Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 3

Oscar Ichazo

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Oscar Ichazo (born 1931) is the Bolivian-born founder of the Arica School, which
he established in 1968.
1 Work
2 See also
3 References
3.1 Bibliography
Ichazo's Enneagram of Personality theories are part of a larger body of teaching
that he terms Protoanalysis. In Ichazo's teachings the enneagram gure has
usually been called an enneagon.
In an interview with Ichazo, he claims he achieved insight into mechanistic and
repetitive thought and behavior patterns in 1954. These processes can be
understood in connection with the enneagram gure, classical philosophy and
what he calls "Trialectic" logic grounded in three laws of process.
According to Ichazo, he identied the nine ways in which a person's ego becomes
xated within the psyche at an early stage of life. For each person one of these
'ego xations' then becomes the core of a self-image around which their
psychological personality develops. Each xation is also supported at the
emotional level by a particular 'passion' or 'vice'. The principal psychological
connections between the nine ego xations can be 'mapped' using the points,
lines and circle of the enneagram gure.
Ichazo's teachings are designed to help people transcend their identication with
and the suering caused by their own mechanistic thought and behavior
patterns. (See Fourth Way) His theories about the xations are founded on the
premise that all life seeks to continue and perpetuate itself and that the human
psyche must follow universal laws of reality. Using Trialectic logic, Ichazo
indicated the three basic human instincts for survival: Conservation (the digestive
system); Relation (the circulatory system) and Adaptation (the central nervous
system); and two poles of attraction to self-perpetuation: Sexual (the sexual
Oscar Ichazo - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Oscar_...
1 of 3 2014-05-28 21:55
organs) and Spiritual (the spinal column).
Ichazo understands the xations as aberrations from an essential state of unity.
The primary dierence between modern psychology and his theories is that he
has proposed a model of the components of the human psyche, but modern
psychology has preferred to focus on observed behavior instead of an essential
model from which aberrations develop.
In Ichazo's teachings, a person's xation derives from childhood subjective
experience (self-perception) of psychological trauma when expectations are not
met in each of the instincts. Given that young children are considered to be
self-centered in their expectations, they experience disappointment in their
expectations due to one of three fundamental attitudes: attracted, unattracted,
disinterested. From such experiences, mechanistic thought and behavior patterns
arise as an attempted defense against recurrence of the trauma. By
understanding the xations and practicing self-observation it is believed that
a person can reduce or even transcend suering and the xations' hold on the
Although some modern Enneagram of Personality writers have claimed that
Ichazo's teaching are derived, in part, from those of Gurdjie's Fourth Way
Ichazo has denied this claim in his "Letter to the Transpersonal
In 1992 intellectual copyright for the Enneagram of Personality
was denied to Ichazo on the basis that Ichazo had published claims that his
theories were factual and factual ideas cannot be copyrighted.
See also
John C. Lilly
The Holy Mountain
^ Ichazo, Interviews with Oscar Ichazo 1.
^ Palmer, The Enneagram in Love and Work, pp. 2426 2.
^ Palmer, The Enneagram in Love and Work, pp. 2029 3.
^ "Letter to the Transpersonal Community", by Oscar Ichazo, 1991. This letter can be
accessed from the "Articles" section of http://www.arica.org/
^ Arica v. Palmer (http://oridalawrm.com/arica.html), court case, provided by
Information Law Web
Oscar Ichazo - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Oscar_...
2 of 3 2014-05-28 21:55
Ichazo, Oscar (1982). Interviews with Oscar Ichazo. Arica Press.
ISBN 0-916554-02-3.
Palmer, Helen (1996). The Enneagram in Love and Work: Understanding
your Intimate and Business Relationships. HarperOne. ISBN 0-06-250721-4.
Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Oscar_Ichazo&
Categories: 1931 births Living people Bolivian writers
This page was last modied on 18 March 2013 at 14:14.
Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike
License; additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the
Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Wikipedia is a registered trademark of the
Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-prot organization.
Oscar Ichazo - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Oscar_...
3 of 3 2014-05-28 21:55