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1

OPERATION
&
MAINTENANCE

OF
SUBSTATION







Pr epar ed By :- S.P. Gaopande



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INDEX PAGE NO.
1. INTRODUCTION 3

2. SINGLE LINE DIAGRAM 4 - 5

3. MAIN EQUIPMENTS 6

4. COMMON TERMINOLOGY 7

5. LIGHTNING ARRESTER 8 - 9

6. INSTRUMENT TRANSFORMER 10 - 17

7. ISOLATORS 18 - 19

8. CIRCUIT BREAKER 20 - 23

9. CAPACITORS 24 - 25

10. TRANSFORMER AND ITS TESTING 26 - 46

11. CONTROL AND RELAY PANEL 47 - 50

12. STATION TRANSFORMER & BATTERY 51 - 52

13. MEASURING INSTRUMENTS 53 57

14. NUMBER NOTATION 58

15. TROUBLE SHOOTING 59 62

16. SAFETY ELECTRICAL CLEARANCES 63 65

17. EARTHING OF SUB-STATION 66 70

18. PROTECTION RELAY 71 75

19. RELAY SETTINGS CALCULATIONS 76 81

20. OPERATIONAL DUTY AT SUBSTATION 82 - 85

21. MAINTENANCE SCHEDULE 86 - 92

22. FIRE & FIRE EXTINGUISHERS 93 - 94


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INTRODUCTION:-
The Substation may be defined as assembly of apparatus which transforms
the characteristics of electrical energy from one form to another, say for example,
from A.C. to D.C. and from one voltage to another. A.C. electrical energy is
generated at low voltage but for transmission the voltage is stepped up. Higher
the voltage, lesser is the current and lesser is the power loss (IR) and lesser is
the voltage drop (IR). Similarly the consumers do not use high voltage and so the
same must be stepped down to low voltage. The stepping up and stepping down
of voltage is done in the substations. There are various bays for Incoming Lines,
Outgoing Lines, Transformer, Bus-coupler and Bus transfer etc. Each bay has
equipments such as CT, PT, Circuit Breaker, Isolators, Post Insulators, etc.

Substation up to 11 KV is generally Indoor substation with metal-clad draw
out type switchgear. In such switchgear, circuit breaker is mounted on a carriage.
After opening of the breaker, the same can be lowered and the carriage can be
pulled out. For voltage of 33 KV and above, outdoor substation is generally
preferred. In such substation, circuit breakers, isolators, CT, PT, transformers, are
installed outside. Bus bars and connectors can be seen by naked eye. The bus
bars are supported on post insulators or strain insulators. The substation has
galvanised steel structures for supporting the equipment, insulators and the
incoming or outgoing lines.

Classification of Voltage Levels

Low Voltage : Below 1000 Volts ..LV
Medium high voltage : Between 1000 Volts and 33 KV ..MV
High Voltage : Above 33 KV and up to 132 KV ..HV
Extra High Voltage : 220 KV, 400 KV ..EHV
Ultra High Voltage : 760 KV ..UHV


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SINGLE LINE DIAGRAM

132 / 33 KV SUBSTATION









































132 KV I/C
LINE 1
LINE PT LA
ISOLATOR WITH E/SW
LINE CT (CT1)
LINE CB
BUS ISOLATOR
132 KV BUS
BUS ISOLATOR
BUS PT
HV SIDE CB
HV CT OF TRAFO. (CT2)
POWER TRANSFORMER
132 / 33 KV
LV CT OF TRAFO. (CT3)
LV SIDE CB
BUS ISOLATOR
33 KV BUS
BUS ISOLATOR
STATION FEEDER CT (CT4)
TRANSFORMER BUS PT
FEEDER CB
ISOLATOR WITH E/SW
33 KV O/G LINE FEEDER # 1


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Above-mentioned Single Line Diagram is General layout of Switchyard
Equipments. Only Single Incoming 132 KV Line and Single 33 KV Outgoing
Feeder are shown. There may be n number of Feeders as per design. It depends
upon the rating of installed Switchyard Equipments.

The CTs in circuit are used for different purpose as mentioned below:

CT1 132 KV Line Metering and Distance, Directional O/C & E/F Protection
CT2 Transformer HV Metering & Differential, REF & Non-Directional O/C & E/F
Protection
CT3 Transformer LV Metering & Differential, REF & Non-Directional O/C & E/F
Protection
CT4 33 KV Feeder Metering & Non-Directional O/C & E/F Protection

























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Substation Main Equipments and Its Functions

1) Power Transformer: To step up or step down voltage and transfer power from
one A.C. Voltage to another at the same frequency

2) Circuit Breaker: Automatic switching during normal or abnormal condition

3) Current Transformer: To step down the current for measurement / protection

4) Potential Transformer: To step down the voltage for measurement / protection

5) Isolator: Disconnection of circuit under no load condition

6) Earthing Switch: To discharge the voltage on dead lines to earth

7) Bus Section: For connecting Incoming / Outgoing Circuits

8) Lightning Arrester: To discharge lightning & switching over voltages to earth

9) Capacitor Bank: To Improve the power factor of the system & provide
compensation to reactive power absorbed by inductive loads, reduce the over
loading of the cables, transmission lines & transformers for the same load to be
handled

10) Protective Relay: To sound an alarm or to close the trip circuit of breaker so
as to disconnect a component during abnormal conditions (over load, under
voltage, unbalanced load, short circuits)

11) Battery Banks: To maintain the D.C. supply continuity during A.C. supply
failure for keeping equipment in operation for normal & abnormal conditions

12) Station Transformer: To supply of A.C. power for charging the batteries and
provide D.C. control supply for station equipments operations, for Illumination, for
spring charging motors of breakers, for cooling system of transformer


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Some Common Terms used with meanings

1) ONAN - Oil Natural, Air Natural (For Transformer Cooling)

2) ONAF - Oil Natural, Air Forced (For Transformer Cooling)

3) OFAF - Oil Forced, Air Forced (For Transformer Cooling)

4) WTI - Winding Temperature Indicator

5) OTI - Oil Temperature Indicator

6) PRV - Pressure Relief Valve

7) OSR - Oil Surge Relay

8) OLTC - On Load Tap Changer

9) RTCC - Remote Tap Change Control

10) MOG - Magnetic Oil Level Gauge

11) IDMT - Inverse Definite Minimum Time (For Relay)

12) NO - Normally Open Contact

13) NC - Normally Closed Contact

14) LILO - Loop In Loop Out (Used for defining Substation)

15) CRP - Control Relay Panel

16) TTB - Test Terminal Block

17) ACDB A.C. Distribution Board

18) DCDB D.C. Distribution Board

19) MB Marshalling Box (For Breaker, Transformer control)

20) AVR Automatic Voltage Control (For Tap Changing on RTCC Panel)





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Detail description of Each Equipments, Its Testing & Maintenance

1) LIGHTNING ARRESTER

Lightning arrester gives protection to substation equipments by discharging
lightning & switching over voltages to earth. It consists of a series of spark gaps
and several non-linear resistances like thyrite, metrosil, etc. A non-linear resistor
is one whose resistance is not constant but inversely proportional to applied
voltage, it decreases rapidly as the voltage across it is increased, i.e. it has an
extremely low value when the high surge voltage appears & allows the flow of
heavy currents of the order of thousands of amperes & dissipates energy quickly
& recovers again, presents a high resistance value to the normal line voltage as
soon as surge has disappeared, so that any tendency of the arc to continue is
immediately suppressed. In a system which has its neutral solidly earthed, the
rated voltage of the arrester is usually taken as 80% of its maximum line to line
voltage. In an unearthed system it is taken as 100% of line-to-line voltage since
under fault conditions when one line is earthed, the arrester connected to the
other two lines would be subjected to full line-to-line potential.

Surge Counter Lightning Arrester


9


Surge Counter


Testing: -

1) IR Testing between Stack to stack & between each Stack to earth by suitable
megger.
2) Surge Counter Test - Apply 230V AC supply across the counter & check pointer
movement in clockwise direction.

Maintenance: -

1) Insulator cleaning
2) Connections tightness
3) Checking of Earthing connections
4) Reading of leakage current on daily basis to be taken. If current shoots in red
zone, then that particular LA is to be replaced as early as possible.







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2) INSTRUMENT TRANSFORMERS

These transformers are minimum oil type & hermetically sealed. They are
expected to be maintenance free during their service life. They transform the high
current or high voltage connected to their primary windings to the standard low
values in the secondary that feed the metering and protection apparatus. It also
isolates the secondary circuits from very high voltages of power system.
From the application point of view, these are divided into mainly two
categories 1) Metering 2) Protection type.

Metering Type The specified performance of CT is to be maintained in the
range normally 5% to 120% of the rated current. The CT cores should be such
that it saturate at its instrument security factor (ISF) for safeguarding the
instrument from getting damaged under fault condition. The VT designed for
metering is required to perform as specified within the voltage range near to the
rated voltage normally 80% to 120% of the rated voltage.

Protection Type Main requirement of performance of protection class CTs is
that its cores should not get saturated below its Accuracy Limiting Factor (ALF) up
to, which the primary current should be faithfully transformed to the secondary,
maintaining the specified accuracy. During fault conditions, the primary of CT
carry very high current and the first few cycles of wave have the D.C. component,
which may sature the core. Behaviour of the cores in such condition should be
such as to avoid getting magnetized & to come to normalcy (demagnetised stage)
soon after clearing fault.

Outdoor Type Instrument Transformer These are used in Substations and
Power stations where high voltages are employed. While designing for their
performance, following factors should be considered.
A) Effect of atmosphere environment:-Use of porcelain insulators for external
isolation between Live and Ground. These insulators provide outer casing for all
the atmospheric conditions like rain, dust, chemical contamination, wind, sun, etc.


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B) The insulation between primary & secondary windings has to be suitable for
withstanding the disturbance in the network system such as switching surges,
lightning surges, temporary over voltages, fault currents, over load currents, etc.
C) These transformers are normally oil filled with paper insulation and are
hermetically sealed to avoid ingression of moisture.

Instrument Transformer has the following major components:-
1) Primary Winding
2) Secondary Winding
3) Major Insulation
4) Insulator
5) Transformer Oil
6) Metal Tank


PT CT

CT is connected in series with the supply line & PT is connected across the
supply line. The CT secondary should never be open circuited and no fuse should
be inserted. In a PT the secondary should never be short-circuited and a fuse is
used in PT secondary circuit.





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Current Transformer: Types

a) Window CT: - This is constructed with no primary winding and is installed
around the primary conductor.

b) Bushing CT: - This is window CT specially constructed to fit around a bushing
and it cannot be accessed.

c) Bar CT: - It is window CT but has a permanent bar installed as a primary
conductor.

d) Wound CT: - This CT has a primary & secondary winding like a normal
transformer. This CT is rare and is used at very low ratios and currents, typically in
CT secondary circuits to compensate for low currents, to match different CT ratios
in summing applications, or to isolate different CT circuits.

The type of primary winding depends upon the type of CT insulation i.e. whether
Dead tank or Live tank (Inverted Type) Design.

Dead Tank: - In this design, the secondary core windings are housed in metallic
tank, which is lower part of the CT and solidly earthed. The leads of the primary
winding are brought at top chamber for termination. The primary winding in the
shape of hair pin or bolt is passed through the secondary cores and full
insulation is provided on primary windings.

Live Tank (Inverted): - In such design, the secondary cores and the primary
windings are assembled in the metal tank located at the top of the Current
Transformer. Here the secondary cores assembly is insulated fully for high system
voltage & primary winding is looped through the core assembly. The primary
winding can be single bar primary or multi-turn primary.




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Hermetically Sealing: - The Instrument Transformer is supposed to be
maintenance free and hence there is no scope of filtering or change of oil during
its life. This makes it essential to hermetically seal the transformer to avoid
breathing of atmospheric air.

1) Sealing with Metallic Bellows: - It is fitted in expansion chamber mounted at
the top of the Instrument Transformer, which separates oil with any external
environment. This allows the expansion and contraction of oil volume, as the
bellow is free to expand and contract.

2) Sealing by Nitrogen Cushion: - Expansion chamber on top of the CT is
evacuated first applying vacuum and then vacuum is filled with dry Nitrogen. The
chamber is then sealed thus avoiding breathing with outer atmosphere.

If CT and Protective devices located within same switchgear, 5 Amp secondary
current is used. If CT lead goes out of the switchgear, 1 Amp secondary current is
preferred.

Accuracy Class: - It is the rated ratio accuracy in percent.

Accuracy Limit Factor (ALF): - It is the ratio of largest value of current to CT
rated current up to which CT must retain the specified accuracy.
Example: - CT - 5P20, 5 VA, ALF = 20
It means error < 5 % up to 20 times rated current for burden of 5 VA
Accuracy class 1% means max. Ratio error < 1% at rated current & burden.

CT Core Identification as per class: -
1) Class - 0.2s, 0.5s, and 1.0s: - Metering Core
2) Class - 5P10, 5P20, etc.: - Backup protection core (O/C & E/F Protection)
3) Class - PS: - Primary protection core (Differential, Distance, REF etc.)





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CT Testing: -

1) IR Testing

a) Primary to earth by 5 KV megger
b) Secondary each core to earth by 500 V megger
c) Primary to secondary by 5 KV megger
d) Secondary core to core by 500 V megger

2) Polarity Test - For carrying out this test, we require one 1.5 V cell, DC
analogue ammeter.

P1 P2

S1 + S2
Analogue Ammeter
+
CELL

By making above connection, if there is positive deflection of ammeter, then
polarity is confirmed.

3) Ratio Test - Inject current in primary winding & measure induced secondary
current for different current readings and verify with CT Ratio.

4) Knee point check for PS class core - Inject 230 V variable AC voltage in
secondary core with ammeter in series. At certain stage, with 10% increase in
voltage, current shoots up almost 50%. This is the Knee point voltage. After
performing this test, Voltage is gradually reduced to Zero to demagnetise the CT.

5) Winding Resistance Test - Measure secondary winding resistance by micro-
ohm meter.



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6) Tan Delta Measurement For getting concept of Tan Delta (Tan ), we
consider the insulation of equipment as Capacitor.
Ideal Ic = V/Xc
Actual Ic

Loss Xc V
Angle Phase Angle
V
If the capacitor is good or perfect, it will pass only capacitive or charging current
on application of voltage. Ideal capacitive current Ic leads voltage by 90. But in
practice, insulation has impurities & actual charging current vector departs from
the ideal Ic vector by a small angle () called the loss angle.
The loss angle () = 90 Power factor angle ()
Higher tan produces high dielectric loss that causes increase in temperature of
paper insulation. Increased value of Tan can be due to any of the following: -
a) Moisture in the insulation.
b) Contamination of oil.
c) Internal partial discharge.

CT Maintenance: -

a) Checking of Oil level & leakage, rectify the same immediately.
b) Checking of Insulation Resistance.
c) Power connection tightness.
d) Secondary connection tightness.
e) Cleaning of Bushings / Insulators.
f) Check the proper earthing of Body connection.
g) Check the earthing of CT Secondary core star points.
k) Check the working of stainless steel bellows.
l) Check the nitrogen pressure in case of Nitrogen filled CT.




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Potential Transformer: - There are two types of PTs as mentioned below:

1) Electromagnetic Voltage Transformer Its construction largely depends on
the rated primary voltage. Primary & secondary windings are wound on magnetic
core like in usual transformer. For voltages up to 3.3 KV, dry type transformer with
varnish impregnated taped winding is quite satisfactory. For higher voltages, it is a
practice to immerse the core and winding in oil. It is used up to 66 KV level.

2) Capacitor Voltage Transformer For voltages above 66 KV, CVT is used. It
consists of a capacitive potential divider & inductive medium voltage circuit.
Primary voltage is applied to a series capacitor group. The voltage across
intermediate capacitor is taken to primary of auxiliary voltage transformer. The
secondary of auxiliary voltage transformer is taken for measurement or protection.
The inductive part is immersed in oil and sealed with an air cushion inside a steel
tank. Fuses are provided in secondary box. Voltage Factor of PT is maximum
system voltage, PT can withstand & is expressed in % i.e.120% continuous &
150% for 30 seconds.

PT Testing: -

1) IR Testing
a) Primary to earth by 5 KV megger
b) Secondary each core to earth by 500 V megger
c) Primary to secondary by 5 KV megger
d) Secondary core to core by 500 V megger.

2) Ratio Test - Inject A.C. variable voltage in primary winding & measure induced
secondary voltage at different voltages & verify the same with PTR.






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PT Maintenance: -

a) Checking of oil level & leakage, rectify the same immediately.
b) Checking of Insulation Resistance.
c) Power connection tightness.
d) Secondary connection tightness.
e) Cleaning of Bushings / Insulators.
f) Check the proper earthing of Body connection.
g) Check the secondary fuse condition & replace if required by proper rating.
h) Check the working of stainless steel bellows.
i) Check the nitrogen pressure in case of Nitrogen filled PT.































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3) ISOLATOR AND EARTH SWITCH

Isolator is the device, which makes & breaks circuits in no load condition.
Types of Isolators:
a) Centre Break Rotating Type Isolator.
b) Double Break Rotating Type Isolator.
c) Pantograph Type Isolator.
d) Tandem Isolator.

Earthing Switch is provided for safety purpose to work on Dead Lines and is
electrically & mechanically interlocked with Isolator.


Isolator Testing: -

1) IR Testing Phase to phase & Phase to earth by 5 KV megger.
2) Contact Resistance check - Measure contact resistance by suitable micro-ohm
meter.






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Isolator Maintenance: -

1) Checking of the male / female contacts for good condition and proper
connections.
2) Checking proper alignment of male & female contacts & rectify if required.

3) Cleaning of Insulators.

4) Lubrication of all moving parts on regular basis.

5) Tightness of all earthing connections.

6) In case of Isolator with Earth switch, check electrical and mechanical interlock
i.e. Isolator can be closed only when E/switch is in open condition & vice versa.

7) As Isolators are operated on No load, hence check the interlock with Circuit
Breaker, if provided i.e. Isolators can be operated when Breaker is in OFF
condition.

8) The motor operating mechanism box, in case of motor operated isolators,
should be checked for inside wiring, terminal connectors, etc.

9) Check the Panel indications i.e. semaphore & bulbs if provided (Isolator and
Earth switch - close and open condition) and rectify if required.
















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4) CIRCUIT BREAKER

Circuit Breaker is used to close or isolate the circuit in normal and abnormal
condition and to protect the electrical equipment against the fault. The parts of a
circuit breaker include
1) Poles with interrupter, support porcelain, arc quenching medium, etc.
2) Operating mechanism
3) Support structure
4) Control circuit
SF6 Circuit Breaker


The part of the breakers assembled in one phase is called a pole. A circuit
breaker suitable for three-phase system is called a triple pole circuit breaker. All
the three poles operate simultaneously. Each pole comprises one or more
interrupters or arc quenching chambers. The interrupter is mounted on support
insulators. The interrupter encloses a pair of fixed and moving contact. The
moving contact can be drawn apart by means of the operating mechanism. The
operating mechanism gives the necessary energy for opening and closing of
contacts of the breakers. The arc produced by the separation of current carrying
contacts is extinguished by a suitable medium.


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When a fault occurs in the protected circuit, the relay connected to the CT
actuates and closes its contacts. D.C. current flows from the source in the trip
circuit. As the trip coil of the breaker is energized, the circuit breaker operating
mechanism is actuated & it operates for the opening operation automatically. The
spring in the operating mechanism is charged by electrically or manually. Breaker
auxiliary switches are mechanically attached with the operating mechanism of
breaker. The contact changeover takes place as per breaker operation. Auxiliary
contacts are used for breaker operation circuit, indication circuit, and trip circuit
supervision circuit.

The Circuit breakers are classified on the basis of arc extinction medium:

(i) Bulk Oil type
(ii) Minimum Oil type
(iii) Air Blast type
(iv) SF6 Gas type
(v) Vacuum type

In short, difference of individual breaker is listed below:

1) Bulk Oil Circuit Breaker Contacts are separated inside a steel tank filled
with transformer oil used for arc quenching.

2) Minimum Oil Circuit Breaker Contacts are separated in an insulated
housing (interrupter) filled with transformer oil used for arc quenching. In the case
of MOCBs after certain number of tripping, oil is to be replaced as recommended
by the manufacturer. After 2 to 3 times of oil replacement, or after certain numbers
of serious faults, it is necessary to overhaul the complete breaker.

3) Air Blast Circuit Breaker It utilizes high-pressure compressed air for arc
extinction.



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4) SF6 Gas Circuit Breaker Sulphur-Hexa-fluoride gas is used for arc extinction
in this breaker. It is must to monitor the SF6 gas pressure inside the breaker pole
and check periodically the contact resistance of each pole or the travel of each
pole. This is helpful to prevent the problem of bursting of poles. The SF6 breaker
has an advantage that the rate of restricting voltage is zero & hence the burning of
male / female contacts is less. Operating mechanism is of two types: -
1) Movement of contacts is controlled by spring mechanism. (Spring Operated)
2) Movement of contacts is controlled by air pressure. (Pneumatic operated)

5) Vacuum Circuit Breaker In this breaker, the contacts are housed inside a
permanently sealed vacuum interrupter. The arc is quenched as the contacts are
separated in high vacuum. For VCBs, the vacuum bottle is hermetically sealed
and as such no maintenance is required. However to ascertain the failure of
vacuum bottle, it is necessary to check the contact resistance of each pole or the
travel of each pole as specified by the manufacture. VCBs are generally used up
to 33 KV voltage systems.

Definition of Some Common Terms related with Circuit Breaker

a) Fault clearing time It is the time elapsed between the instant of the
occurrence of a fault and the instant of final arc extinction in the circuit breaker. It
is the sum of relay time and breaker time.

b) Relay time It is the time elapsed between the instant of occurrence of fault &
the instant of closure of relay contacts, i.e. closure of trip circuit.

c) Breaker time It is the time elapsed between the instant of closure of trip
circuit and the instant of final current zero.

d) Anti Pumping of a circuit breaker It blocks the repeat closing pulse when
breaker is already in closed condition.



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e) Auto- reclosing of a circuit breaker Auto-reclosing is provided to restore the
supply after interrupting a transient fault on overhead lines.

f) Rated short circuit breaking current It is the highest value of short circuit
current, which a circuit breaker is capable of breaking under specified conditions
of recovery voltage and power frequency recovery voltage.

g) Rated short circuit making current It may so happen that circuit breaker
may close on existing fault. The circuit breaker should be able to close without
hesitation as contact touch. The rated short circuit making current should be at
least 2.5 times the R.M.S. value of a.c. component of rated breaking current.

h) Operating sequence of a circuit breaker The operating sequence denotes
the sequence of opening and closing operations, which the circuit breaker can
perform under specified conditions. The operating mechanism experiences severe
mechanical stresses during the auto-reclosure duty.
1) O-t-CO-T-CO where O = opening operation, C = closing operation, CO =
closing followed by opening, t = 0.3 second for breaker to be used for rapid auto-
reclosure, T = 3 minute.
2) CO-t-CO where t = 15 seconds for breaker not to be used for rapid auto-
reclosure.
Maintenance of Circuit Breaker: -

a) Tightness of power connections & control wiring connections
b) Cleaning of Insulators
c) Lubrication of moving parts
d) Checking of contact resistance, close-open timing, Insulation resistance
e) Checking of gas pressure for SF6 circuit breaker (leakages if any)
f) Checking of air pressure for pneumatic operated breaker (leakages if any)
g) Checking of Controls, Interlocks & Protections like checking of pole discrepancy
system i.e. whether all three poles are getting ON OFF at the same time
h) Cleaning of Auxiliary switches by CTC or CRC spray and checking its operation


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5) CAPACITOR BANK

In any power utility, maintaining stable power supply at proper voltage is always a
problem. Due to lot of inductive load, the reactive power flow takes place in the
system which results into lowering of system voltage and increase in
Transmission & Distribution losses. The HT capacitor provides an interim solution
in improving the power system stability, the voltage and power factor. HT
capacitor bank also compensate the losses occurring in the transmission lines.
Capacitor unit has one steel container, two bushings and several capacitor
elements enclosed in the unit. A single HV Capacitor may have a capacitance of 5
KVAr to 200 KVAr. Several identical units are mounted on Insulator racks and
connected in series parallel combination to obtain a High Voltage Capacitor Bank.

Before commissioning, megger the capacitor bank between phases and earth.
The megger reading for individual capacitor should not be less than 50 M. For
more than one unit in parallel, minimum acceptable megger value can be derived
by dividing 50 M by the number of units connected in parallel. Before switching
on capacitor, bus voltage, system incoming load current and power factor can be
noted. After energising, check that capacitor draws almost balance current in all
the 3 phases and is near to its rated value. Note the change in bus voltage, load
current and system power factor. Normally after capacitors are energised, there
will be little rise in bus voltage and some reduction in system load current and
improvement in power factor. In case load current increases instead of reducing, it
shows that capacitors connected are more than required for the load and in this
case the power factor shall be leading.

When Residual voltage factor (RVT) is used for unbalance protection, measure
open delta voltage, which should be negligible. In case, capacitors are connected
in double star with neutral CT, the current on the secondary side of neutral CT can
be measured, which should also be negligible.



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Protection of Capacitor bank:

1) Fuse is provided for each capacitor in the bank. The fuses shall be external
type for 11 KV capacitor bank. The capacitor unit together with external fuse shall
be arranged in such a way to avoid bird faults by providing adequate clearance
between the body and the line terminal. Capacitor bank of voltage level more than
11 KV is provided with internal fuse type. In case of fault, the faulty element will
automatically go out of circuit.
2) Discharge resistors are provided within the capacitor unit to ensure safety after
de-energisation of capacitor (To reduce the residual voltage from crest value of
rated voltage to 50 volts or less within 5 minutes). The power loss in these
resistors is negligible.
3) Each capacitor bank is protected against lightning by gapless zinc oxide
arrester.
4) The capacitor protection equipment include over current, earth leakage and
protection to detect unbalance loading due to abnormal conditions.

Maintenance of Capacitors: -

Capacitors should be allowed to discharge through the discharge device provided
for the purpose before working on them. Never discharge capacitor by short-
circuiting its terminals, as it can get damaged this way. Following maintenance is
carried out on capacitor bank:
1) Cleaning of bushings
2) Tightness of connections of capacitor bank, series reactor
3) Checking value of capacitance & discharge Resistors
4) Checking earthing connections and tightness
5) Checking of all protections (Relays)
6) Checking of capacitors units for any leakage.
7) Checking of oil BDV of series reactor and NCT/RVT.




26

6) POWER TRANSFORMER

Transformer is one of the most important equipments in a power transmission and
distribution system. It does stepping up or stepping down the voltage and transfer
power from one A.C. voltage to another A.C. Voltage at the same frequency.
Transformer has Primary & Secondary windings housed in main tank filled with
insulated oil. Oil is used for providing insulation as well as cooling of windings.
1) The capacity of Transformer is expressed in Volt-ampere (KVA / MVA)
2) The transformation ratio K (constant) = Vs/Vp = Ns/Np
Where Vp, Np denote primary voltage & turns respectively. And Vs, Ns denote
secondary voltage & turns respectively.
If K > 1, then transformer is called step-up transformer
If K < 1, then transformer is called step-down transformer
For an ideal transformer, Input VA = Output VA
i.e. Vp x Ip = Vs x Is or Is/Ip = Vp/Vs = 1/K (where Ip & Is are Primary and
secondary current respectively). Hence currents are in the inverse ratio of the
(voltage) transformation ratio.

To calculate current of Primary & Secondary winding of 132 / 33 KV, 50 MVA
Transformer:-
a) Primary Current in amp = Ip = VA / 3 x Vp, where Vp & Ip are primary voltage
and current respectively.
Hence Ip = (50 x 10*6) / (3 x 132 x 10*3) = 218.69 Amp
b) Secondary Current = Is = VA / 3 x Vs, where Vs & Is are secondary voltage
and current respectively.
Hence Is = (50 x 10*6) / (3 x 33 x 10*3) = 874.77 Amp







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General view of Power Transformer :-



Main fixtures of Power Transformer and their functions are listed below: -

a) Buchholz Relay - This relay is designed to detect transformer internal fault in
the initial stage to avoid major breakdown. Internal fault in transformer generates
gases by decomposition of oil due to heat & spark inside the tank. These gases
pass upward towards the conservator tank, trapped in the housing of the relay,
thereby causing the oil level to fall. The upper float rotates & switches contacts
close & thus giving alarm.

In case of a serious fault, gas generation is more, which causes operation of lower
float & trips the circuit breaker. The gas can be collected from a small valve at the
top of relay for Dissolved Gas Analysis (DGA).




28

Checking the floats operation manually: -
a) Close the both valves. (From Transformer and main conservator side)
b) Drain oil from the buchholz relay.
c) Top float makes contact as the oil gets lowered and gives Alarm.
d) If oil is further drained, bottom float makes contact and gives trip signal.
After testing, both valves must be opened without fail and released the air from
relay. Alarm & Trip circuit can also checked by shorting contacts externally by link.

b) Oil Surge Relay - It is similar to Buchholz relay with some changes. It has only
one float & operates when oil surges reach and strike the float of OSR. It is used
with OLTC for detection of any damage or fault inside the tap changer and
prevents tap changer from damages in case of low oil level in OLTC tank.

Checking the float operation manually: -
a) This relay can be checked by pressing test switch provided on top side. Here
only one contact is provided which gives trip signal on operation of float. By
shorting contact externally by link, trip circuit can also be checked.

c) Explosion Vent - It consists of a bent pipe with bakelite diaphragm at both
ends. A protective wire mesh is fitted on the opening of transformer to prevent the
pieces of ruptured diaphragm from entering the tank. The wire mesh is also
provided at the upper end to protect upper diaphragm from any mechanical
damages. At the lower end, there is a small oil level indicator. When the lower
diaphragm ruptures due to excess internal pressure, the oil level rises in the vent
pipe & is visible through the indicator. In case the internal pressure developed is
not reduced to safe value after the bursting of lower diaphragm, upper diaphragm
gives away throwing the gas and oil outside and prevents further mechanical
damages.




29

d) Pressure Relief Valve - When the pressure in the tank rises above pre-
determined safe limit, this valve operates & performs the following functions: -
1) Allows the pressure to drop by instantaneously opening the port.
2) Gives visual indication of valve operation by raising a flag.
3) Operates a micro switch, which gives trip command to breaker.

Checking the PRV operation manually: -
a) The operation of PRV can be done by lifting the plunger (Plunger operates
switch). By shorting contact externally by link, trip circuit can also be checked.

e) Oil Temperature Indicator - It is dial type thermometer, works on the vapour
pressure principle. The bulb, which is known as Probe is exposed to the
temperature to be measured, is connected by a length of flexible tubing to a
borden gauge tube, which is known as 'operating bellow'. This bellow is filled with
a volatile liquid. The change in bulb temperature causes change in the vapour
pressure of the liquid & pointer moving on a dial calibrated in degree centigrade
indicates the consequent movement of the operating bellow. It has two pair of
contacts, one for Alarm & another for Trip. In general, oil temperature alarm is set
at 80- 85 C and oil temperature tripping is set at 85- 90 C.

Checking the OTI operation manually: -
a) The operation of OTI can be checked by tilting the float position. The first float
S1 is used for alarm and another float S2 is for trip signal.
Alarm & Trip circuit can also checked by shorting contacts externally by link.

f) Winding Temperature Indicator - It is also similar to OTI but has some
changes. It consists of a probe fitted with 2 capillaries. Capillaries are connected
with two separate bellows (operating/compensating). These bellows are
connected with temperature indicator. Operating bellow is surrounded by heater
coil, which gets current from one WTI CT, when load on transformer increases,
corresponding current passes to the heater coil mounted on operating bellow. The
heater coil heats the operating bellow, which is filled with volatile liquid.


30

Due to this heat, vapour pressure of volatile liquid increases hence WTI shows
more temperature as compared to OTI. There are four mercury switches, 1
contact for Alarm, 2 for Trip circuit and 3 for cooler control and 4 as a spare.
In general, winding temperature alarm is set at 85- 90 C and winding
temperature tripping is set at 90- 95 C. The fan Auto ON operation is set at 60
C and Fan auto OFF is set at 55 C.

Checking the WTI operation manually: -
a) The operation of Winding Temperature Indicator can be done by tilting the float
position. The first float S1 is used for alarm and another float S2 is for trip signal.
Fan auto operation can also be checked by float movement. Alarm / Trip circuit
can also be checked by shorting contacts externally by link.

g) Conservator - As expansion and contraction occurs in transformer main tank,
consequently the same phenomena takes place in conservator as it is connected
to main tank through a pipe. Conservator communicates with the atmosphere
through a breather, incorporating a dehydrator, which is connected to the breather
pipe. Other end of this pipe opens at the top in the conservator, just below the
conservator upper wall.

h) Breather - This is a special air filter incorporating a dehydrating material,
called, Silica Gel. It is used to prevent the ingress of moisture and contaminated
air into conservator. It consists of an inner metal cylinder filled with silica gel. Both
ends of this cylinder are enclosed by wire mesh screen. This cylinder is enclosed
in an outer casing of cast iron. Casing has 2 parts. The upper part is cover; where
as lower part is attached with an oil seal. When transformer breathes in, the air
enters which passes into the oil seal. The contamination, if any, is observed in this
oil. Then air passes through silica gel, where the moisture, if any, is observed by
the silica gel and pure and dry air goes to conservator tank of transformer. Normal
colour of Silica Gel is blue. If it turns to pink, then Silica Gel is to be reactivated /
replaced by fresh Gel.


31

i) Oil Level Indicator - It is also known as magnetic oil gauge (MOG). It has a pair
of magnet. The metallic wall of conservator tank separates magnets without any
through hole. Magnetic field comes out and it is used for indication. This
eliminates any chances of leakage. The driving magnet rotates and acquires the
position corresponding to height of oil level, as it is linked with a float. The float is
hinged & swings up and down with oil level. This rise or fall rotates driving magnet
with the help of bevel gear and pinion. Follower (Driven) magnet moves
accordingly and operates a pointer & a cam. The pointer reads oil level & cam is
set to operate a mercury switch to give low oil alarm as per the oil position.

Checking the MOG operation manually: -
a) Operation of MOG can be done by tilting the float position which gives alarm
signal. Alarm circuit can also checked by shorting contacts externally by link.

j) Radiators - Small Transformers are provided with welded cooling tubes or
pressed sheet steel radiators. But large transformers are provided with detachable
radiators plus valves. For additional cooling, exhaust fans are provided on
radiators. The hot oil in main tank goes up and enters in the radiators. After
cooling in radiators, either by natural air or forced air, oil again goes to main tank
from the lower valve and circulates continuously.

k) Bushings It comprises a central conductor surrounded by graded insulation.
Bushing is necessary when a conductor is taken out through metallic tank or wall.
Oil filled bushing is used for 33 KV applications. For making bushing compact,
synthetic resin bonded condenser bushing is used for 33 and 66 KV applications.
For 132 KV & above voltages, oil impregnated paper condenser bushing is used.
It consists of a central conductor surrounded by alternate layers of insulating
paper & tin foil. The capacitor formed by alternate layers of tin foil and paper
insulation results in uniform electric stress distribution between conductor surface
and earthed flange. The bushing core is coated with suitable resin.


32

The assembly is enclosed in hollow porcelain and is provided with support flange
and top hood. The porcelain is filled with oil.

Creepage Distance (CD) It is the shortest distance between two conductive
parts along the surface of the insulating material. CD requirement depends upon
rated phase to ground voltage and degree of atmospheric pollution.

Degree of Pollution Recommended Min. CD
1) Clean area 16 mm / KV
2) Moderately polluted area 20 mm / KV
3) Industrial area 22 mm / KV
4) Heavily polluted/coastal area 25 mm / KV

l) Tap Changer - As load on the transformer increases, secondary terminal
voltage decreases. To maintain the secondary voltage, tap changers are used.
Tap changers are connected with H.V. winding (Primary winding).
Therefore in tap changers transformer, there are two windings in H.V. side, 1)
Main winding and 2) Tap winding. There are two types of tap changers.

A) Off Load Tap Changer - In this type, before moving the selector, transformer
is made OFF from both ends. Such tap changers have fixed brass contacts,
where taps are terminated. The moving contacts are made of brass in the shape
of either roller or segment.

B) On Load Tap Changer - In short we call it as OLTC. In this, taps can be
changed manually by mechanical or electrical operation without making off the
transformer. For mechanical operation, interlocks are provided for non-operation
of O.L.T.C. below lowest tap position and above highest tap position. Similarly for
electrical operation, limit switches are provided in circuit for non-operation of tap
change below lowest tap position and above highest tap position. For mechanical
operation, one hand interlock switch is provided in the circuit.


33

As soon as we insert handle, hand interlock switch opens out the electrical circuit
and no one can operate O.L.T.C. electrically.

RTCC (Remote tap change control cubicle) is used for tap changing by manually
or automatically through Automatic Voltage Relay (AVR) which is set +/- 5% of
110 Volt (Reference taken from secondary side PT voltage). During Auto tap
changing, Bell / Hooter will ring up thus gives information to substation operator
for tap changing.
Transition resistances are used in OLTC for avoiding momentarily interruption of
power supply during tap changing. At the time of tap changing, load current
passes through the transition resistances & no power interruption occurs during
tap changing.

Transformer Tap: - Tapping is provided in Primary winding. Hence by changing
the tapping, we can change secondary voltage as per requirement.
The transformer equation is: - V2/V1 = N2/N1
i.e. V2 = (N2 x V1)/N1
There is an Inverse relationship exists between secondary voltage & primary
turns. When primary turns are decreased i.e. Tap position is shifted from 3 to 4,
secondary voltage gets increased and if primary turns are increased i.e. Tap
position is shifted from 4 to 3, then secondary voltage gets decreased.

Parallel Operation of Transformers:

Before paralleling two or more transformers, the four principal characteristics of
those transformers should match as given below:
1) Same voltage ratio
2) Same percentage impedance
3) Same polarity
4) Same vector group



34

If two transformers of same output operating in parallel, the % impedance must be
identical, if Transformers are to share equally. If % impedance is not identical,
suppose T/F 'A' is having 4% impedance and T/F 'B' is having 2% impedance,
then load sharing will be,
Load A = L x ( Z2 / Z1+Z2 ) Where L is total combined output
Load B = L x ( Z1 / Z1+Z2 ) and Z is percentage impedance

So that A transformer will share only 1/3rd load & B transformer will share 2/3rd
load. Hence operating transformers in parallel, the output of the smallest
transformer should not be less than 1/3rd of the output of largest one.

When operating two transformers in parallel, one of the RTCC panels is kept on
Master mode and another one is kept on Follower mode so that simultaneously
tap changing is possible on both transformers. If transformers are not running
parallel, the control switch is kept on Independent Mode i.e. both transformers
taps can be separately changed.

Site Testing of Transformer:

1) Insulation Resistance Test
a) Between HV & Earth.
b) Between LV & Earth.
c) Between HV & LV by suitable range of megger.

2) Voltage Ratio Test - This test is essential to check the output or the secondary
voltage on each tap position. By virtue of this test the problems in the OLTC can
be easily detected. 3 Phase, 440 V LT supply is applied to the primary side of the
transformer and the output volts at the secondary side for each tap position is
measured. If any break in voltage reading is observed during change of tap
position, then there is some problem in that particular tap.



35

3) Magnetic Balance Test - This test is carried out to check the balancing of the
induced voltages in the windings & flux distribution. Transformer is kept on normal
tap position and 3 Phase, 440 V LT supply is applied to the primary windings as
given below:

1) YNyn0 Transformer: - First the voltage is applied between R & N. Voltage will
be induced in between YN and BN. Voltages are noted & will be observed that:

In Primary side: - V RN = V YN + V BN = 2/3 + 1/3
On Secondary side: - V rn = V yn + V bn = 2/3 + 1/3

If the voltage readings on secondary are observed as above, then it can be
assumed that the flux distribution is balanced & proper. If the magnetic balance is
not correct, readings will be different and typical noise will be observed. This will
indicate that there is some problem in the core of the transformer.

Again apply voltage to YN, the result will be:

In Primary side: - V YN = V BN + V RN = 1/2 + 1/2
On Secondary side: - V yn = V bn + V rn = 1/2 + 1/2

Similarly apply voltage to BN, the result will be:

In Primary side: - V BN = V YN + V RN = 2/3 + 1/3
On Secondary side: - V bn = V yn + V rn = 2/3 + 1/3

Note: - In case of Dyn11 Transformer, voltage is applied on primary side between
first R and Y terminals (R Phase winding), next Y and B terminals (Y Phase
winding), and B and R terminals (B Phase winding). Result will be same as
mentioned above for YNyno Transformer.





36

4) Vector Group Test - This test is carried out to check correctness of windings
connections. The Phase angle difference arises out of the internal connections of
the windings. A star / star transformer having the similar vector diagram for
primary and secondary side can be connected in two different ways internally.

In the first case there is 0 displacement between primary and secondary whereas
in the second case there is 180 displacement. In addition to this, a +30 or 30
displacement is possible in a 3 phase transformer when the vector diagram is
different i.e. delta/star OR star/delta type.

For parallel operation, secondaries must have same phase angle displacement
with respect to their primaries so that there may be no phase difference between
the terminals of the secondaries themselves.

A three-digit vector symbol is adopted to designate the vector group.
a) First letter in capital represents Primary winding connection - D: Delta & Y: Star
b) Second letter in small represents Secondary winding connection - d: Delta and
y: Star
c) Third digit represents the phase displacement between the primary and
secondary.

The convention employed is to describe it by the hour in a clock in which the HT
voltage is represented by the minute hand set to 12 o'clock position, and the LT
voltage is represented by the hour hand. Since 12 hours represents 360of a full
circle, each hour represents a 30 phase difference. Thus 0 represents no phase
difference, 1 stands for minus 30, 6 for 180 and 11 for plus 30 displacement
as referred to the standard counter clockwise vector rotation.






37

Vector Group Testing at the time of Commissioning or on repaired Job:

1) YNyn0 Transformer: - Keep the transformer on normal tap position. Short R &
r of windings. Apply 3 Phase L.T. voltage to primary windings. Measure voltages
on the secondary side.
R, r
R r
n n
b y
b y N
B Y B Y
Primary Secondary Vector Representation

Following conditions are to be satisfied:
a) V RN = V Nn + V rn b) V Bb = V Yy


2) Dyn11 Transformer: - Keep the transformer on normal tap position. Short R &
r of windings. R,r
R r y
n
n b

b y B Y
B Y
Primary Secondary Vector Representation


Apply 3 Phase L.T. voltage to primary windings. Measure voltages on the
secondary side. Following conditions are to be satisfied:
a) V Bb < V By b) V Yb = V Yy





38

5) Magnetizing Current Test - When a Power Transformer is charged, it is
generally presumed that it is to be charged on NO LOAD condition because it
draws magnetizing current containing high harmonics. Transformer may trip on
differential protection if it is not provided harmonic restraint protection. This current
inrush is due to the iron losses of the transformer. This current should be equal in
all three phases so that there would not be any spill current in the relay to trip the
primary circuit breaker of the transformer. The test is carried out at normal tap
position.

Apply 3 Phase L.T. voltage to primary windings through ammeters (ma)
connected in series of windings and keeping secondary winding open. It would be
seen that the current drawn by all the three phases would be same. The current is
drawn on account of the magnetizing of the core. (Iron loss) It can also be called
as no load current when the transformer is charged with rated primary voltage
applied across the primary, keeping secondary open.

6) Short Circuit Current Test Short circuit test is carried out to check the
healthiness of windings. Apply 3 Phase L.T. voltages to primary windings &
secondary windings are shorted through ammeters of suitable range. If the
readings are equal in all three phases, transformer is supposed to be healthy.

Actually here the term % Impedance" comes into picture.
The reduced voltage required to be applied across the primary of a transformer to
cause rated full load current to flow through this winding when secondary winding
is shorted, is known as impedance voltage. It is expressed as a percentage of the
rated voltage of former winding. In this case current flowing through secondary is
the full load current & is indicative of the copper losses.






39

7) Oil Test - The oil is used as insulation between windings & core and between
windings & tank. Without oil, the paper insulation of the windings could be
punctured early which in turn will result in failure of transformer. The oil facilitates
cooling of the windings and magnetic circuits. The oil protects windings and core
of transformer from the absorption of moisture. The test on oil is divided into two
different categories.

1) Physico chemical Testing: -

a) Density - It indicates the type of transformer oil whether paraffin base or
naphtha base.

b) Kinematics Viscosity - The oil should circulate freely in the equipment to
maximize heat transfer. A low viscosity oil fulfils this need. Viscosity of oil
increases because of oxidation taking place at all times. If viscosity increases by
15%, then oil needs replacement.

c) Flash Point Flash point is a minimum temperature at which oil will support
instantaneous combustion (flash) but before it burns continuously. Flash point of
new oil should be fairly high.

d) Pour Point - It is the indicator of the ability of oil to flow at cold operating
conditions. It is the lowest temperature at which the fluid will flow when cooled
under prescribed conditions.

e) Neutralization Value - This indicates the presence of combined acids i.e.
organic & inorganic. The degradation of oil gives rise to acidic compounds and
formation of sludge. The acidity is given by its neutralization value, which indicates
the total acidity and is evaluated by milligrams of KOH per gram of oil. Acidity
content in oil should be low.




40

f) Water Contents - It is expressed in parts per million (ppm). Dielectric strength
of oil is very high when water content is low.

g) Inter Facial Tension - It is a measure of the molecular attractive force between
their unlike molecules at the interface. When oil oxidizes, the organic acid thus
produced are concentrated at the placing a drop and used oil on water surface,
water is spread rapidly over the surface in contrast to a new oil, which may float
as a lens on the water. It is considered that IFT gives an indication of degree of
slugging of oil as dissolved impurities in the oil tends to diffuse into the water,
which lowers the IFT.

2) Electrical Testing: -

a) Dielectric Strength - The BDV of oil is its ability to withstand electric stresses
without failure.

b) Resistivity - It is the measure of electrical insulating properties of oil. High
resistivity reflects low content of free flowing particles.

c) Dielectric Dissipation Factor (Tan ) - It is a measure to the ratio of the power
dissipated in the oil to the product of effective voltage and current. It is tangent of
loss angle & expressed in unit or percent. It determines the cleanliness of oil & is
related to aging characteristic of the oil.




41

Standard Values of New Oil as per IS : 335-1983










































S/No. Characteristics Standard Values
1 Breakdown Value
a) > 145 KV 60 KV (min.)
b) 72.5 to 145 KV 50 KV (min.)
c) < 72.5 KV 40 KV (min.)
2 Dissipation Factor at 90C
(Tan)
0.05
3 Specific Resistance at 90C 1 X 10 * 12 (-cm)
4 Water content ppm
a) > 145 KV 15 ppm (max.)
b) 72.5 to 145 KV 20 ppm (max.)
c) < 72.5 KV 25 ppm (max.)
5 Inter Facial Tension 0.03 N/m (min.)
6 Density 0.89 g/cu.cm (min.)
7 Flash Point 140C (max.)
8 Pour Point - 6C (max.)
9 Total Acidity Test 0.03 mg KOH/g
(max.)


42

Dissolved Gas Analysis (DGA): - Transformer, in operation, is subjected to
various thermal and electrical stresses, resulting in liberation of gases from the oil
which is used as insulation media and coolant. The solid insulating materials like
paper, wooden support, pressboard, etc. cause degradation and form different
gases, which get dissolved in the oil. The most significant gases generated are
Hydrogen (H2), Methane (CH4), Ethylene (C2H4), Acetylene (C2H2), Propane
(C3H8), Propylene (C3H6), Carbon Monoxide (CO), Carbon Dioxide (CO2), and
Ethane (C2H6). The gas connected in the relay will help to identify the nature of
the fault. The greater the rate of gas collection, the more severe is the nature of
the developing fault.

Colour of the gas helps in finding the affected material.
Colour ------ Identification
White ----- Gas of decomposed paper and cloth insulation
Yellow ----- Gas of decomposed wood insulation
Grey ----- Gas of overheated oil due to burning of iron portion
Black ----- Gas of decomposed oil due to electric arc


Ratio Method used for Analysis of DGA results:-In this method three ratios of
gases are used. They are methane / hydrogen, ethylene / ethane, acetylene /
ethylene. If the ratio comes out more than one, it indicates abnormal deterioration
and less than one indicates normal aging.

Particulars C2H2/C2H4 CH4/H2 C2H4/C2H6
a) Less than 0.1 0 1 0
b) 0.1 to 1.0 1 0 0
c) 1.0 to 3.0 1 2 1
d) More than 3.0 2 2 2





43

Interpretation of the faults according to the observed ratios of Gases

Characteristic
Fault
Ratio Code Diagnosis

C2H2/C2H4 CH4/H2 C2H4/C2H6

No Fault 0 0 0 Normal Aging
Partial
Discharge of
low energy
density
0 1 0 Discharge in gas filled
cavities due to incomplete
impregnation
Partial
Discharge of
high energy
density
1 1 0 As above but leading to
tracking or perforation of
solid insulation
Discharge of
low energy
1 to 2 0 1 to 2 Continuous sparking in oil
between bad connections of
different potential or to
floating potential.
Breakdown of solid material
Discharge of
high energy
1 0 2 Discharge of power follow
through arcing, breakdown
of oil between winding or
between coils to earth
Thermal fault of
low temp. less
than 150C
0 0 1 General insulated conductor
overheating
Thermal fault
temp. 150 to
300C
0 2 0
Thermal fault
temp. 300 to
700C
0 2 1
Thermal fault
temp. > 700C
0 2 2
Local overheating of core
due to concentration of flux.
Increasing hot spot temp.;
varying from small hot spots
in core, shorting links in
core, overheating of copper
due to eddy currents, bad
contacts / joints (pyrolitic
carbon formation) up to core
and tank circulating
currents.








44

Actions during failure / tripping of Transformer
The action to be taken depends upon the size of the transformer, operation of
protective relay, whether tripping is accompanied by loud noise, smoke or
expulsion of oil from the transformer, etc. Observe the transformer external
condition; look for any damage to the bushings, leads or cable box. Note the
temperature of oil & check if the oil level in the conservator is right. Take megger
readings between primary and secondary and also of each to earth. If everything
is right, proceed as noted below:

- The failure may possibly be due to a sudden and heavy overload, or short-circuit.
If a DO fuse has dropped out, check if its ampere rating is right. If incorrect,
replace by the correct size and energise the transformer, after switching off the
load. If everything is all right, close the secondary circuit; if fuse blows again, the
fault is obviously in the outgoing lines, which should be traced and rectified; if on
the other hand, the primary circuit fuse blows out, even when the load is
disconnected, an internal fault is indicated. This also apply, if an over current relay
alone has operated and tripped the breaker.

- If a differential relay operates when a transformer is first switched on, it may be
due to a switching surge. Check the harmonic restraint circuit and setting. If, on
the other hand, relay operates when the transformer is in service, it is a sure
indication of an internal fault.

Any tripping of buchholz relay requires to be carefully looked into. If the lower
assembly has tripped due to sudden evolution of large quantities of gas, a major
internal fault is to be inferred especially if either over current or differential or earth
fault relay has operated. If, on the other hand, the upper assembly has operated
due to slow release of gas it is necessary to find out its composition before any
conclusions can be drawn. If it is air only, there is no cause for worry, as air can
enter into the transformer in many ways.



45

When transformer is commissioned, it sometimes happens that the buchholz
relay upper assembly operates, after a few hours of run, due to the release of air
bubbles entrapped within the windings, such as when hand filling is employed for
filling of oil into the tank. If the accumulated gas is not air, an incipient fault is
indicated.
DGA would help in identifying the nature of the fault, and this should be done as a
routine measure. If the buchholz relay has tripped, without any gas being given
out, it may be due to electrical fault in the wiring.

- Thorough checking is required if the earth fault relay has tripped, or there is an
evolution of smoke or oil, and also PRV has operated in case of large transformer.
In such cases reclosing of breaker should not be permitted as it may cause further
extensive damage. Detailed testing of transformer is to be carried out and
compare the results with test certificate figures and consult the manufacturer.

In most of the cases, the cause of the fault can be found out if you carefully
observe the condition of windings by lifting the core and coil assembly. The
following notes may be of help in identifying the cause:

Lightning discharge or over voltage: This is characterised by breakdown of the
end turns close to the line terminal. There may be a break in the turns or end lead,
and also flash marks on the end coil and earthed parts close to it, but the rest of
the coils will be found to be healthy.

Sustained overloads: The windings in one or all the phases would show signs of
overheating and charring; the insulation would be very brittle and have lost all its
elasticity.

Inter-turn short: The same signs as for sustained overloads would be noticed,
but only on one coil, the rest of the coils being intact.




46

Dead short-circuit: This can be identified by the unmistakable, lateral or axial
displacement of the coils. The coils may be loose on the core; some turns on the
outermost layer may have burst outwards and broken as if under tension. If, in
addition to these signs, the windings are also completely charred, it is conclusive
evidence that the short-circuit has continued for an appreciable period, not having
been cleared quickly by the protective relays.

Visual checking of Transformer: -
- Check the colour of silica gel. If it is pink, reactivate or replace it. Also ensure
proper quantity of oil in breather oil cup.
- Check oil level in Conservator of Main Tank & OLTC. It should be > level
marking.
- Check oil level in Bushings.
- Check for any oil leakage. Arrest leakages, if any.
- Check the working of OTI & WTI by taking hourly temperature readings. There
should be changes in readings as per loading of transformer and atmospheric
condition.
- Check the cooling system by making fans / pumps operation by manually.
- Check the tap position of RTCC panel and OLTC panel. It should have same
position number.
Check the humming noise & vibration of transformer. If any abnormality found, it is
to be referred to concerned manufacturer.










47

7) CONTROL & RELAY PANELS
Control or relay boards are built up by using requisite number of self-contained
sheet steel cubicles, comprising a front panel to carry the control apparatus & the
hinged or removable back cover to give access to interior wiring, cable
termination. This type is called as Simplex type panel. When panels are arranged
back to back in corridor formation, and door is then fitted at each end, are called
as Duplex panels. Depending upon the size of the substation the control and relay
board may incorporate the followings:
1) Indicating and metering instruments mounted on front.
2) Relays mounted on the backside in Duplex panel, flush mounting on front in
Simplex panel.
3) A mimic diagram representing main circuit connections is incorporated on the
front panel. It is a single line diagram incorporated on the front side of the control
panel. This diagram represents the actual physical position of various HT
electrical equipments in the sub-station yard along with status of equipments, ON
and OFF positions of various breakers and isolators through semaphore indication
or lamp indication.





48

4) The automatic semaphore indicators are used to denote position of switches.




5) Circuit Breaker control switch (TNC switch) is fitted on front. Normally switch is
on Normal (Centre) position. Handle is moved to the right or left to initiate close or
trip operations.
6) Indication lamps mounted for various purposes follow a standard colour code.
Red - C.B. or switch CLOSED
Green - C.B. or switch OPEN
White - Trip circuit healthy
Amber - Alarm indication i.e. CBs tripped on fault
7) Annunciation System It gives alarm in case of any abnormality in the system.
Alarm bell rings and appropriate facia lamp flashes ON & OFF. Substation
operator has to ACCEPT the signal by pressing a button, which silences the bell
and causes the lamp to show a steady light. After taking remedial action, the
operator RESETS the alarm circuit by pressing another push button, the lamp
being simultaneously extinguished.





49

Colours for Internal Wiring

Red - Phase connection, either directly connected to the primary circuit or
Connected to secondary circuit of CT and PT
Yellow - Phase connection, either directly connected to the primary circuit or
Connected to secondary circuit of CT and PT
Blue - Phase connection, either directly connected to the primary circuit or
Connected to secondary circuit of CT and PT
Black - A.C. neutral connection, Star point connections of secondary circuit
of CT and PT, and connections in A.C. and D.C. circuit
Green - Connections to earth
Grey - Connections in D.C.circuit

Each wire should have a letter to denote its function. D.C. supply from +ve source
should bear odd number & from -ve source should bear even number.

CT Secondary Terminal S2 of all protection & metering cores are shorted in CT
junction box. Only one common wire of S2 along with S1 wires of all 3 phases
CTs are brought to CRP. Earthing of S2 wires is done at one end. (preferably at
CRP end)

In substation, various drawings are available namely:

a) Wiring Drawing: The routing of wires from various equipments in a control and
relay panel is shown in this drawing. The route of the particular wire as per its
purpose of application can be traced easily while attending any faults in the
particular circuit.
For reading of drawing it should be kept in mind that drawing is prepared
when isolator & breaker positions are OFF & spring of the breaker mechanism is
in deenergised condition.


50

b) Schematic Drawing: This drawing is a representation of various circuits such
as metering, protection, control, indication, annunciation, etc. in a control and
relay panels.
c) Layout Drawing: This drawing shows arrangement of various indoor and
outdoor equipments in a particular installation in a sequential order.

Common Ferrule Numbers used in wirings

A: CT secondary connection for primary protection like Differential, Distance,
REF Relay). Small a used for PT secondary connection in PT terminal box.
B: Bus bar Protection (CT secondary connection). B for B phase indication.
C: Back up Protection (CT secondary connection for O/C & E/F Relay).
D: Metering (CT secondary connection).
E: Metering & Protection (PT secondary connection).
H: A.C. connection.
J: D.C. connection (Before Fuse).
K: D.C. connection for control (After Fuse).
L: D.C. connection for Indication (After Fuse).
M: Motor Supply (Spring charging Motor in Circuit Breaker).
N: RTCC (Tap Changer) connection. Also for denoting A.C. Neutral connection.
P: PT primary connection & DC circuit of Bus bar protection scheme.
R: R Phase Indication.
S: CT secondary connection in Terminal Box.
U: Circuit Breaker auxiliary contacts.
X: TB Numbering.
Y: Y Phase Indication.









51


8) STATION TRANSFORMER

This is a small distribution transformer located in the substation premises. It has
given protection through proper rating of D.O.Fuse. Incoming HT supply to the
transformer is tapped from LT bus of substation through Isolator. The output
voltage 440 Volt is terminated to ACDB through LT cables. The main purpose of
station transformer in substation is to provide auxiliary supply to various
equipments through A.C. Distribution Board (ACDB) via MCBs or Switch Fuse
units:

1) A.C. supply is used for battery charger, which converts A.C. to D.C. supply for
charging the batteries and parallel provides D.C. source for various controls of
substation equipments. In case of A.C. supply failure, batteries will take care of
D.C. supply continuity for equipments controls.

2) A.C. supply is used for OLTC for tap changing operation of transformer and
also cooling arrangement of transformer.

3) A.C. supply is used for spring charging mechanism of breakers.

4) A.C. supply is used for Office and Yard Illumination.

5) A.C. supply is used for Oil filtration, some miscellaneous welding work, and
Test supply for carrying out testing of various equipments in switchyard.










52

9) BATTERIES & BATTERY CHARGER

For controlling various operations of substation equipments, suitable D.C. supply
is required. In battery charger panel, A.C. 1 phase or 3 phases is given, which
converts A.C. to D.C. supply. This D.C. supply is given to various control panels of
substation and for charging the batteries through D.C.Distribution Board. (DCDB)
In case of A.C. supply failure, batteries provide D.C. supply for controlling the
operations of substation equipments in normal or abnormal conditions.
Battery capacity is expressed in Ampere Hours which is the useful quantity of
electricity that can be taken from a battery at the specified rate of discharge before
its cell voltage falls to the specified value, which is equal to 1.75 volts multiplied by
the number of cells. Ampere hours is equal to the product of the specified
discharge current in amperes multiplied by the number of hours before the battery
discharges to the specified extent.

Precautions / Maintenance: -
- Batteries should be cleaned regularly.
- Cell voltages & Specific gravity is to be recorded as per schedule.
- Batteries should be charged in a well-ventilated place, so that the gases and the
acid fumes are blown away.
- Do not disturb any connection with charger on, as there is risk of sparking.
- If acid or electrolyte gets spattered into the eyes, wash them immediately with
large quantity of clean, cold water.
- Tighten connections periodically. Apply petroleum jelly to terminals to prevent
corrosion.
- Maintain level of the electrolyte Add only the distilled water. Add electrolyte
only if some of the electrolyte spills out.






53

10) MEASURING INSTRUMENTS

a) Voltmeter: - Voltage in an AC circuit is measured by voltmeter. The voltmeter
is connected across the load or winding. For high voltage, voltage transformer is
necessary to step down the voltage for measurement. Voltmeter is connected
across the secondary circuit of PT. Voltmeter can be replaced on line by removing
fuses or keeping voltmeter selector switch in OFF position.

b) Ammeter: - Current in a circuit is measured by ammeter connected in series of
current path. If current is high, suitable current transformer (CT) is necessary to
step down current for measurement. Ammeter is connected in series of secondary
circuit of CT. Ammeter can be replaced by shorting CT secondary wires or
keeping ammeter selector switch in OFF position.

c) Energy Meter: -The Power in electrical circuit is measured by energy meter.
Energy is the total power consumed over a certain period and is measured in
kilowatt-hour (KWH). One kilowatt-hour is equal to the energy consumed when
power is utilized at the rate of one kilowatt for one hour. The term unit used for
expressing consumption of electrical energy is equal to one kilowatt-hour, and all
tariffs for energy consumption are based on this unit. A registering mechanism in
the energy meter indicates the total energy consumption. Energy meters will
record correctly, if connections are made with due care to the polarity and the
terminal markings. Energy meters can be changed or replaced while in service by
use of T.T.B. (Test terminal block). In TTB, CT secondary can be shorted during
removal of Meter (avoiding open circuit of CT secondary) & PT supply can be
made OFF by disconnecting type arrangement or by removing fuses. Energy
meter records Import / Export energy parameters.
Import parameters are displayed by arrow in direction and Export parameters
in direction.




54

POWER TRIANGLE


Apparent Power Reactive Power
KVA (S) KVAr (Q)



Active Power
KW (P)

Power Factor = Cos = (Active Power) / (Apparent Power)

Active Power: The actual amount of power that produces the effective work is
called active or real power. It is measured in Watts.

Reactive Power: The power drawn by reactive load such as Capacitors and
Inductors in a system is called reactive power. It is measured in VAr (Volt amp
reactive).

Apparent Power: The total power demanded by the load is the product of current
and voltage. This power is referred as apparent power. It is measured in VA (Volt
amp).

Multiplication Factor of Energy Meter:

M.F. = [(Feeder CTR x PTR) / (Meter CTR x PTR)]

Case 1: - a) Feeder CTR = 600/1 A, Feeder PTR = 33000/110 V
b) Meter CTR = 300/1 A, Meter PTR = 33000/110 V
[(600/1) x (33000/110)]
M.F. of Energy Meter = ----------------------------- = 2
[(300/1) x (33000/110)]





55

Case 2: - a) Feeder CTR = 100/1 A, Feeder PTR = 33000/110 V
b) Meter CTR = 400/1 A, Meter PTR = 33000/110 V
[(100/1) x (33000/110)]
M.F. of Energy Meter = ----------------------------- = 0.25
[(400/1) x (33000/110)]

A Typical SECURE Energy Meter connection is shown below



































R
P
H
A
S
E
C
T
s
1
SECURE MAKE
3 Phase 4 Wi re Energy Meter
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
M1 R L1 L2 M3 B L3 N M2 Y
Y
P
H
A
S
E
C
T
s
1
B
P
H
A
S
E
C
T
s
1
R
P
H
A
S
E
C
T
s
2
Y
P
H
A
S
E
C
T
s
2
B
P
H
A
S
E
P
T
N
E
U
T
R
A
L
Y
P
H
A
S
E
P
T

B
P
H
A
S
E
C
T
s
2
R
P
H
A
S
E
P
T



56

d) Earth Tester: - Resistance of the earth pit E in following figure can be
measured directly with the help of an earth tester

Earth Tester











E P C
Electrode Potential Current
(Earth Pit) Electrode Electrode




E is the earth pit electrode under measurement; P & C are two auxiliary electrodes
of 15-20 mm diameter and 40 cm long bars. The electrode C1 is planted at a
distance of approx. 25 metres from E and P1 is fixed centrally between E and C1.
One reading of Pit resistance is taken by rotating handle of earth tester. Two more
readings are taken by shifting P1 a distance of 3 metres on either side of its
central position. The value is the resistance of Electrode E to the earth.

e) Insulation Tester (Megger): - Insulation resistance between an insulated
conductor (part) and earth is checked by megger. Phase conductor is connected
to the terminal marked Line on the megger and the terminal marked Earth is
connected to the earth continuity conductor or an efficient earth. The handle is
turned to indicate a steady reading on the instrument. A megger, with its handle
being turned gently, should record zero when its two leads are touched together,
and read infinity when its leads are held apart.

P1 P2



C1 C2


57

f) Oil Tester (BDV Tester): - Dielectric breakdown strength of transformer oil is
one of the most reliable tests for proving the condition of oil. Oil sampling is done
by taking due care. The glass bottle into which oil is drawn should be perfectly
clean, clear, transparent and dry. It should then be thoroughly rinsed with oil
known to be good. The sample of oil should drawn preferably be drawn from the
bottom of the transformer tank. As water is heavier than oil, it settles down at the
bottom. The first sample or two may be thrown away if it contains sludge or
droplets of water.
The gap between two electrodes is to be maintained / checked at 2.5 mm by
gauge and the test cup is cleaned properly. The cup is then filled with the sample
oil to be tested up to 1 cm above the electrodes. The cup top should then be
covered with a clean glass plate and allowed to rest for at least 5 minutes so that
all air bubbles may disappear. Any bubbles still standing on the surface may be
removed with a clean glass rod. Use thin rubber gloves if you can, so that the
sweat on your fingers may not cause any contamination of the oil. Carry out test
as per procedure until there is positive and final breakdown of the oil. The test is
carried out for six times on the same sample after a gap of at least 5 minutes. The
average of all six readings is the dielectric strength of oil under test.




















58

Some Important Numbers used with their meanings

2: Time Delay Relay or Timer
21: Distance Protection Relay
27: Under Voltage Relay
49: Winding Temperature Indicator
50/51: IDMT Over Current Relay with Instantaneous element
50/51N: IDMT Earth Fault Relay with Instantaneous element
52: AC Circuit Breaker
59: Over Voltage Relay
62: Pole Discrepancy Relay with timer
63: Gas Operated Relay (Buchholz Relay)
64R: Restricted Earth Fault Relay
67: Directional Over Current Relay
67N: Directional Earth Fault Relay
75: P.T. selection Relay
80: DC Supervision Relay
86: Master Trip / Locking Out Relay
87: Differential Relay
89: Line Switch / Isolator (Electrically Operated)
94: Anti-pumping Relay (For Breaker Control)
95: Trip Circuit Supervision Relay
96: Gas Pressure Relay (For Breaker Control)











59

Trouble Shooting Works: -


S/No. Probable Trouble Cause / Works to be attended
CT Circuits
1 Noise in CT - Open circuit of secondary circuit
- Loose connections in secondary
circuit
- Ammeter switch fault causing open
circuit in CT secondary

2 Ammeter is not recording - Ammeter may be faulty
- Ammeter switch is not making
contact

PT Circuits
1 Voltmeter not showing correct
reading
- Check fuses
- If above is OK, voltmeter may be
faulty
- Loose connections in PT circuit
2 Energy meters recording on
lesser side
- CT secondary circuit may be in
shorting position for one or two
phases
- PT circuit fuse may be blown
- Loose connections
- Energy meter may be faulty

D.C. Protection Circuits
1 Non working of trip healthy
indication
- Fusing of bulb or bulb may be fitted
loose
- Loose connections
- Resistance may be open circuited
- Misalignment of auxiliary contacts
of breaker
- D.C. fuse may be loose or blown off
- Trip coil is open
- Push button may be faulty








60

S/No. Probable Trouble Cause / Works to be attended
D.C. Protection Circuits
2 Non tripping of breaker - D.C. fuse may be loose or blown off
- Loose connections
- Trip coil is open or burnt
- Misalignment of auxiliary contacts
of breaker
- No free movement of plunger of trip
coil
- Mechanical trouble in breaker
- Trip switch or Push button may be
faulty
- Air pressure may be low in case of
pneumatic operated breaker. If low,
correct it
- Check the circuit as per circuit
diagram

3 Non closing of breaker - D.C. fuse may be loose or blown off
- Loose connections
- Close coil is open or burnt
- Misalignment of auxiliary contacts
of breaker
- No free movement of plunger of
close coil
- Mechanical trouble in breaker
- Spring might not have been
charged
- Non resetting of Master / Trip relay
- Non closing from remote end, if
Local / Remote switch on local
position
- Closing switch or Push button may
be faulty
- Check the circuit as per circuit
diagram

4 Tripping of breaker without
Indication
- Due to shorting of D.C Positive
- D.C. leakage






61

S/No. Probable Trouble Cause / Works to be attended
D.C. Protection Circuits
5 Mal-operation of Relay - Defect in relay or setting, If relay is
defective, relay needs to be replaced
- Wiring connection problem

6 Relay Flag not resetting - Mechanical defect in the flag
mechanism

7 Spring charging motor does not
start
- Either loose fitting of fuse and link
or blowing of fuse
- Loose connections
- Failure of A.C. or D.C. supply
- Misalignment or defective limit
switch of Spring charging mechanism
- Defective motor

Annunciation Circuits
1 Non working of Bell - Either loose fitting of fuse and link
or blowing of fuse
- Loose connections
- Burning of Bell coil
- Disturbance in bell adjustment
- Aux. relay provided may not
working
- Sealing (hold on) supply getting to
the aux. relay through accept push
button might have disconnected due
to faulty accept push button

2 Continuous ringing of Bell - D.C. leakage
- Disturbance in aux. relay contacts
adjustment

3 Non resetting of Bell - Accept push button faulty
- D.C. leakage
- Aux. relay faulty

4 Non resetting of Indication - Reset push button faulty
- D.C. leakage






62

S/No. Probable Trouble Cause / Works to be attended
Indication Circuits
1 Lamp not indicating for breaker
ON-OFF position
- Either loose fitting of fuse and link
or blowing of fuse
- Lamp may be loose fitted or fusing
of lamps
- Loose connections
- Defective aux. switch contacts of
breaker

2 Semaphore not working - Either loose fitting of fuse and link
or blowing of fuse
- Semaphore coil might have burnt
- Loose connections
- Defective aux. switch contacts of
breaker or Isolator/Earth switch, as
applicable





























63

Safety Electrical Clearances: -

Most of the equipments in a substation are provided with sufficient insulation from
breaking down. There is a need for assurance that the breakdown or flashover will
not occur to the operating personnel and some safe distance is to be maintained.
Clearances are broadly categorized as below.

a) Phase to earth clearance: - Equipment phase to earth clearance depends on
the type of insulation material used. While equipment bushings take care of
external clearances, the insulating material inside the equipment like oil, SF6, and
vacuum take care of earth clearance internally.

b) Phase to phase clearance: - It is the clearance between two conductors
charged electrically. Sufficient phase-to-phase clearance has to be provided in air
to prevent flash over & breakdown of air insulation. This clearance is one of the
factors in deciding bay width in substations.

c) Section clearance: - This clearance is required from point of safety to
operating personnel. It is distance between two sections of a substation that
enables a person to work on one section of a substation, in a safe manner, that
the phase to earth clearance is maintained between the live point and the
approach of the working personnel with sufficient margin.

d) Ground clearance: - It is a distance between ground level and bottom of any
insulator in an outdoor substation.
Standard Safe Clearances

Voltage (KV) 33
KV
66 KV 110 KV 220 KV 400 KV
BIL (KVp) 170 325 550 1050 1425
Ph-Earth Clearance (Cm) 32 63 115 240 350
Ph-Ph Clearance (Cm) 40 75 135 210 410
Ph-Ground Clearance
(Mtr)
3.7 4.0 4.6 5.5 8.0
Section Clearance (Mtr) 2.8 3.0 3.5 4.3 6.5


64

Indian Electricity Rule 77
A) Clearance from Ground to lowest conductor of Electric Overhead Line:
a) Across any street:-
1. Low and medium voltage lines - 5.795 Metres
2. High voltage lines - 6.100 Metres
b) Along any street:-
1. Low and medium voltage lines - 5.490 Metres
2. High voltage lines - 5.795 Metres
c) Elsewhere than along or across street :-
1. Below and up to 11 KV (Bare conductor) - 4.575 Metres
2. As above for insulated conductor - 3.965 Metres
3. Above 11 KV - 5.185 Metres
4. EHV line - 5.185 Metres + 0.3 Metres for
every additional 33 KV or part
thereof by which the voltage of the
line exceed 33 KV.
Maximum 6.096 Metres

Indian Electricity Rule 87
Where an overhead line crosses or is in proximity to another overhead line,
guarding arrangement shall be provided so as to guard against the possibility of
their coming into contact with each other.
Minimum clearances in metres between lines when crossing each other:

S/No. Nominal System
Voltage
11- 66
KV
110 132
KV
220
KV
400 KV
1 Low & Medium 2.44 3.05 4.58 5.49
2 11 66 KV 2.44 3.05 4.58 5.49
3 110 132 KV 3.05 3.05 4.58 5.49
4 220 KV 4.58 4.58 4.58 5.49
5 400 KV 5.49 5.49 5.49 5.49




65

Technical Data of some common used Line Conductors (ACSR)

Conductor Area Stranding & wire diameter
(mm)
Calculated Current
(Sq.Inch) Aluminium Steel D.C. Rating
No. Dia. No. Dia. Resistance with
(Ohm/Km) 1 mph
Wind
Speed

Rabbit 0.050 6 3.35 1 3.35 0.54490 200
Dog 0.100 6 4.72 7 1.57 0.27450 305
Coyote 0.125 26 2.54 7 1.90 0.22140 380
Panther 0.200 30 3.00 7 3.00 0.13750 510
Moose 0.500 54 3.53 7 3.53 0.05517 880































66

Earthing for EHV Substation: -

One of the important aspects in the operation of the protective equipment is
proper earthing. By earthing, it means making a connection to the general mass of
the earth. Earthing also increases the reliability of the supply service as it helps to
provide stability of voltage conditions, prevent excessive voltage peaks during
disturbances and also as a means of providing a measure of protection against
lightning. For outdoor substation, a main earthing ring should be provided round
the substation which should be connected to all earth electrodes. The ring should
be laid so as to have shortest connection from transformers, circuit breakers etc.

Types of Earthing: - It can be divided into Neutral earthing & Equipment earthing.

a) Neutral Earthing deals with the earthing of system neutral to ensure that
neutral points are held at earth potential and return path is available to neutral
current.
Points to be earthed: Transformer neutral is to be earthed to two separate and
distinct earth electrodes interconnected with substation earth mat.

b) Equipment Earthing deals with earthing of non-current carrying parts of
equipments to ensure safety to personnel & protection against lightning.
Points to be earthed: All non-current carrying metallic parts of equipments,
structures, enclosures, overhead shielding wires, flanges of bushings, cores of
transformer, cable sheaths, earthed screens, pipes, portable appliances, fences,
doors, screens.

Common Earth System for Low and High Voltage Systems:
There should be common earth bus for both high and low voltage systems. If the
low voltage neutral is not connected to the common earth system but has a
separate earth bus, then there will be a difference of potential between the high
voltage and low voltage neutrals and there can exist a dangerous potential
gradient across earth surface which can endanger life.


67

With a low resistance earth bus and the neutrals connected to a common earth
system, there will be no danger to the low voltage system and advantages in
keeping everything in the station at a common potential above earth will outweigh
the disadvantages.

a) LA Earthing The earthing lead for any LA shall not pass through any iron or
steel pipe, but shall be taken as directly as possible from the LA to a separate
earth electrode interconnected with substation earth mat. Individual earth
electrodes should be provided for each station type lightning arrester, while for
distribution type lightning arrester, one electrode may be provided for a set of
lightning arresters.

b) Coupling Capacitors Earthing A separate earth electrode, generally a
driven rod or pipe, should be provided immediately adjacent to the structure
supporting the coupling capacitors of carrier current equipment. This earth should
be used for the high frequency equipment only.

c) Overhead Lines Earthing Overhead lines are earthed:
a) to eliminate danger from broken line conductors and insulators by ensuring the
operation of the protective control-gear under such conditions.
b) to discharge lightning strokes to earth.
c) to minimize inductive interference with the communication circuits.
One or more earth wires of G.I. are run along the power line (above the
conductors)

Some Common Definitions:

a) Earth Electrode: Any plate, pipe or rod embedded in the earth to obtain
effective electrical connection with general mass of the earth is known as Earth
Electrode.


68

b) Touch Potential: If a person standing on substation floor touches a faulted
structures by raised fingers, potential between his raised fingers and the feet is
called touch potential.

c) Step Potential: If fault current flowing through the ground of the sub-station, a
potential between two steps of a person standing on the ground is called step
potential. A person moving in the switchyard and touching an earthed metallic
structure should not get a shock. Hence touch potential should be below 45 Volt.
Also step potential should be below 45 Volt so that a person walking on substation
floor does not get shock due to high step potential.

Factors to be considered for design of Earth Mat for a Substation: -

1) Soil resistivity: -

Before designing earth mat, it is necessary to determine the soil resistivity of the
area in which substation is to be located. Resistivity of the earth varies
considerably from 10 to 10,000 -m depending on the types of the soil. Also
resistivity varies at different depth depending upon the type of soil, moisture
content and temperature etc., at various depths, which affects the flow of current
due to the fact that the earth fault current is likely to take its path through various
layers.

2) Tolerable limits of body current: -

Effect of current passing through vital organs of human body depends on
magnitude, duration and frequency of current. Current in the range of 1-8 mA are
known as 'let go current' because these currents, though unpleasant, impair the
ability of a person, holding an energised object to release it. Currents in the range
of 9-25 mA may be painful and impair the ability to release energised object. Still
higher currents make breathing difficult. However, if the current is less than about
60 mA, the effects are not permanent & disappear when current is interrupted.
Currents higher than 60 mA may lead to ventricular fibrillation, injury & death.


69

3) Fault current: -

As the earthing system has to carry the earth currents, the maximum earth fault
current likely to flow in the system is considered for designing of earthing. A good
earthing system for substation can be designed using an earth mat which is
formed by a grid of horizontally buried conductors which serves to dissipate the
earth fault currents to earth, also as an equipotential bonding conductor system,
along with required number of vertical earth electrodes which are connected to the
points of earthing of various equipments, structures and also interconnected with
the horizontal earth mat. M.S. rods are generally used for the earthing of
substation.

Total Earth resistance of the station system must be below 3 ohms for low voltage
domestic system, below 0.5 ohms for low voltage and medium voltage sub-
station, and below 0.1 ohm for 220 KV and 400 KV sub-station and power plants.
If value of Earth Pit resistance is found high, then it is to be treated to bring back
the value within the normal range.

Electric Shock:-

The effect of electric shock may be death
a) due to fibrillation of heart. i.e. damaging the heart to small pieces causing
stopping of breathing;
b) due to stopping of breathing action caused by blockade in the nervous system
causing respiration;
c) due to local overheating or burning of body.
The fibrillation of the heart is the most serious cause of death and there is no cure,
although there is possibility of rescuing a man who has suffered by the latter two
causes.





70

Cure of Shocks:-
When anyone gets a shock, the first and foremost duty of the observer is to break
the contact of the live mains and body either by switching off the main supply or
the body should be rolled away with a dry wooden stick. If a stick etc. is not at
hand, a dry piece of cloth should be used to detach the body from the live mains
or if that is not available the loose cloth such as coat or shirt of the victim should
be pulled with care without touching his body.
In most of the electric shocks, it is momentary and the contact with live wire is
imperfect, in such cases breath stops momentarily. But due to the shock the victim
becomes unconscious, stops breathing and his heart still beats, the most urgent
and immediate cure for this victim is that he should be given immediate artificial
respiration and it should be continued until the victim starts breathing normally. It
should be borne in mind that if the artificial respiration is stopped just after the
victim recovers, he is liable to become unconscious again. In such cases the
artificial respiration is to be continued for 6 to 8 hours. Method of artificial
respiration is displayed at every electric control room and substation.

Precautions against Shock:- Prevention is better than cure.
1) Try to avoid work on live mains which should be switched off before working. If
it is not possible to switch off the mains, be sure before working that your hands or
feet are not wet.
2) When working on high voltages, be sure that the floor is not conductor.
Concrete floors are dangerously conductive. When working on high voltage, try to
keep your left hand in the pocket i.e. avoid your left hand to get in contact with any
live conductor or metallic casing of an apparatus or metal pole or cross arms.
3) Do not work in such a place where your head is liable to touch the live mains
before making the circuit dead.
4) In order to rescue a person who has got an electric shock if there is no other
insulator available for rescuing, use your feet rather than hands.




71

PROTECTIVE RELAYS:

Relay is a device by which electrical circuit is indirectly controlled during a fault
condition. The purpose of relay is to operate the correct circuit breaker, so as to
disconnect only the faulty equipment from the system as quickly as possible, thus
minimising the trouble and damage caused by faults when they do occur.

Essential Qualities of Protection (Relay): -

1) Reliability: - Protection scheme must operate, when the system condition calls
upon to do so. Failure in the trip and control circuit of the breaker can be
determined by continuous supervision arrangement (Trip circuit healthy lamps in
the panel)

2) Selectivity: - Protective system must be such that it should correctly select the
faulty section and cut off the same from the system without disturbing other
healthy sections.

3) Speed: - To avoid unnecessary damage to plant, protection must operate
quickly.

4) Stability: - The protection system should be stable and it must actuate from the
concerned signal only and not from any other similar signal.

Back Up Relaying: If due to some reason the primary relaying system fails to
operate, the back up relays must operate and isolate the faulty equipments.

Auto Reclosing Relays: These relays are used to reconnect the circuit so that if
the fault is of transient nature, the system is returned to normal operation. This
system is used mostly on overhead lines where 80 to 90% faults are of transient
nature. (lightning, birds passing near or through lines, tree branches, etc.)





72

Three types of Relays:

1) Relay back up - To trip same breaker by other relay if main relay fails.

2) Local Breaker back up (LBB) To trip next breaker on the same bus.

3) Remote back up To trip breaker at upper station.

EHV Line Protection: -

1) Distance Relay: - This Relay is directional type & works on the principal of
Impedance rather than current. Generally there are 3 Zones in forward direction
and 1 Zone in reverse direction.











Suppose Distance between Station A & Station B is X km. Distance between
Station B & Station C, which is the nearest Station from Station B, is Y km.
Distance between Station B & Station D, which is the far away Station from
Station B, is Z km. Setting of relays is done on the impedance parameters of
Overhead Line conductor (Given by the conductor Manufacturer). Setting of Relay
at Station A is given below: -
Zone 1: - Zone 1 mostly covers protected line. Setting of Zone 1 is taken as 80%
of protected line length. So any fault in this zone, Station A will trip first and if fails
to trip, then Station B trips in Zone 2 at it's end.
Zone 2: - Setting of Zone 2 is 100% of X + 50% of Y

Zone 3: - Setting of Zone 3 is 100% of X + 100% of Z

Zone 4: - Setting of Zone 4 is 10% of Zone 1 (Reverse Zone)

Protected Zone - X KM
Station C
Station A Station B Station D


73

2) Over current & Earth Fault Relay: -

This Relay is made directional type & is a backup for Distance Relay.


Transformer Protection: -

1) Differential Relay: - This Relay compares the currents in the windings of the
transformer through CTs whose ratios are such as to make their currents normally
equal. The polarities of the CTs are such as to make the current circulate without
going through the relay during load conditions and external faults. During internal
faults, the balance condition is disturbed and relay operates

























DIFFERENTIAL PROTECTION OF POWER TRANSFORMER
P1 P2 P2 P1
s1 s2 s2 s1
PROTECTED ZONE
RELAY
GENERAL WIRING OF DIFFERENTIAL RELAY


74

2) Restricted Earth Fault Relay: -This protection helps easy and quick detection
of fault in the star connected winding of power transformer. The relay operates
whenever there is a fault in the tap changer or the star connected winding.
Normally the balance three-phase loads are feed through the transformer. There
is no current flow through the star point neutral to the earth in this normal
situation. One CT of similar ratio and the protection class is provided in neutral
side of the transformer which is used for matching / balancing the circulating
current through the main CTs in case of external faults.



















3) Over current & Earth Fault Relay: -

This Relay is Non directional type having IDMT characteristic.











HV REF PROTECTION OF POWER TRANSFORMER
P1 P2
R
s1 s2
Y
s1 s2
B
s1 s2
s2 P2
Relay
s1 P1
R
N
B Y


75

Feeder Protection: -

1) Over current & Earth fault Relay: -
These Relays work on IDMT characteristic & are made directional and non-
directional as per requirement. Wiring Diagram of combined over current & earth
fault relay:-





































COMBINED 3 OVER CURRENT ELEMENT + 1 EARTH FAULT ELEMENT
R Ph Y Ph B Ph
P1 s1 C11
P1 s1 C31
P2 s2
C51 C73
P2 s2 P1 s1
P2 s2
C71

COMBINED 2 OVER CURRENT ELEMENT + 1 EARTH FAULT ELEMENT
R Ph Y Ph B Ph
P1 s1 C11
P1 s1 C31
P2 s2
C51 C31
P2 s2 P1 s1
P2 s2
C71



76

Relay Settings Calculations: -

Some common Formulae regarding Relay setting calculations: -

A) Plug Setting = It is the tapping connection of CT secondary winding
If CTR is 400 / 1 Amp & PS selected is 50%, then allowable current in CT
secondary is 200 Amp.

B) Plug Setting Multiplier = (Fault current flowing in CT secondary)/ (CTR x PS)

C) Time Setting Multiplier = (Actual time of operation)/(Time as per curve)


A Sample calculations of Relay settings is given below



















Fault Level of 132 KV Bus = 580 MVA

Consider Base MVA = 100

% Source Imp. = [(Base MVA)/ (Fault MVA)] x 100 = (100/580) x 100 = 17.24%

% Trafo. Imp. at Base MVA = [(% Imp. at 25 MVA x Base MVA)/(Trafo.MVA)]

= (10 x 100/25) = 40%

250/1 A
R1
132 / 33 KV, 25 MVA, 10% Imp. Load - 190 A
400/1 A 150/1 A 600/1 A
R5 R4 R3
132 KV Bus 33 KV Bus
Fault Level - 580 MVA 250/1 A
R2
Load - 170 A


77


Total % Imp. at 33 KV Bus = [Source Imp. + Trafo. Imp.] = 17.24 + 40 = 57.24%

Fault MVA (33 KV Bus) = [(Base MVA)/ (Total Imp.)] x 100 = (100/57.24) x 100

= 175 MVA

Fault Current (I) = [(Fault MVA x 1000) / (3 X 33)] = 3061 Amp

Part A: - 33 KV Feeder Relay Setting (R1)

Feeder CTR = 250/1 Amp, Connected load on Feeder # 1 = 190 Amp
Allow 10% overload, Current = 209 Amp, Say 210 Amp
Select Plug Setting 85% for over current Relay and 20% for Earth Fault Relay
Current allowed for O/C Relay = 212 A ; for E/F Relay = 0.2 x 250 = 50 A

Time in Sec. @ TMS 1.0 for Normal Inverse = {(0.14) / [(PSM
0.02
) 1]} and
Above 20 PSM, curve becomes flat, Time in second is 2.2

A) 33 KV Bus Fault current = 3061 Amp (as calculated above)
Secondary current in over current relay = [(Fault Current)/ (CTR X PS)]
= (3061) / (250 x 0.85) = 14.4 A

For 14.4 PSM, Operating time = 2.55 Sec @ TMS 1.0 (Normal Inverse graph)
Say, Fault clearing time = 110 ms i.e. operation time = 0.11 = (TMS x 2.55)
Therefore TMS = (0.11) / (2.55) = 0.04313
Select TMS = 0.05, Operation of Relay = 0.05 x 2.55 = 127 ms for O/C Relay.

B) Secondary current in Relay for Earth Fault = [(Fault Current)/ (CTR x PS)]

= (3061)/ (250 x 0.2) = 61.22 A

For 61 PSM, Operating time = 2.2 Sec @ TMS 1.0
Say, Fault clearing time = 110 ms i.e. operation time = 0.11 = (TMS x 2.2)
Therefore TMS = (0.11) / (2.2) = 0.05
Hence Operation of Relay = 0.05 x 2.2 = 110 ms for Earth Fault Relay



78

Part B: - 33 KV Feeder Relay Setting (R2)

Feeder CTR = 250/1 Amp, Connected load on Feeder # 2 = 170 Amp
Allow 10% overload, Current = 187 Amp
Select Plug Setting 75% for over current Relay and 20% for Earth Fault Relay
Current allowed for O/C Relay = 187.5 Amp
Current allowed for E/F Relay = 50 Amp

A) 33 KV Bus Fault current = 3061 Amp (as calculated above)

Secondary current in Relay for over current = [(Fault Current)/ (CTR x PS)]

= (3061) / (250 X 0.75) = 16.3 A

For 16.3 PSM, Operating time = 2.43 Sec @ TMS 1.0
Say, Fault clearing time = 110 ms i.e. operation time = 0.11 = (TMS x 2.43)
Therefore TMS = (0.11) / (2.43) = 0.04526
Select TMS = 0.05, Operation of Relay = 0.05 x 2.43 = 121 ms for O/C Relay.

B) Secondary current in Relay for Earth Fault = [(Fault Current)/ (CTR x PS)]

= (3061)/ (250 X 0.2) = 61.22 A

For 61.22 PSM, Operating time = 2.2 Sec @ TMS 1.0
Say, Fault clearing time = 110 ms i.e. operation time = 0.11 = (TMS x 2.2)
Therefore TMS = (0.11) / (2.2) = 0.05
Operation of Relay = 0.05 x 2.2 = 110 ms for Earth Fault Relay.










79

Part C: - 33 KV Incomer Feeder Relay Setting (R3)

Feeder CTR = 600/1 Amp
Full load current of Transformer = [(Trafo. MVA x 1000)/ (3 x 33 KV)] = 437 Amp
Plug setting for Over Current Relay of R3 is kept at 70%
Plug setting for Earth Fault Relay is kept 20%

A) 33 KV Bus Fault current = 3061 Amp (as calculated above)

Secondary current in Relay for over current = [(Fault Current) / (CTR X PS)]

= (3061) / (600 X 0.7) = 7.28 A

For 7.28 PSM, Operating time = 3.45 Sec @ TMS 1.0
For discrimination, we can give 240 ms delay between O/G Feeder & Incomer
Time of Operation = 0.11 + 0.24 = 0.35 Sec
Time of operation of O/C Relay = 0.35 = (TMS x 3.45)
Therefore TMS = (0.35) / (3.45) = 0.1014. Select TMS at 0.11
Hence Operation of Relay = 0.11 x 3.45 = 380 ms for Over current Relay.

B) Secondary current in Relay for Earth Fault = [(Fault Current)/ (CTR x PS)]

= (3061) / (600 X 0.2) = 25.5 A

For 25 PSM, Operating time = 2.2 Sec @ TMS 1.0
For discrimination, we can give 240 ms delay between O/G Feeder & Incomer
Time of Operation = 0.11 + 0.24 = 0.35 Sec
Time of operation of E/F Relay = 0.35 = (TMS x 2.2)
Therefore TMS = (0.35) / (2.2) = 0.159. Select TMS at 0.16
Operation of Relay = 0.16 x 2.2 = 352 ms for E/Fault Relay.







80

Part D: - 132 KV HT Transformer Feeder Relay Setting ( R4 )

Feeder CTR = 150/1 Amp
Full load amp of Transformer = [(Trafo. MVA x 1000)/ (3 x 132 KV)] = 109 Amp
Plug setting for Over Current Relay of R4 is kept at 80% & Earth Fault is kept 20%

A) Reflected 33 KV Bus Fault current on 132 KV side = (3061 / 4) = 765 Amp
Secondary current in Relay for Over current = [(Fault Current) / (CTR x PS)]
= (765) / (150 X 0.80) = 6.375 A

For 6.8 PSM, Operating time = 3.58 Sec @ TMS 1.0
For discrimination, we can give 150 ms delay between Incomer & HT Side Relay
Time of Operation = 0.35 + 0.15 = 0.50 Sec
Time of operation of O/C Relay = 0.50 = (TMS x 3.58)
Therefore TMS = (0.5) / (3.58) = 0.1396, Say 0.14
Hence Operation of Relay = 0.14 x 3.58 = 501 ms for Over current Relay

B) Secondary current in Relay for Earth Fault = [(Fault Current) / (CTR x PS)]

= (765) / (150 X 0.2) = 25.5 A

For 25 PSM, Operating time = 2.2 Sec @ TMS 1.0
For discrimination, we can give 150 ms delay between Incomer & HT Side Relay
Time of Operation = 0.35 + 0.15 = 0.50 Sec
Time of operation of E/F Relay = 0.5 = (TMS x 2.2)
Therefore TMS = (0.5) / (2.2) = 0.227
Select TMS = 0.23, Operation of Relay = 0.23 x 2.2 = 506 ms for E/Fault Relay.









81

Part E: - 132 KV Line Feeder Relay Setting (R5)

Feeder CTR = 400/1 Amp
Plug setting for Over Current Relay of R4 is kept at 100% & TMS is 0.1
Plug setting for Earth Fault Relay is kept 20% & TMS is 0.20

A) Reflected 33 KV Bus Fault current on 132 KV side = (3061 / 4) = 765 Amp
Secondary current in Relay for Over current = [(Fault Current) / (CTR x PS)]
= (765) / (400 X 1.0) = 1.91 A

For 1.91 PSM, Operating time = 10.74 Sec @ TMS 1.0
Operation of Relay = 10.74 x TSM = 10.74 x 0.10 = 1074 ms for O/C Relay.

B) Secondary current in Relay for Earth Fault = [(Fault Current) / (CTR X PS)]

= (765) / (400 X 0.2) = 9.56 A

For 9.56 PSM, Operating time = 3.03 Sec @ TMS 1.0
Hence Operation of Relay = 3.03 x TSM = 3.1 X 0.20 = 606 ms for E/Fault Relay


Summary of Relay Time for above case study

S/No. 33 KV Outgoing 33 KV Incomer 132 KV Trafo. 132 KV Line
Feeder # 1 Feeder Feeder
1 O/Current
Relay

a) PS - 0.85 PS - 0.70 PS - 0.75 PS - 1.0
b) TMS 0.05 TMS 0.11 TMS 0.14 TMS 0.10
c) O/T 127 ms O/T 380 ms O/T 501 ms O/T 1074 ms

2 E/F Relay
a) PS - 0.20 PS - 0.20 PS - 0.20 PS - 0.20
b) TMS 0.05 TMS 0.16 TMS 0.23 TMS 0.20
c) O/T 110 ms O/T 352 ms O/T 506 ms O/T 606 ms






82

Daily Operational Duties at SUBSTATION: -

The supervisor or operator on duty is responsible for following:

Daily Operational Watch:

1) Watch the hourly transformer temperature, load, etc. and they do not exceed
the permissible limit or the rating of all the equipment involved or connected in the
circuit.

2) Note down the hourly consumption / generation on the feeders as applicable.

3) When a feeder trips, its indication should be noted and entered in the relevant
register. VCB or SF6 CB controlling overhead lines can be charged after a 2-3
minutes of tripping as most of the problems are of transient nature. If the breaker
trips again, the feeder should be declared as faulty and message sent to
concerned person and patrolling arranged. In case of tripping of Transformer,
cause of the same is to be cleared before charging.

4) Always check and ensure that proper D.C. supply is available on the trip circuit.
For checking Trip circuit healthiness, Push button is provided on the CRP. Also on
Trip circuit supervision relay, Green LED shows the healthiness, and Red LED
shows unhealthiness. Take corrective actions accordingly if required.

5) Operate O.L.T.C. of Transformer and maintain voltage as required.

6) Ensure that batteries are in proper state of charge and have correct voltage and
charge rates and the same are to be checked every day.

Operating Instructions:

These shall be displayed in the substation at a suitable place. The operator will
perform the sequence of operation in accordance with these instructions. These
instructions should be either in English or Local language.



83

Consider that in sub-station there is one Main Bus & one Transfer Bus as
mentioned in following drawing:

Main Bus (Live)

Auxiliary Bus


89 A 89 C
89 A 89 C



52 B 52 T



BUS COUPLER 89 L





CT


TRANSFORMER





LOAD

Carrying out Maintenance of Transformer HV side Breaker without interruption
to load supply. One should follow the sequence as mentioned below:
a) First ensure that breaker of auxiliary bay is in OFF condition.
b) Close Isolators 89 A and 89 C of auxiliary bay.
c) Now close the Isolator 89 C of transformer bay.
d) Put control switch of transformer control panel on Intermediate position.
e) Close the auxiliary bay breaker.


84

f) Put Off the Transformer bay breaker. Put control switch on Transfer position.
Now auxiliary bay breaker will control all protections of transformer.
g) Open Isolators 89 A and 89 L of transformer bay. Carry out maintenance of
transformer bay breaker by taking shutdown permit & do the maintenance as per
safety practices.

Restoring the system without interruption to load supply.
a) Remove all tools & tackles. Also remove temporary earthing if provided from
working place. Return shutdown permit.
b) Close Isolators 89 A and 89 L of transformer bay.
c) Put control switch of transformer control panel on Intermediate position.
d) Close the transformer bay breaker.
e) Now open the auxiliary bay breaker. Then control switch is to be kept on normal
position as original.
f) Open Isolators 89 C of transformer bay.
g) Open Isolators 89 A and 89 C of auxiliary bay. Now auxiliary bay is dead.

Statistical: Keep records of followings on daily basis:
a) Maintenance logbook
b) Tripping events
c) OLTC operations of Transformers
d) Counter operations of breakers & LA
e) Recording of Gas pressure for SF6 circuit breaker and Air pressure for
pneumatic operated breakers
f) Oil leakage of Transformer, CT & PT, CB in case of OCB
g) Colour of Silica Gel in Transformer
h) Check the Batteries voltages and charger condition







85

Safety Rules:

1) Authorised persons of the substation should get themselves thoroughly familiar
with the layout of the substation, Incoming feeders, Outgoing feeders, etc. The
layout of the feeders should be displayed in the substation control room.

2) See that sufficient sets of earthing sets, hand gloves, ladders, etc. are always
kept at the substation in proper working order & can be safely used for such work.

3) Only authorised men take permits to work as per formats. While issuing permits
to others, proper earthing should be ensured. Danger notice Do not operate, men
at work should be affixed on the concerned dead feeder.

4) Fire fighting equipment, first aid box, etc. is maintained in proper condition. First
aid chart should be displayed in control room in English or Local language.

General:

1) All tripping at the substation should be reported. Also wrong tripping and non-
tripping should be reported to concerned superior.

2) Carry out maintenance as per ISO format or manufacturers standards. Ensure
to maintain History Register of each equipment at the substation. It should contain
information such as details of equipment, date of commissioning, preventative and
breakdown maintenance done, spares used if any.

3) Single line diagram should show the incoming lines, isolators, breakers,
transformers, LAs, CTs and PTs with their make, current rating, and rupturing
capacity.

4) Schematic diagram indicates the scheme of protection with CT ratio, type of
relays with setting available and actual settings.




86

Maintenance of Substation Equipments: -

Maintenance is defined as a combination of actions carried out to return a
equipment in or restore the equipment back to an acceptable condition.
Different types of maintenance being done on equipment are:
a) Breakdown maintenance
b) Preventive maintenance
c) Condition based monitoring
d) Reliability centred maintenance
a) Breakdown Maintenance: This maintenance is carried out when the
equipment fails. This maintenance may be appropriate for low value items.
However for costly substation equipments, it is not desirable to wait till the
breakdown of the equipment, as it costs more to the utility as well as availability of
power.
b) Preventive Maintenance: This maintenance is being mostly adopted by
almost all the utilities. In this type of maintenance, the equipments are inspected
at a predetermined period, which is based on past experience and also guidance
from the manufacturer of the equipment. This type of maintenance would require
specific period of shutdown. Maintenance is carried out as per the formats.
c) Condition Based Monitoring: This type of maintenance technique is adopted
to assess the condition of the equipment by carrying out some tests. Some of the
tests are done on on-line and some are done on off-line. However, this type of
maintenance would need sophisticated testing equipments and skills for analysing
the test results.
d) Reliability Centred Maintenance: This is the recent technique being adopted
in maintenance. Reliability centred maintenance policy is based on the life cycle
cost concept and the decision for replacement of the equipment is taken based on
techno-economic considerations. Its objective is to devise a system, which does
not need periodic maintenance and at the same time predict in advance possible
failures/problems of the equipments.


87

Recommended Maintenance Schedule of Power Transformer
S/No. Items to be inspected Inspection notes Action required
Hourly
1 Load Amps Check against rated
figures
If high, reduce the
load
2 Voltage Check against rated
figures
An improper tap
position can cause
excessive core loss
3 Winding and Oil
Temperature
Check that temperature
rise is reasonable
Shutdown the
transformer and
investigate if either
is persistently
higher than normal
Daily
1 Oil level in Main &
OLTC Conservator
Check oil level from oil
gauge
Top up, if found low
2 Oil level in bushings Check oil level from glass Top up, if found low
3 Dehydrating Breather Check colour of silica gel,
check that air passages
are free, check oil level in
oil cup
Reactive/replace
with new charge, if
it is pink, make up
oil in oil cup
4 Oil leakage Check for any leakages Arrest leakages, if
any
Monthly
1 OLTC driving
mechanism
Lubricate bearings, check
gearbox oil level &
inspect all moving parts,
motor, etc.
Clean, adjust, or
replace as required
2 OLTC automatic
control
Check all circuits
independently, check
step by step operation
including limit switches
If faulty, take
suitable actions to
set it right

Quarterly
1 Insulation Resistance Compare with earlier
values
Take suitable
actions if required
2 Bushings Examine for cracks and
dirt deposits
Clean or replace if
required



88

S/No. Items to be inspected Inspection notes Action required
Quarterly
3 Oil in transformer &
tap changer
Check for BDV Take suitable
action to restore
quality of oil
4 Cooler fan bearings,
motors & mechanism
Lubricate, check gear
box, examine contacts,
check manual control and
interlocks
Replace burnt or
worn contacts or
other parts

Half Yearly
1 Oil cooler Test for pressure

Yearly
1 Oil in transformer Check for BDV, acidity
and sludge
Filter or replace oil
2 Gasket joints Tighten the bolts
evenly to avoid
uneven pressure
3 Cable boxes Check for sealing
arrangements
Replace gasket if
leaking
4 Surge diverter & gaps Examine for cracks and
dirt deposits
Clean or replace
5 Relays, protection
circuits
Check for protection
circuits
Take suitable
actions if required
6 Earth resistance Compare with earlier
values
Take suitable
actions if required
7 Temperature
Indication
Pockets holding
thermometers should be
checked
Oil to be
replenished, if
required
8 Dial type oil gauge Check pointer for
freedom
Adjust if required
9 Paint work Should be inspected Touching up if
required
10 Diverter switches of
OLTC after 10,000
operations
Check for worn out
contacts
Replace worn out
parts, filter oil





89

S/No. Items to be inspected Inspection notes Action required
2 Yearly
1 Oil conservator Internal inspection Should be
thoroughly cleaned
2 Buchholz relay Mechanical inspection Adjust floats,
switches, etc., as
required

1 3 Yearly or after
15,000 operations of
OLTC
Non-arcing selector
switch of OLTC
Replace worn out
parts, filter oil

1 1 to 3 MVA
transformer (5 Yearly)
Overall inspection
including lifting of core &
coils
Wash by hosing
down with clean dry
oil, tighten all bolts,
coil clamping
screws

1 > 3 MVA transformer
(7-10 Yearly)
Overall inspection
including lifting of core &
coils
Wash by hosing
down with clean dry
oil, tighten all bolts,
coil clamping
screws

Note:
1) All maintenance test results and observations should be specifically recorded.
2) In case of anything abnormal occurring during service, the matter should be
reported to the manufacturer.










90

Recommended Maintenance Schedule of Circuit Breakers
S/No. Points to be Inspected Periodicity
1 Check gas pressure in case of SF6 CB Daily
2 Check air pressure in case of ABCB or
pneumatic operated breaker and check the
operation of compressor by realising air
pressure just below minimum value. Drain
condensation from reservoir
Daily
3 Check oil level, its condition, any oil leakage in
case of OCB and correct if required
Daily
4 Check & tightness of all power connections and
control wiring connections
Yearly
5 Check contact resistance Yearly
6 Clean breaker insulator & check for any cracks Yearly
7 Clean & lubricate of moving parts of operating
mechanism
Yearly
8 Check condition of trip & close coil & its
assembly for free movement. Replace if required
Yearly
9 Check breaker close-open timing Yearly
10 Check insulation resistance Yearly
11 Check all Controls, Interlocks & Protections like
checking of pole discrepancy system i.e.
whether all three poles are getting ON OFF at
the same time
Yearly
12 Clean auxiliary switches by CTC or CRC spray
and check its operation
Yearly
13 Check structure supporting hardware & its
tightness. Also check paint condition
Yearly
14 Carry out compressor maintenance in case of
ABCB or pneumatic operated CB, replace oil in
compressor if required
Yearly














91

Recommended Maintenance Schedule of Current Transformer
S/No. Points to be Inspected Periodicity
1 Check oil level & leakage, rectify the same Daily
2 Check & tightness of all power connections and
CT secondary connections
Yearly
3 Clean bushings / insulators & check for any
cracks
Yearly
4 Check earthing connections and tightness Yearly
5 Check the working of stainless steel bellows Yearly
6 Check the nitrogen pressure as per specification
of manufacturer in case of Nitrogen filled CT
Yearly
7 Check insulation resistance Yearly
8 Check and adjust the gap of arcing horn if CT is
provided with arcing horn
Yearly
9 Check tan (Tan Delta) Yearly
10 Check structure supporting hardware & its
tightness. Also check paint condition of CT unit
& structures, touch up if required
Yearly


Recommended Maintenance Schedule of Potential Transformer
S/No. Points to be Inspected Periodicity
1 Check oil level & leakage, rectify the same Daily
2 Check & tightness of all power connections and
PT secondary connections
Yearly
3 Clean bushings / insulators & check for any
cracks
Yearly
4 Check earthing connections and tightness Yearly
5 Check the working of stainless steel bellows Yearly
6 Check the nitrogen pressure as per specification
of manufacturer in case of Nitrogen filled PT
Yearly
7 Check insulation resistance Yearly
8 Check the Secondary Fuse condition & replace if
required by proper rating
Yearly
9 Check structure supporting hardware & its
tightness. Also check paint condition of PT unit &
structures, touch up if required
Yearly







92

Recommended Maintenance Schedule of Isolator
S/No. Points to be Inspected Periodicity
1 Check & tightness of all power connections Yearly
2 Check proper alignment of contacts & rectify if
required
Yearly
3 Clean insulators & check for any cracks Yearly
4 Check earthing connections and tightness, clean
earth blade contact
Yearly
5 Lubrication of all moving parts Yearly
6 In case of Isolator with Earth switch, check
electrical and mechanical interlock i.e. Isolator
can be closed only when E/switch is in open
condition & vice versa
Yearly
7 Check insulation resistance Yearly
8 As Isolators are operated on No load, hence
check the interlock with Circuit Breaker, if
provided i.e. Isolators can be operated when
Breaker is in OFF condition
Yearly
9 The motor operating mechanism box, in case of
motor operated isolators, should be checked for
inside wiring, terminal connectors, etc
Yearly
10 Check the Panel indications i.e. Semaphore &
bulbs if provided (Isolator Close and Open
condition) and rectify if required
Yearly
12 Check structure supporting hardware & its
tightness. Also check paint condition, touch up if
required
Yearly


Recommended Maintenance Schedule of Lightning Arrester
S/No. Points to be Inspected Periodicity
1 Note down the recording of leakage current. If it
is in red zone, replace that defective LA
Daily
2 Check & tightness of all connections Yearly
3 Clean insulators & check for any cracks Yearly
4 Check earthing connections and tightness Yearly
5 Check insulation resistance Yearly
6 Check structure supporting hardware & its
tightness. Also check paint condition, touch up if
required
Yearly




93

FIRE & FIRE EXTINGUISHERS:

Fire is a rapid, self sustaining oxidation process accompanied by the evolution of
heat and light of varying intensity. Fire results from the combination of fuel, heat
and oxygen when a substance is heated to a certain critical temperature called the
Ignition Temperature. The material will ignite & continue to burn as long as there
is fuel, the proper temperature and a supply of oxygen (air). Classification of Fires
is mentioned below:

Class A Fires: These are fires involving solid materials (such as wood, cloth,
paper, rubber, etc.), normally of an organic nature (compounds of carbon), in
which combustion generally occurs with the formation of glowing ambers, where
the cooling effect of water is essential for extinguishment of fire.

Class B Fires: These are fires involving flammable liquids e.g. kerosene,
naphtha, LDO, mix oil, gasoline, where blanketing effect (A layer of foam over the
surface of burning liquid) is essential for extinguishing fire.

Class C Fires: These are fires involving gases e.g. LPG, Methane, Ethylene,
Propylene, Hydrogen etc. Fire can be put out either by dry chemical powder or
carbon dioxide gas. Here isolation of leaking source is essential.

Class D Fires: These are fires involving combustible metals, such as
magnesium, titanium, sodium. These fires can be put out with the help of special
dry powders. Ordinary DCP or Foam or Water is of no use on such fires.

Electrical Fires: According to latest concept, electrical fires do not constitute a
particular class. Any fire involving electrical equipment is a fire of class A or class
B. The normal procedure in such fires is to cut off the electrical supply of the
equipment and to use an extinguishing media appropriate to the burning material.
Water in the form of hose stream should in no case be used in electrical fires
unless positive isolation of electric supply has been ensured.


94

Classification of Fire and Suitability of Portable Fire Extinguishers

S/No. Class of Fire Foam
Extinguisher
Carbon Dioxide
Extinguisher
Dry Chemical
Powder
Extinguisher
1 Class A Fire Suitable Not
recommended
except for small
surface fire
Suitable
2 Class B Fire Suitable Suitable Suitable
3 Class C Fire Not Suitable Suitable Suitable
4 Class D Fire Not Suitable Not Suitable Special dry
powder
5 Electrical Fire Not Suitable Suitable Suitable


Caution:-
1) Do not use Foam Fire Extinguisher on fires involving live electrical equipment
and metal.
2) Do not use CO2 Fire Extinguisher on big size fire. It is also not to be used on
metal fire. While extinguishing oil fire, precaution against flash back or re-ignition
is to be taken.