters are approximately 30,000
years old.
The ancient history of the region includes some of South Asia's oldest settlements
some of its major civilisations.
75th century BC
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Year Date Event
Early Neolithic culture begins in the Indian Subcontinent in Bhirrana in Haryana.
70th century BC
Year Date Event
Later Neolithic culture begins in Mehrgarh currently in Balochistan, Pakistan.
45th century BC
Year Date Event
Many descendants of the native Indians seek refuge from giant beasts that roamed the land,
or so it was said in their lost texts.
[citation needed]
43rd century BC
Year Date Event
Mehrgarh one of the most important Neolithic sites in archaeology begins on the "Kachi
plain" of now Balochistan, Pakistan.
40th century BC
37th century BC
35th century BC
Year Date Event
Kot Diji phase of the Indus Valley Civilization begins. The civilization used an early form of
the Indus signs, the so-called Indus script.
27th century BC
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Year Date Event
Mature Harappan phase of the Indus Valley Civilization begins. The cities of Harappa and
Mohenjo-daro become large metropolises and the civilization expands to over 2,500 cities
and settlements across the whole of Pakistan, much of northern India, and parts of
Afghanistan and Iran, covering a region of around one million square miles, which was larger
than the land area of its contemporaries Egypt and Mesopotamia combined, and also had
superior urban planning and sewage systems. The civilization began using the mature Indus
script for its writing system.
End of the Early Dynastic II Period and the beginning of the Early Dynastic IIIa Period in
Mesoamericans begin to plant and domesticate corn.
Mesopotamian wars of the Early Dynastic period.
26th century BC
Year Date Event
Mature Harappan phase of the Indus Valley Civilization begins. The cities of Harappa,
Lothal, Kalibangan, Dholavira, Rakhigarhi and Mohenjo-daro become large metropolises
and the civilization expands to over 2,500 cities and settlements. The civilization began using
the mature Indus script
25th century BC
Year Date Event
Dravidian Civilization begins in South India.
24th century BC
23rd century BC
22nd century BC
19th century BC
Year Date Event
Late Harappan Phase of the Indus Valley Civilization begins, including Cemetery H culture
and other cultures.
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18th century BC
Year Date Event
Iron Age in India.
Nomadic shepherds, the Aryans, enter India from Central Asia and the Russian steppes.
17th century BC
Year Date Event
Indus Valley Civilization comes to an end but is continued by the Cemetery H culture.
16th century BC
15th century BC
Year Date Event
Early Vedic Period (to 1000 BC)
14th century BC
13th century BC
Year Date Event
Cemetery H culture comes to an end
12th century BC
Year Date Event
Rigveda (to 1000 BC)
11th century BC
10th century BC
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Year Date Event
Middle and Late Vedic period (to 500 BC)
Iron Age India
Iron Age kingdoms rule India Panchala, Kuru, Kosala, Videha.
Yajnavalkya writes the Shatapatha Brahmana, in which he describes the motions of the sun
and the moon.
9th century BC
Year Date Event
Birth of Parsvanatha, 23rd Jain Tirthankara (traditional date)
8th century BC
Year Date Event
Nirvana of Parsvanatha 23rd Jain Tirthankara
7th century BC
Year Date Event
The Upanishads, a sacred text of Hinduism, are written.
6th century BC
Year Date Event
Sixteen Maha Janapadas ("Great Realms" or "Great Kingdoms") emerge.
Vedic End of vedic period.
Mahavira, 24th Tirthankar of Jainism is born (traditional date).
Siddhrtha Gautama, Buddha-to-be, is born in Lumbini into a leading royal family in the
republic of the Shakyas, which is now part of Nepal.
Cyrus the Great, founder of the Persian Achaemenid Empire conquers northwestern parts of
the Indian subcontinent.
Nirvana of Mahavira
5th century BC
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Year Date Event
Proposed death date of Gautama Buddha.
4th century BC
Year Date Event
Siddharta Gautama 'Buddha' of the Shakya polity in S. Nepal, founds Buddhism (older date:
563483 BC)
Panini, a resident of Gandhara, describes the grammar and morphology of Sanskrit in the text
Ashtadhyayi. Panini's standardized Sanskrit is known as Classical Sanskrit.
Persian rule in the northwest ends after Darius III is defeated by Alexander the Great, who
establishes the Macedonian Empire after inheriting the Persian Achaemenid Empire.
Ambhi king of Taxila surrenders to Alexander.
Porus who ruled parts of the Punjab, fought Alexander at the Battle of the Hydaspes River.
Mauryan Empire is founded by Chandragupta Maurya in Magadha after he defeats the
Nanda dynasty and Macedonian Seleucid Empire. Mauryan capital city is Patliputra
(Modern Patna in Bihar)
Chandragupta Maurya defeats Seleucus Nicator of the Seleucid Empire.
Seleucus gives up his territories in the subcontinent (Afghanistan/Baluchistan) to
Chandragupta in exchange for 500 elephants. Seleucus offers his daughter in marriage to
Chandragupta to seal their friendship.
3rd century BC
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Year Date Event
Ashoka the Great regarded as the greatest ancient Indian emperor, grandson of
Chandragupta Maurya, ascends as emperor of the Mauryan Empire.
Ashoka conquers and unifies most of South Asia, along with Afghanistan and eastern Iran.
Kalinga War takes place between Ashoka and the kingdom of Kalinga.
After conquering Kalinga, Ashoka reportedly regrets what he had done, leading him to adopt
Buddhism, which then became the quasi-official state religion of the Mauryan Empire.
Conquest of Kalinga
Ashoka begins displaying religious tolerance, grants animal rights, builds hospitals for people
and animals, treats his subjects as equals regardless of caste or creed, and promotes non-
violence and republicanism.
Ashoka inscribes the Edicts of Ashoka, written down using Brahmi script.
Ashoka dies and is succeeded by Kunala.
Simuka declares independence from Mauryan rule and establishes the Satavahana Empire.
2nd century BC
Year Date Event
Kuninda Kingdom is established.
Tholkappiyam describes the grammar and morphology of Tamil; it is the oldest existing Tamil
grammar (dates vary between 200 BCE and 100 CE). (to 100 BC)
The Mauryan Empire, which shrunk considerably, collapses after its emperor Brihadrata is
assassinated by his general Pusyamitra Sunga. Pusyamitra Sunga then establishes the Sunga
Establishment of the Indo-Greek kingdom.
1st century BC
Year Date Event
Establishment of the Indo-Scythian kingdom.
The Pandyan king sends ambassadors to the Greek and Roman lands.
Beginning of Vikram Era
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1st century
Year Date Event
10 Establishment of the Indo-Parthian kingdom.
35 Western Satraps formed.
Saint Thomas the Apostle reached Muziris and baptized people known as Saint Thomas
68 Establishment of the Kushan empire by Kujula Kadphises.
Gautamiputra Satkarni becomes Satavahana emperor and starts Shalivahana era calendar
after defeating Scythian king Maues.
90 Sung jae has established kingdom.
3rd century
Year Date Event
240 Sri-Gupta starts the Gupta Empire in Magadha, with its capital in Patliputra
4th century
Year Date Event
320 Chandragupta I ascends the Gupta throne.
335 Samudragupta ascends the Gupta throne and expands the empire.
380 Chandragupta II, Samudragupta's son becomes the Gupta Emperor.
5th century
Year Date Event
450 Invasions by the Huna.
6th century
Year Date Event
554 Collapse of Gupta Empire after the death of Shashankgupta.
7th century
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Year Date Event
606 Harshavardhana crowned Monarch.
Badami Chalukya power at its peak. Pulakeshin II pushes north up to the Narmada and
defeats the invading Harshavardhana of Kanauj
8th century
Year Date Event
According to the Qissa-i Sanjan, the immigrants Parsi are granted permission to stay by the
local ruler Jadi Rana
712 First Muslim, Muhammad Bin Qasim defeats Raja Dahir
736 Delhi is re-established by Bilan Deo Tomar also known as Anangpal Tomar
Establishment of Rashtrakuta Kingdom of Manyakhet by Danti Durga by defeating
Chalukyas of Badami
788 Birth of Adi Shankaracharya
9th century
Year Date Event
814 Nripatunga Amoghavarsha I becomes Rashtrakuta emperor. Kannada literature flourishes.
836 Gurjara-Pratihara (to 910)
10th century
Year Date Event
1000 Invasion of Mahmud of Ghazni
11th century
Year Date Event
1021 Mahmud Ghazni defeats Tarnochalpal and annexes Punjab
1025 Last invasion of Mahmud Ghazni, sacked and destroyed temple of Somnath
1030 Alberuni arrives in India; death of Mahmud of Ghazni
1058 Sumra Dynasty ends the Arab domination and establishes its own rule over Sindh.
12th century
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Year Date Event
1120 Kalyani Chalukyas power at its peak. Vikramaditya VI ushers in Vikrama Chalukya era.
1134 Life of Basaveshwara, philosopher and social reformer. (to 1196)
1157 The Kalachuris under Bijjala II capture Kalyani
1190 Mohammed Ghauri invades India.
"Victory of Prithviraj Chauhan". First battle of Tarain between Mohammed Ghori and
Prithviraj III. Ghauri is defeated by Prithivi Raj Chauhan III.
"Victory of Mohammed Ghauri". Second battle of Tarain fought between Ghauri and Prithivi
Raj Chauhan III. Prithvi Raj Chauhan III is defeated by Mhammed Ghori.
Battle of Chandawar fought between Ghauri and Jaichand of Kannauj. Ghauri defeated
Jayachandra and killed him.
13th century
Year Date Event
1206 Gakhars kills Muhammad Ghori during a raid on his camp on the Jhelum River
1206 Qutb-ud-din Aibak establishes Ghulam Dynasty later to be known as Delhi Sultanate
1210 Qutb-ud-din Aibak died while playing polo.
1221 Genghis Khan invades Punjab
1237 Sri Madhwaharya born in Pajaka near Udupi, Karnataka
1240 Murder of Razia Sultan by Turkish nobles.
1267 The Mahanubhava philosophy established by Chakradhar Swami.
1275 Birth of Saint Dyaneshwara.
1290 Murder of Muiz ud din Qaiqabad.
14th century
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Year Date Event
Ala-ud-din Khalji's army under Malik Kafur occupies Devagiri ending the Seuna Yadava
1323 Ulugh Khan defeats Prataparudra ending the Kakatiya dynasty
1336 Vijayanagara Empire established by Harihara I and his brother Bukka Raya I
1343 Veera Ballala III was killed at the Battle of Madurai.
Governor Hasan Gangu revolts against Muhammad bin Tughluq founding the Bahmani
1351 Samma Dynasty assumes rule over Sindh
Bukka, the Vijayanagara ruler and his son Kumara Kamapna capture the entire Tamil
speaking parts.
1398 Timur plunders Lahore
15th century
Year Date Event
1401 Dilawar Khan establishes the Malwa Sultanate in present-day northern India
Zafar Khan: governor of Gujarat, declares himself as Sultan Muzaffar Shah founding the
Gujarat Sultanate/Muzaffarid dynasty
Khizr Khan, deputized by Timur to be the governor of Multan takes over Delhi founding the
Sayyid dynasty
Deva Raya II succeeded his father Veera Vijaya Bukka Raya as monarch of the
Vijayanagara Empire
1443 Abdur Razzaq visits India
1446 Mallikarjuna Raya succeeds his father Deva Raya II
1451 Bahlul Khan Lodhi ascends the throne of the Delhi sultanate starting the Lodhi dynasty
1469 Guru Nanak, the founder of Sikhism is born
1483 Birth of Babur in Andijan, Fergana Valley in Central Asia
1485 Saluva Narasimha Deva Raya drives out Praudha Raya ending the Sangama Dynasty
Advent of Chaitanya Mahaprabhu, founder of Gaudiya Vaishnavism and leader of the
world's first civil disobedience movement, in Navadwip, West Bengal
Ahmadnagar declares independence, followed by Bijapur and Berar in the same year thus
breaking up the Bahmani Sultanate.
1498 Vasco de Gama's first voyage from Europe to India and back (to 1499)
16th century
Year Date Event
Kingdom of Kochi is taken over by the Portuguese creating the first European settlement in
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1503 India.
The Christian-Islamic power struggle in Europe and the Middle East. Spills over into the
Indian Ocean as Battle of Chaul during the Portuguese-Mamluk War
Battle of Diu marks the beginning of the dominance of the Europeans in the Asian naval
1510 Portuguese India (to 1961)
1522 Portuguese land on the Coromandel Coast
1526 21 April
Sultan Ibrahim Lodi, of the Delhi Sultanate, angers local nobles, who respond by inviting
Babur, the Mughal ruler of Kabul, to invade Delhi and Agra. The local population, plus the
possession of artillery, assists Babur in killing the Sultan (whose soldiers desert him) at the
Battle of Panipat.
1527 17 March
Babur bribes Mewar general Silhadi promising Silhadi a kingdom, if Silhadi betrays Mewar
King Rana Sanga in Battle of Khanwa, thus leading to the annexation of Mewar.
Babur completes his Baburnama, reflecting on society, politics, economics, history,
geography, nature, flora and fauna, which to this day is a standard textbook in 25 countries.
Babur dies, and is succeeded by his son Humayun.
1539 Battle of Chausa fought between Humayun and Sher Shah Suri in which Humayun defeated.
Guru Angad Dev becomes second guru of Sikhs.
1540 Battle of Kannauj fought between Humayun and Sher Shah Suri and Humayun was
completely defeated. Humayun lost the Mughal empire to Afghans (Suri Dynasty), and
passed 12 years in exile.
Birth of Maharana Pratap Singh of Mewar ( son of Maharana Udai Singh II )
1545 22 May Death of Sher Shah Suri and succeeded by Islam Shah Suri.
1552 Guru Amar Das becomes third Guru of Sikhs.
Death of Islam Shah Suri.
1555 Humayun regained the throne of Delhi from the hands of weak successors of Sher Shah.
1556 Humayun converts from Sunni Islam to Shia Islam, to gain the alliance of the Shah of Persia.
Humayun dies, and is succeeded by his son Akbar.
Hindu king Hemu establishes 'Hindu Raj' in North India and bestowed with title of "Samrat
Hem Chandra Vikramaditya"; Second Battle of Panipat fought between Hemu and Akbar's
forces in which Hemu is killed.
Battle of Talikota results in the rout of Vijayanagara empire.
Akbar the Great annexes Gujarat, also shifts the Mughal capital to Fatehpur Sikri where a
new township and citadel containing buildings of a unique all-India characterinspired by
the architecture of Bengal, Gujarat, Malwa, Kashmir as well as the Timurid worldis born.
1574 Guru Ram Das becomes fourth Guru of Sikhs.
Akbar annexes Bengal.
1581 Guru Arjan Dev becomes fifth Guru of Sikhs.
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1586 Akbar annexes Kashmir.
1600 East India company is formed in England. Gets exclusive trading rights with India.
17th century
Year Date Event
1605 Akbar dies, and is succeeded by his son Jehangir.
1606 Guru Hargobind becomes sixth guru of Sikhs.
1612 British India (to 1947)
East India Company (to 1757)
Jehangir announces "Chain of Justice" outside his palace that anyone can ring the bell and get
a personal hearing with the emperor. Jehangir dies, and is succeeded by his son Shah Jahan.
1630 Birth of Chatrapati Shivaji Maharaj.
1644 8 March Guru Har Rai becomes seventh guru of Sikhs
Shivaji takes oath of Independence at Raireshwar.
Shah Jahan completes Taj Mahal, Jama Masjid, and Red Fort. Imperial treasuries drained
by architectural and military overexpenditures. Shah Jahan dies, and is succeeded by his son
Shivaji's ill-equipped and small Maratha army defeat mighty Adilshahi troops at the Battle of
Pratapgarh in a major upset in Indian history. Shivaji personally kills Adilshahi commander
Afzal Khan (general).
Guru Har Krishan becomes eight guru of Sikhs.
1665 20 March Guru Tegh Bahadur becomes ninth Guru of Sikhs.
1674 Forces led by Shivaji defeat Aurangzeb's troops, and establishes Maratha Empire.
Guru Tegh Bahadur, the ninth Guru of Sikhs is executed in Delhi by the order of Aurangzeb
for his support for the Kashmiri Hindus to practice their religion.Guru Gobind Singh becomes
tenth Guru of Sikhs.
Shivaji dies of fever at Raigad.
Sambhaji becomes 2nd Chhatrapati of the Maratha Empire
1681 Aurangzeb invades the Deccan
1689 March Chatrapati Sambhaji Maharaj dies.
1696 Danish India (to 1869)
Guru Gobind Singh, the 10th Guru of Sikhs creates Khalsa, the saint-soldier at Anandpur
Sahib, Punjab.
1700 2 March Rajaram Chhatrapati dies
18th century
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Year Date Event
1705 Mughal army arrested for the act.
1707 Death of Aurangzeb the mughal emperor.
1708 Guru Granth Sahib becomes Guru of Sikhs.
March -
Attingal Outbreak takes place
Madras cyclone occurs
The Maratha Peshwa (prime minister) usurps the Maratha kingdom, starting a new dynastic
rule based in Pune.
1757 Battle of Plassey
Company rule in India (to 1858)
1759 French India (to 1954)
1760 Marathas comprehensively defeat the Nizam, Maratha Empire reaches its zenith.
The Marathas are routed in the Third Battle of Panipat on 14 January 1761, by the Afghans
led by Ahmad Shah Durrani, an ethnic Pashtun, also known as Ahmad Shah Abdali. The
battle is considered one of the largest battles fought in the 18th century.
1764 Battle of Buxar (British victory against allied Mughal, Bengal and Oudh forces)
1765 Princely states (to 1947)
First Anglo-Mysore War begins, in which Haidar Ali of Mysore defeats the combined
armies of the East India Company, the Marathas and the Nizam of Hyderabad.
1771 Marathas re-captures Delhi and parts of North India.
1772 14 August Ram Mohan Roy Born (to 1833)
1773 Narayanrao Peshwa is murdered by his uncle Raghunathrao's wife in front of Raghunathrao.
Regulating Act of 1773
Warren Hastings appointed as first Governor-General of India
Chief Justice of the Maratha Empire, Ram Shastri passes death sentence against the ruling
Peshwa Raghunathrao for murdering his nephew.
1775 First Anglo-Maratha War
Maratha sardar Mahadji Shinde routs the East India Company army at the Battle of
Wadgaon War ends with the restoration of status quo as per Treaty of Salbai.
1780 Second Anglo-Mysore War begins.
1784 Second Anglo-Mysore War ends with the Treaty of Mangalore.
1786 District collectors in Bengal were made responsible for settling the revenue and collecting it.
1789 Third Anglo-Mysore War begins.
The Marathas under Holkar and General de Boigne defeat the Rajputs of Jaipur and
Mughals at the Battle of Patan, where 3000+ Rajput cavalry is killed and the entire Mughal
unit vanquished. The defeat crushes Rajput hope of independence from external influence
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1792 Third Anglo-Mysore War ends.
1795 13 August Death of Ahilyabai Holkar
1796 Ching-Thang Khomba moves Manipur's capital to Kangla
1798 Fourth Anglo-Mysore War begins.
1799 Fourth Anglo-Mysore War ends with the death of Tipu Sultan, the victory of the East India
Company, and the restoration of their ally, the Wodeyar dynasty of Mysore.
Polygar War
1800 Death of Nana Fadnavis
19th century
Year Date Event
Maharaja Ranjit Singh establishes Khalsa rule of Punjab from Lahore. Khalsa army
liberates Kashmiri Pundits and invades Afghanistan through Khyber Pass.
1803 Second Anglo-Maratha War begins
1805 Second Anglo-Maratha War ends
1806 Vellore Mutiny
1809 East India Company signs the first Treaty of Amritsar with Ranjit Singh
Death of Yashwantrao Holkar
"Atmiya Sabha" Established Later on known as "Prarthana Samaj" By Raja Ram Mohan
Third Anglo-Maratha War begins
Establishment of Hindu College (Presidency College, now Presidency University, Kolkata)
Third Anglo-Maratha War ends with the defeat of Bajirao II and the end of the Maratha
Empire leaving the East India Company with control of almost the whole of India
1820 September Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar is born (to 1891)
1823 AngloBurmese Wars (to 1826)
Dayananda Saraswati is born (to 1883)
1826 British rule in Burma (to 1947)
1836 Sri Ramakrishna Paramhansa is born (to 1886)
1839 First Anglo-Afghan War
1845 First Anglo-Sikh Wars (to 1849)
Vasudev Balwant Phadke is born (to 1883)
1853 Started Post Service
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1853 16 April First Railway estalblished between Bombay and Thane
1855 30 June Santhal rebellion
1856 25 July Hindu Widows' Remarriage Act, 1856
23 July Bal Gangadhar Tilak is born (to 1920)
20 August Narayana Guru is born (to 1928)
1857 10 May Indian Rebellion of 1857
Established first three University of Mumbai, University of Madras and University of
Calcutta in India
1858 British Raj (to 1947)
Bipin Chandra Pal is born (to 1932)
1859 18 April Death of Tatya Tope
1863 12 January Swami Vivekanand is born (to 1902)
1865 28 January Lala Lajpat Rai is born (to 1928)
1867 "Prarthana Samaj" Established Earlier known as "Atmiya Sabha"
Mahatma Gandhi is born (to 1948)
Thakkar Bapa is Born (to 1951)
1875 "Arya Samaj" Established
Aligarh Muslim University
Deccan Riots
1877 January Delhi Durbar First time
Indian National Congress Established
Khudiram Bose is born (to 1908)
1891 14 April B. R. Ambedkar is born (to 1956)
1897 23 January Subhas Chandra Bose is born (to 1945)
20th century
Year Date Event
1902 Anushilan Samiti, organized revolutionary association formed.
1903 British Expedition to Tibet
Delhi Durbar Second Time.
1905 Partition of Bengal
1906 Jugantar formed.
Muslim League formed in Dacca.
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1909 Morley-Minto Reforms
1911 Cancellation of Partition of Bengal
Delhi Durbar Third Time
1911 12
British government change capital city from Calcutta to Delhi.
1912 Delhi conspiracy case
1913 Gadar Party formed.
Rabindranath Tagore won Nobel Prize in Literature
1914 HinduGerman Conspiracy
1915 Ghadar conspiracy
Provisional Government of India formed in Kabul.
Mahatma Gandhi returns to India.
1916 Lucknow Pact
1917 Champaran and Kheda Satyagraha
1919 Jallianwala Bagh massacre
MontaguChelmsford Reforms
Rowlatt Act is passed
1920 Non-cooperation movement Khilafat Movement
1924 Hindustan Socialist Republican Association is formed
1925 Kakori conspiracy
1927 November Simon Commission
1928 Bardoli Satyagraha
1929 Central Assembly Bombed by Bhagat Singh and Batukeshwar Dutt.
Purna Swaraj resolution.
1930 Salt Satyagraha
Round Table Conferences (India) First
civil disobedience movement
1931 March GandhiIrwin Pact
23 March Bhagat Singh, Rajguru and Sukhdev Martyred
Round Table Conferences (India) Second
1932 24
Poona Pact
4 August Communal Award
Round Table Conferences (India) Third
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1935 August Government of India Act 1935
1939 All India Forward Bloc Established by Subhas Chandra Bose
1940 Lahore Resolution
8 August August offer 1940
1942 Quit India Movement
Late March Cripps' mission
August Indian National Army Established by Subhas Chandra Bose
1943 Arzi Hukumat-e-Azad Hind, the Provisional Government of Free India formed by Netaji.
1944 Subhas Chandra Bose calls Mahatma Gandhi as the Father of the Nation.
1946 February Royal Indian Navy Mutiny
March Cabinet Mission
16 August Direct Action Day/Great Calcutta Killings
1947 July Indian Independence Act 1947 by British Raj.
Partition of India and Pakistan becomes an independent state on 14 August 1947.
Freedom from British Raj.
Hundreds of thousands die in widespread communal bloodshed after partition. (to 1948)
1948 30 January Mahatma Gandhi assassinated by a right wing Hindu nationalist Nathuram Godse.
War with Pakistan over disputed territory of Kashmir.
Telangana and other princely states integrated in Indian union
1950 26 January India became Republic.
Congress Party wins first general elections under leadership of Jawaharlal Nehru. (to
war over disputed territory of Kashmir
with China.
India won Diu, Daman and Goa from Portuguese India.
1964 Death of Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru.
1965 Second war with Pakistan over Kashmir.
1966 Nehru's daughter Indira Gandhi becomes prime minister.
1971 Third war with Pakistan over creation of Bangladesh, formerly East Pakistan.
Twenty-year treaty of friendship signed with Soviet Union.
1974 India explodes first nuclear device in underground test.
1975 Indira Gandhi declares state of emergency after being found guilty of electoral malpractice.
Nearly 1,000 political opponents imprisoned and programme of compulsory birth control
introduced. (to 1977)
Indira Gandhi's Congress Party loses general elections. Janata Party comes to
power.Communist party of India comes into power in West Bengal.
1979 Janata Party Splits. Chaudhary Charan Singh becomes Prime Minister.
1980 Indira Gandhi returns to power heading Congress party splinter group, Congress (Indira).
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N. T. Rama Rao NTR's 9 month old Telugu Desam Comes in to Power in AP marks a
new Challenger post Loknayak Jayprakash Narayan against Indira
1984 Troops storm Golden Temple - Sikhs' most holy shrine - to flush out Sikh militants
pressing for self-rule, called Operation Blue Star. "Anti-Sikh Riots 1984".
Indira Gandhi assassinated by Sikh bodyguards, following which her son, Rajiv, takes
Many Sikhs were killed due to the assassination of Indira Gandhi, and the government did
not do anything. see 1984 anti-Sikh riots.
1987 India deploys troops for peacekeeping operation in Sri Lanka's ethnic conflict.
1989 Falling public support leads to Congress defeat in general election.
National Front (India) Headed by N. T. Rama Rao and led by Janata party formed and
stormed into power with outside support from BJP and CPI.
1990 Muslim separatist groups begin campaign of violence in Kashmir.
1991 Rajiv Gandhi assassinated by suicide bomber sympathetic to Sri Lanka's Tamil Tigers.
Economic reform programme begun by Prime Minister P.V. Narasimha Rao.
1992 Hindu extremists demolish mosque in Ayodhya, triggering widespread Hindu-Muslim
Over 200 people die in Cuttack in Odisha, after drinking illegally brewed liquor in the
1992 Odisha liquor deaths incident.
1995 July
West Bengal Chief Minister Jyoti Basu made the first call from Kolkata to inaugurate the
cellular services in India
Congress suffers worst ever electoral defeat as Hindu nationalist BJP emerges as largest
single party.
1996 August
The Amarnath Yatra tragedy in which at least 194 pilgrims are reported to have frozen to
death in northern Kashmir after being stranded by violent rain and snow storms.
1998 BJP forms coalition government under Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee.
India carries out nuclear tests, leading to widespread international condemnation.
Vajpayee makes historic bus trip to Pakistan to meet Premier Nawaz Sharif and to sign
bilateral Lahore peace declaration.
Tension in Kashmir leads to brief war with Pakistan-backed forces in the icy heights
around Kargil in Indian-held Kashmir.
October Cyclone devastates eastern state of Odisha, leaving at least 10,000 dead.
2000 March US President Bill Clinton makes a groundbreaking visit to improve ties.
May India marks the birth of its billionth citizen.
21st century
Year Date Event
2001 A high-powered rocket is launched, adding India to the club of countries able to fire big
satellites deep into space.
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January Massive earthquakes hit the western state of Gujarat, leaving at least 30,000 dead.
Vajpayee meets Pakistani President Pervez Musharraf in the first summit between the two
neighbours in more than two years. The meeting ends without a breakthrough or even a joint
statement because of differences over Kashmir.
Vajpayee's BJP party declines his offer to resign over a number of political scandals and the
apparent failure of his talks with Pakistani President Musharraf.
US lifts sanctions which it imposed against India and Pakistan after they staged nuclear tests
in 1998. The move is seen as a reward for their support for the US-led anti-terror
India fires on Pakistani military posts in the heaviest firing along the dividing line of control in
Kashmir for almost a year.(NO reference)
Suicide squad attacks parliament in New Delhi, killing several police. The five gunmen die in
the assault.
India imposes sanctions against Pakistan, to force it to take action against two Kashmir
militant groups blamed for the suicide attack on parliament. Pakistan retaliates with similar
sanctions, and bans the groups in January.
December India, Pakistan mass troops on common border amid mounting fears of a looming war.
2002 War of words between Indian and Pakistani leaders intensifies. Actual war seems imminent.
India successfully test-fires a nuclear-capable ballistic missile - the Agni - off its eastern
Inter-religious bloodshed breaks out after 59 Hindu pilgrims returning from Ayodhya are
killed in a train fire in Godhra, Gujarat. More than 1,000 people, mainly Muslims, die in
subsequent riots. (Police and officials blamed the fire on a Muslim mob; a 2005 government
investigation said it was an accident.)
Pakistan test-fires three medium-range surface-to-surface Ghauri missiles, which are
capable of carrying nuclear warheads.
UK, US urge their citizens to leave India and Pakistan, while maintaining diplomatic
offensive to avert war.
Retired scientist and architect of India's missile programme A.P.J. Abdul Kalam is elected
2003 August
At least 50 people are killed in two simultaneous bomb blasts in Bombay.
November India matches Pakistan's declaration of a Kashmir ceasefire.
December India, Pakistan agree to resume direct air links and to allow overflights.
2004 January Groundbreaking meeting is held between government and moderate Kashmir separatists.
Surprise victory for Congress Party in general elections. Manmohan Singh is sworn in as
prime minister.
India, along with Brazil, Germany and Japan, launches an application for a permanent seat
on the UN Security Council.
November India begins to withdraw some of its troops from Kashmir.
Thousands are killed when tsunami tidal waves, caused by the 2004 Indian Ocean
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December earthquake off the Indonesian coast, devastate coastal communities in the south and in the
Andaman and Nicobar Islands.
More than 1,000 people are killed in floods and landslides caused by monsoon rains in
Mumbai (Bombay) and Maharashtra region.
8 October
An earthquake, with its epicentre in Pakistani-administered Kashmir, kills more than 1,000
people in Indian-administered Kashmir.
India's largest-ever rural jobs scheme is launched, aimed at lifting around 60 million families
out of poverty.
US and India sign a nuclear agreement during a visit by US President George W Bush. The
US gives India access to civilian nuclear technology while India agrees to greater scrutiny
for its nuclear programme.
2007 February India and Pakistan sign an agreement aimed at reducing the risk of accidental nuclear war.
68 passengers, most of them Pakistanis, are killed by bomb blasts and a blaze on a train
travelling from New Delhi to the Pakistani city of Lahore.
March Maoist rebels in Chhattisgarh state kill more than 50 policemen in a dawn attack.
April India's first commercial space rocket is launched, carrying an Italian satellite.
Government announces its strongest economic growth figures for 20 years - 9.4% in the
year to March.
At least nine people are killed in a bomb explosion at the main mosque in Hyderabad.
Several others are killed in subsequent rioting.
India says the number of its people with HIV or AIDS is about half of earlier official tallies.
Health ministry figures put the total at between 2 million and 3.1 million cases, compared
with previous estimates of more than 5 million.
July Pratibha Patil becomes first woman to be elected president of India.
Series of explosions kills 49 in Ahmedabad, in Gujarat state. The little-known group Indian
Mujahideen claims responsibility.
Following approval by the US Congress, President George W Bush signs into law a nuclear
deal with India, which ends a three-decade ban on US nuclear trade with Delhi.
India successfully launches its first mission to the moon, the unmanned lunar probe
Nearly 200 people are killed and hundreds injured in a series of coordinated attacks by
gunmen on the main tourist and business area of India's financial capital Mumbai. India
blames militants from Pakistan for the attacks and demands that Islamabad take strong
action against those responsible.
India announces "pause" in peace process with Pakistan. Indian cricket team cancels
planned tour of Pakistan.
India and Russia sign deals worth $700 million, according to which Moscow will supply
uranium to Delhi.
April Trial of sole surviving suspect in Mumbai attacks begins.
Resounding general election victory gives governing Congress-led alliance of PM
Manmohan Singh an enhanced position in parliament, only 11 seats short of an absolute
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July Delhi court decriminalizes gay sex
16 people are killed in a bomb explosion at German Bakery in the city of Pune,
Surviving gunman of 2008 Mumbai attacks is convicted of murder, possession of explosives
and waging war
After 34 years of Left Front Government, Trinamool Congress and Congress alliance come
to power in West Bengal
2012 July Pranab Mukherjee, the former Finance Minister is elected as the 13th president of India.
Ajmal Kasab the lone surviving gunman of 2008 Mumbai attacks is hanged on 21
November 2012 at 7:30 in at Yerwada Jail.
2013 12
Indian helicopter bribery scandal comes to light.
Terror attacks on Hyderabad in Dilsukhnagar area.
Mars Orbiter Mission, is successfully launched into Earth orbit by the Indian Space
Research Organisation (ISRO).
See also
Timeline of Mumbai history
Timeline of Ahmedabad
Chronology of Tamil history
Timeline of Buddhism (563 BCE present)
Timeline of Ayyavazhi history
Timeline of Jainism
Sikh Gurus (14691666)
History of cricket (1066present)
Hindu units of time
Tamil units of measurement
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Categories: History of India Indian history timelines Indian timelines
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Valley, Northern Pakistan. British Archaeological Reports International Series. Cambridge University Press.
p. 364. ISBN 0-86054-691-8. OCLC 29222688 (//www.worldcat.org/oclc/29222688).
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(http://www.assemblage.group.shef.ac.uk/issue7/chauhan.html#distribution). An Overview of the Siwalik
Acheulian & Reconsidering Its Chronological Relationship with the Soanian A Theoretical Perspective.
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E5NTE3NDIyOQ==). Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-517422-4. OCLC 56413341
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and-china-race-to-send-a-mission-to-mars/). New York Times. Retrieved 31 August 2012.
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