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RF Network DesignManishNetwork Planning 1

2. Introduction The high level life cycle of the RF network planning process can be summarised as follows :-
To help the operator to identify their RF Comparative design requirement Analysis Issuing of search ring
Optional Site Cand. assessment Realisation Site survey, design, approval Discuss and agree RF Drive
test (optional) design parameters, RF Design assumptions and requirement objectives with the customer
Frequency plan RF Design Neighbour list Implementation RF OMC data Coverage requirement
Optimisation Traffic requirement Various level of design RF Design (ROM to detail RF design) 2
3. Comparative Analysis This is an optional step This is intended to :- Help an existing operator in
building/expanding their network Help a new operator in identifying their RF network requirement, e.g. where
their network should be built For the comparative analysis, we would need to :- Identify all network that are
competitors to the customer Design drive routes that take in the high density traffic areas of interest Include
areas where the customer has no or poor service and the competitors have service 3
4. Comparative Analysis The result of the analysis should include :- For an existing operator All problems
encountered in the customers network All areas where the customer has no service and a competitor does
Recommendations for solving any coverage and quality problems For a new operator Strengths and
weaknesses in the competitors network Problem encountered in the competitors network 4
5. RF Network Design Inputs The RF design inputs can be divided into :- Coverage requirements Target
coverage areas Service types for the target coverage areas. These should be marked geographically
Coverage area probability Penetration Loss of buildings and in-cars Capacity requirements Erlang per
subscriber during the busy hour Quality of service for the air interface, in terms GoS Network capacity 5
6. RF Network Design Inputs Available spectrum and frequency usage restriction, if any List of available,
existing and/or friendly sites that should be included in the RF design Limitation of the quantity of sites and
radios, if any Quality of Network (C/I values) Related network features (FH, DTX, etc.) 6
7. Coverage Design Inputs by BSNL Coverage Thresholds Indoor Coverage : Signal Level measured at
street better than 65 dBm. Indoor coverage to be provided in commercial complexes, hotels,technology parks
etc. In Car Coverage: Signal Level measured at street better than 75 dBm. In Car coverage to be provided in
residential areas, highways, tourist spots etc. Outdoor Coverage : Signal level measured at street better than
85 dBm. All remaining areas to be covered with Outdoor coverage. These are general guidelines for
planning , specific areas not provided. 7
8. Capacity Design Inputs by BSNL Frequency spectrum available 6.2 MHz (31 channels). Average traffic per
sub for RF design : 50 mErlang. Synthesizer frequency hopping can be used. GOS: 2% Existing network
Database Total No. of sites with configuration Site details eg location(Lat-Long), Antenna height ,azimuth,
etc. 8
9. RF Network Design There are 2 parts to the RF network design to meet the :- Capacity requirement
Coverage requirement For the RF Coverage Design Digitised CW Drive Databases Customer Testing
Requirements RF Propagation Coverage Link Model Design Budget 9
10. CW Drive Testing CW drive test can be used for the following purposes :- Propagation model tuning
Assessment of the suitability of candidate sites, from both coverage and interference aspect CW drive test
process can be broken down to :- Equipment required Power setting Test Drive route planning BTS
antenna selection Preparation Channel selection Test site selection Propagation Transmitter setup Drive
test Test Receiver setup Transmitter dismantle Data Measurement averaging Processing Report
generation 10
11. CW Drive Testing - Test Preparation The test equipment required for the CW drive testing :- Receiver
with fast scanner Example : HP7475A, EXP2000 (LCC) etc. The receiver scanner rate should conform to the
Lee Criteria of 36 to 50 sample per 40 wavelength CW Transmitter Example : Gator Transmitter (BVS),
LMW Series Transmitter (CHASE), TX-1500 (LCC) etc. Base Station test antenna DB806Y (Decibel-
GSM900), 7640 (Jaybeam-GSM1800) etc. Accessories Including flexible coaxial cable/jumper, Power 11
12. CW Drive Testing - Test Preparation Base Station Antenna Selection The selection depends on the
purpose of the test For propagation model tuning, an omni-directional antenna is preferred For candidate
site testing or verification, the choice of antenna depends on the type of BTS site that the test is trying to
simulate. For Omni BTS : Omni antennas with similar vertical beamwidth For sectorised BTS Utilising the
same type of antenna is preferred Omni antenna can also be used, together with the special feature in the
post processing software like CMA (LCC) where 12
13. CW Drive Testing - Test Preparation Test Site Selection For propagation model tuning, the test sites
should be selected so that :- They are distributed within the clutter under study The height of the test site
should be representative or typical for the specific clutter Preferably not in hilly areas For candidate site
testing/verification, the actual candidate site configuration (height, location) should be used. For proposed
greenfield sites, a cherry-picker will 13
14. CW Drive Testing - Test Preparation Frequency Channel Selection The necessary number of channels
need to be identified from the channels available With input from the customer The channels used should be
free from occupation From the guard bands Other free channels according to the up-to- date frequency plan
The channels selected will need to be verified by conducting a pre-test drive It should always precede the
actual CW drive test to verify the exact free frequency to be used It should cover the same route of the actual
propagation test 14
15. CW Drive Testing - Test Preparation Transmit Power Setting For propagation model tuning, the
maximum transmit power is used For candidate site testing, the transmit power of the test transmitter is
determined using the actual BTS link budget to simulate the coverage On sites with existing antenna system,
it is recommended that the transmit power to be reduced to avoid interference or inter- modulation to other
networks. The amount of reduction is subject to the possibility if separating the test antenna from the existing
antennas 15
16. CW Drive Testing - Test Preparation Drive Route Determination The drive route of the data collection is
planned prior to the drive test using a detail road map Eliminate duplicate route to reduce the testing time
For propagation model tuning, each clutter is tested individually and the drive route for each test site is planned
to map the clutter under-study for the respective sites. It is important to collect a statistically significant amount
of data, typically a minimum of 300 to 400 data points are required for each clutter category The data should
be evenly distributed with respect to distance from the transmitter In practice, the actual drive route will be
modified according to the latest development which was not shown on the map. The actual drive route taken
should be marked on a map for record 16 purposes.
17. CW Drive Testing - Propagation Test Transmitter Equipment Setup Test antenna location Free from any
nearby obstacle, to ensure free propagation in both horizontal and vertical dimension For sites with existing
antennas, precaution should be taken to avoid possible interference and/or inter- modulation Transmitter
installation A complete set of 360 photographs of the test location (at the test height) and the antenna setup
should be taken for record 17
18. CW Drive Testing - Propagation Test Scanning Receiver Setup - HP 7475A Receiver Example HP 7475A
Receiver 18
19. CW Drive Testing - Propagation Test Scanning Receiver Setup The scanning rate of the receiver should
always be set to allow at least 36 sample per 40 wavelength to average out the Rayleigh Fading effect. For
example: scanning rate = 100 sample/s test frequency = 1800 MHz therefore, to achieve 36 sample/40
wavelength, 40 0.1667 = the max. speed is 18.52 m / s = 66.67 km / h = 36/100 It is recommended that :-
Beside scanning the test channel, the neighbouring cells is also monitored. This information can be used to
check the coverage overlap and potential interference Check the field strength reading close to the test
antenna before starting the test, it should 19 approach the scanning receiver saturation
20. CW Drive Testing - Propagation Test Drive Test Initiate a file to record the measurement with an agreed
naming convention Maintain the drive test vehicle speed according to the pre-set scanning rate Follow the
pre-plan drive route as closely as possible Insert marker wherever necessary during the test to indicate
special locations such as perceived hot spot, potential interferer etc. Monitor the GPS signal and field strength
level throughout the test, any extraordinary reading should be inspected before resuming the test. Dismantling
Equipment It is recommended to re-confirm the transmit 20 power (as the pre-set value) before dismantling
21. Measurement Data Processing Data Averaging This can be done during the drive testing or during the
data processing stage, depending on the scanner receiver and the associated post- processing software The
bin size of the distance averaging depends on the size of the human made structure in the test environment
Report Generation For propagation model tuning, the measurement data is exported into the planning tool
(e.g. Asset) Plots can also be generated using the processing tool or using MapInfo During the export of the
measurement data, it is important to take care of the coordinate 21
22. Propagation Model Standard Macrocell Model for Asset Lp (dB) = K1 + K2 log(d) + K3 Hm + K4 log(Hm)
+ K5 log(Heff) + K6 log(Heff) log(d) + K7 Diffraction + Clutter factor where Lp, Diffraction, Clutter factor are
in dB d, Hm, Heff are in m It is based on the Okumura-Hata empirical model, with a number of additional
features to enhance its flexibility Known to be valid for frequencies from 150MHz to 2GHz Applies in
condition :- Base station height : 30 - 200 m Mobile height : 1 - 10 m Distance : 1 - 20 km An optional
second intercept and slope 22 (K1, K2) for the
23. Morphology ClassMorphology Classification DefinitionDense Urban A mixture of 8-15 storey commercial
bldgs/residential apartments/shopping complexes and 15-25 storey skyscrapers. Bldgs are densely packed.
Major roads are at least 4 lanes wide and minor roads are 2 lanes wide. There is very little or no trees.Urban A
mixture of 4-6 storey shophouses densely packed and 6-15 storey commercial bldgs/residential
apartments/shopping complexes. Compared to dense urban, the bldgs are not as tall or as densely packed.
Major roads are at least 4 lanes wide and minor roads are 2 lanes wide. There is very little or no trees.Dense
Suburban Typically 4 storey shophouses densely packed. There are occasional 6 to 12 storey bldgs. Usually a
busy town in between cities. Roads are 2 to 4 lanes wide. Light foliage.Light Suburban Typically less than 4
storey shophouses lined along highway/main road. The shophouses form 1 or 2 tier from the road and the
houses are not densely packed. Usually at the outer fringe of a town. Light to moderate foliage.Rural Along
highway where there are isolated houses or open ground. 23
24. Link Budget Link Budget Element of a GSM Network BTS Antenna Gain Max. Path Loss Fade Margin LNA
(optional) Penetration Loss Feeder Loss MS Antenna Gain, Body and Cable Loss ACE Diversity Loss Gain
Mobile Transmit Mobile Receiver Power SensitivityBTS Transmit BTS Receiver Power Sensitivity 24
25. Link Budget BTS Transmit Power Maximum transmit power GSM900 and 1800 networks use radios
with 46dBm maximum transmit power ACE Loss Includes all diplexers, combiners and connectors.
Depends on the ACE configuration The ACE configuration depends on the number of TRXs and combiners
used No of Network ACE Configuration Downlink ACE TRXs Loss (dB) 1 or 2 GSM900 2 antennas per cell,
diplexer 1.0 1 or 2 GSM1800 2 antennas per cell, diplexer 1.2 3 or 4 GSM900 2 antennas per cell, diplexer +
hybrid combiner 4.4 3 or 4 GSM1800 2 antennas per cell, diplexer + hybrid combiner 4.4 25
26. Link Budget Mobile Transmit Power GSM900 : Typical mobile class 4 (2W) GSM1800 : Typical mobile
class 1 (1W) Class GSM 900 (Watt/dBm) GSM 1800 (Watt/dBm) 1 - 1 / 30 2 8 / 39 0.25 / 24 3 5 / 37 4 / 36 4 2 /
33 - 5 0.8 / 29 - Mobile Receiver Sensitivity The sensitivity of GSM900 and GSM1800 mobile = -102 dBm 26
27. Link Budget Diversity Gain Two common techniques used :- Space Polarisation Reduce the effect of
multipath fading on the uplink Common value of 3 to 4.5 dB being used BTS Receiver Sensitivity Depends
on the type of propagation environment model used, most commonly used TU50 model BTS :- Receiver
Sensitivity for GSM900 = -107 dBm 27
28. Link Budget Feeder Loss Depends on the feeder type and feeder length The selection of the feeder
type would depends on the feeder length, I.e. to try to limit to feeder loss to 3 -4dB. BTS Antenna Gain
Antenna gain has a direct relationship to the cell size The selection of the antenna type depends on :- The
morphology classes of the targeted area and coverage requirements Zoning and Local authority
regulations/limitations Common antenna types used :- 28 65, 90, omni-directional antennas with
29. Link Budget Slow Fading Margin To reserve extra signal power to overcome potential slow fading.
Depends on the requirement of coverage probability and the standard deviation of the fading A design can
take into consideration :- both outdoor and in-building coverage, which utilises a combined standard deviation
for indoor and outdoor (Default value = 9dB) Only outdoor coverage (Default value = 7dB) Pathloss slope
used, 45dB/dec (Dense Urban), Cell Area 42dB/dec Combined (outdoor & Outdoor slow fade margin (Urban),
38dB/dec (Suburban) and Coverage 33dB/decindoor) slow fade margin Probability (Rural) (dB) (dB) (%) DU U
SU RU DU U SU RU 85 2 3 3 4 1 1 2 2 90 5 6 6 6 3 3 4 4 95 9 9 9 10 6 6 7 7 29
30. Link Budget Penetration Loss Penetration loss depends on the building structure and material
Penetration loss is included for in-building link budget Typical value used for Asia-Pacific environment (if
country specific information is not available) :- Dense Urban : 20 dB Urban : 18 dB Suburban : 15 dB
Rural : 9 dB Body Loss Typical value of 3dB body loss is used MS Antenna Gain A typical mobile antenna
gain of 2.2 30 dBi is used
31. Link Budget Link Budget Example (GSM900) UPLINK DOWNLINK MS Transmit Power 33 dBm BTS
Transmit Power 46 dBm Cable Loss 0 dB ACE Loss Z MS Antenna Gain 2.2 dBi Feeder Loss 2 dB Body Loss
2 dB LNA Gain 0 dB Penetration Loss W BTS Antenna Gain 18 dBi Slow Fade Margin X Max. Path Loss Y
Max. Path Loss Y Slow Fade Margin X BTS Antenna Gain 18 dBi Penetration Loss W LNA Gain 0 dB Body
Loss 2 dB Feeder Loss 2 dB MS Antenna Gain 2.2 dBi ACE Loss 0 dB Cable Loss 0 dB Diversity Gain 4 dB
Diversity Gain 0 dB BTS Receiver Sensitivity -107 dBm MS Receiver Sensitivity -102 dBm 31
32. Antenna Antenna Selection Gain Beamwidths in horizontal and vertical radiated planes VSWR
Frequency range Nominal impedance Radiated pattern (beamshape) in horizontal and vertical planes
Downtilt available (electrical, mechanical) Polarisation Connector types (DIN, N) Height, weight, windload
and physical dimensions 32
33. Antenna The antenna selection process Identify system specifications such as polarisation, impedance
and bandwidth Select the azimuth or horizontal plane pattern to obtain the needed coverage Select the
elevation or vertical plane pattern to be as narrow as possible, consistent with practical limitations of size,
weight and cost Check other parameters such as cost, power rating, size, weight, mounting capabilities, wind
loading, connector types, aesthetics and reliability to ensure that they meet system requirements 33
34. Antenna System Specification Impedance and frequency bandwidth is normally associated with the
communication system used The polarisation would depends on if polarisation diversity is used Horizontal
Plane Pattern Three categories for the horizontal plane pattern :- Omnidirectional Sectored (directional)
Narrow beam (highly directional) Elevation Plane Pattern Choosing the antenna with the smallest elevation
plane beamwidth will give maximum gain. However, beamwidth and size are inversely related Electrical down
tilt Null filling 34
35. Nominal RF Design Link Budget Propagation Coverage Traffic model requirements requirements Maximum
path loss Nominal RF Site radius Design Recalculate the site (coverage) radius using the Typical site
Standard hexagon site number of sites from layout the traffic requirement configuration Friendly, candidate
sites Repeat the nominal Transmit Power Initial site survey inputs RF design Antenna configuration
Coverage site (type, height, azimuth) count Site type (sector, omni) Traffic site Traffic > Cov. Traffic Nominal
site requirements count Cov. > Traffic count 35
36. Nominal RF Design Calculation of cell radius A typical cell radius is calculated for each clutter
environment This cell radius is used as a guide for the site distance in the respective clutter environment
The actual site distance could varies due to local terrain Inputs for the cell radius calculation :- Maximum
pathloss (from the link budget) Typical site configuration (for each clutter environment) Propagation model
37. Nominal RF Design There are different level of nominal RF design :- Only using the cell radius/site
distance calculated and placing ideal hexagon cell layout Using the combination of the calculated cell radius
and the existing/friendly sites from the customerThe site distance also depends on the required capacity In
most mobile network, the traffic density is highest within the CBD area and major routes/intersections The cell
radius would need to be reduce in this area to meet the traffic requirements BASED ON THE SITE DISTANCE
38. Nominal RF Design Cell count based on traffic is derived based on capacity inputs:- Capacity
requirements GOS Spectrum availability Freq. Hopping techniques If the total sites for the traffic
requirement is more than the sites required for coverage, the nominal RF design is repeated using the number
of sites from the traffic requirement Recalculating the cell radius for the high traffic density areas The
calculation steps are :- Calculate the area to be covered per site Calculate the maximum cell radius
Calculate the site distance 38
39. Site Realisation After completion of Nominal design based on cell count ( coverage & capacity
requirements ) , search rings for each cell site issued. Nominal design is done , with the existing network in
place ( existing BTS ) . Existing site location remain unchanged , azimuth , tilts as per the new design
requirements. Based on the search ring form physical site survey is undertaken. 39
40. Site Realisation Search Ring Form BSNL Circle:Haryana City / SSA: Search Ring FormSite Id: Site Name:
Krishna Nagar Morphology Type: Quasi Open , Industrial Spheroid: WGS-84Coordinates: (GPS) deg min sec
Site ID Latitude: 18 o 39 49.3 N Search Radius:50 m Longitude: 73 o 47 36.7 E Site Name Site AGL (m):
30Antenna Orientation(Deg) Antenna Type: 65 deg Vertical polarised Latitude/Longitude Project name
Sector1 Sector2 Sector3 350 120 240 Issue Number and date Ground height Clutter environment
Preliminary configuration Number of sector Azimuth Antenna type Antenna heightCoverage Objectives:
Krishna Nagar, Jotiba Nagar, Shambaji Nagar, Yamuna Nagar Location Map & SR radius Comments
Search ring objective Issue Date:Name & signature of RF Coordinator Revision No. : R1.1 Approvals 40
41. Site Realisation All parties Produce Release of Suitable Y Candidates Y Arranged Y Caravan agreed at
Final RF Search Ring Candidates? Approved? Caravan Design N N N Problem Next identifying candidate
Caravan next candidate candidate N Exhausted candidates N Exhausted Y candidates Discuss Driveby, RF
alternative with suggest possible customer alternative Y N Candidate Y approved? N NIssue design Cell split
Additional sites change required required Y Y 41
42. Site Realisation Candidate Assessment Report-Site Survey Forms Site survey Forms for all suitable
candidates for the search ring For each candidates :- Location (latitude/longitude) Location map showing
the relative location of the candidates and also the search ring Candidate information (height, owner etc)
Photographs (360 set, rooftop, access, building) Possible antenna orientations Possible base station
equipment location Information for any existing antennas Planning reports/comments (restrictions,
possibilities of approval etc.) 42
43. Site Realisation-Site Survey Form TECHNICAL SITE SURVEY FORM Date June 12, 2004 Final RF
Configuration BSNL Circle BiharCITY / SSASite ID BHPAT-09 BSNL/ NBSNL Owner Name Site Name Patna
09 Form Address & Contact No.Construction Container/Room Base Station Tower Type GBT / Rooftop Bldg.
Hgt 10 m. configuration Azimuth Tower Hgt 6 m. Antenna Ht 20m. Coordinate LAT 2621 25.9" N LONG 85
48 31.2" EGSM ANTENNA : Antenna height Antenna type TYPE AZ M-TILTSECTOR 1 AP909014-2 85
+1.9 Spheroid: SECTOR 2 AP909014-2 185 +0.7 Down tilt SECTOR 3 AP909014-2 307 +1.3 Antenna
location Feeder type and Candidate No. Assess: Accept/ Reject Priority Morphology/Clutter length Site
Blockage if Any Remark BTS type Transmit power Name: Nokia Representative Name: BSNL Survey Team
Representative Transceiver Signature: Signature: configuration 43
44. Traffic Engineering Spectrum Reuse factor Available Traffic Requirement Maximum number of TRX per cell
Channel No of TCH Subscriber Traffic offered loading available supported 44
45. Traffic Engineering Traffic Requirement The Erlang per subscriber Grade of Service ( GoS ) GoS is
expressed as the percentage of call attempts that are blocked during peak traffic Most cellular systems are
designed to a blocking rate of 1% to 5% during busy hour 45
46. Traffic Engineering Frequency Reuse In designing a frequency reuse plan, it is necessary to develop a
regular pattern on which to assign frequencies The hexagon is chosen because it most closely approximated
the coverage produced by an omni or sector site Common reuse factor : 4/12, 7/21 46
47. Traffic Engineering Channel Loading As the number of TRX increases, the control channels required
increases accordingly The following channel loading is used for conventional GSM network For services
such as cell broadcast, additional control channels might be required Number of TCH Number of TRX Control
Channels 1 Combined BCCH/SDCCH 7 2 1 BCCH, 1 SDCCH 14 3 1 BCCH, 2 SDCCH 21 4 1 BCCH, 2
SDCCH 29 5 1 BCCH, 3 SDCCH 36 6 1 BCCH, 3 SDCCH 44 7 1 BCCH, 3 SDCCH 52 8 1 BCCH, 3 SDCCH
60 47
48. Traffic Engineering After determining the number of TCH available and the traffic requirements, the traffic
offered is calculated using the Erlang B table For example, for a 2% GoS and 3 TRX configuration, the traffic
offered is 14 Erlang If the traffic per subscriber is 50mE/subscriber, then the total subscribers supported per
sector = 280 For a uniform traffic distribution network, the number of sites required for the traffic requirement is
:- Total subscribers Total sites = Subscriber supported per site 48
49. Traffic Engineering Erlang B Table N 1% 1.20% 1.50% 2% 3% 5% 7% 10% 15% 20% 30% 40% 50% 1
0.01 0.01 0.02 0.02 0.03 0.05 0.1 0.11 0.18 0.25 0.43 0.67 1 2 0.15 0.17 0.19 0.22 0.28 0.38 0.5 0.6 0.8 1 1.45
2 2.73 3 0.46 0.49 0.54 0.6 0.72 0.9 1.1 1.27 1.6 1.93 2.63 3.48 4.59 4 0.87 0.92 0.99 1.09 1.26 1.52 1.8 2.05
2.5 2.95 3.89 5.02 6.5 5 1.36 1.43 1.52 1.66 1.88 2.22 2.5 2.88 3.45 4.01 5.19 6.6 8.44 6 1.91 2 2.11 2.28 2.54
2.96 3.3 3.76 4.44 5.11 6.51 8.19 10.4 7 2.5 2.6 2.74 2.94 3.25 3.74 4.1 4.67 5.46 6.23 7.86 9.8 12.4 8 3.13
3.25 3.4 3.63 3.99 4.54 5 5.6 6.5 7.37 9.21 11.4 14.3 9 3.78 3.92 4.09 4.34 4.75 5.37 5.9 6.55 7.55 8.52 10.6
13 16.3 10 4.46 4.61 4.81 5.08 5.53 6.22 6.8 7.51 8.62 9.68 12 14.7 18.3 11 5.16 5.32 5.54 5.84 6.33 7.08 7.7
8.49 9.69 10.9 13.3 16.3 20.3 12 5.88 6.05 6.29 6.61 7.14 7.95 8.6 9.47 10.8 12 14.7 18 22.2 13 6.61 6.8 7.05
7.4 7.97 8.83 9.5 10.5 11.9 13.2 16.1 19.6 24.2 14 7.35 7.56 7.82 8.2 8.8 9.73 10.5 11.5 13 14.4 17.5 21.2 26.2
15 8.11 8.33 8.61 9.01 9.65 10.6 11.4 12.5 14.1 15.6 18.9 22.9 28.2 16 8.88 9.11 9.41 9.83 10.5 11.5 12.4 13.5
15.2 16.8 20.3 24.5 30.2 17 9.65 9.89 10.2 10.7 11.4 12.5 13.4 14.5 16.3 18 21.7 26.2 32.2 18 10.4 10.7 11
11.5 12.2 13.4 14.3 15.5 17.4 19.2 23.1 27.8 34.2 19 11.2 11.5 11.8 12.3 13.1 14.3 15.3 16.6 18.5 20.4 24.5
29.5 36.2 20 12 12.3 12.7 13.2 14.0 15.2 16.3 17.6 19.6 21.6 25.9 31.2 38.2 21 12.8 13.1 13.5 14 14.9 16.2
17.3 18.7 20.8 22.8 27.3 32.8 40.2 22 13.7 14 14.3 14.9 15.8 17.1 18.2 19.7 21.9 24.1 28.7 34.5 42.1 23 14.5
14.8 15.2 15.8 16.7 18.1 19.2 20.7 23 25.3 30.1 36.1 44.1 49
50. Traffic Engineering If a traffic map is provided, the traffic engineering is done together with the coverage
design After the individual sites are located, the estimated number of subscribers in each sector is calculated
by :- Calculating the physical area covered by each sector Multiply it by the average subscriber density per
unit area in that region The overlap areas between the sectors should be included in each sector because
either sector is theoretically capable of serving the area The number of channels required is then determined
by :- Calculating the total Erlangs by multiplying the area covered by the average load generated per
subscriber during busy hour Determine the required number of TCH and then the required number of TRXs
If the number of TRXs required exceeded the number 50 of TRXs supported by the available spectrum,
51. SWAP PLAN Why do we need a swap plan? To reduce mix of different vendor BTS within a large city /
area Reduce Inter MSC HO. Better maintenance efficiency Swap Strategy No. of existing BTS sites with
configuration known No. of new sites with configuration known. 51
52. For Example BSNL UP(W) Circle 52
53. UP(W) Circle Network DiagramHaryana ur a ranp Uttaranch Sa h al Muzaffarnagar Bij nor Nokia BTS M
NCR ut e er Nep Ericcsson BT Ghaziabad Moradabad al Delhi Noida p ur Bulandshahr R am All DHQ on Nokia
Bareilly PilbhitHarya h Budaunna Mathura l i g a r A Etah UP ( E ) Agr Mainpuri Rajasth a an Et ah aw 53
54. UP(W) Circle Network Distribution Major Cities /SSAs to be deployed on Nokia BTS DHQ of all SSAs
Meerut Agra Mathura Noida Ghaziabad Muzaffarnagar Aligarh Bulandshahar SSAs except
DHQs deployed on Ericsson BTS Bijnor Bareilly Moradabad Etah Etawah Rampur Pilbhit
Badaun Mainpuri Saharanpur 54
55. HW & Rly Plan for UPW NH- 58Haryana Saharanpur Uttaranch al Muzaffarnagar Bijnor Meerut Ghaziabad
Moradabad Nep Noi Del da al Rampur 69 Ericsson HW Site hi Bulandshahar Pilbhit NH- Badaun Bareilly 02 56
Nokia HW SiteHaryana National HW Aligarh Etah Railways Mathura State Highway Agra UP ( E ) Mainpuri
District Border Rajasth an NH-91 Etawah NH- NH- 24 03 55
ERICSSON A B C D E F G H (A+D-B) (C-D+B) (E+F+G)1 Agra 74 2 43 37 109 8 8 1252 Aligarh 40 4 27 19 55
12 1 683 Badaun 16 10 11 3 9 18 1 284 Bareilly 45 11 27 17 51 21 2 745 Bijnor 39 32 16 3 10 45 0 556
Bulandshahar 27 3 17 12 36 8 1 457 Etah 17 12 10 3 8 19 3 308 Etawah 29 21 16 4 12 33 0 459 Ghaziabad 27
1 15 9 35 7 0 4210 Mainpuri 22 17 12 2 7 27 0 3411 Mathura 34 1 22 17 50 6 7 6312 Meerut 68 5 30 26 89 9
11 10913 Moradabad 73 35 33 16 54 52 9 11514 Muzaffarnagar 48 10 17 13 51 14 3 6815 Noida 12 0 8 6 18 2
0 2016 Pilbhit 11 6 6 2 7 10 5 2217 Rampur 20 13 11 3 10 21 0 3118 Saharanpur 31 18 16 9 22 25 5 52 Total
633 201 337 201 633 337 56 1026 56
57. UP(W) Circle 24volt BTS Distribution Before Swap 24volts ( 40 ) BTS status Agra 9 Aligarh 2
Bareilly 5 Mathura 2 Meerut 3 Moradabad 6 Saharanpur 4 Bijnor 2 Out of 40 sites 31 have
been Bulandshahar 2 swapped to Etah 1 Bijnor 16 Etawah 3 Moradabad 15 Pilibhit 1
Out of 40 sites 9 left as it is ( No Swap ) After Swap 24volts ( 40 ) Agra - 1 BTS status Moradabad 1
Agra 1 Saharanpur 1 Moradabad 16 Bijnor 1 Saharanpur 1 Bulandshahr 1 Bijnor 17
Etah 1 Etah 1 Etawah 3 Etawah 3 Bulandshahr 1 57
58. Advanced Network Planning Steps 58
59. Parameter Planning Parameter planning means creating a default set of BSS parameters. The most
important parameters to plan for: frequencies BSIC LAC handover control parameters adjacent cell
definitions. 59
60. BSS Parameter Relevant BSS parameter for NW planning frequency allocation plan transmit power
definition of neighbouring cells definition of location areas handover parameters power control parameters
cell selection parameters 60
61. Handover Types Intracell same cell, other carrier or timeslot Intercell between cells (normal case) Inter-
BSC between BSC areas Inter-MSC between MSC areas Inter- PLMN e.g. between AMPS and GSM
systemsintracell intercell inter-BSC 61
62. Handover Criteria1. Interference, UL and 9. MS Speed DL2. Bad C/I ratio 10. Better Cell, i.e. periodic check
(Power Budget, Umbrella3. Uplink Quality Handovers)4. Downlink Quality 11. Good C/I ratio5. Uplink Level6.
Downlink Level 12. PC: Lower quality/level thresholds (DL/UL)7. Distance8. Rapid Field Drop 13. PC; Upper
quality/level thresholds (DL/UL) 62
63. Location Area Design 1/2 Location updating affects all mobiles in network LocUp in idle mode LocUp
after call major road completion Location area 2 Location updating causes signalling and processing load
within the network (international LocUpdate !) Avoid oscillating LocUpdate Location area 1 Trade-off between
Paging load and Location Update signalling 63
64. Location Area Design 2/2 Different MSC can not use the same LAC. Location areas are important input
for transmission planners should be planned as early as possible. Never define location area borders along
major roads! Dual band or microcellular networks require more attention on LAC planning co-located DCS
and GSM cells are defined to the same LAC same MSC to avoid too much location updates which would
cause very high SDCCH blockings 64
65. Network Optimisation 65
66. What is network optimisation? 66
67. Network Optimisation is: Improving network quality from a subscribers point of view. Improving network
quality from an operators point of view. 67
68. What is network quality? 68
69. Overall Network Quality H/W Failure Network Configuration Network Traffic Spectrum Efficiency
Coverage yes/no Service Probability QualityO C NETWORK Call Set Up TimeP U Call Success Rate
Call Completion RateE SR T SERVICES Mail Box, Data, Fax, etc. Customer CareA OT M Faulty H/W or
S/WO E MOBILE Mobile Quality Misuse of EquipmentR R H/W Costs COST Subscription/Airtime costs
Additional Services Costs Network Equipment Costs Maintenance Costs Site Leasing Costs Transmission Link
Costs 69
70. Tools for OptimisationCell Planning Tools Prediction Simulation Network Management SystemNetwork
Measurement Tools Network configuration Propagation BSS parameter data Drive test Network
performance 70
71. Performance Feedback Network is under permanent change ==> detect problems and symptoms early!
OMC Its far too late field tests when customers complain! customer complaints 71
72. Optimize compared to what? 72
73. Key Performance Indicators, KPI KPIs are figures used to evaluate Network performance. post
processing of NMS data or drive test measurements data Usually one short term target and one long term
target. check the network evolution and which targets are achieved KPIs calculated with NMS data network
performance on the operator side. KPIs from drive test performance on the subscribers side Usually turn key
projects are evaluated according to some predefined 73KPIs
74. Network Performance Evaluation with NMS The most reliable KPIs to evaluate the network performance
with NMS are: SDCCH and TCH congestion Blocking percentage [%] Drop call rate [%] Handover failure
and/or success rate Call setup success rate Average quality DL and UL The targets are always defined by
the customer but the following figures can be considered as satisfactory results: Item limit Target Lowest
acceptable Dropped calls: <2 % 4 % Handover success >98 % 96 % Good Qual samples (0..5) >98 % 95
% 74
75. Drive Test Measurements Evaluate network performance from the subscriber point of view KPIs
information: DL quality, call success rate, handover success rate, DL signal level not statistically as reliable
as NMS information Added value of drive test measurement : find out the geographical position of problems
like bad DL quality to look for a possible interference source in the area compare the performance of different
networks display the signal level on the digital maps to individuate areas with lack of coverage eventually
improve the propagation model verify the neighbour list parameter plan 75
76. Optimisation Process There are not strict processes for optimization because the activity is driven by the
network evolution. 76
77. Optimisation Process: Young Network Case In a young network the primary target is normally the
coverage. In this phase usually there is a massive use of drive test measurement check the signal and the
performance of the competitors MMAC GPS NMS X 77
78. Optimisation Process: Mature Network Case In a mature network the primary targets are quality indicators
drop call rate, average quality, handover failures. Important use the information from NMS a general view of
the network performance. Drive test measurements are still used but not in a massive way in areas where
new sites are on air where interference and similar problems are pointed out by NMS data analysis. Drop Call
Rate (%) 3.5 3 2.5 2 Call Bids / 10000 Average 1.5 Busy Hour 1 0.5 0 Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat Sun Mon Tue
Wed 78