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Assignment - 1
Ancient Egypt

Ancient Egypt

How long is the Nile River? - The Nile River is actually6695 kilometers (4184 miles) long. With such a long
length, the Nile River is speculated to be the longest river in the
world. The Amazon River runs a very close second, although it has
been difficult to determine which is actually longer. River Nile
facts state it winds from Uganda to Ethiopia, flowing through a total
of nine countries. While the Nile River is often associated with Egypt,
it actually touches Ethiopia, Zaire, Kenya, Uganda, Tanzania,
Rwanda, Burundi and Sudan, as well as Egypt. It's only recent that the
first known navigation team successfully followed the river from
beginning to its end.

How did the ancient Egyptians use the Nile River? - The Nile River
has played an extremely important role in the civilization, life and history of the Egyptian nation. One of the
most well known river Nile facts is the river's ability to produce extremely fertile soil, which made it easy for
cities and civilizations to spring up alongside the banks of the Nile. The annual spring floods contribute the
fertile soil, when the Nile River overflows onto the banks. Much of the Egyptian nation consists of dry desert
land. Throughout most of the year, very little rain falls on Egyptian deserts. This has remained true for
thousands of years. The abundant Nile River provided much needed irrigation, even in ancient times. This
waterway also provided a source of drinking water, and source of irrigation for farming as well as papyrus reeds
that could be used for a variety of purposes such as paper and building materials.

Nile Crocodile Facts - The Nile Crocodile has been a major component of the Egyptian culture and way of life
since the first Egyptians settled along the fertile banks of the Nile. Most Nile Crocodiles are approximately 4
meters in length, although some have been reported as longer. The animals make their nests along the banks of
the Nile River, where the female may lay up to 60 eggs at one time. Some three months later the babies are born
and are taken to the water by their mother. They will remain with her for at least two years before reaching

Not only is the Nile River one of the main rivers of Egypt, but many would in fact; say it is the primary river of
Egypt. The Nile River has certainly played a critical role in the history of this mysterious nation.
Today, exotic and sophisticated cities like Cairo grace the banks of the Nile River, as they have for thousands of
years. Individuals interested in experiencing the Nile up close and personal can journey along the famous river
aboard riverboat cruises that depart from numerous cities along the bank.

Life in ancient Egypt was primarily centered toward a polytheistic
religion, the pharaoh and the importance of family. In ancient Egypt
family life began early. Men and women tended to marry quite young
in ancient Egypt and everyday life reflected their commitment to the
sanctity of the family unit. Divorce was known to have existed but
does not appear to have been that prevalent or common. Marriages
were generally polygamous; at least in the royal and noble circles,
with the husband having several wives. In most cases there was
The banks of the Nile
usually a senior wife or chief wife; however it is apparent that husbands were quite fond of all their wives.

Children were a very important component of life in Egypt and were considered to be a great blessing from the
gods. Also in the noble and royal families, children were highly regarded. Paintings of King Akhenaten and his
wife, Queen Nefertiti, indicate they had a very close and loving bond with their six daughters.

The role of women in ancient Egyptian society is often a surprise. It is usually assumed that women were
relegated to the role of a second class citizen, when actually the opposite was true. Women were allowed to own
property, testify in court and conduct business dealings. More than one woman even ruled the Egyptian land as
pharaoh. While women were highly regarded and given rights that most of their contemporaries in other lands
could only dream of, daily life in ancient Egypt for women also involved responsibilities for most of the duties
of the home. It was the woman's responsibility to raise the children, see to the home and prepare the meals.
The daily life of people of ancient Egypt was very involved with the various gods and goddesses who ruled
Egyptian mythology. It was quite acceptable to worship more than one deity and most towns and villages
throughout Egypt did so, although a city would normally claim a patron god. Temples were built and scattered
throughout Egypt, reflecting a religion that involved frequent rites, rituals and practices.

Peasant life in ancient Egypt was not always pleasant. Most peasants made their living off the land through
agricultural means. Grain, particularly wheat, was a staple crop of life in ancient Egypt. As a result of few
grazing lands and the expense of meat, most peasants subsisted off a diet of ground wheat foods, subsidized
with meager vegetables. The Egyptians were one of the first people to introduce the use of the ox-drawn plow;
however the work of plowing, planting and harvesting would have still been very difficult. Taxes were also
imposed on the crops, which would have also made it difficult for most peasant families to move beyond their
poor means.

Modern views on slave life in ancient Egypt are largely contradictory. Many scholars theorize that slaves in
ancient Egypt actually performed more in the role of servant than actual slave; while other others have
contended that those who were less fortunate in ancient Egyptian society were forced to work in humiliating
and degrading positions. A long held theory indicates that the great pyramids of ancient Egypt were built upon
slave labor, although this theory has been open to much conjecture.

Life in Egypt today is a reflective blend of a modern society who still appreciates a rich and cultured past. In
many ways, not much has changed. The Egyptian people still have a very strong regard for family and children
and feel very bonded to the land

The ancient Egypt mummies have fascinated the modern world since Howard Carter uncovered the tomb of
King Tut. When one takes the time to investigate the culture, beliefs and mythology of the ancient Egyptian
world, it becomes quite apparent that the subject of death played a tremendous role in the everyday lives of
Egyptian citizens.

Almost everywhere you turn; there is a reference to death and the afterlife in Egyptian cultures. Pyramids were
reputedly built to guard the bodies of the dead; the Book of the Dead has become a Hollywood legend and an
entire host of ancient Egyptian gods and goddesses each had a role the lives, deaths and afterlives of the
Egyptian people. There is even a god dedicated solely to death. It is no great surprise that ancient Egypt
mummies are just one part of a very complex culture dedicated to the subject of death.

The ancient Egyptian people took great care to insure that the bodies of their deceased would be well preserved
for the afterlife. Simply placing a body inside a coffin and lowering into the ground was not sufficient for the
ancient Egyptians, especially not for the royalty.

Ancient Egyptian pharaohs were considered to be both divine deities as well as mortal rulers. Throughout the
30+ dynasties in ancient Egyptian history, it is speculated that some 170 or more rulers reigned over the great
land of Egypt during a three thousand year time span. The throne of Egypt was primarily intended to be
succeeded from father to son, however in many cases this line of kingship was interrupted by murder, mayhem
and mysterious disappearances. Each time a new family took control of the throne, a new kingdom began in the
history of this fascinating nation. While rulers often intermarried with daughters, granddaughters, sisters and
brothers to keep the throne within the family the throne still managed to shift hands multiple times; creating a
dynamic, and often, complex ancient pharonic history.

The First King

King Menes: There is contradictory information regarding the first king of Egypt.
Some authorities believe he might have been Aha, while others contend that Menes
held this title. Very little information on the Egyptian pharaohs of the first and
second dynasties is known. The few facts that are known about the sixteen or
soancient Egyptian pharaohs who ruled Egypt during this time has been gleaned
from the Palermo stone, an ancient stone tablet that contains information such as
lists of pharaohs and other facts of daily life from the ancient pharonic periods.

Tutankhamen aka King Tut: Perhaps the most well known of famous Egyptian pharaohs is
Tutankhamen, commonly referred to as King Tut. The mysterious death of this boy king
has interested the world since his tomb was first discovered in 1922. Only 18 when he
died, it is speculated that both is wife and grandfather might have played key roles in
the mysterious and probably fatal blow to the back of his head.

Ramesses II: Ramses II, during his 67 year reign of Egypt, seemed to do everything over
the top. He is probably the most prolific of the ancient Egyptian pharaohs, siring over 100 children with more
than a dozen wives. He is well regarded as the builder of more temples and statues than
any of the other ancient Egyptian pharaohs.
Queen Hatshepsut: Not all of the ancient
Egyptian pharaohs were men and Hatshepsut
proves that even in an ancient culture
dominated by men, women were capable of
making their own mark on the world. Taking
control of the throne following the death of
her father Hatshepsut ruled for 20 years and during that time
proceeded to expand trade relations and build a number of
impressive temples, including the shrine in Deir-al-Bahari. Her prosperous reign was cut short when she
mysteriously disappeared. It is speculated that she might have been murdered by her own nephew in order for
him to gain access to the throne.

Queen Cleopatra: Commonly referred to as the last of the ancient Egyptian pharaohs before the nation tumbled
into the hands of the Roman Empire, Cleopatra has been the subject of many novels and
movies and is often portrayed as extremely beautiful and seductive. While her affair
with Mark Anthony has information of all regarding this female pharaoh.

The mighty nation of ancient Egypt was ruled by pharaohs and the pharaohs sat on
the throne at the behest of the Egyptian gods-or so believed the masses. This belief
was so strong in ancient Egypt that throughout the nation's tumultuous history
various pharaohs would stop at nothing to insure the public believed they had
received the divine right to rule from the ancient Egyptian gods themselves. One
pharaoh, a female nonetheless, even went so far as to concoct a wild story to insure her
subjects saw her as divinely appointed by Hatshepsut. Except for a brief period of time when Akhenaten tried to
instill a monotheistic dedication to one god, the nation was ruled by numerous Egyptian gods and goddess.

Ancient Egyptian Gods GoddesseEgyptian mythology was so complex and interrelated that much attention was
given to the Egyptian gods family tree and the Egyptian gods names. It was quite common to see gods become
one with another god as well as to be known by many Egyptian gods names. During the three thousand year
history of the polytheistic religion of Egypt was comprised of a very complex system of Egyptian gods and
goddesses. To name the Egyptian gods in totality would be quite lengthy. Below is a brief discussion of some of
the more well known Egyptian gods.

The Egypt god Amon-Re is an amalgamation of two separate gods who became
combined in the city of Thebes, where the pharaohs lived and ruled. He was
primarily considered to be the god of the pharaohs and represented wind, fertility and

Horus the Egyptian falcon god is known by many names
throughout Egypt, however he is most commonly
associated with the falcon. He is believed to have been
the son on Osiris and Isis the goddess of magic. One of
the most well known symbols associated with Egypt is
the Eye of Horus; which symbolized power.

Seth the Egyptian god is also referred to as Setekh and
Set. He was associated with war and strength, storms and
deserts. He was often believed to be in conflict with
Horus Egyptian falcon god. At various times throughout
the history of Egypt, the two deities vied for popularity and power among the
Egyptian people.
Amon-Re & Tut-
Horus the falcon god

Isis the goddess of magic, was also considered to be the goddess of fertility. One
of the most famous legends involving Isis putting the body of her husband back
together after he was killed by Seth the Egyptian god, impregnating herself with
his body and giving birth to their son Horus Egyptian falcon god.

Among all the ancient Egyptian gods Anubis is the
one who was chosen to be the god of death and
dying. He is also considered to be the god of
the underworld. His image is often seen as
the guardian of tombs and the bodies held within.

Ancient Egyptian crocodile gods are quite prominent
within Egyptian mythology. Sobek, is one of the most
well known Egyptian gods associated with the
crocodile. He is usually seen either completely as a
crocodile or as a combination between human form and
crocodile, symbolizing the strength of the Egyptian pharaohs.

The Egyptian pyramids remain one of the
most beautiful and complex mysteries of the
modern world. Set against the exotic
backdrop of the Egyptian desert, these stone
temples hearken our memories back to the
days of pharaohs and mummies. Throughout history there have been
many theories regarding the exact manner in which the Egyptian
pyramids were built.

It appears to modern man the ancient Egyptian pyramids were no small
feat to construct. Some theories have surfaced indicating that at least
some scholars believe in aliens building pyramids. One of the most long
held beliefs relating to the built of the pyramids is that they were constructed through the use of slave labor.

Ancient documents have revealed that in most instances it took numerous years, usually decades, for even one
of the ancient Egypt pyramids to be
assembled. Records also indicate that it was
traditional for a pharaoh to begin
construction on a pyramid not long after he
took the throne and that the building
process might last almost the entire length
of his reign. In the case of King Tut,
evidence indicates that the tomb he was laid
to rest in was originally prepared for
Isis the goddess of magic
Anubis the god of death
The Egyptian Pyramids
someone of a lesser standing. Obviously, he was not expected to die at such a young age and therefore did not
have sufficient time to prepare his own burial tomb.
Facts about Hieroglyphics: There are some facts about hieroglyphics that are quite interesting to note:
This system of writing involved absolutely no vowels, consisting only of consonants.

The Egyptians also did not use any form of punctuation or spacing. With over 700 ancient
Egyptian symbols representing actual words and thousands of others used for individual sounds, some quite
intricate, it took quite a long time to learn to write in hieroglyphics. Egyptian hieroglyphics were written both
vertically in rows and horizontally in columns.
The placement of the Egyptian hieroglyphics alphabet letters into an eye pleasing layout was extremely
important. Empty spaces were avoided as much as possible and to that end symbols Egyptian art were usually
formed into squares instead of straight lines.
Unlike most forms of modern language, which is typically read from right or left; ancient Egyptian
hieroglyphics could be read either from right to left or from left to right . In order to know which direction to
begin reading, the scribe would position the figures so that they faced in the correct direction.

Egyptian Symbols
Not all symbols represented single letters; some pictures represented words. The symbols that make up the
alphabet in Egyptian hieroglyphics are sub-divided into categories including phonograms and ideograms.
Ideograms were used to write the words they represented. An example of an ideogram would be a picture of a
woman that actually looked like a woman and represented the word 'woman'.
Phonograms were used to spell out the sound out the words they represented and they usually had no relation to
the word they were sounding out. As a result, symbols could be both ideograms and phonograms and the reader
would need to determine the context of the 'sentence' in order to find out which word was intended. To indicate
whether a symbol represented a complete word or merely a sound scribes would place a straight line after the

A large majority of the ancient Egyptian culture were not able to
read or write. Instead they depended on scribes and priests. Young
boys from wealthy families usually entered schools around age six
or seven, in order to learn to write in hieroglyphics. Their training
normally took several years to complete.
Although the training for the position of scribe was very intense and
lengthy, there were benefits that made it worthwhile. Scribes were
considered to servants of the royal household and as such were
exempt from taxes. They were also not required to enter the military
and were often revered with portraits on the sides of buildings.
Over several thousand years, the system of ancient Egyptian
hieroglyphics developed by Egyptian civilization evolved and developed into an even more complex system
consisting of varying forms of formality. Hieroglyphics were first employed on buildings and tombs, such as the
Tutankhamen sarcophagus symbols. Eventually the ancient Egyptian hieroglyphics were used to decorate
jewelry, record events on papyrus and to form a kind of signature for royalty and deities on oval stones known
as cartouche.

A scribe at work
Facts About Egyptian Pyramids: Besides the beauty and mystery regarding the construction of the Egyptian
pyramids, there are also a number of interesting facts about Egyptian pyramids. King Khufu's great
pyramid is the largest pyramid. It is well known as one of the Seven Wonders of the World, standing at an
impressive 146 meters.

King Khufu's great pyramid, impressive as it is, was not the first pyramid to be
built. His father, king Snefru, built a number of impressive pyramids himself.
While none of the Egyptian pyramids constructed under the reign of Snefru are
as tall or large as the Great Pyramid at Giza; they did contribute to the perfection
of the Egyptian pyramids. Snefru is believed to have first begun his work in
pyramid building with the step pyramids, progressing on to the Bent Pyramids
and culminating his activities with the Red Pyramid, considered by many to the
first pyramid constructed in a true pyramid shape.
The ancient Egyptian pyramids served a multitude of purposes. They were
primarily used as the burial tomb of the royal family, consisting of the pharaoh,
his queens and offspring. Modern excavations have uncovered that the inside of
the Egyptian pyramids were almost always laid store with a variety of items the dead would need in the
afterlife. Some of the most ornate and expensive items ever discovered on the inside of the Egyptian pyramids
came from the tomb of King Tut. Carefully removing, cataloging and studying the items required a number of
years. In the end there were several thousand items discovered to reside with King Tut's mummy.

One of the most profound mysteries relating to the ancient world of Egypt
regards why was the sphinx made. No one seems to be quite sure why this
great statue was constructed, however; theories abound. It is believed to
have most likely been constructed during the Fourth Dynasty. Located in
the same proximity as King Khufu's Great pyramid, many scholars have
hypothesized that the Sphinx was constructed in order to guard the great
pyramid. The real reason is not known and due to the Sphinx's rapid rate
of deterioration; its secrets may never be uncovered.
The daily life in ancient Egypt was actually much different than the vision
that commonly comes to mind. Relics found in archeological digs as well
as paintings and drawings onpyramid and tomb walls depict images of life
in ancient Egypt that was, in some regards, not that much different than
life in Egypt today.

Egyptian Mummy Facts
The ancient Egyptian mummification process is quite lengthy; usually lasting seventy
days and first begins by removing all the organs from within the body. The organs
would be washed and dried, then placed inside containers known as canopic jars and
eventually buried with the body. A salt mixture commonly found along the Nile River is
most often used to aid in the drying process of both the body and the organs. The next
step in the mummification process of ancient Egypt mummies involved wrapping the
body using yards and yards of linen fabric. Some estimates indicate that the amount of
yardage required for a single mummification amounted in the hundreds.
King Snefru's bent pyramid
The Sphinx and the Great Pyramid
Canopic Jars

A number of funery rites and practices would be performed over ancient Egypt mummies, as well as the
preparation of the tomb. In most cases, when a family was able to afford
it, the body of a loved one would be placed in not one but several coffins.
This was the situation when the tomb of King Tut was uncovered. The
well preserved body of the 'Boy King' was found to be encased inside
three coffins.
The ancient Egypt mummies have contributed more than a simple morbid
fascination to our modern world. While it is quite certain the ancient
Egyptians never intended the mummification ancient Egyptian mummies
to have this side benefit; it cannot be denied that we have learned a great
deal about this ancient culture through the well preserved bodies of
ancient Egypt mummies.

Source: http://www.ancient-egypt-online.com/

Work for the students to complete and Instructions for the students to follow.
Make your own cover page.Use A4 size paper to answer the questions. Get your own outline map to answer any
map related questions. Staple all work along with the handout.

Q.No.1 Answer the following questions
a) Name the countries through which the river Nile flows.
b) How can you say that the river Nile played an important role in the Egyptian civilization?
c) What was the main occupation of the ancient Egyptians?
d) Write at least three points on the role of women in ancient Egyptian society.
e) Why do you think that the life of the peasant in ancient Egypt was not pleasant?
f) The Egyptians used to preserve the dead body. Give reason.
g) What was discovered in the year 1922 by Howard carter?
h) Mention any two interesting facts about hieroglyphics.
Q.No.2 Fill in the blanks.
a) Marriages in the ancient Egypt were generally _______________.
b) The Egyptian kings were known as _______________.
c) _______________ was the first king of Egypt.
d) Egypt was ruled by _______________ for 67 years.
e) The shrine in Deir-al-Bahari was built by _______________.
f) _______________ is known as 'The gift of Nile'.
g) The 'Sphinx' was made up of _______________.
h) The _______________ were constructed to preserve the dead body.

Colour the given pictures

The mummyfied head of king Tut





Assignment - 2

Indus valley Civilizations

Indus valley Civilizations An Overview

Societies exhibiting the major characteristics of civilization experienced extensive growth
during the era from 4000 and 1000 BC.
Four great floodplain civilizations appeared; the first in Mesopotamia, then, shortly
thereafter, in the Nile Valley, and around 2500 BC, in the Indus Valley. These three
civilizations mutually influenced one another and came to constitute a single region of
intercommunication and trade.
Finally, a fourth great civilization arose in the Yellow River valley of northwestern China
in the second millennium BC.
During this era, much of the worlds population lived in small farming communities,
while others hunted or foraged.
Facts about this era:
This is the period when civilizations appeared, shaping subsequent eras of history.
Students must consider the nature of civilization as both a particular way of
organizing society and a historical phenomenon subject to transformation and
Many of the worlds most fundamental inventions, discoveries, institutions, and
techniques appeared. Subsequent civilizations would build upon these
Early civilizations were not self-contained but developed their distinctive
characteristics partly as a result of interactions with other peoples.
This era introduces students to one of the most enduring themes of history; the
dynamic interplay, for good or ill, between the agrarian civilizations and pastoral
peoples of the great grasslands.

Indus Valley Civilization - Background
Indus Valley remnants (refer to appendices for detailed maps) have been discovered as far south as Bombay, in
Maharashtra, India, to the Himalayas and northern Afghanistan in the north. The westernmost sites are on the
Arabian Sea coast in Baluchistan, Pakistan adjacent to the Iranian border. A thousand miles to the east in India,
Harappan settlements have been found beyond Delhi in Uttar Pradesh State. Discoveries in the southern Gujarat
State suggest a coastal network spanning hundreds of miles. Indus Valley culture seems to have moved from
west to east, with sites towards central and southern India flourishing after the original settlements in Harappa
and Mohenjo- Daro had declined.

Important Sites
Harappa was an Indus Valley urban center. It lies in Punjab Province, Pakistan, on an old bed of the River Ravi.
It provides the first clues to the ancient Indus Valley, and is often called the Harappan civilization.
Mohenjo-Daro is probably the best known Indus Valley site. It is in Sindh, Pakistan, next to the Indus. Here the
Great Bath, uniform buildings and weights, hidden drains and other hallmarks of the civilization were
discovered in the 1920s. Dholavira has some of the best preserved architecture, located on Khadir Beit, an
island in the Great Rann of Kutch in Gujarat, India. A tantalizing signboard with Indus script has also been
discovered, here. Lothal is north of the Gulf of Cambay in Gujarat, India, near the Sabarmati River and the
Arabian Sea. A bead factory and Mesopotamian seal, or imprint, have been found here, evidence of interaction
between the two, great ancient civilizations.
Rakhigarhi is a recently discovered, still unexcavated city in Haryana, India. It is as large as Harappa,
Mohenjodaro and Ganweriwala. Ganweriwala is in Punjab, Pakistan near the Indian border. It was discovered in
the 1970s, and at 80 hectares is as large as Mohenjodaro. Ganweriwala may have been the urban center of a
third Indus Valley region covering copper-rich Rajasthan. Chanudarho, 80 miles south of Mohenjo-Daro in
Sindh was a manufacturing center. Various tool, shell, bone and seal-making facilities which involved writing
were found. Sutkagen Dor in Baluchistan, next to Iran, is the westernmost known Harappan site. It is thought to
have once been on a navigable inlet of the Arabian Sea. Sutkagen Dor would have been on the trade route from
Lothal in Gujarat to Mesopotamia. All these sites flourished between 3000 and 2000 B.C., if not earlier. There
are probably many more important Indus Valley sites. Some may have been lost or destroyed by shifting river
paths. Others may be buried under modern towns. What does seem clear is that the important sites were
commercial centers. They are on rivers or near the coast. Various specialized manufacturing facilities suggest
that they were heavily involved in trade with each other and with locales far outside the region.

Urban Development
The emergence of the Indus Valley civilization is as remarkable as was its relatively stabile existence for nearly
one thousand years. The cities were well planned and were built with baked bricks all of equal size. The streets
were laid at right angles to one another, with an elaborate system of covered drains. There was a fairly clear
division in localities as houses were earmarked for the upper and lower strata of society. There were public
buildings, the most famous being the Great Bath at Mohenjodaro and the vast granaries. Production of several
metals such as copper, bronze, lead and tin was undertaken as evidenced by the remnants of furnaces. The
discovery of kilns to make bricks support the fact that burnt bricks were used extensively in domestic and public

Evidence points to the use of domesticated animals, including camels, goats, water buffalo and various fowl.
The Harappans cultivated wheat, barley, peas and sesames, and were probably the first to grow, and make
clothes from, cotton. Trade appears to have been a major activity at the Indus Valley and the sheer quantity of
seals discovered suggest that each merchant or mercantile family owned its own seal. These personal seals are
in various quadrangular shapes and sizes, each with a human, or an animal, figure carved on it. Discoveries
suggest that the Harappan civilization had extensive trade relations with neighboring regions in India and with
distant lands in the Persian Gulf and in Sumer (Iraq).

Society and Religion
The Harappan society was divided according to occupations, suggesting the existence of an organized
government. The figures of deities on seals indicate that the Harappans worshipped gods and goddesses in male
and female forms with evolved rituals and ceremonies. No monumental sculpture survives, but a large number
of human figurines have been discovered, including a steatite bust of a man thought to be a priest, and a
striking bronze dancing girl. Countless terra-cotta statues of a Mother Goddess have been discovered,
suggesting that she was worshipped in nearly every home.

Decline of the Indus Valley Civilization
Research currently being conducted in India and Pakistan hopes to answer questions concerning invaders and
the drying up of river beds. The first promising written script interpretations have been made. Radiocarbon
chronologies are proving very useful. Satellite imaging is exposing old trade routes. The decline of the
civilization has been attributed to several factors. Among these, are:

output, thereby forcing the
evacuation of inhabitants to more productive regions.

have created economic problems leading to the gradual decay of the culture.

traditions and culture of the
Indus Valley civilization.
There are also the well-known accounts in the Rig Veda of northern or Aryan people driving an indigenous
Dravidian people into south India. The existence of the Brahui tribe in Baluchistan, to the west of the Indus,
who speak a Dravidian language like South Indian Tamil, suggests that a migration of people or culture did
occur. Yet it is unclear whether the ancient Harappans would have been Aryans or Dravidians.

Answer the following questions in an A4 size paper and staple them together with the handout.
1. Name the river that supported the ancient Indus Valley.
2. Using a separate map of Asia indicate the Indus River on the map.
3. Add the cities of Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro to your map.
4. Describe at least one destructive or negative effect the Indus River had on the
civilizations that lived on its banks.
5. Describe at least two positive benefits the Indus Valley Civilizations gained by living
next to the Indus River.
6. Give at least three relevant reasons why the Indus Valley Civilizations vanished.
7. Describe what life was like for a citizen of Harappa.