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GENERAL CHEMISTRY TOPICAL:

Kinetics and Equilibrium


Test 1
Time: 23 Minutes*
Number of Questions: 18
* The timing restrictions for the science topical tests are optional. If you
are using this test for the sole purpose of content reinforcement, you
may want to disregard the time limit.
MCAT

2 as developed by
DIRECTIONS: Most of the questions in the following test
are organized into groups, with a descriptive passage
preceding each group of questions. Study the passage,
then select the single best answer to each question in the
group. Some of the questions are not based on a
descriptive passage; you must also select the best answer
to these questions. If you are unsure of the best answer,
eliminate the choices that you know are incorrect, then
select an answer from the choices that remain. Indicate
your selection by blackening the corresponding circle on
your answer sheet. A periodic table is provided below for
your use with the questions.

PERIODIC TABLE OF THE ELEMENTS
1
H
1.0
2
He
4.0
3
Li
6.9
4
Be
9.0
5
B
10.8
6
C
12.0
7
N
14.0
8
O
16.0
9
F
19.0
10
Ne
20.2
11
Na
23.0
12
Mg
24.3
13
Al
27.0
14
Si
28.1
15
P
31.0
16
S
32.1
17
Cl
35.5
18
Ar
39.9
19
K
39.1
20
Ca
40.1
21
Sc
45.0
22
Ti
47.9
23
V
50.9
24
Cr
52.0
25
Mn
54.9
26
Fe
55.8
27
Co
58.9
28
Ni
58.7
29
Cu
63.5
30
Zn
65.4
31
Ga
69.7
32
Ge
72.6
33
As
74.9
34
Se
79.0
35
Br
79.9
36
Kr
83.8
37
Rb
85.5
38
Sr
87.6
39
Y
88.9
40
Zr
91.2
41
Nb
92.9
42
Mo
95.9
43
Tc
(98)
44
Ru
101.1
45
Rh
102.9
46
Pd
106.4
47
Ag
107.9
48
Cd
112.4
49
In
114.8
50
Sn
118.7
51
Sb
121.8
52
Te
127.6
53
I
126.9
54
Xe
131.3
55
Cs
132.9
56
Ba
137.3
57
La *
138.9
72
Hf
178.5
73
Ta
180.9
74
W
183.9
75
Re
186.2
76
Os
190.2
77
Ir
192.2
78
Pt
195.1
79
Au
197.0
80
Hg
200.6
81
Tl
204.4
82
Pb
207.2
83
Bi
209.0
84
Po
(209)
85
At
(210)
86
Rn
(222)
87
Fr
(223)
88
Ra
226.0
89
Ac
227.0
104
Unq
(261)
105
Unp
(262)
106
Unh
(263)
107
Uns
(262)
108
Uno
(265)
109
Une
(267)
*
58
Ce
140.1
59
Pr
140.9
60
Nd
144.2
61
Pm
(145)
62
Sm
150.4
63
Eu
152.0
64
Gd
157.3
65
Tb
158.9
66
Dy
162.5
67
Ho
164.9
68
Er
167.3
69
Tm
168.9
70
Yb
173.0
71
Lu
175.0

90
Th
232.0
91
Pa
(231)
92
U
238.0
93
Np
(237)
94
Pu
(244)
95
Am
(243)
96
Cm
(247)
97
Bk
(247)
98
Cf
(251)
99
Es
(252)
100
Fm
(257)
101
Md
(258)
102
No
(259)
103
Lr
(260)
GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE.
Kinetics and Equilibrium Test 1

KAPLAN 3
Passage I (Questions 17)
As Figure 1 illustrates, the reaction of tert-butyl
bromide with aqueous sodium hydroxide results in a
substitution product (Reaction I) and an elimination
product (Reaction II).
CH3 C CH
3
CH3
Br
I
II
K=3 104
K=2 102
CH3 C
OH
CH3
CH
3 + Br

CH
3
C CH2
CH3
+ H2O + Br

OH III
K=1 10
2
H+/
Figure 1
A student investigated the reaction kinetics for the
conversion of tert-butyl bromide to tert-butyl alcohol
(Reaction I) by varying the concentrations of the reactants
and recording the reaction rate. The results are shown in
Table 1.
Table 1
Exp.
#
Initial
concentration
of tert-Butyl
bromide
(mmol/L)
Initial
concentration
of OH

(mmol/L)
Initial rate of
reaction
(mmol/[Lsec])
1
2
3
0.02
0.02
0.04
0.05
0.10
0.05
6.0
6.0
12.0
In reaction III, tert-butyl alcohol is converted to 2-
methylpropene by the addition of aqueous acid followed by
heating. This reaction involves the formation of a
protonated intermediate that loses water to form a
carbonation. The alkene is then generated by the loss of a
proton. This mechanism is illustrated in Figure 2.
CH
3
C CH
3
O
CH
3
H
H
+
CH
3
C CH
3
O
H H
CH
3
+
CH
3
C CH
3
O
CH
3
H H
+
CH
3
C
CH
3
CH
3
+ H
2
O
(1)
(2)
CH
3
C CH
2
CH
3
H
+
+
CH
3
C CH
2
+ H
+
CH
3
(3)
Figure 2
The energy profile for Reaction III is as follows:
Reaction
Coordinate
P
o
t
e
n
t
i
a
l
E
n
e
r
g
y
Figure 3
l . Which reaction has proceeded the farthest toward
completion once equilibrium has been established?
A . Reaction I
B. Reaction II
C . Reaction III
D . It cannot be determined without more information.
GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE.
MCAT

4 as developed by
2 . Which of the following assumptions can be made
about Reaction III?
A . The rate of formation of the carbocation is greater
than the rate of protonation of the alcohol.
B. The rate of formation of the carbonation is greater
than the deprotonation of the carbonation to form
the alkene.
C . The rate of deprotonation to form the alkene is
greater than the protonation of the alcohol.
D . The rate of formation of the carbonation is less
than the rate of protonation of the alcohol.
3 . Which of the following is the rate equation for
Reaction I?
A . Rate = k [tert-butyl bromide] [OH

]
B. Rate = k [OH

]
C . Rate = k [tert-butyl bromide]
D . Rate = k [tert-butyl bromide] [OH

]
2
4 . What is the rate constant for Reaction I?
A . 3000 s
l
B. 300 s
l
C . 60 s
l
D . 6 s
l
5 . If Reaction I was carried out at a higher temperature,
which of the following would be observed?
A . Both the equilibrium constant and the rate
constant would change.
B. The equilibrium constant would change, but the
rate constant would remain the same.
C . The rate constant would change, but the
equilibrium constant would remain the same.
D . Neither the equilibrium constant nor the rate
constant would change.
6 . For Reaction II, what could be done to shift the
equilibrium to the right, favoring the formation of the
alkene?
A . Add excess water to the reaction mixture.
B. Use tert-butyl chloride as the starting reagent
instead of tert-butyl bromide.
C . Use a lower concentration of hydroxide ions.
D . Add AgNO
3
to precipitate out the bromide ions.
7 . If Reactions I, II, and III were run with an appropriate
catalyst, which of the equilibrium constants would
change?
A . The equilibrium constant for Reaction I only
B. The equilibrium constant for Reaction II only
C . The equilibrium constants for Reactions I, II, and
III
D . None of the equilibrium constants would change.

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE.
Kinetics and Equilibrium Test 1

KAPLAN 5
Passage II (Questions 814)
A chemist interested in the reactivity of iodine
concentrated his study on two reactions: the decomposition
of gaseous hydrogen iodide (Reaction 1) and the reaction
between iodide ions and persulfate ions (Reaction 2).
2HI(g) H
2
(g) + I
2
(g)
Reaction 1
3I

(aq) + S
2
O
8
2
(aq) I
3

(aq) + 2SO
4
2
(aq)
Reaction 2
The value of the rate constant for Reaction 1 was
studied as a function of temperature. The results are shown
below.
Table 1
T(K) 1/T (K
1
) k (lmol
1
sec
1
) log k
555
575
645
700
781
1.80
10
3
1.74
10
3
1.55
10
3
1.43
10
3
1.28
10
3
3.52 10
7
1.22 10
6
8.59 10
5
1.16 10
3
3.95 10
2
6.453
5.913
4.066
2.936
1.403
For any reaction, the activation energy (E
a
) is related
to the rate constant (k) by the Arrhenius equation
(Equation 1):
k = A l0
(Ea / 2.303RT)
Equation 1
where R = 8.314 J mol
1
K
1
, T is the temperature in
Kelvin, and A is a constant, called the frequency factor.
Figure 1 shows a graph of log k vs. 1/T for Reaction 1.
slope = -9.71 x 10
3
K
(1/T)




(
l
o
g

k
)



l
o
g

k
-6
-4
-2
1.6 x 10
-3
1.4 x 10
-3
18 x 10
-3
1/T
In order to determine the initial rate of Reaction 2,
the following data were collected:
Table 2
Experiment [I

]
(M)
[S
2
O
8
2
]
(M)
Initial rate
of reaction
(M / sec)
1
2
3
0.21
0.21
0.42
0.15
0.30
0.15
1.14
2.28
2.28
8 . What is the rate law for Reaction 2?
A . Rate = k[I

]
2
[S
2
O
8
2
]
B. Rate = k[S
2
O
8
2
]
C . Rate = k[I

][S
2
O
8
2
]
D . Rate = k[I

][S
2
O
8
2
]
2
9 . What is the numerical value of the rate constant for
Reaction 2?
A . 7.6 mol/Lsec
B. 36 mol/Lsec
C . 172 mol/Lsec
D . 241 mol/Lsec
GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE.
MCAT

6 as developed by
1 0 . According to Equation 1:
A . when the temperature is held constant, the lower
the activation energy, the slower the reaction.
B. when the activation energy is held constant, the
lower the value of A, the faster the reaction.
C . when the activation energy is held constant, the
lower the temperature, the faster the reaction.
D . when the temperature is held constant, the lower
the activation energy, the faster the reaction.
1 1 . What is the activation energy for Reaction 1?
A . 9.71 kJ/mole
B. 22.4 kJ/mole
C . 80.7 kJ/mole
D . 186 kJ/mole
1 2 . In Figure 1, what does the intercept with the y-axis
represent?
A . log A
B. log k
C . E
a
D .
1
RT
1 3 . If the rate of disappearance of I

in Reaction 2 is 2.5
10
3
mol/(Ls), what is the rate of formation of
SO
4
2
?
A . 1.7 10
3
mol/(Ls)
B. 3.8 10
3
mol/(Ls)
C . 5.0 10
3
mol/(Ls)
D . 8.3 10
4
mol/(Ls)
1 4 . The reaction profile shown below is for an uncatalyzed
reaction.
Reaction
Coordinate
P
o
t
e
n
t
i
a
l
E
n
e
r
g
y
120 kJ mole
-1
Which of the following is the reaction profile for the
same reaction after the addition of a catalyst?
100 kJ mole
-1
150 kJ mole
-1
95 kJ mole
-1
120 kJ mole
-1
A.
B.
C.
D.

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE.
Kinetics and Equilibrium Test 1

KAPLAN 7
Questions 15 through 18 are NOT
based on a descriptive passage.
1 5 . How will the equilibrium of the following reaction be
affected if more chlorine is added?
PCl
5
(g) PCl
3
(g) + Cl
2
(g)
A . It will be shifted to the right.
B. It will be shifted to the left.
C . It will be unaffected.
D . The effect on the equilibrium cannot be determined
without more information.
1 6 . How will the equilibrium of the following reaction be
affected if the temperature is increased?
N
2
(g) + 3H
2
(g) 2NH
3
(g) H = 30 kJ/mole
A . It will be shifted to the right.
B. It will be shifted to the left.
C . It will be unaffected.
D . The effect on the equilibrium cannot be determined
without more information.
1 7 . What is the value of the equilibrium constant for the
following reaction if the equilibrium concentrations of
nitrogen, hydrogen, and ammonia are 1M, 2M, and
15M, respectively?
N
2
(g) + 3H
2
(g) 2NH
3
(g)
A . 0.035
B. 7.5
C . 28
D . 380
1 8 . Consider the following gas phase reaction:
H
2
(g) + Br
2
(g) 2 HBr(g)
The concentrations of H
2
, Br
2
, and HBr are 0.05M,
0.03M, and 500.0M, respectively. The equilibrium
constant for this reaction at 400C is 2.5 10
3
. Is this
system at equilibrium?
A . Yes, the system is at equilibrium.
B. No, the reaction must shift to the right in order to
reach equilibrium.
C . No, the reaction must shift to the left in order to
reach equilibrium.
D . It cannot be determined if this system is at
equilibrium without more information.

END OF TEST
MCAT

8 as developed by
ANSWER KEY:
1. A 6. D 11. D 16. B
2. D 7. D 12. A 17. C
3. C 8. C 13. A 18. C
4. B 9. B 14. A
5. A 10. D 15. B
Kinetics and Equilibrium Test 1

KAPLAN 9
KINETICS AND EQUILIBRIUM TEST TRANSCRIPT
Passage I (Questions 17)
1. The reaction that goes to completion to the greatest degree is the one with the larger equilibrium constant. You should
recall that for any reaction, the equilibrium constant is equal to the product of the products each raised to their stoichiometric
coefficients divided by the product of the reactants each raised to their stoichiometric coefficients. So, if the equilibrium
constant is large, it means that a large amount of products have been formed. Thus, choice A, Reaction I with a K = 3 x 104,
would be the correct choice.
2. The answer to question 2 is D. For this question you need to be able to understand reaction profiles. A reaction
profile, such as that shown in Figure 3, is a plot of the potential energy of a reaction versus the reaction coordinate, which
represents the progress of the reaction. You should know that as reactant molecules with sufficient energy collide, they form
what is known as an activated complex. This activated complex can either go on to form intermediates, products, or go back to
reactants. Looking at Figure 3, you can see that there are three peaks representing three activated complexes and that the middle
peak is the highest. You should know that the higher the peak, the higher the potential energy of the activated complex, and
that the higher the potential energy the slower the rate of formation of the activated complex. In other words, the slowest step
in a mechanism has the highest peak in the reaction profile. Comparing the peaks to the steps of the mechanism (Figure 2),
you can see that step two, the formation of the carbocation, has the highest peak. All right, lets look at the answer choices.
Choice A states that the rate of formation of the carbocation, step 2, is greater than the rate of protonation of the alcohol, step
1. In other words, this choice says that the peak for step 2 is lower than the peak for step 1. This is not true. Choice B states
that the rate of formation of the carbocation is greater than that of the deprotonation of the carbocation to form the alkene, or the
peak for step 2 is smaller than that of step 3. Not true. Choice C, the rate of deprotonation to form the alkene is greater than
the protonation of the alcohol, or the peak for step 3 is smaller than that of step 1, is also not true. That leaves choice D as the
correct response: the rate of formation of the carbocation is less than the rate of protonation. (The peak for step 2 is taller than
that of step 1.)
3. The correct answer to question 3 is choice C. For this question you need to be able to construct the rate expression and
be able to determine the order of the reaction from experimental data. For a homogeneous reaction, the rate is proportional to
the concentrations of the reactants raised to some power. So, for the reaction A plus B goes to products, the rate law is equal to
the concentration of A raised to some power, times the concentration of B raised to some power, times a proportionality
constant. The proportionality constant is called the rate constant and the powers that the concentrations of the reactants are
raised to can only be determined by experimentation. Okay, for the reaction in question, the rate law is equal to the
concentration of tert-butyl bromide raised to some power, times the concentration of hydroxide raised to some power, times a
rate constant. Now, in order to determine what the exponents in the rate law are, you need to be able to interpret the data
presented in Table 1. A couple of things you should remember: if the concentration of a reactant is doubled and the rate
doubles, if it is tripled and the rate triples, the exponent is equal to one. If the concentration of a reactant is doubled and the rate
increases by a factor of 4, if the concentration is tripled and the rate increases by a factor of 9, the exponent is equal to 2. If the
concentration of the reactant does not affect the rate, the exponent is equal to zero. Armed with this information, lets look at
the data: Looking at experiments number 1 and 2, the concentration of tert-butyl bromide is held constant at 0.02 mmol/liter
and the concentration of hydroxide has been doubled. We can see that the reaction rate remains unchanged: the exponent for the
hydroxide concentration is zero. Something raised to the zero power is equal to one, so hydroxide will NOT appear in the rate
law. Looking at experiments 1 and 3, the concentration of hydroxide is held constant--it doesnt really matter since we just
determined its not in the rate law--and the concentration of tert-butyl bromide has been doubled. What happens to the rate? It
goes from 6.0 mmol per liter second to 12 mmol per liter second--it doubles. So the exponent for tert-butyl bromide is equal to
one. The rate law is, therefore, rate is equal to the rate constant, times the concentration of tert-butyl bromide: Choice C.
4. For question number 4 the correct answer is B. For this question, what you need to do is solve the rate law for the rate
constant. Rearranging the rate law that we determined in question 3, you get that the rate constant is equal to the rate divided by
the concentration of tert-butyl bromide. Taking Experiment 1, the rate constant is equal to 6.0 mmol/liter sec divided by 0.02
mmol /liter. 6 divided by 0.02 equals 300: choice B. As far as the units are concerned, mmols and liters cancel leaving inverse
seconds as the units. Whenever you see a rate constant of inverse seconds you can be sure that it is a first-order reaction.
Second-order rate constants have the units liter per mole second. Again the correct answer is B.
MCAT

10 as developed by
5. For question 5 the correct answer is A. Rate constants and equilibrium constants are both affected by temperature. The
temperature dependence of the rate constant is explained by the Arrhenius equation, which is, in logarithmic form, the base-ten
log of the rate constant is equal to the log of the frequency constant (A), minus the activation energy (Ea) divided by the product
2.303, times the gas constant, times the temperature. If youre not familiar with this, dont worry--well talk about it in just a
while. You used this equation to answer some questions in the next passage. Basically, what you need to know is that as the
temperature increases, so does the rate constant. The temperature dependence of the equilibrium constant is explained by the
equation DG = RTlnK, where DG is the standard free energy change of the reaction (remember that standard conditions are
observed when each substance is pure and at 1 atmosphere of pressure). This equation is valid for any kind of equilibrium: acid
dissociation constants, base dissociation constants, equilibria involving gases, etc. You should have this equation memorized.
Dont worry about memorizing the Arrhenius equation; just know that the rate constant increases with increasing temperature.
If you need to use the Arrhenius equation it will be given to you. Again, the correct answer is A.
6. The correct answer to question 6 is choice D. This question is testing your knowledge of Le Chateliers principle,
which states if a system is subjected to a stress, it will adjust itself in order to alleviate that stress. Lets talk about of few of
these stresses. Adding or removing a product or reactant: the reaction will shift in order to consume the reactant that has been
added and shifts in order to replace the product or reactant that has been removed. In other words, if you add something to the
reactant side, the equilibrium will be shifted to the right, in order to consume the excess reactant. If a product is added, the
equilibrium will shift to the left, in order to consume the excess product. If a reactant is removed, the equilibrium will shift to
the left, in order to replace the reactant. If a product is removed, the equilibrium will shift to the right, in order to replace the
product. Another type of stress occurs when the volume of a gaseous reaction is reduced. When the volume is decreased, the
reaction will shift is such a way so as to reduce the total number of gaseous molecules. So, if a reaction has 3 moles of gas on
the product side and 2 moles of gas on the reactant side, it will shift to the left, favoring the side with fewer molecules.
Changes in temperature also stress the system. If the temperature of an exothermic reaction is increased, the reaction will shift
to the left. In other words, the equilibrium constant becomes smaller. If the temperature of an endothermic reaction is
increased, it will be shifted to the right, the equilibrium constant will become larger. There are also a couple of additions to a
system that do not affect the equilibrium: the addition of an inert gas, and the addition of a catalyst. You should know that if a
catalyst is added, it affects the forward and reverse reaction equally. So it cancels out of the equilibrium expression. If an inert
gas is added, it also appears on both the product and reactant side, leaving the equilibrium unaffected.
All right, for this question you need to look at reaction II and decide what you can do in order to increase the amount of
alkene. Well, the alkene is a product, and as I just said, if you need to favor the products, you need to remove a product or add a
reactant. Choice A, adding water to the reaction will not increase the amount of alkene formed. Water is a product, and adding a
product will shift the equilibrium to the left, in the opposite direction of what we need. Choice B, using a different reactant,
will not increase the amount of product formed. Choice C, decreasing the concentration of hydroxide ions, will also not
increase the amount of product: since this reaction proceeds by an E1 pathway, the concentration of hydroxide wont affect the
reaction at all. Choice D, adding a material to complex out the product bromide ion will increase the amount of product formed.
Bromide ion is a product; if it is removed, the equilibrium will shift to favor the products side. Choice D is the correct answer..
7. The correct response to question 7 is D. As I discussed in question 6, adding an inert gas or a catalyst does not alter
the value of the equilibrium constant. Again, the correct answer is choice D.
Passage II (Questions 814)
8. The correct answer to question 8 is C. Determining the rate law from experimental data was discussed in question 3.
If you had a problem with this question, rewind the tape and listen to the discussion of question 3.
All right, lets recall a couple of helpful hints: if the concentration of a reactant is doubled and the rate law doubles,
the reaction is first order with respect to that reactant. (In addition, if it triples and the rate law triples, it is first order as well.)
If the concentration of a reactant is doubled or tripled and the rate quadruples or increases by a factor of nine, respectively, the
reaction is second order with respect to that reactant.
You should know that the concentrations of one or more of the reactants appear in the rate law. Are there any choices
that can be eliminated? Are there any that contain product concentrations? Unfortunately they are all possible rate laws, so
none of the choices can be eliminated. Looking at the data for experiments 1 and 2 you can see that the concentration of iodide
has been held constant and that the concentration of persulfate has been doubled. So, if the concentration of persulfate is
doubled and the rate doubles, it means that the reaction is first order with respect to persulfate. Experiments 1 and 3 have the
same persulfate concentrations and the concentration of iodide is doubled in experiment 3. What happens to the rate? It doubles
as well. The reaction is first order with respect to iodide. So, the overall rate law is the rate is equal to the rate constant times
the concentration of iodide, times the concentration of persulfate: choice C.
Kinetics and Equilibrium Test 1

KAPLAN 11
9. The correct answer to question 9 is choice B. In order to get the correct answer to this question, you, unfortunately,
have had to answer question 8 correctly. (This does not happen on the MCAT, but keep in mind that this test is designed to
test your knowledge of a particular topic, and determining rate constants is an important part of this topic.) Anyway, you can
take the data from any experiment, plug it into the rate law, and solve for the rate constant. Taking the data from experiment 2
and solving for the rate constant, you get that the rate constant is equal to 2.28 divided by the product of 0.21 and 0.30, or 2.28
divided by 0.06. If you have trouble with decimals, you can multiply the numerator and the denominator by 100, which gives
228 divided by 6. Armed with this, you should be able to tell that choice B is the correct answer: 6 certainly goes into 228
more than 7.6 and less than 172 and 241. Again, choice B is the correct response.
10. The correct answer to question 10 is D. This question is simply testing your understanding of Equation 1. If you
remembered the simple relationship between the activation energy and the speed of a reaction, you could also have answered this
question without even looking at Equation 1. Anyway, looking at Equation 1, you can see that the rate constant, k, is directly
proportional to 10 to the negative something. So, the more negative that exponent, the smaller the rate constant, and the
slower the reaction. What will make this exponent more negative? Well, the larger the activation energy, Ea, the more
negative the exponent. Also, the lower the temperature, the more negative the exponent. Lets take a look at the answer
choices. Choice A states the when the temperature is held constant, the lower the activation energy, the slower the reaction.
Equation 1 tells us that the HIGHER the activation energy, the slower the reaction. Choice B states that when the activation
energy is held constant, the lower the value of A, the faster the reaction. This is clearly wrong, the HIGHER the value of A,
the faster the reaction. Choice C states that when the activation energy is held constant, the lower the temperature, the faster
the reaction. Well, if the temperature is decreased, the exponent in Equation 1 becomes more negative, the rate constant
becomes smaller, and the reaction is slower. (You could have also used your intuition on this one.) Choice D states that when
the temperature is held constant, the lower the activation energy the faster the reaction. This is a true statement; choice D is the
correct response.
11. The correct answer to question 11 is D. If you didnt know how to read Figure 1, this question would be rather
difficult to answer. Keep in mind that the MCAT incorporates graphs and data tables into their passages, and you can count on
questions like this one. Anyway, Figure 1 is a plot of the log of the rate constant versus the inverse of the temperature. You
are also given the slope of the line. Where do you see a relationship between the rate constant and the temperature? You see it
in Equation 1, the Arrhenius equation. What you need to realize is that Figure 1 is a plot of Equation 1. If you take the log of
both sides of Equation 1, you get that the log of k is equal to the log of A Ea divided by the product of 2.303, the ideal gas
constant, and the temperature. (As you can see, you must know how to manipulate logarithms.) This is in the form of the
general equation for a straight line: y is equal to mx + b, where b is the y intercept and m is the slope. Well, the slope of this
line is equal to Ea divided by the product of 2.303 and the ideal gas constant, and you are given the numerical value of the
slope at the top of Figure 1. So, all you need to do is solve for the activation energy, Ea, and approximate the answer, since
the choices are pretty spread out. All right, what do you get? You should have gotten Ea is equal to 9.71 times ten to the third
Kelvin, times 2.303, times 8.314 joules per Kelvin mole (the negatives canceled each other out). The Kelvins cancel out, so
you know that the answer has to be in kilojoules per mole. Are there any answer choices that are not in kilojoules per mole?
No there are not, so none can be eliminated. In order to simplify the calculation, multiply 9.7 by 2.3 to get about 22, dont
forget to carry the ten to the third. Then multiply 22 by 8.3 to get 176. So, the answer should be about 176 times ten to the
third joules per mole or 176 kilojoules per mole. Choice D is the closest and is , therefore, the correct choice.
12. For question 12 the correct answer is A. As I just stated in the explanation to question 11, in a plot of the logarithmic
form of the Arrhenius equation, the intercept with the y-axis is equal to the log of A: Choice A.
13. The correct answer to question 13 is A. This question tests your knowledge of basic stoichiometry. The first thing
that you need to do is make sure that Reaction 2 is balanced. Is it? Yes it is. Now, the question asks you to relate the rate of
disappearance of iodide to the rate of formation of sulfate. How do you do this? Well, you need to set up the proper conversion
factor and multiply it by the rate of disappearance of iodide. The conversion factor needed is 2 over 3, 2 being the
stoichiometric coefficient for sulfate and 3 being the stoichiometric coefficient for iodide. You dont need to actually carry out
this calculation; you should be able to see that the answer has to be slightly less than 2.5 times ten to the minus 3: answer
choice A.
14. The correct answer to question 14 is answer choice A. This question is not passage related and is what we call an
outside knowledge question. The first thing that you should know, although you really dont need it to answer this question, is
that a catalyst speeds up a reaction without itself getting consumed. The other thing that you need to know about a catalyst,
and you do need to know this to answer this question, is that a catalyst speeds up a chemical reaction by lower the activation
energy of the reaction. So, you are given a reaction profile for an uncatalyzed reaction and you need to pick out the reaction
MCAT

12 as developed by
profile that could be the catalyzed reaction. Well, you need to know what reaction profiles are. Reaction profiles are plots of
the potential energy of a reaction as a function of the reaction coordinate, or the progress of the reaction. You should know that
the potential energy associated with the peak is the activation energy for the reaction. The activation energy is the minimum
amount of energy needed for reactants to go to products. As you can see, the activation energy for the uncatalyzed reaction is
120 kilojoules per mole. So, you need to look for a reaction with exactly the same profile but with a lower activation energy.
Looking at the answer choices you can see that choice A looks exactly the same as the reaction profile for the uncatalyzed
reaction, but it has a lower activation energy. Choice A is the correct answer. Lets look at the other answer choices. Choice
B looks the same as the uncatalyzed reaction, but it has a higher activation energy. Catalysts dont do this. Choice C has an
activation energy of 95 kilojoules per mole, but this reaction is an endothermic reaction, not exothermic like the reaction in
question. Endothermic reactions have a final potential energy greater than the starting potential energy. Choice D is wrong
because it is the exact same reaction profile as the reaction in question. Again, the correct answer is choice A.
Discrete Questions
15. The correct answer to question 15 is choice B. This question test your knowledge of Le Chateliers principle. Le
Chateliers principle was discussed extensively in the explanation for question 6. If you have forgotten that discussion, or
havent listened to it, please rewind the tape and listen to it now. All right, what will happen to this reaction if more chlorine
is added? Adding more chlorine puts a stress on the system, and the system alleviates that stress by using up that added
chlorine: the equilibrium shifts to the left. Answer choice B is the correct response. Answer choice A, it will be shifted to the
right, is wrong because that would just further stress the system. The equilibrium would shift to the right if we had, say, added
some PCl5, the reactant. Choice C, it will be unaffected, is wrong as well. Le Chateliers principle tells us that if a stress,
such as adding more product, is put on a system, it will react in such a way so as to alleviate that stress. Choice D is wrong
because we had all the information we needed to answer this question. Again, the correct answer is choice B.
16. The correct answer to question 16 is choice B. As was stated earlier, if the temperature of an exothermic reaction is
increased, the reaction shifts to the left. If the temperature of an endothermic reaction is increased, it shifts to the right. The
reaction in question has a negative enthalpy of reaction, meaning that is an exothermic reaction. If the temperature of this
reaction is increased it will be shifted to the left: answer choice B. (You can also think of heat as a product in an exothermic
reaction and as a reactant in an endothermic reaction. Le Chateliers principle can then be used as per usual.)
17. The correct answer to question 17 is choice C. The equilibrium constant expression (also called the mass action
equation) shows the product of the product concentrations raised to their stoichiometric coefficients over the product of the
reactant concentrations raised to their stoichiometric coefficients. For heterogeneous equilibria, pure solids and liquids are not
included in the mass action equation; gases and aqueous components are included. So, for this question you need to construct
the correct equilibrium constant expression and calculate the equilibrium constant. So, what is the correct equilibrium constant
expression? It is the concentration of ammonia squared over the product of the nitrogen concentration and the cube of the
hydrogen concentration. Plugging in the appropriate values, 15 squared over the product of one times 2 cubed. This gives an
equilibrium constant of 28, choice C.
18. The correct answer to question 18 is choice C. The first thing that you need to do to answer this question correctly is
to construct the equilibrium constant expression. The equilibrium constant expression for this reaction is the concentration of
hydrogen bromide squared over the product of the hydrogen concentration and the bromine concentration. Plugging in the
appropriate concentration values, You get 500 squared over the product of 0.05 times 0.03. You should be able to tell that this
figures out to be in the 10 to the fifth region, much larger than the equilibrium constant. In order for this reaction to reach
equilibrium, it must use up all that excess hydrogen bromide. Consequently, the equilibrium will shift to the left. Again the
correct answer is choice C.