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CHAPTER ONE

AN OVERVIEW OF TELECOMMUNICATION SYSTEMS.


1.0 Introduction.
The word telecommunication has its roots in two words: Tele in Greek
meaning distant and communicatio in Latin meaning connection.
Telecommunication is the distant transfer of meaningful information from one
location (the sender, transmitter, or source) to a second location (the receiver,
or destination). Today, the term telecommunication is used in a very broad
sense to imply transfer of information over cable (copper or fiber) or wireless
media and includes all of the hardware and software necessary for its
transmission and reception.
A first important step in the route toward a modern information society and the
information superhighway was the ability to represent information in digital
form as binary digits or bits. These bits are then stored electronically, and
transmitted either as electrical or light pulses over a physical network or by
broadcast signals between sites. An important advantage of digital
communication lies in its versatility. Almost any form of information audio,
video, or data can be encoded into bits, transmitted, and then decoded back
into the desired final form at the receiver. As a result, it is almost always
possible to establish a communications system that will transfer the exact
types of information needed.
A typical communication system can be partitioned into a transmitter, a
channel, and a receiver.
Figure 1. Block Diagram of Communication System.
music, voice, video, data,
bits + compression
+ coding
video display, speakers, couch
potato, wed browser
(detect+decode + decompress)
Modulator
mixer, PLL, VCO
Transmitter
Information
Source
Information
Sink
Demodulator Receiver
low-noise amplifier (LNA)
mixer
VGA VCO
+ PLL
free-space
fiber
ocean
your house
cables
power line
twisted pair
transmission line
trace on PCB...
Channel
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Telecommunication Systems
1.0.1 Functional Elements of a Communication System :
Figure 1 shows a commonly used model for a communication system .
Although suggests a system for communication between two remotely
located points, this block diagram is also applicable to remote sensing
systems, such as radar or sonar, in which the system input and output may be
located at the same site. Regardless of the particular application and
configuration, all information transmission systems involve three major
subsystems : -a transmitter, the channel , and a receiver .
Input Transducer:
The wide variety of possible sources of information results in many different
forms for messages. Messages may be analog or digital. The message
produced by a source must be converted by a transducer to a form suitable
for the particular type of communication system employed. For example, in
electrical communications, speech waves are converted by a microphone to
voltage variations .Such a converted message is referred to as the message
signal .
Transmitter:
The purpose of the transmitter is to couple the message to the channel. It is
often necessary to modulate a carrier wave with the signal from the input
transducer. Modulation is the systematic variation of some attribute of the
carrier, such as amplitude, phase, or frequency, in accordance with a function
of the message signal.
There are several reasons for using a carrier and modulating it. Important
ones are :
(1) for ease of radiation, (2) to reduce noise and interference, (3) for channel
assignment, (4) for multiplexing or transmission of several messages over a
single channel, and (5) to overcome equipment limitations.
Channel :
The channel can have many different forms; the most familiar is the that
exists between the transmitting antenna of a commercial radio station and
the receiving antenna of a radio. In this channel, the transmitted signal
propagates through the atmosphere, or free space, to the receiving antenna .
Other forms of channels are :
- Transmission lines (such as open two- wire systems and co-axial
cables) .
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- Optical fiber channels.
- Guided electromagnetic wave channels.
All channels have one thing in common: the signal undergoes degradation
from transmitter to receiver. This degradation results from noise and other
undesired signals or interference but also may include other distortion effects
as well, such as fading signal levels, multiple transmission paths, and
filtering.
Receiver:
The receiver's function is to extract the desired message from the received
signal at the channel output and to convert it to a form suitable for the output
transducer. Although amplification may be one of the first operations
performed by the receiver, where the received signal may be extremely weak
, the main function of the receiver is to demodulate the received signal . Often
it is desired that the receiver output be a scaled, possibly delayed, version of
the message signal at the modulator input .
Output Transducer:
The output transducer completes the communication system. The device
converts the electric signal at its input into the form desired by the system
user. The most common output transducer is a loudspeaker . There are many
other examples, such as tape recorders, personal computers, meters, and
cathode ray tubes.
1.1 Telecommunications Technologies
The information age began with the telegraph, which was invented by
Samuel F.B. Morse in 1837. This was the first instrument to transform
information into electrical form and transmit it reliably over long distances.
The telegraph was followed by Alexander Graham Bell's invention of the
telephone in 1876. The magneto-telephone was one of the first telephones
on which both transmission and reception were done with the same
instrument. After Heinrich Hertz discovered electromagnetic waves in 1888,
Guglielmo Marconi invented the radio the first wireless electronic
communications system in 1901. The earliest form of electrical
communication, the original Morse telegraph of 1837 did not use a key and
sounder. Instead it was a device designed to print patterns at a distance.
These represented the more familiar dots (short beeps) and dashes (long
beeps) of the Morse code, shown in Figure 2. At the transmitting end a
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telegrapher closed a switch or telegraph key in a certain pattern of short and
long closures to represent a letter of the alphabet. The electrical energy on
the wire was sent in the same pattern of short and long bursts. At the
receiving end, this energy was converted into a pattern of sound clicks that
was decoded by a telegrapher. The code used by both transmitter and
receiver is the Morse code.
The Telephone Invented by Bell and his assistant, Thomas A. Watson,
marked a significant development in the history of electrical communications
systems. In the earliest magneto-telephone of 1876, the speakers voice was
converted into electrical energy patterns that could be sent over reasonably
long distances over wires to a receiver, which would convert
Figure 1.2 Morse code.
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I
J
K
L
M
N
O
P
Q
R
S
T
U
V
W
X
Y
Z
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
0
.
.
?
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these energy patterns back into the original sound waves for the listener. The
first commercial wireless voice transmitting system utilizing electromagnetic
waves, the radio, was built in the United States in 1906. Hertz discovered the
electromagnetic wave in 1888, and in 1895, Marconi began experimenting
with wireless telegraphy. Once man learned to encode and decode the
human voice in a form that could be superimposed onto electromagnetic
waves and transmitted to receivers, this communication approach was used
directly with human speech. Now the human voice was transmitted to remote
locations, thousands of miles away, picked up by receivers, and converted to
speech by speakers. This development opened new opportunities for
wireless communications.
The key developments that have brought us to our present state of
computing include the development of numbers, the introduction of
mechanical aids to calculation, the evolution of electronics, and the impact of
electronics on computing. Although no one person may be credited with the
invention of the computer, we will begin to track its history with an American
mathematician and physicist, John Vincent Atanasoff, who designed the first
electronic computer in early 1939. The marriage of computers and
communications in 1941 was a major milestone that had synergistic effects
on both technologies as they developed.
1.2 Telecommunications Networks
A network is a series of points or nodes interconnected by communication
paths. The connection points are known as network nodes or switching
exchanges. Networks can interconnect with other networks and can
therefore contain subnetworks. Every network has a backbone, which is a
larger transmission line that carries data gathered from smaller lines that
interconnect with it. Traditionally, the telephone network was the largest
network of computers interconnecting networks owned by different carriers.
The Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN) still remains the lifeline of
most communications. The advent of data communications and a need to
interconnect computers resulted in an emergence of data networks.
Networks can be characterized in several different ways and classified by:
I. Spatial distance, such as Local Area Network (LAN), Metropolitan
Area Network (MAN), and Wide Area Network (WAN);
2. Topology or general configurations of networks, such as the ring, bus,
star, tree, mesh, hybrid, and others;
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3. Network ownership, such as public, private or virtual private;
4. Type of switching technology such as circuit, message, packet, or cell
switching;
5. Type of computing model, such as centralized or distributed
computing.
6. Type of information it carries such as voice, data, or both kinds of
signals.
1.3 Communications System Parameters
The cost of a system interacts with and relates to each of the requirements
listed in the following sections. Obviously, the user always wants the most
performance at the least cost, with good reliability and convenience. This is
measured in terms of price to performance ratio. The type of information to be
transmitted and bandwidth requirement are prime system parameters that
determine network design and architecture. The other requirements fall
behind them
Type of Information
Information, data, voice, and video has specific transmission system
requirements. The major requirement is that voice and video
communications require a constant rate of information transfer and cannot
tolerate any delays, which is in direct contrast with bursty data
communications that transfer information at a variable rate and on demand.
Networks have traditionally been separated by the type of information
because of these significant differences in traffic characteristics.
Bandwidth
Bandwidth (BW) is the range of frequencies that can be transmitted with
minimal distortion. BW is equal to the rate of information transfer, which is
the amount of information that is communicated from the source to the
destination in a fixed amount of time, typically one second. BW is also a
measure of the transmission capacity of the communications medium. There
is a general rule that relates BW and information capacity. Hartleys Law,
which states that the amount of information that can be transmitted in a given
time is directly proportional to bandwidth. The expression that links the two is
given by
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I = ktBW (21)
where I = amount of information that can be transmitted
k = a constant that depends on the type of modulation
t = transmission time in seconds
BW = channel bandwidth
From the above equation, it is clear that the greater the channel bandwidth,
the greater the amount of information you can transmit in a given time. You
can still transmit the same amount of information over a narrower channel
except that it will take longer.
Broadband and Baseband
There are two types of transmission systems: broadband and baseband. The
term broadband, which originated in the CATV industry, involves the
simultaneous transmission of multiple channels over a single line. The
channel allocation is based on different multiplexing schemes. Baseband
refers to the original frequency range of a signal before it is modulated into a
higher and more efficient frequency range, but the term is more commonly
used to indicate digital transmission of a single channel at a time. It offers
advantages such as low cost and ease of installation as well as maintenance,
and most importantly, high transmission rates. Most data communications
use baseband transmission, however, the push is toward broadband
communication that integrates voice, data, and video over a single line.
Synchronous versus Asynchronous
Communications are designated as synchronous or asynchronous
depending on how the timing and framing information is transmitted. The
framing for asynchronous communication is based on a single character,
while that for synchronous communication is based on a much bigger block
of data. Synchronous signals require a coherent clock signal called a data
clock between the transmitter and receiver for correct data interpretation.
The clock recovery circuit in the receiver extracts the data clock signal
frequency from the stream of incoming data and data synchronization is
achieved. Also, there are a special series of bits called synchronization
(SYNC) characters that are transmitted at the beginning of every data block
to achieve synchronization. Each data block represents hundreds or even
thousands of data characters. Asynchronous transmission incorporates the
use of framing bits start and stop bits to signal the beginning and end of each
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data character because the data clock signals at the transmitter and receiver
are not synchronized, although they must operate at the same frequency. It is
more cost-effective but inefficient compared with synchronous transmission.
For every character that is transmitted, the asynchronous transmission
system adds a start bit and a stop bit, and some also add a parity bit for error-
detection.The efficiency of transmission is the ratio of the actual message
bits to the total number of bits, including message and control bits and is
given by the expression below;
In any transmission, the synchronization, error detection, or any other bits
that are not messages are collectively referred to as overheads.
Simplex, Half-Duplex, and Full-Duplex
Simplex refers to communications in only one direction from the transmitter
to the receiver. There is no acknowledgment of reception from the receiver,
so errors cannot be conveyed to the transmitter. Half-duplex refers to two-
way communications but in only one direction at a time. Full-duplex refers to
simultaneous two-way transmission. For example, a radio is a simplex
device, a walkie-talkie is a half-duplex device, and certain computer video
cards are full-duplex devices. Similarly, radio or TV broadcast is a simplex
system, transfer of inventory data from a warehouse to an accounting office is
a half-duplex system, and videoconferencing represents a full-duplex
application.
8
M
+
C M
Efficiency
=
Overhead
M
M C
+
1 100%
100%
where M
C =
Number of message bits
Number of control bits
In other words,
Efficiency% = 100 - Overhead %
( (
x
x
Telecommunication Systems
Serial and Parallel
Serial transmission refers to the method of transmitting the bits (0s and 1s)
one after another along a single path. It is slow, cost-effective, has relatively
few errors, and is practical for long distances. Parallel transmission is
described as transmitting a group of bits at a single instant in time, which
requires multiple paths. For example, to transfer a byte (8-bit data word),
parallel transmission requires eight separate wires or communications
channels. It is fast (higher data transfer rate) but expensive, and it is practical
only for short distances. Most transmission lines are serial, whereas
information transfer within computers and communications devices is in
parallel. Therefore, there must be techniques for converting between parallel
and serial, and vice versa. Such data conversions are usually accomplished
by a Universal Asynchronous Receiver Transmitter (UART).
Analog and Digital
Information that needs to be communicated may be in analog or digital form.
Analog signals are continuously varying quantities, while digital signals are
discrete quantities, most commonly binary (On or Off, High or Low, 1 or 0).
Voices, images, and temperature readings from a sensor are all examples of
analog data. In digital transmission, as all information is reduced to a stream
of 0s and 1s, you can use a single network for voice, data, and video. Analog
data can be encoded as an analog signal, for example, cassette tape player,
and audio as well as video components of a TV program. Digital data is
regularly represented by digital signals, for example, e-mail. Also, analog
data is commonly encoded with digital signals. When you scan an image or
capture a sound on the computer, you are converting analog data to digital
signals. This analog-to-digital conversion is usually accomplished with a
special device or process referred to as a codec, which is short for coder-
decoder.
Noise
This consists of undesired, usually random, variations that interfere with the
desired signals and inhibit communication, noise originates both in the
channel and in the communication equipment. Although it cannot be
eliminated completely, its effects can be reduced by various means. It is
helpful to divide noise into two types: internal noise, which originates within
the communication equipment, and external noise, which is a property of the
channel. External noise consists of man-made noise, atmospheric, and
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space noise. Man-made noise is generated by equipment that produces
sparks, such as automobile engines and electric motors with brushes.
Atmospheric noise is often called static because lightning, which is a static-
electricity discharge, is its principal source. Since it occurs in short, intense
bursts with relatively long periods of time between bursts, it is often possible
to improve communication by simply disabling the receiver for the duration of
the burst. This technique is called noise blanking. Space noise is mostly solar
noise, which can be a serious problem with satellite reception when the
satellite is in line between the antenna and the sun. Internal noise is
generated in all electronic equipment, both passive components like
resistors and cables, and active devices like diodes and transistors. Thermal
noise is produced by the random motion of electrons in a conductor due to
heat. It is an equal mixture of noise of all frequencies, and is sometimes
called white noise, by analogy with white light, which is an equal mixture of all
colors. The term noise is often used alone to refer to this type of noise, which
is found everywhere in electronic circuitry. The noise power in a conductor is
a function of its temperature given by the expression
P = kTBW
N
where P = internal noise power in watts
N
k = Boltzmanns constant, 1.38 x 10-23 joules/Kelvin (J/K)
T = absolute temperature in Kelvin (K)
BW = operating bandwidth in Hertz
The temperature in degrees Kelvin can be found by adding 273 to the Celsius
temperature. The previous equation shows that noise power is directly
proportional to bandwidth, which means that high bandwidth
communications are associated with higher noise. The only way to reduce
noise is to decrease the temperature or the bandwidth of a circuit, or both.
Shot noise has a power spectrum that resembles that for thermal noise by
having equal energy in every hertz of bandwidth, at frequencies from dc into
the GHz region. It is created by random variations in current flow in active
devices such as transistors and semiconductor diodes. Excess noise, also
called flicker noise or pink noise, varies inversely with frequency. It is rarely a
problem in communication circuits, because it declines with increasing
frequency and is usually insignificant above approximately one kHz. In
communications, it is not really the amount of noise that concerns us, but
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rather the amount of noise compared to the level of the desired signal. That is,
it is the ratio of signal to noise power that is important, rather than the noise
power alone. This Signalto- Noise Ratio (SNR), usually expressed in decibel
(dB), is one of the most important specifications of any communication
system. The decibel is a logarithmic unit used for comparisons of power
levels or voltage levels. In order to understand the implication of dB, it is
important to know that a sound level of zero dB corresponds to the threshold
of hearing, which is the smallest sound that can be heard. A normal speech
conversation would measure about 60 dB. The SNR is given by the
expression;
SNR dB 10 log = P / P
10 S N
where P is the signal power and P is the noise power
S N
1.4 Modulation
Modulation (a means of controlling the characteristics of a signal in a desired
way) is the act of translating some low-frequency or baseband signal (voice,
music, data) to a higher frequency . Why do we modulate signals? There are
at least two reasons: to allow the simultaneous transmission of two or more
baseband signals by translating them to different frequencies, and to take
advantage of the greater efficiency and smaller size of higher-frequency
antennas. In the modulation process, some characteristic of a high-
frequency sinusoidal carrier is changed in direct proportion to the
instantaneous amplitude of the baseband signal. The modulation is done at
the transmitter, while an inverse process, called demodulation or detection,
takes place at the receiver to restore the original baseband signal. There are
many ways to modulate a signal, such as Amplitude Modulation (AM),
Frequency Modulation (FM), Phase Modulation (PM), and Pulse Modulation.
Both AM and FM are used in radio broadcast. Pulse modulation is mainly
used for analog-to-digital conversion. In modulation, the amplitude,
frequency, or phase of a carrier wave is changed in accordance with the
modulating signal in order to transmit information. The resultant is called a
modulated wave. This concept is illustrated in Figure 3.
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Figure 1.3. Concept of modulation.
A carrier, which is usually a sine wave, is generated at a frequency much
higher than the highest modulating signal frequency. The expression below
is a general equation for a sine wave carrier:
e(t) = Ec sin (ct + )
where e(t) = instantaneous amplitude or voltage of the sine wave at time t
Ec = maximum amplitude or peak voltage
c = frequency in radians per second
t = time in seconds
= phase angle in radians
In modulation, the instantaneous amplitude of the modulating signal is used
to vary some parameter of the carrier. The parameters that can be changed
are amplitude Ec, frequency c, and phase .
The information content (analog waveform or digital bits) are mapped onto
the carrier wave using different modulation schemes;
1. Classic analog techniques: Amplitude Modulation (AM), Frequency
Modulation (FM), Phase Modulation (PM)
2. Simple digital modulation: On/Off Keying (OOK), Amplitude Shift
Keying (ASK), Frequency Shift Keying (FSK), Phase Shift Keying
(BPSK), Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM)
3. Sophisticated digital modulation: Minimum Shift Keying (MSK), Pulse-
Position Modulation (PPM), Orthogonal Frequency-Division
Multiplexing (OFDM), Discrete Multi-Tone (DMT).
Modulating
Signal
Modulator
Carrier Wave
Modulated
Carrier
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Telecommunication Systems
1.4.1 Amplitude Modulation:
Modulation Degree and Sideband Amplitude.
Amplitude modulation of a sine or cosine carrier results in a variation of the
carrier amplitude that is proportional to the amplitude of the modulating
signal. In the time domain (amplitude versus time), the amplitude modulation
of one sinusoidal carrier by another sinusoid resembles Figure 4a. The
mathematical expression for this complex wave shows that it is the sum of
three sinusoids of different frequencies. One of these sinusoids has the same
frequency and amplitude as the unmodulated carrier. The second sinusoid is
at a frequency equal to the sum of the carrier frequency and the modulation
frequency; this component is the upper sideband. The third sinusoid is at a
frequency equal to the carrier frequency minus the modulation frequency;
this component is the lower sideband. The two sideband components have
equal amplitudes, which are proportional to the amplitude of the modulating
signal. Figure 4b shows the carrier and sideband components of the
amplitude modulated wave of Figure
4(a) as they appear in the frequency domain (amplitude versus frequency).
Figure 1.4. Domain display of amplitude modulated carrier
A measure of the amount of modulation is m, the degree of modulation. This
is usually expressed as a percentage called the percent modulation. In the
time domain, the degree of modulation for sinusoidal modulation is
calculated as follows, using variables shown in Figure 5:
Figure 1.4(a). Time domain display
Of an amplitude modulated carrier.
A
m
p
l
i
t
u
d
e
(
V
o
l
t
s
)
t
Figure 1.4(b). Frequency domain
(spectrum analyzer) Display of
an amplitude modulated carrier
A
m
p
l
i
t
u
d
e
(
V
o
l
t
s
)
LSB USB
m f fC- fC fC m f +
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Figure 1.5.
M = E - E / E , Since the modulation is symmetrical,
max c c
And E - E = E - E , and E + E / 2 = Ec
max c c min max min .
From this it is easy to show that, m = E - E / E + E for sinusoidal
max min max min
modulation.
When all three components of the modulation signal are in phase, they add
together linearly and form the maximum signal amplitude , as shown in
figure 6.
M = E - E / E = / E
max c c
since E = E = E
USB LSB SB,
M = 2E / E
SB, c
Then For 100% modulation (m=1.0), the amplitude of each sideband will be
one-half of the carrier amplitude (voltage). Thus, each sideband will be 6 dB
less than the carrier, or one-fourth the power of the carrier. Since the carrier
component does not change with amplitude modulation, the total power in
the100% modulated wave is 50% higher than in the unmodulated carrier.
Figure 1.6.
Calculation of degree of amplitude
Modulation from time domain display.
E
maxm
E = E + E + E
max c USB LSB
E + E
USB LSB c
Calculation of degree of amplitude modulation displayed in both time
and frequency domain.
Emax
Fc
Emin
E
c
E
I s b
m = 0.5
E
u s b
f
c
f
m
f
m
f
m
f
c
+
Emax
Ec
Emin
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Telecommunication Systems
Although it is easy to calculate the modulation percentage M from a linear
presentation in the frequency or time domain (M = m 100%), the logarithmic
display on a spectrum analyzer offers some advantages, especially at low
modulation percentages. The wide dynamic range of a spectrum analyzer
(over 70dB) allows measurement of modulation percentages as low as
0.06%.
Special Forms of Amplitude modulation
Changing degree of modulation of a particular carrier does not change the
amplitude of the carrier component itself. Instead, the amplitude of the
sidebands changes, thus altering the amplitude of the composite wave.
Since the amplitude of the carrier component remains constant, all the
transmitted information is contained in the sidebands. This means that the
considerable power transmitted in the carrier is essentially wasted. For
improved power efficiency, the carrier component may be suppressed
(usually by the use of a balanced modulator circuit), so that the transmitted
wave consists only of the upper and lower sidebands. This type of modulation
is called double sideband-suppressed carrier, or DSB-SC. The carrier must
be reinserted at the receiver, however, to recover this modulation. In the time
and frequency domains, DSB-SC modulation appears as shown in Figure 7.
Figure 1.7. Frequency and time domain presentations
of balanced modulator output.
An important type of amplitude modulation is the single sideband with
suppressed carrier (SSB). Either the upper or lower sideband can be
transmitted, written as SSB-USB or SSB-LSB (or the SSB prefix may be
omitted). Since each sideband is displaced from the carrier by the same
frequency, and since the two sidebands have equal amplitudes, it follows that
any information contained in one must also be in the other. Eliminating one of
(a) Frequency domain (b) Time domain
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the sidebands cuts the power requirement in half and, more importantly,
halves the transmission bandwidth (frequency spectrum width). SSB has
been used extensively throughout telephone systems to combine many
separate messages into a composite signal (baseband) by frequency
multiplexing. This method allows the combination of up to several thousand
4-kHz-wide channels containing voice, routing signals, and pilot carriers.
The composite signal can then be either sent directly via coaxial lines or used
to modulate microwave line transmitters. The SSB signal commonly
generated at a fixed frequency by filtering or by phasing techniques.
This necessitates mixing and amplification in order to get the desired
transmitting frequency and output power. These latter stages, following
the SSB generation, must be extremely linear to avoid signal distortion,
which would result in unwanted in-band and out-of-band
intermodulation products. Such distortion products can introduce
severe interference in adjacent channels.
1.4.2 Angular Modulation
The carrier as we saw earlier was given by the expression e(t) = A cos (wt +
f) and, angular modulation can be characterized as either frequency or phase
modulation. In either case, we think of a constant carrier plus or minus some
incremental change.
Frequency Modulation
The instantaneous frequency deviation of the modulated carrier with respect
to the frequency of the unmodulated carrier is directly proportional to the
instantaneous amplitude of the modulating signal.
Phase Modulation
The instantaneous phase deviation of the modulated carrier with respect to
the phase of the unmodulated carrier is directly proportional to the
instantaneous amplitude of the modulating signal.
For angular modulation there is no specific limit to the degree of
modulation, so there is no equivalent of 100% AM. Modulation index is
expressed as:
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m = f / f =
p m p
where
m= modulation index,
f = peak frequency deviation,
p
F = frequency of the modulating signal, and
m
= peak phase deviation in radians.
p
This expression tells us that the angular modulation index is really an
indication of peak phase deviation, even in the FM case. Also, note that
the definitions for frequency and phase modulation do not include the
modulating frequency. In each case, the modulated property of the
carrier, frequency or phase, deviates in proportion to the instantaneous
amplitude of the modulating signal, regardless of the rate at which the
amplitude changes. The frequency of the modulating signal is important in
FM. In the expression for the modulating index, it is the ratio of peak
frequency deviation to modulation frequency that equates to phase.
Comparing this basic equation with the two definitions of modulation, we find;
(i) A carrier sine wave modulated with a single sine wave of constant
frequency and amplitude will have the same resultant signal properties (that
is, the same spectral display) for frequency and phase modulation. A
distinction in this case can be made only by direct comparison of the signal
with the modulating wave, as shown in Figure 8.
Figure 1.8. Phase and frequency modulation
of a sine wave carrier by a sine-wave signal.
Modulating Wave
Phase modulated Wave
Frequencymodulated Wave
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(ii) Phase modulation can generally be converted into frequency
modulation by choosing the frequency response of the modulator so that its
output voltage will be proportional to l/f (integration of the modulating
m
signal). The reverse is also true if the modulator output voltage is proportional
to f (differentiation of the modulating signal). Since phase modulation can be
m
applied at the amplifier stage of a transmitter, a very stable crystal-controlled
oscillator can be used. Thus, indirect FM is commonly used in VHF and
UHF communication stations where highly stable carrier frequencies are
required. We can see that the amplitude of the modulated signal always
remains constant, regardless of modulation frequency and amplitude. The
modulating signal adds no power to the carrier in angular modulation as it
does with amplitude modulation. Mathematical treatment shows that, in
contrast to amplitude modulation, angular modulation of a sine-wave carrier
with a single sine wave yields an infinite number of sidebands spaced by the
modulation frequency, fm. In other words, AM is a linear process, whereas
FM is a nonlinear process. For distortion-free detection of the modulating
signal, all sidebands must be transmitted. The spectral components
(including the carrier component) change their amplitudes when the
modulation index m is varied. The sum of the squares of these components
always yields a composite signal with an average power that remains
constant and equal to 28 the average power of the unmodulated carrier
wave.
The curves in figure 1.9, show the relation (Bessel function) between the
carrier and sideband amplitudes of the modulated wave as a function of the
modulation index m.
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Telecommunication Systems
Figure 1.9. Carrier and sideband amplitudes for angle modulated signals.
The carrier component J and the various sidebands J go to zero amplitude
0 n
at specific values of m. From these curves we can determine the amplitudes
of the carrier and the sideband components in relation to the unmodulated
carrier.
FM Spectrum
The spectrum of an FM signal is not infinite. The sideband amplitudes
become negligibly small beyond a certain frequency offset from the carrier,
depending on the magnitude of m. We can determine the bandwidth required
for low distortion transmission by counting the number of significant
sidebands. (Significant sidebands usually means all those sidebands that
have a voltage at least 1 percent (-40 dB) of the voltage of the unmodulated
carrier.) We will now investigate the spectral behavior of an FM signal for
different values of m. In Figure 1.10 we see the spectra of a signal for m=0.2,
1, 5, and 10. The sinusoidal modulating signal has the constant frequency fm,
so the m is proportional to its amplitude. In figure 1.11 amplitude of the
modulating signal is held constant and m is varied by changing the
modulating frequency. the individual spectral components are shown for
m=5, 10, and 15. For m, the components are not resolved, but the
envelope is correct. Two important facts emerge from Figures 1.10 & 1.11:
19
0.8
-0.4
0
m=3
5 10 15 20 25
1.0
0.6
0.4
A
m
p
l
i
t
u
d
e
0.2
0.0
-0.2
1st order
sideband
Carrier
2nd order
sideband
J
n
Telecommunication Systems
Figure 1.10. Amplitude-frequency spectrum of an FM signal
(with sinusoidal modulating signal, fm, fixed and amplitude varying).
(I) For very low modulation indices (m less than 0.2), we get only one
significant pair of sidebands. The required transmission
bandwidth in this case is twice fm, as for AM.
(ii) For very high modulation indices (m more than 100), the
transmission bandwidth is twice fp. For values of m between
these margins, we have to count the significant sidebands to
determine the transmission bandwidth.
f
c
- f
m
f
c c
f f
m
+
f
f
m = 0.2
m = 1
m = 5
2f
f
c
- f
m
f
c
f
c
+ f
m
2 2
2 f
f
Bandwidth
Bandwidth
f f
c c c
f f f
m
m
+ -
Bandwidth
f
c
f
c
f -
8 8
14
2
m = 10
f
f
20
Telecommunication Systems
Figure 1.11. Amplitude-frequency spectrum of an FM signal (with
amplitude of Df fixed and fm decreasing).
Bandwidth of FM Signals.
The main effects of varying the modulation index m, on a frequency
modulated signal are visualized in Figure 1.12. The main points to
observe are:
21
m = 5
f
c
2f
m = 10
f
c
m = 15
f
c
m

f
f
f
f
f
2f
2f
2f
Telecommunication Systems
(I) As m increases, the time domain shows increasing variation in the
instantaneous frequency.
(ii) As m increases, higher-order sidebands in the frequency domain
become more and more significant.
(iii) At special values of m, various sideband amplitudes become zero.
Figure 1.12. Variation of a frequency modulated
signal in the time and frequency domain as m is
changed from 0 to 7.
The bandwidth requirements for a low distortion transmission in relation
to m is shown in figure 1.13.
Figure 1.13 Bandwidth requirements vs. modulation index, m.
m =
7
f
c
+ 9 f
m
f
c m
9 f
c
f
_
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16
m
B
a
n
d
w
i
d
t
h
/

f
22
Telecommunication Systems
For voice communication, a higher degree of distortion can be tolerated; that
is, we can ignore all sidebands with less than 10% of the carrier voltage (-20
dB). There are many more sideband pairs for this signal, but their amplitudes
(and therefore their power content) are negligible. The total bandwidth is
given by:
Bandwidth = f # of sideband pairs 2 or, for this example,
M
Bandwidth = 10 kHz 3 2 = 60 kHz.
This is three times the bandwidth of an AM signal having the same
modulating tone. The bandwidth of an FM signal is usually determined by the
number of significant sidebands. For the example just cited, over 99% of the
signal power is contained in the three pairs of sidebands.
We can calculate the necessary bandwidth B using the approximate
expression given by;
B = 2f + 2f or B = 2f (1+ m)
peak m m
In the commercial, radio the modulating signal is not just a simple sinusoid
but a more complex audio signal such as speech or music. Each radio station
modulates its specific carrier by an audio signal producing a modulated
signal that occupies a small band of frequencies centered about the stations
carrier frequency. As shown in Figure1.14 , the signal received by a radio
consists of the signals sent from all stations, whose signals are spaced far
enough apart to prevent overlap. Tuning the radio to a specific station selects
the narrow band of frequencies transmitted by that station.
Figure 1.14. Signals sent from all stations, separated
in frequency to prevent their signals from overlapping.
Frequency Modulation in AM/FM Radio
Station 1 Station 2 Station 3
Frequency
A
m
p
l
i
t
u
d
e
23
Telecommunication Systems
AM and FM radio stations are spaced specific kHz apart depending on the
country and the prevailing regulatory agency specification. Tuning of the
radio dial selects one of the small frequency bands of a given station. A
demodulator in the radio extracts the modulating audio signal from the
received signal. FM radio has a number of performance advantages over AM
radio, including better power efficiency and noise rejection, but FM radio
provides these advantages at the expense of using a larger channel
bandwidth.
24
Telecommunication Systems
CHAPTER TWO
MODULATORS AND TRANSMITTERS
Methods of Transmission
Single Sideband:
The intelligence of an AM signal is contained solely in the sidebands. In fact,
each sideband alone contains all the intelligence we need for
communications. Since this is true, it may be correctly inferred that one
sideband and the carrier signal can be eliminated. This is the principle on
which single sideband (SSB) communications is based. Although both
sidebands are generated within the modulation circuitry of the SSB radio set,
the carrier and one sideband are removed before any signal is transmitted.
The sideband that is higher in frequency than the carrier is called the upper
sideband (USB). The sideband that is lower in frequency than the carrier is
called the lower sideband (LSB). Either sideband can be used for
communications as long as both the transmitter and the receiver are adjusted
to the same sideband. The transmission of only one sideband leaves open
that portion of the RF spectrum normally occupied by the other sideband of an
AM signal. This allows more emitters to be used within a given frequency
range. Single sideband transmission is used in applications where it is
desired to: Obtain greater reliability. Limit size and weight of equipment.
Increase effective output without increasing antenna voltage. Operate a large
number of radio sets without heterodyne interference (whistles and squeals)
from radio frequency carriers. Operate over long ranges without loss of
intelligibility due to selective fading.
Radiotelegraphy (Continuous Wave Transmission):
Radiotelegraph information can be transmitted by starting and stopping the
carrier by means of a switch or key. Each letter and number of a message is
indicated by combining short and long pulses (dots and dashes) in groups
according to a determined sequence or code. The process of transmitting
information, called radiotelegraphy, is also called continuous wave
transmission or, more simply, CW. Radiotelegraph information can also be
transmitted by using a tone modulated radio wave. In tone transmission, the
carrier is modulated at a fixed audio rate usually between .5 and 1 kilohertz.
The carrier signal is again stopped and started to form dots and dashes. This
is called modulated continuous wave or MCW. Because tone emission
25
Telecommunication Systems
occupies a broader band, it may be used successfully against some types of
jamming. However, the broad signal used in tone transmission is an easy
target for radio direction finding equipment. The distance range of a tone
modulated transmitter is less than that of a nonmodulated CW transmitter of
the same power output.
2.1 Principle of AM Generation
Amplitude modulation (AM) is a linear modulation. This is because the
superposition principle holds. If a carrier s (t) is amplitude modulated
c
separately by the modulating signals m (t) and m (t) producing modulated
1 2
signals sm (t) and sm (t), respectively, then the effect of modulating the same
1 2
carrier by the sum of the two signals is a modulating signal that is the sum of
the two modulated waveforms [sm (t) + sm (t)].
1 2
But the process involved in generating AM must be non-linear because
multiplication is a non-linear process. When same frequencies are contained
in the input and output signals of a processor, then the operations performed
by the processor on the signals is linear. However if new frequency
components are introduced at the output, then the processor has performed
a non-linear operation on the input signals.
In AM, new sideband frequencies are produced which are not present either
in the carrier or the modulating frequencies. So the multiplication operation
that produces AM must be a non-linear operation and involve a non-linear
system. In AM, there are two types of modulators that could introduce
multiplication by very simple methods. These modulators involve non-linear
devices involving diodes or transistors. They are as follows:
(i). The gated modulator made up of electronic switches: The gating
action of the gated modulator can be implemented either passively by
using a passive switching circuit (Fig. 2.1a) or actively with the help of
active devices making up the switching circuit.
(ii). The square-law modulator: The square-law or power law modulator
utilizes the non-linear input output characteristics of non-linear devices
like the diode or the transistor biased in the non-linear region.
26
Telecommunication Systems
The AM can be easily produced if diodes and transistors are driven into non-
linear operation. The most popular modulator is built with a Class C transistor
amplifier. A common emitter transistor amplifier coupled with a tank circuit
tuned to the carrier frequency can produce AM-DSB-TC. The carrier is fed to
the emitter while the modulating signal can be applied to either the emitter or
the base or the collector. A Class C amplifier is basically a power amplifier and
has high efficiency Passive switching can be achieved either by a mechanical
switch operated manually or a diode circuit acting as an electronic switch
(Fig. 2.1b). But the speed of mechanical switching is very slow. Usually the
carrier frequencies are in the range of mega-hertz. Typical diode switching
can be accomplished with the help of a ring modulator or a diode bridge
shown in Figure 2.1c. The carrier signal is fed to the input of the switch to
cause switching at the carrier frequency.
Fig. 2.1. Different types of gated amplitude modulators.
Mechanical switch S
AM
(t)
m(t)
m(t)
S
AM
(t)
Resistance Resistance
Diode bridge
(b) Bridge modulator
Carrier
A
B
(a) Passive AM modulator using mechanical switch
m(t)
Transformer
Carrier
S
AM
(t)
Transformer
(c) Ring modulator
27
Telecommunication Systems
In the diode bridge, the diodes get forward biased when the carrier signal
passes through the negative cycle because in that case the point A (Fig. 2.1b)
is at a higher potential than point B. The bridge acts as a closed switch and
the output is zero. On the other hand, when the carrier passes through the
positive cycle the diodes are reversed biased as point B is at a higher
potential than point A. The switch is open and the input appears across the
output. The limit on the switching speed is imposed by the non-ideality of the
diodes. In the case of the ring modulator the carrier is a train of rectangular
pulses. The output is a gated version of the input. It can be passed through a
filter to obtain a proper amplitude-modulated signal. Active devices like
transistors can also be used as switches. They operate between cutoff and
saturation.
2.2 AM Modulating Circuits / AM Modulators
There are two levels of modulation: low-level modulation and high-level
modulation.
With low-level modulation, the modulation takes place prior to the output
element of the final stage of transmitter. In high-level modulators, the
modulation takes place in the final element of the final stage of transmitter
Low-level versus high-level modulation:
With low-level modulation, less modulating signal power is required to
achieve a high percentage of modulation. For high-level modulation,
the carrier signal is at its maximum amplitude at the final element,
therefore much higher amplitude modulating signal is required to
achieve high percent modulation
However, low-level modulation is not suitable for high-power
applications when all the amplifiers that follow the modulator stage
must be linear
2.2.1 Emitter Modulator (low-level AM modulator)
The emitter modulator is basically a small signal amplifier, and is shown in
figure 2.2:
28
Telecommunication Systems
Figure 2.2: Single transistor, emitter modulator
When no modulating signal present, the circuit operates as a linear
amplifier. The output is simply the carrier amplified by the quiescent
voltage gain
When a modulating signal is applied, the amplifier operates
nonlinearly, and signal multiplication occurs
The modulating signal varies the gain of the amplifier at a sinusoidal
rate equal to the frequency of the modulating signal and can be
expressed as:
A = A [1 + mSin(2f t)] ---------------------- (2.1)
v q m
Where A = amplifier voltage gain with modulation
v
A = amplifier quiescent (without modulation) voltage gain
q
As sine function goes from a maximum of +1 to a minimum of -1, above
equation can be reduced to
A = A [1 + m]
v q
At 100% modulation, A (max) = 2A A (min) = 0
v g v
Operation of the modulator is briefly described below:
Modulating signal is applied through isolation transformer to the
emitter of transistor and the carrier is applied directly to the base.
V = 30 V dc
cc
R
1
R
c
C
2
R
L
Q
1
c
C
1
C
3
V
out
R
2
V
c
R
E
V
m
29
Telecommunication Systems
The modulating signal drives the circuit into both saturation and cut-off
states, producing the nonlinear amplification necessary for modulation
to occur
The collector waveform includes the carrier, upper and lower side
frequencies as well as a component at the modulating frequency
Coupling capacitor 2 C removes the modulating signal frequency from
the waveform, producing a symmetrical AM envelope at V
out
See the waveforms in figure 2.3;
Figure 2.3: Output waveforms for emitter modulator
Characteristics:
Amplitude of the output signal depends on the amplitude of input
carrier and the voltage gain of amplifier
Coefficient of modulation depends entirely on the amplitude of
modulating signal
Simple but incapable of producing high-power output waveforms.
2.2.2 Collector Modulator (medium-power AM modulator)
Similar to emitter modulator, the collector modulator is practically a transistor
amplifier with the modulating signal is applied to the collector. The schematic
diagram for the collector modulator is shown in figure 2.4.
Modulated carrier superimposed
onto modulating signal
Collector
voltage
( )
0
Modulating signal
( m)
AM DSBFC
envelope
(V )
out
Modulating carrier with modulating
signal frequency removed
Time
Time
30
Telecommunication Systems
Figure 2.4: Schematic diagram of simplified collector modulator
The RFC is a radio-frequency choke that acts as a short to DC and an open
to high frequencies. Therefore, it isolates the DC power supply from high-
frequency carrier and side frequencies while allowing low-frequency
modulating signal to modulate the collector of the transistor
Operation of the circuit:
1. Without an applied modulating signal, the collection of wave forms is
shown in figure 2.5.
Figure 2.5: Collector waveforms with no modulating signal
V
p
V
cc =
V
m
V
cc
Single-frequency
modulating signal
T
1 =
1.1
RFC
V
out
T
2 =
1.1
C
1
R
1
V
c
Unmodulated
carrier
Q
1
0.7 V
o V
V
c
I
c
V
out
V
cc
V
CE (sat)
= 0 V
31
Telecommunication Systems
Figure 2.6: Practical collector modulator
The operation of this circuit is almost identical to the previous circuit except
the addition of a tank circuit (C and L ) in the collector of the transistor as
1 1
shown in figure 2.6. The waveforms of the circuit are shown in figure 2.7:
Figure 2.7: Collector and output waveforms
V
m
V
p
V
cc =
Modulating
signal
T
1
1 :1
=
V
cc
C
1
C
3
T
2
V
out
L
1
C
1
Q
1
C
1
C
2 R
1
T
3 = 1 :1
V
o
Unmodulated
carrier
Antenna
C
N

V V = p
cc
m
V
c
I
c
V
out
(b)
O V
O.7 V
O V
+ 2 V
CC
O V
- 2 V
CC
32
Telecommunication Systems
The waveforms for the modulating signal, carrier and collector current are
identical as before and the output is symmetrical AM DSBFC signal
The positive half-cycle of the envelope is produced in the tank circuit by
the flywheel effect As the transistor is conducting, C charges to
1
V + V = 2V . When the transistor is off, C discharges through L .
CC m CC 1 1
When L discharges, C charges to a minimum value of 2V
1 1 CC
The resonant frequency of the tank circuit is equal to fc , and the
bandwidth extends from fc fm to fc + fm . Consequently, the
modulating signal, the harmonics and all the higher-order cross
products are removed leaving a symmetrical AM DSBFC wave. To
achieve symmetrical modulation, maximum efficiency operation, high
output power while requiring as little modulating signal drive power as
possible, emitter and collector modulators as used simultaneously as
shown in Figure 2.8.
Figure 2.13: High-power AM DSBFC transistor modulator
Circuit operation:
The modulating signal is simultaneously applied fed into the collectors
of the push-pull modulators ( Q and Q ) and to the collector of the drive
2 3
amplifier Q
1
Collector modulation occurs in Q . Thus the carrier signal on the base
1
of Q and Q has already been partially modulated, and the modulating
2 3
signal power can be reduced.
Partially modulated wave
Unmodulated
carrier input
c
T
1
Q
1
C
1
C
c
C
bp
C
c
R
b
R
b
Q
2
C
2
Q
3
T
2
Antenna
Modulated
signal
Fully modulated wave
C
bp
T
3
RFC
Modulating
signal input m
V
CC
33
Telecommunication Systems
The modulators are also not required to operate over entire operating
curve to achieve 100% modulation.
2.2.3 Balanced Modulator
The constraint on the non-linear device may be relaxed if the balanced
modulator is designed for producing amplitude modulation. It gives rise to the
suppressed carrier variety of amplitude modulation, both for double sideband
(DSB) and single sideband (SSB) cases. Figure 2.9 gives the block diagram
of a balanced modulator.
Figure. 2.9: Balanced modulator
In this case an additional component, formed by subtracting the modulating
signal from the carrier, is taken to their sum. As far as the difference is
concerned, let us now consider the difference signal
y (t) [s (t) - s (t)]
2 c m
If this difference is applied to the input of the non-linear device then we have
2 3
y(t) = a + a [S (t) - s (t)] + a [s (t) - s (t)] + a [s (t) - s (t)] +...
2 1 2 c m 3 c m 4 c m
2
_
= a +a [s (t) - s (t)]+a [s (t)] +a [s (t)] 2a s (t)xs (t) + higher order terms.
1 2 c m 3 c 2 3 m 3 c m
When the output currents are fed to a difference amplifier then the resultant
becomes
S (t)
m
o
180 phase
S (t)
m
-
Shifter
S (t)
c
Subtractor
Nonlinears device
BPF
4 a S (t)Sm(t)
3 c
+
+
+
+
-
Nonlinear device
Nonlinear device
Nonlinear device
S (t)
c
S (t)
m
Tank Circuit
34
Telecommunication Systems
-
y(t) = y(t) y(t) = 4a s (t) x s (t)
1 2 3 c m
2 3
[Since y(t) = {a +a [s (t)+ s (t)]+ a [s (t)+ s (t)] + a [s (t)+ s (t)] +...}
1 2 c m 3 c m 4 c m
2 3
_
{a +a [s (t)-s (t)]+ a [s (t)-s (t)] +a [s (t)-s (t)] +...}
1 2 c m 3 c m 4 c m
= 4 a s (t).
3 c
S (t) and the odd terms cancel out.]
m
As for the third order terms are concerned, the only term remaining from [s (t)
c
3
+ s (t)] that overlaps the frequency band of the modulating signal is [s (t)
m c
2 3
s (t) ]. This term remains unchanged in the expansion of [s (t) s (t)] and
m c m
cancels out from the final result. Therefore, the resultant output is a double
sideband, suppressed carrier amplitude modulated carrier (AM-DSB-SC)
because the first order term of the carrier signal is eliminated.
AM Transmitter
The transmitter is an electronic system that acts at the source end. It converts
the message into a suitable electrical form so that it could be launched into
the atmosphere as an electromagnetic wave.
The transmitter (i) generates the carrier signal that carries the message, (ii)
modulates the carrier by the message, and (iii) supplies sufficient power or
energy to the modulated carrier so that it may travel from the source to the
destination without being affected by noise.
There are various types of circuits for designing the transmitter. But whatever
be its design, a transmitter invariably has the following three parts or
sectionsthe exciter section, the power section, and the modulator section.
An AM transmitter must have these three major sub-divisions.
2.3.1 Low-Level Transmitters:
Figure 2.9 shows a block diagram for a low-level AM DSBFC transmitter:
Figure 2.10: Block diagram of low-level AM DSBFC transmitter
RF carrier
oscillator
Buffer
amplifier
Carrier
driver
Modulator
Modulating
signal
source
Modulating
signal
driver
Bandpass
Filter
Preamplifier
Bandpass
Filter
Linear
intermediate
Power
amplifier
Linea
final power
amplifier
Bandpass
Filter
Coupling
network
Antenna
35
Telecommunication Systems
The preamplifier (linear voltage amplifier with high input impedance):
To raise source signal amplitude to a usable level with minimum nonlinear
distortion and as little thermal noise as possible
Modulating signal driver (linear amplifier):
Amplifies the information signal to an adequate level to sufficiently drive the
modulator
RF carrier oscillator
To generate the carrier signal, usually crystal-controlled oscillators are
used
The buffer amplifier (low-gain, high-input impedance linear amplifier):
To isolate the oscillator from the high-power amplifiers
The modulator can use either emitter or collector modulation
The intermediate and final power amplifiers (push-pull modulators)
Required with low-level transmitters to maintain symmetry in the AM
envelope
The coupling network:
Matches output impedance of the final amplifier to the transmission
line/antenna
The applications in low-power, low-capacity systems: wireless intercoms,
remote control units, pagers and short-range walkie-talkie.
2.3.2 High-Level Transmitters:
The block diagram for a high-level AM DSBFC transmitter is represented in
figure 2.11 and operates as follows;
36
Telecommunication Systems
Figure 2.11: Block diagram of a high-level AM DSBFC transmitter
1. The modulating signal is processed similarly as in low-level
transmitter except for the addition of power amplifier: To provide higher
power modulating signal necessary to achieve 100% modulation
(carrier power is maximum at the high-level modulation.
2. Same circuit as before for carrier oscillator, buffer and driver but with
addition of power amplifier.
3. The modulator circuit has three primary functions:
Provide the circuitry necessary for modulation to occur.
It is the final power amplifier.
Frequency up-converter: translates low-frequency information signals
to radio-frequency signals that can be efficiently radiated from an
antenna and propagated through free space
2.3.3 Operation of Am Transmitter Showing Am Modulator In Detail
Figure 2.2 shows the details of the AM modulator. The operation of the
modulator consists of two stages. First, the information signal and carrier are
passed through a nonlinear device, e.g., a transistor or diode, to generate the
required upper and lower sidebands along with unnecessary sinusoids of
many other frequencies. [The figure mentions an "ideal" nonlinear device;
"ideal" means that most of the unnecessary harmonics have been omitted for
clarity.] Second, a high-frequency bandpass filter removes the unnecessary
sinusoids and passes only those in the required AM-modulated carrier.
Modulating
signal source
Bandpass
filter
Preamplifier
Modulating
signal driver
amplifier
Modulating
signal power
amplifier
AM modulator
and output
power amplifier
Antenna
Bandpass
filter
Matching
network
Carrier power
amplifier
Carrier
driver
Buffer
amplifier
RF carrier
oscillator
37
Telecommunication Systems
Figure 2.12: FM Modulator Detail
2.4: Generation of Angle-Modulated Waves.
A carrier frequency modulated by signal m(t) can be regarded as phase
modulated by the integral of this modulating signal. Similarly, a phase-
modulated carrier may be taken to be a frequency modulated by the
AM MODULA TOR
IDEAL NON-
LINEAR
DEVICE
BAND-PASS
FILTER
Voltage (Volts)
Time
(Sec.)
Time
(Sec.)
Time
(Sec.)
Time
(Sec.)
Filter selects carrier and sidebands.
Voltage (Volts)
Combined Signal
V(t)=[E +Em COS(2pf t)]COS(2pf t)
o m o
(f = f )
m o
Amplifier gain = constant K > 1.
Voltage (Volts)
Combined Signal
Antenna Passes only high frequencies.
Voltage (Volts)
Combined Signal
Amplitude (Volts)
E
m
E
c
f
c
f
m Frequency
(H z)
Frequency
(H z)
(fc-fm)fc(fc+fm) f
m
d
c
Amplitude (Volts) E
c
E /2
m
E /2
m
Gain of Filter
0
1
Frequency
(H z)
(fc-fm)fc(fc+fm)Frequency
(H z)
f
m
E /2
m
E /2
m
E
c
Amplitude Input (Volts)
Amplitude Gain
K>1
(H z)
Amplitude (Volts)
(fc-fm)fc(fc+fm)Frequency
(H z)
f
m
1
Antenna Gain
0
Amplitude (Volts)
(fc-fm)fc(fc+fm) Frequency
(H z)
AMPLIFIER
ANTENNA
Voltage (Volts)
Time
(Sec.)
Low Frequency
Information (blue)
High Frequency
Carrier (red)
Amplifier
38
Telecommunication Systems
derivative of the modulating signal. These methods are different for narrow
and wideband angle modulation. We shall consider the methods one after the
other.
2.4.1 Narrowband angle modulation:
Taking our cue from the expression for narrowband angle modulation whose
spectrum resembles that of an amplitude-modulated signal, we may use a
modulator to produce such narrowband angle modulation. In case of
frequency modulation, we have the integral m(t) dt inside the angle. If m(t) is
cos (mt) then the integration produces sin (mt). For narrowband
modulation this integrated signal is multiplied with the carrier to produce the
desired modulation. For phase modulation the angle varies directly with m(t).
So m(t) is directly multiplied to the carrier. The block diagram for narrowband
angle modulator is shown in figure 2.13.
Fig. 2.13. Block diagram for narrowband angle modulation.
2.4.2 Wideband Angle Modulation:
When the modulation index is large, i.e., >> 1, then the simple expression
for the angle-modulated wave no longer holds. The number of sidebands
increases and modulation can be generated either directly or indirectly. In the
indirect method, a narrowband angle modulated signal is first generated by
the usual method of narrowband angle modulation technique. Then the
narrowband angle modulated carrier is passed through a frequency multiplier
that enhances both the frequency deviation as well as the unmodulated
carrier frequency. The block diagram is shown in Figure 2.14
m(t)
Integrator
Oscillator
FM
FM
Mixer Adder
39
Telecommunication Systems
Fig. 2.14. Indirect method of wideband angle modulation.
The narrowband angle modulated carrier is
y(t) = A cos (nw t + nj[m(t)])
c c
where [m(t)] is the part of the argument that is being modulated by the
carrier. For FM the derivative of [m(t)] with respect to time is proportional to
the modulating signal while for PM [m(t)] is proportional to the message or
modulating voltage. As the deviation in frequency is augmented by the
multiplier, the carrier frequency is also amplified n times as seen from the
following expression:
y(t) = A cos (nw t + nj[m(t)])
c c
The instantaneous frequency becomes
w = nw + n[dj(t)/ dt] = nw + nbm(t)
1 c c
The multiplication of the carrier is not desirable. So the carrier frequency is
adjusted to its original value c by using frequency translation. Frequency
translation means passing the frequency multiplier output through a mixer
which has a carrier of frequency [(n 1)c] as its other input so that two the
sidebands [(2n 1)c + nm(t)] and [c + nm(t)] are produced. After
passing through a suitable bandpass filter the wideband angle-modulated
signal sA(t) = Ac cos (ct + n [m(t)]) is obtained. Mixing only relocates the
wideband FM (or PM) without affecting the frequency deviation.
In the direct method a voltage-controlled reactance is used to generate the
wideband angle-modulated signal. The basic principle depends on the ability
to vary the reactance of a device by the application of the modulating voltage.
In a tank circuit consisting of parallel combination of an inductance and a
capacitance, the resonant frequency or frequency of oscillation f = 1/LC
Narrow band FM/
PM generator
Frequency
multiplier
Mixer
BPF
Oscillator
40
Telecommunication Systems
depends on the values of the capacitor C and inductor L. If any one of the elements
can be varied directly with the modulating voltage, then the oscillator frequency will
also vary with the modulating voltage as desired for producing angle modulation.
Any controlled electrical or electronic phenomenon that provides capacitance
variation can be used as a voltage variable reactance across a tank circuit.
The tank circuit is first tuned to the unmodulated carrier frequency. The larger
the voltage variation from zero the larger is the reactance variation from its
unmodulated value. The frequency of oscillation varies accordingly. At the
carrier frequency the oscillation is due to the fixed capacitance. For
modulation, the variable reactance is superposed on this capacitance. There
are various electronic devices that produce voltage variable reactances. These are
the field effect transistor (FET), the bipolar junction transistor (BJT), the vacuum
tube, the varactor diode, etc. Varactor diodes are usually used in the reverse biased
condition. The oscillators on which the reactance modulator operates cannot be
crystal controlled. However, this voltage variable oscillator must have the stability
inherent to a crystal-controlled oscillator if it is part of a commercial transmitter. Any
drift in the stability in the carrier frequency must be controlled giving it a high degree
of frequency stability. This frequency stabilization of the reactance modulator
may be achieved by a process, which is very similar to the widely used
automatic frequency control (AFC) system.
The FET has a capacitance C and a resistance R in its biasing arm as shown
in figure 2.15. The circuit must offer a pure reactive impedance across its
output terminals A-A'. Basic FET reactance modulator acts as a three
terminal reactance that may be connected across the tank circuit. The value
of the reactance is proportional to the transconductance g of the FET. This
m
transconductance varies with the gate bias. If the modulating signal is
superposed on the FET bias, then it will vary with the transconductance.
Figure 2.15: Circuit diagram of a FET reactance modulator.
C
R
Xc
i
b
i
D
S
G Z
v
b
A
A
o
41
Telecommunication Systems
In order that the output impedance of the FET circuit is purely reactive, the
components should be selected in such a way that the following conditions
are satisfied:
(i) The bias current ib is small compared to the drain current I or ib << i.
(ii). The drain-to-gate impedance X is very large compared to the gate-to-
c
source impedance. Here X > R.If a voltage e is applied between the
c
drain source terminals of the FET resulting in a current i in the drain,
then the impedance seen between the terminals AA' is Z = v/i. This
impedance will be purely reactive (capacitive or inductive) if the above
criteria are satisfied. Now the gate-to-source voltage v = ibR = Rv/[R
g
jXc] and the FET drain current is given by
i = g v = v g R/[R jX ].
m g m c
Therefore, the impedance is
Z = v / I = 1 / (g R / [R jX ])
m c
= (1 / g ) / [R jX ] / R
m c
= (1 / g ) / [R jX / R]
m c
If X > R then Z j [X /R g ]
c c m
and the equivalent reactance is
X = X /g R = 1/(2 fC )
eq c m eq
and the equivalent capacitance is
C = RC g .
eq m
The equivalent capacitance depends on the device transconductance and
hence can be varied by bias. The capacitance is originally adjusted to any
value by varying R and C.
If R << X , then the voltage v between the course and drain is not 90 out of
c g
phase with the applied voltage v. There are three other variations of this basic
reactance modulator. In all cases the drain current far exceeds the bias
current and the drain-to-gate impedance is much larger than the gate-to-
source impedance. If R-C components are used in the biasing arm then the
output impedance is purely capacitive with C = RC g as shown earlier. The
eq m
dimension is purely capacitive as R in ohms and gm in siemens cancel each
other dimensionally. C has the dimension of capacitance. In this case the
eq
42
Telecommunication Systems
the resistance is between the gate and source while the capacitance is
between the drain and gate. If R and C are reversed with R coming between
gate and drain and capacitance between source and gate with R >> X then
c
the impedance between terminals A-A' is purely inductive with equivalent
inductance L = RC/g . Instead of R-C combination L-R combination may be
eq m
taken. For R between the gate and drain, L between the source and gate and
with the condition that X > R, Z is inductive with equivalent inductance L =
L eq
L/Rg . With R and L reversed and X < R, Z is capacitive with equivalent
m L
capacitance C = g L/R.
eq m
The varactor diodes are used frequently in the frequency modulator circuit (in
Figure 2.16). They are often used in conjunction with a reactance modulator
to
Fig. 2.16 Varactor diode frequency modulator.
Provide automatic frequency correction of the FM modulator. The p-n diode is
reverse biased to produce a voltage varying capacitive effect. The modulating
voltage is applied in series with the reverse bias hence the junction
capacitance of the diode varies with the modulating voltage. This simple
reactance modulator has the disadvantage of being a two-terminal device.
Therefore, it is limited in its applications except for AFC and remote tuning.
2.5 Modulators
There are two types of FM modulators - direct and indirect. Direct FM involves
varying the frequency of the carrier directly by the modulating input. Indirect FM
involves directly altering the phase of the carrier based on the input (this is actually a
form of direct phase modulation.
To oscillator tank circuit
A F in varactor diode
GND
C
c
RFC
C
b
(RF)
-V
b
43
Telecommunication Systems
2.5.1 Varactor Diode Frequency Modulator
Figure 2.17: Varactor diode Frequency Modulator
Figure 2.19 Varactor diode circuit for Phase modulation.
This circuit in figure 2.17 deviates the frequency of the crystal oscillator using
the diode. R1 and R2 develop a DC voltage across the diode which reverse
biases it. The voltage across the diode determines the frequency of the
oscillations. Positive inputs increase the reverse bias, decrease the diode
capacitance and thus increase the oscillation frequency. Similarly, negative
inputs decrease the oscillation frequency. The use of a crystal oscillator
means that the output waveform is very stable, but this is only the case if the
frequency deviations are kept very small. Thus, the varactor diode modulator
can only be used in limited applications. A varactor diode circuit for indirect
FM is shown in figure 2.18.
The modulating signal varies the capacitance of the diode, which then
changes the phase shift incurred by the carrier input and thus changes the
phase of the output signal.
V
cc
R
1
Crystal FM
output
Modulating
input
R
2
VD
1
Crystal
Oscillator
Input
R
1
R
2
R
1
Modulating
Signal
Input
L
1
Phase
Modulated
Output
44
Telecommunication Systems
Because the phase of the carrier is shifted, the resulting signal has a
frequency which is more stable than in the direct FM case.
2.5.2 Voltage Controlled Oscillator (VCO)
The second method of direct FM involves the use of a voltage controlled
oscillator, which is depicted in figure 2.19 below;
Figure 2.19 Voltage controlled oscillator block diagram
The capacitor repeatedly charges and discharges under the control of the
current source/sink. The amount of current supplied by this module is
determined by V and by the resistor R. Since the amount of current
in
determines the rate of capacitor charging, the resistor effectively controls the
period of the output. The capacitance C also controls the rate of charging. The
capacitor voltage is the input to the Schmitt trigger which changes the mode
of the current source/sink when a certain threshold is reached. The capacitor
voltage then heads in the opposite direction, generating a triangular wave.
The output of the Schmitt trigger provides the square wave output. These
signals can then be low-pass filtered to provide a sinusoidal FM signal. The
major limitation of the voltage controlled oscillator is that it can only work for a
small range of frequencies. For instance, the 566 IC VCO only works a
frequencies up to 1MHz.
2.6 Frequency Modulated (FM) Transmitter
The diagram below shows the signals at various stages through an
Frequency Modulated (FM) transmitter.
5V
R
V
in
Current
Source/Sink
Buffer
Schmitt
Trigger
Inverter
Triangular
Wave Output
Square Wave
Output
C
45
Telecommunication Systems
Figure 2.20 FM Transmitter Block diagram.
1. Audio Stage: Amplifies (increases) the weak signal coming from the
microphone.
2. Modulator: The audio (or data) signal is modulated onto the radio
frequency carrier in this modulator stage. Modulation can be by varying
the amplitude (or height) of the carrier known as amplitude modulation
(am) or by slightly changing its frequency waveform known as
Frequency Modulation (fm).
3. Frequency Generator or Oscillator: The Frequency generation stage
(often known as the oscillator) defines the frequency on which the
transmitter will operate. Incorrect setting of this stage can easily result
in operation outside of the amateur band, and hence interference to
other (non-amateur) radio users. The Foundation Licence only
permits the use of commercially available equipment or commercial
kits built strictly in accordance with the instructions. The Foundation
` Licence does NOT permit you to design and build your own
transmitters.
4. RF Power Amplifier: The power amplification of the radio signal is
carried out in the final stage of the block diagram. It makes the signal
stronger so that it can be transmitted into the aerial. The r.f. power
amplifier output must be connected to a correctly matched antenna
(the Load) to work properly. Use of the wrong antenna, or no antenna,
can result in damage to the transmitter.
1 - Audio Stage
2 - Modulator (FM)
3 - Radio Frequency Generator
4 - Radio Frequency Power
Amplifier
1 2
3
4
46
Telecommunication Systems
2.6.1 Crosby direct FM transmitter
If a crystal oscillator is used to provide the carrier signal, the frequency cannot be
varied too much (this is a characteristic of crystal oscillators). Thus, crystal
oscillators cannot be used in broadcast FM, but other oscillators can suffer from
frequency drift. An automatic frequency control (AFC) circuit is used in conjunction
with a non-crystal oscillator to ensure that the frequency drift is minimal. Figure 2.20
shows a Crosby direct FM transmitter which contains an AFC loop. The frequency
modulator shown can be a VCO since the oscillator frequency as much lower
than the actual transmission frequency. In this example, the oscillator centre
frequency is 5.1MHz which is multiplied by 18 before transmission to give ft =
91.8MHz. When the frequency is multiplied, so are the frequency and phase
deviations. However, the modulating input frequency is obviously
unchanged, so the modulation index is multiplied by 18. The maximum
frequency deviation at the output is 75kHz, so the maximum allowed
deviation at the modulator output is
f = 75 /18 =4.1667Hz
Since the maximum input frequency is f = 15kHz for broadcast FM, the
m
modulation index must be
= f / f reduces the amount of phase variation
m
Figure 2.21: Crosby Direct Fm Transmitter
Modulating
Signal Input
5.1MHz
Frequency Modulator
& Master Oscillator
3x 2x
3x
Frequency Multipliers
30.6MHz 91.8.MHz
28.6MHz
Mixer
Buffer and
2 x Multiplier
Crystal
Reference
Oscillator
14.3MHz
LPF
AFC Loop
Discriminator
tuned to 2MHz
BPF
47
Telecommunication Systems
The AFC loop aims to increase the stability of the output without using a
crystal oscillator in the modulator. The modulated carrier signal is mixed with
a crystal reference signal in a non-linear device. The band-pass filter
provides the difference in frequency between the master oscillator and the
crystal oscillator and this signal is fed into the frequency discriminator. The
frequency discriminator produces a voltage proportional to the difference
between the input frequency and its resonant frequency. Its resonant
frequency is 2MHz, which will allow it to detect low frequency variations in the
carrier. The output voltage of the frequency discriminator is added to the
modulating input to correct for frequency deviations at the output. The low-
pass filter ensures that the frequency discriminator does not correspond to
the frequency deviation in the FM signal thereby preventing the modulating
input from being completely cancelled.
2.6.2 Amstrong Indirect Fm Transmitter:
Indirect transmitters have no need for an AFC circuit because the frequency
of the crystal is not directly varied. This means that indirect transmitters
provide a very stable output, since the crystal frequency does not vary with
operating conditions. Figure 2.22 shows the block diagram for an Armstrong
indirect FM transmitter. This works by using a suppressed carrier amplitude
modulator and adding a phase shifted carrier to this signal. The effect of this
is shown in figure 2.23, where the A signal is the output and the B signal the
AM input. The output experiences both phase and amplitude modulation.
The amplitude modulation can be reduced by using a carrier much larger
than the peak signal amplitude, as shown in figure 2.24. However, this
reduces the amount of phase variation.
48
Telecommunication Systems
Figure 2.22 Armstrong Indirect FM Transmitter

Figure 2.23 Phase modulation using amplitude.
Figure 2.24 Better phase modulation with less Amplitude
Crystal
Carrier
Oscillator
Buffer
Amplifer
Combining
network
Balanced
Amplitude
Modulator
o
90 Phase
Shifter
Modulating
Signal Input f
m
Frequency
Multipliers
72x
72x Mixer
Buffer
Amplifier
Crystal
Oscillator
13.15kHz
200kHz
Amplitude
A
B
Amplitude
Time
A
B
49
Telecommunication Systems
The disadvantage of this method is the limited phase shift it can provide. The
rest of figure 2.22 shows the frequency shifting to the FM broadcast band by
means of frequency multiplication (by a factor of 72), frequency shifting and
frequency multiplication again. This also multiplies the amount of phase shift
at the antenna, allowing the required phase shift to be produced by a small
phase variation at the modulator output. It is worthy of note that a phase
modulator can be used as a frequency modulator if the input signal is
integrated with respect to time.
2.6.3 General Operation of an Fm Transmitter:
Before the information signal is applied to the modulator, only in the FM
transmitter is the signal passed through a preemphasis stage. Preemphasis
distorts the signal by amplifying high frequencies more than low frequencies,
i.e., the high frequencies are "emphasized" before modulation. The purpose
of this signal distortion in the FM transmitter is to facilitate later on in the FM
receiver the detection of these high frequencies of the signal in the presence
of much high-frequency noise generated in the FM demodulator in the
receiver. See figure 2.25.
50
Telecommunication Systems
Frequency
(Hz)
(f -2f ) (f -f ) f (f +f ) (f +2f ) - Frequency
c m c c c c m c m
(Hz)
(f -2f ) (f -f ) f (f +f ) (f +2f ) Frequency
c m c c c c m c m
(Hz)
EcJ0(m)
EcJ (m)
1
EcJ (m)
2
EcJ (m)
1
EcJ (m)
2
Ec
fc Frequency
(Hz)
Frequency
(Hz)
Frequency
(Hz)
Frequency
(Hz)
Amplitude (Volts)
f
m
f
m
Amplitude (Volts)
Antenna Gain
1
0
f
m (f -2f ) (f -f ) f (f +f ) (f +2f )Frequency
c m c c c c m c m
(Hz)
Amplitude (Volts)
Amplitude (Volts)
f
m
Em
f
m
Amplitude (Volts)
E
m
1
Gain
f
m
Amplitude (Volts)
PREEMPHASIS
FM
MODULATOR
AMPLIFIER
ANTENNA
Voltage (Volts)
Amplitude 1 Time
(Sec.)
Low Frequency
information
Preemphasis amplifies high frequencies
to overcome high-frequency noise
in FM receiver
Voltage (Volts)
Time
(Sec.)
Low Frequency
information
Voltage (Volts)
Time
(Sec.)
Low Frequency
information
High Frequency
Carrier
Voltage (Volts)
Time
(Sec.)
Voltage (Volts)
Combined Signal
V(t) =E COS[2 f t+m SIN(2pf t)]
o c r m
p
(fm << fc)
Combined Signal
Time
(Sec.)
Antenna passes only high frequencies.
Voltage (Volts)
Combined Signal
Time
(Sec.)
Figure 2.25 General Operation of an FM Transmitter.
51
Telecommunication Systems
CHAPTER THREE
RECEIVERS
3.0 Introduction Radio Frequency (RF):
There are two general kinds of signals that can be received by a radio
receiver. They are the modulated RF signals that carry speech, music, or
other audio energy and the continuous wave signals that are bursts of RF
energy conveying messages by means of coded (dot/dash) signals. The
process of recovering intelligence from an RF signal is called detection, and
the circuit in which it occurs is called a detector. The detector recovers the
intelligence from the carrier and makes it available for direct use or for further
amplification. In an FM receiver, the detector is usually called a discriminator.
An RF signal diminishes in strength at a very rapid rate after it leaves the
transmitting antenna. Many RF signals of various frequencies are crowded
into the radio frequency spectrum. Therefore, some means must be used to
both select and amplify the desired signal. This is accomplished by an RF
amplifier. It is included in the receiver to sharpen the selectivity (the ability to
choose one frequency out of many) and to increase the sensitivity (the ability
to respond to very weak signals). The RF amplifier normally uses tunable
circuits to select the desired signal. It contains transistors, electron or
integrated circuits (IC) to amplify the signal to a usable level. The signal level
of the output of a detector, with or without an RF amplifier, is generally very
low. To build up the signal level to a useful value that will operate
headphones, a loudspeaker, a teletypewriter, or data devices (one or more
AF amplifiers) are used in the receiver.
3.1 Radio Wave Reception: Electrical Resonant Circuits
The first stage of most radio receivers comprises of some sort of electrical
resonant circuit, the workings of which will need to be understood for a better
understanding of RF signal reception.
3.1.1 Pure Resistive Circuit:
An ac flows through a resistance of R ohms, see Figure 3.1. From ohms law
we know that V = IR. Thus for a pure resistance, the potential difference
R
across it, V , is IN PHASE with the current flow through it.
R
I IN PHASE with V
R
52
Telecommunication Systems
Figure 3.1 Phase Diagram for Pure Resistance
shows the curve for a sinusoidal current (I), which is flowing
through a coil of inductance L henrys. It can be shown that the current lags the
applied voltage by 90. I LAGS V
L
Figure 3.2 Phase Diagram for Pure Inductance
Inductive Reactance. Reactance/Frequency Graph. Figure 3.3 is the
reactance frequency graph for an inductor.
V / I = 2fL
L
V / I is called the INDUCTIVE REACTANCE, X , and is measured in ohms
L L
X = 2fL
L
3.1.2 Pure Inductive Circuit:
Figure 3.2
R
I
V
R
V
R
I
V
R
V
R
I
I
I
V
R
V
L
I
I
V
L
V
R
V
L
V
L
I
L
I
53
Telecommunication Systems
Figure 3.3: Effect of Frequency on Inductive Reactance
Pure Capacitive Circuit
Figure 3.4 shows the curve for a voltage (Vc) developed across a pure capacitor of
capacitance C farads. It can be shown that the current leads the applied voltage by
o
90 .
Figure 3.4: Phase Diagram for Pure Capacitance
Figure 3.5 is the reactance frequency graph for a capacitor.
V /I = 1/2FC
c
V /I is called the CAPACITIVE REACTANCE, X , and is measured in ohms
c c
X = FC
c
=X 1/F
c
c I
V
c
V
c
V
c I
I
V
c
I
0
x
L
54
Telecommunication Systems


Figure 3.5 Effect of Frequency on Capacitive Reactance
.
3.1.5 Series Circuit
A coil, of self inductance L henrys and resistance R ohms, is connected to a
capacitor of C farads. An emf of e volts and of variable frequency is connected
to the circuit. Figure 3.6 shows the circuit details
Figure 3.6 Series LCR Circuit and Phase Diagram
X
0
F
c
R L C
I
V V V
e
V
=

R L C
L
X
L
V
C
I
V
L
V
C
-
e
V
R
R I
I
V
C
X I
C
=
=
55 Telecommunication Systems
A phase diagram for the circuit is also shown in Figure 3.6. In this the potential
difference (pd) across L is taken as greater than that across C and therefore
the applied voltage leads the input current by the phase angle. The
expression E / I is called the IMPEDANCE, Z of the circuit and is measured in
ohms.
2 2 1/2
Z = [R + (X - X ) ]
L C
Resonance: When V = V , = 0 i.e., the input current is IN PHASE with the
L C
applied voltage. In this special condition, the circuit is said to be at
RESONANCE.
As V = V then I X = I i.e. X = X
L C L XC L C
Z is a minimum and is equal to R (from above equation).
Resonant Frequency: The frequency at which X = X may be determined
L C
as follows: X = X
L C
1/2
2FL = 1 / 2[FC]
This value of frequency is denoted by
F = 1 /2 LC
O
Response Curve
At frequencies other than the resonant frequency, VL is not equal to VC and
the impedance of the circuit is higher than that at resonance, see Figure 3.7.
For an applied voltage of constant amplitude, the current (rms value, I) varies
as the frequency of the supply changes, see Figure 3.8. The curve shown in
Figure 3.8 is called a RESPONSE CURVE.
Variation of Impedance with Frequency Figure 3.7
0
F
R
FO
Z
56 Telecommunication Systems
Figure 3.8 Va
Bandwidth
The BANDWIDTH, B, of the circuit is the difference between the two
frequencies either side of resonance at which the current has fallen to 0.707
of its maximum value, see Figure 3.9.
Figure 3.9 Bandwidth in a Series LCR Circuit
riation of Current with Frequency
The bandwidth, B = F F
2 1
The sharpness of the response curve over a range of frequencies near
resonance indicates the SELECTIVITY of the circuit. Selectivity is the ability
of a tuned circuit to respond strongly to its resonant frequency and to give a
poor response to other frequencies either side of resonance. A sharp
Selectivity

0

F
o F
I
max
I
0.707
B

0

I
I
max
I
max
F
0
I
F
1
F
2
F
57 Telecommunication Systems
response curve indicates high selectivity; poor selectivity is indicated by a flat
response curve. For good selectivity, a circuit should have a low value of R
and a high L\C ratio.
Figure 3.9 Narrow Bandwidth/Good Selectivity
Figure 3.10 Wide Bandwidth/ Poor Selectivity
3.1.6 Parallel Circuit
A coil, of self-inductance L henrys and resistance R ohms, is connected
across a capacitor of C farads. An emf of e volt and of variable frequency is
connected to the circuit, see Figure 3.11. This type of parallel ac circuit is very
common in radio equipments and has many important applications.
B F
I
F
B
I
58 Telecommunication Systems
Figure 3.11 Parallel LCR Circuit
The pd across the coil, the phasor sum of VR and VL, is equal to the pd across
the capacitor, VC. The supply current is the vector sum of IL and IC. A phase
diagram for the circuit is shown in Figure 3.12. For the condition shown, the
supply current LAGS the applied voltage by a phase angle of degrees and the
circuit is therefore INDUCTIVE (I > I ).
L C
Figure 3.12 Phase Diagram for a Parallel LCR Circuit
For a certain value of frequency, I is in phase with E, i.e. the circuit is at
RESONANCE. Once again it can be shown that the value of the Resonant
Frequency (F ) is given by:
O
1/2
F = 1 /2 [LC]
O
At resonance, the impedance of a parallel circuit is a maximum and the
supply current is a minimum. This circuit arrangement is called a REJECTOR
circuit.
I R L
V
e
L
R
V
L
I
C
V
C
I
V
L
V E
C
I
C
V
R
I
L
I

59 Telecommunication Systems
Selectivity
This is defined in the same way as for a series tuned circuit; namely, the ability
of the circuit to respond strongly to the required signal, which is at the
resonant frequency, and to give a poor response to all other signals. At
resonance, the supply current is a minimum and the impedance is maximum.
If the circuit is mis-tuned either side of resonance, e.g. by altering the value of
C, the supply current increases and the impedance decreases, see Figure
3.13 and Figure 3.14
Figure 3.13 Variation in Current with Frequency
Figure 3.14 Variation in Impedance with Frequency
Z
F F
O
I
F
o
F
I
60 Telecommunication Systems
Bandwidth
Parallel circuits reject signals near to the resonant frequency. The
BANDWIDTH of the circuit is the difference between the two frequencies,
either side of resonance, at which the voltage has fallen to 0.707 of its
maximum value. See Figure 3.15
Figure 3.15 Bandwidth in a Parallel LCR Circuit
3.2 The TRF or Tuned Radio Frequency Receiver
The TRF, or Tuned Radio Frequency receiver, became popular as soon as
the electronics industry got to the point where it was possible to build
amplifiers cheaply enoug. TRF receivers are probably the simplest designed
radio receiver available today. Figure 3.16 shows the block diagram of the
three-stage TRF receiver that includes an RF stage, a detector stage and an
audio stage. Two or three RF amplifiers are required to filter and amplify the
received signal to a level sufficient to drive the detector stage. The detector
converts RF signals directly to information. An audio stage amplifies the
information signals to a usable level. TRF receivers are simple and have a
relatively high sensitivity. However, they have 3 distinct disadvantages:
1. The bandwidth is inconsistent and varies with center frequency when
tuned over a wide range of input frequencies. As frequency increases, the
bandwidth (f/Q) increases. Thus, the selectivity of the input filter changes
over any appreciable range of input frequencies.
F F F
F
max
0.707
V
Voltage
max
V
2 0 1
61 Telecommunication Systems

Figure 3.16: TRF receiver block diagram
2. Instability due to large number of RF amplifiers all tuned to the same
center frequency. High frequency, multi stage amplifiers are susceptible to
breaking into oscillation
3. The gains are not uniform over a very wide frequency range. The
nonuniform L/C ratios of the transformer-coupled tank circuits in the RF
amplifiers
3.3 Superheterodyne Receiver
The nonuniform selectivity of the TRF receiver led to the development of the
superheterodyne receiver. It is still used today for a wide variety of radio
communication services because its gain, selectivity and sensitivity
characteristics are superior to those of other receiver configurations.
Heterodyne means to mix two frequencies together in a nonlinear device or
to transmit one frequency to another using nonlinear mixing. So the
superhets significant feature is that the signal in the IF portion of the radio
stays at a constant frequency regardless of what station you tune to. This is
done by heterodyning or beating two signals. Heterodyning is so important to
radio that we have to look at it some more. Consider the circuit of Figure 4.18.
We have a box containing some circuitry, and two inputs into the box; one is a
100 Hz sine wave, the other a 1000 Hz sine wave Assuming there is
something inside the box , the two input signals will usually somehow
combine into the output. There are two main possibilities:
RF stage
Receive
antenna
RF stage
RF signal
Detector
stage
Audio
stage
Audio
amplifiers
Audio
detector
Audio
frequencies
RF
amp.l
Antenna
coupling
network
RF
amp.
RF
amp.
Speaker
Ganged Capacitors
62 Telecommunication Systems
(i) If the circuitry in the box contains only resistors, inductors, and
capacitors, it is called a linear circuit. In linear circuits, the output is
proportional to the inputs;
Figure 3.17. Mixing two signals in some circuit
there is nothing in the output which did not come from the input. This is just a
way of saying that, if 100 Hz and 1000 Hz go in, then only 100 Hz and 1000 Hz
can come out.
(ii) But if the circuitry in the box also contains some diodes, transistors,
tubes, or other non-linear components, then this becomes a different ball
game as the signals can come out that did not go in.
Non-linear circuits can distort; they can change the wave shape of the sine
waves going in. So the 100-Hz signal could now produce harmonics of 200,
300, 400, or more Hz, while the 1000-Hz signal could now have harmonics at
2000, 3000, Hz. etc. Much more important for us, though, is that the two input
signals can interact with each other. This process is called heterodyning or
beating. When two signals interact like this, they produce new signals whose
frequencies are the sum and difference of the original two signals. In our
case, the sum would be 1100 Hz (1000 + 100), and the difference would be
900 Hz (1000 - 100). These new frequencies would be called heterodynes.
As usual, things are just a bit more complicated. The distortion harmonics
also produce sums and differences. For example, the 200 Hz harmonic of the
100-Hz signal could heterodyne with the 3000 Hz harmonic of the 1000-Hz
signal to produce 2800 and 3200 Hz, and so on. Fortunately, the harmonics
are usually smaller than the fundamentals, and so these heterodynes are
also smaller than the main ones at 1100 and 900 Hz. At a first glance, you
may think this heterodyning is a terrible complication. But remember that,
without heterodyning, the superheterodyne receiver would be impossible,
and radio and TV reception would be a lot worse today. Figure 3.18 shows
the block diagram of a superheterodyne receiver. There are five sections to a
superheterodyne receiver:
100 Hz
1000 Hz
Circuitry Output?
63 Telecommunication Systems
1. RF section: This consists of a preselector and an amplifier. The
preselector is a broad-tuned bandpass filter with an adjustable center
frequency used to reject unwanted radio frequency (image frequency) and to
reduce the noise bandwidth. The RF amplifier determines the sensitivity of
the receiver and a predominant factor in determining the noise figure for the
receiver.
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64 Telecommunication Systems
2. Mixer/converter section: This consists of a radio-frequency oscillator
and a mixer. The choice of oscillator depends on the stability and accuracy
desired. The mixer is a nonlinear device to convert radio frequencies to
intermediate frequencies (i.e. heterodyning process). The shape of the
envelope, the bandwidth and the original information contained in the
envelope remains unchanged although the carrier and sideband
frequencies are translated from RF to IF.
3. IF section: It consists of a series of IF amplifiers and bandpass filters to
achieve most of the receiver gain and selectivity. The IF is always lower than
the RF because it is easier and less expensive to construct high-gain, stable
amplifiers for low-frequency signals. The IF amplifiers are also less likely to
oscillate than their RF counterparts
4. Detector section: It converts the IF signals back to the original source
information (demodulation). It can be as simple as a single diode or as
complex as a PLL or balanced demodulator.
5. Audio amplifier section: This comprises several cascaded audio
amplifiers and one or more speakers
3.3.1 Receiver Operation
Frequency conversion: Frequency conversion in the mixer stage is identical
to frequency conversion in the modulator except that in the receiver, the
frequencies are down-converted rather than up-converted.
Mixer: In the mixer, the RF signals are combined with the local oscillator
frequency.
Local Oscillator: The local oscillator is designed such that its frequency of
oscillation is always above or below the desired RF carrier by an amount
equal to the IF center frequency. Therefore, the difference of RF and
oscillator frequency is always equal to the IF frequency. The adjustments for
the center frequency of the preselector and the local oscillator frequency are
gang tuned (the two adjustments are tied together so that single adjustment
will change the center frequency of the preselector and at the same time,
change local oscillator). When local oscillator frequency is tuned above the
RF, it is called high-side injection. When local oscillator is tuned below the RF,
it is called low-side injection.
The mathematical expression of the local oscillator frequency is given as
follows:
High-side injection: f = f + f
lo F R IF
Low-side injection: f = f f
lo RF IF
65 Telecommunication Systems
The illustration of the frequency conversion process for an AM broadcast-
band superheterodyne receiver using high-side injection is shown in figure
3.19:
Figure 3.19: Superheterodyne receiver RF-to-IF conversion
Image frequency
An image frequency is any frequency other than the selected radio frequency
carrier that will produce a cross-product frequency that is equal to the
intermediate frequency if allowed to enter a receiver and mix with the local
oscillator It is equivalent to a second radio frequency that will produce an IF
that will interfere with the IF from the desired radio frequency. If the selected
Preselector
(535 kHz to
565 kHz)
Receiver RF input (535 kHz to 1605 kHz)
Tuned to center frequency of
channel 2 (550 kHz) with a
30 kHz bandwidth
Preselector
outputs
Preselector blocks all but three RF channels
Channel 1 Channel 2 Channel 3
535 540 545 550 555 560 565 kHz
Mixer/converter
Local oscillator
(1005 kHz)
IF Filters
(450 kHz to
460 kHz)
440 445 450 445 460 465 470 kHz
Channel 3 Channel 2 Channel 1
Channel 2
450 445 460 kHz
IF Filter
output
channel 2
only
1005 kHz-535 kHz = 470 kHz
1005 kHz-540 kHz = 470 kHz
1005 kHz-545 kHz = 460 kHz
1005 kHz-550 kHz = 455 kHz
1005 kHz-555 kHz = 450 kHz
1005 kHz-560 kHz = 445 kHz
1005 kHz-565 kHz = 440 kHz
(1005-(535 to 565) kHz
Mixer/co nerter outputs (channels 1,2 and 3) v
Channel 1
Channel 2
Channel 3
66 Telecommunication Systems
RF carrier and its image frequency enter a receiver at a same time, they both
mix with the local oscillator frequency and produce difference
Consequently, two different stations are received and demodulated
simultaneously. Figure 3.20 shows the relative frequency spectrum for the
RF, IF, local oscillator and image frequencies for a superheterodyne receiver
using high-side ejection:
Figure 3.20: Image frequency
For a radio frequency to produce a cross product equal to IF, it must be
displaced from local oscillator frequency by a value equal to the IF.
With high-side ejection, the selected RF is below the local oscillator by
amount equal to the IF. Therefore, the image frequency is the radio frequency
that is located in the IF frequency above the local oscillator as shown above.
i.e.
f = f + f = f + 2 f
Im lo IF RF IF
The higher the IF, the farther away the image frequency is from the desired
radio frequency. Therefore, for better image frequency rejection, a high IF is
preferred. However, the higher the IF, the more difficult is to build stable
amplifiers with high gain. i.e. there is a trade-off when selecting the IF for a
radio receiver (image-frequency rejection vs. IF gain and stability)
3.3.3 Image-frequency rejection ratio
The image-frequency rejection ratio (IFRR) is a numerical measure of the
ability of a preselector to reject the image frequency. The mathematical
representation of IFRR is given as,
2 2 1/2
IFRR = (1+ Q )
frequencies that are equal to the IF.
IF
2f
IF IF
IF
f f
RF LO Image
Frequency
67 Telecommunication Systems
where = (f / f ) - (f /f )
im RF RF im
Q= quality factor of a preselector
Once an image frequency has down-converted to IF, it cannot be removed.
Thus, to reject the image frequency, it has to be blocked prior to the mixer
stage. I.e. the bandwidth of the preselector must be sufficiently narrow to
prevent image frequency from entering the receiver.
3.4 Double-conversion Receivers
As stated before, for good image-frequency rejection, a relatively high IF is
desired. However, for high-gain selective amplifiers that are stable, a low IF is
necessary. The solution for this problem is to use two intermediate
frequencies. i.e. by using double conversion AM receiver:
Figure 3.21: Double-conversion AM receiver
The first IF is a relatively high frequency for good image rejection. The second
IF is a relatively low frequency for good selectivity and easy amplification.
3.4.1 Net Receiver Gain
Net receiver gain is simply the ratio of the demodulator signal level at the
output of the receiver to the RF signal level at the input to the receiver In
essence, net receiver gain is the dB sum of all gains to the receiver minus the
dB sum of all losses. Figure 3.22 shows the gains and losses found in a
RF stage 1st detector stage
2nd detector stage IF amplifier stage
2nd IF
amplifiers
To audio
detector
Bandpass
filter
2nd IF
2nd detector
mixer/converter
1st detector
mixer/ converter
Bandpass
filter
1st IF
1st local
oscillator
2nd local
oscillator
RF amplifier
and
preselector
Antenna
68 Telecommunication Systems
Figure 3.22: Receiver gains and losses
3.4.2 Practical analysis of Receiver operation.
Example: Figure. 3.23 shows a superhet AM radio tuned to a radio station at
880 kHz. Coming into the antenna is not just this stations signal, but also
signals from all sorts of other stations radio, TV, radar, etc. The tuned circuits
in the RF section remove most of the undesired signals, but not all, so that
the signal coming into the mixer is mostly 880 kHz, but still has many other
signals at nearby frequencies.
typical radio receiver:
G dB = gains dB losses dB
where gains = RF amplifier gain + IF amplifier gain + audio amplifier gain
and losses = preselector loss + mixer loss + detector loss
The mixer is a nonlinear circuit; it receives this combined signal, but it also
gets a 1335 kHz signal from the oscillator below it. Since it is nonlinear, it
heterodynes these signals. There are a lot of different signals going in so it
produces a lot of heterodynes, but the most important ones are the sum and
difference of the desired station at 880 kHz, and the oscillator signal at 1335
kHz. This gives us 2215 kHz, the sum, and 455 kHz, the difference. But note
that the tuned circuits in the IF section are all tuned to 455 kHz, so they keep
the 455 kHz signal and reject the others. By the time signal gets to the
detector, the filtering has been pretty much completed, and the signal is
almost pure 455 kHz (plus any nearby sidebands.
Antenna
Loss Gain
Preselector
Loss Gain Loss Gain
RF
amplifier
Mixer-
converter
IF
amplifiers
Detector
Audio
amplifier
Local
oscillator
Audio output power
Receiver input power
69 Telecommunication Systems
Figure 3.23. Superhet with a 455 kHz IF, tuned to 880 kHz
f
IF
Now, suppose we re-tune the radio to a different station, say one at 770 kHz.
We re-tune the RF tuned circuits, but these only do a rough job of removing
faraway signals, we also re-tune the oscillator to 1225 kHz. The difference
between 1225 kHz and 770 kHz is again 455 kHz. And so the IF section again
amplifies the resulting signal, without having to be itself re-tuned. So the trick
when changing stations is to re-tune the RF circuits, and also re-tune the
oscillator so the difference frequency between the station you want, and the
oscillator, stays at 455 kHz. Since the RF tuning adjustment is not that
critical, it is possible to use a single knob to adjust all the tuned circuits at the
same time, without having to worry about whether all of them are right on
target. FM broadcast receivers usually use 10.7 MHz IF, and other IF
frequencies are also used in other kinds of receivers.
If we let f be the frequency of the station we want, and F be the IF
station IF
frequency, then the oscillator, the oscillator frequency f should be
osc
f = f + f
osc station IF
But its also possible to let
f = f
osc station
Either way, the difference between f and f is equal to the IF frequency f ,
station osc IF
so either will work.
880 kHz and
other stations
mostly
880 kHz
All 455 kHz
Mostly 1335 + 880 kHz = 2215 kHz
and 1335 - 880 kHz = 455 kHz
tuned to
880 kHz
Mixer
455 kHz
IF
Amp
AF
Amp
RF
Amp
1335 kHz
Local
Oscillator
mostly 455 kHz
880 kHz
tuned to
tuned to
455 kHz
tuned to
Detector
Speaker
70 Telecommunication Systems
3.4.3 The Image Frequency
The radio in figure 4.18 is tuned to 880 kHz, has a 455 kHz IF, and an
oscillator frequency of 1335 kHz. Here we see that 1335 kHz 880 kHz = 455
kHz. So far, so good. But suppose there was a station at 1790 kHz. Look at
the following calculation: 1790 kHz 1335 kHz = 455 kHz In other words, the
difference between the new station at 1790 kHz and the 1335 kHz oscillator
frequency is also 455 kHz. This new radio station could also now be heard,
though not as well as the one at 880 kHz because the RF tuned circuits
largely remove it. But if it were strong enough, it would come through anyway.
The 1790 kHz frequency is called the image frequency. The image frequency
is calculated as follows:
Desired station 880 kHz + IF frequency +455 kHz
Oscillator frequency 1335 kHz + IF frequency +455 kHz
Image frequency 1790 kHz
That is, the image frequency f is f = f 2 f
image image desired station IF
We used the sign in the equation because in some radios the oscillator
could also be below the desired station frequency; in that case, the image
frequency would be below the oscillator frequency, and we would need the
minus sign. This brings us to a problem bandwidth; In theory, at least, we
could get the bandwidth as narrow as we want, simply by going to a lower IF
frequency. But if we do that, then the image frequency gets closer to the
desired frequency, and then the RF tuned circuits may not be able to get rid of
it.
To get better selectivity and lower bandwidth, lower the IF frequency and to
get better rejection of the image frequency, raise the IF frequency. This is
particularly a problem with high-frequency receivers intended to receive
narrow-band signals.
3.5 Double Conversion Super Heterodyne Receiver
Consider an FM receiver for 146.94 MHz. Since the bandwidth of FM signals
on this frequency is typically only 10 or 15 kHz, a low IF frequency (such as
455 kHz or even less) would be ideal. But then the image would be at 146.94
MHz + (2 455 kHz) = 147.85 MHZ which is not even 1% away from the
desired frequency. There is no way that a typical RF tuned circuit could keep
the image out as such we need a tremendous Q to do it. Typical receivers
solve the problem one of two ways. A few use a much higher IF frequency
71 Telecommunication Systems
(around 10 MHz), but with special crystal or ceramic filters which can achieve
the narrow bandwidth even at this higher IF frequency. But a much more
common alternative is to use two separate IF sections and double
conversion. Figure 3.24 shows the block diagram of a double-conversion
superhet to receive 146.94 MHZ.
Since 10.7 MHz and 455 kHz IF transformers are not very expensive many
communications radios use them as well, and we show them here.
To receive 146.94 MHz, the first oscillator runs at;
146.94 - 10.7 MHZ = 136.24 MHZ
The oscillator could be either 10.7MHz above the desired signal, or 10.7 MHZ
but here we chose to use the lower frequency. The second oscillator and
mixer converts the 10.7 MHz first IF signal to 455 kHz by using an oscillator
at;
10.7 MHz + 0.455 MHZ = 11.155 MHz.
By using two IF frequencies, the double-conversion receiver solves our two
problems. The high first IF frequency does not provide much selectivity, but it
Figure 3.24 Double-conversion superheterodyne Receiver
helps to eliminate the image. Since the image frequency is at:
f = f 2 f
image desired station IF
The minus sign used here indicates that the oscillator is below the desired
signal, so the image must be even farther below that. The image frequency
becomes;
146.94 MHz (2 10.7 MHz) = 125.54 MHZ
which is far enough away from 146.94 that the RF tuned circuits can remove it
(or at least significantly reduce it). The second IF frequency of 455 kHz, on
the other hand, is low enough that even transformers with reasonable Q can
Antenna
146.94 MHz 10.7 MHZ
RE
Section
1
Mixer
1
IF
2
Mixer
2
IF
Detector
AF
Amp
Speaker
2
Oscillator
1
Oscillator
11.155
St St nd nd
nd St
157.64 MHz MHz
455 kHz
72 Telecommunication Systems
provide a narrow bandwidth. Incidentally, suppose we wanted to use a similar
circuit to receive 145.015 MHz instead of 146.94 MHZ. This circuit would not
do, and for an interesting reason: The 11.155 MHz signal from the second
oscillator goes into the second mixer, and the mixer is intentionally non-linear
(to produce a heterodyne.) Hence it also generates harmonics of all the
signals going in. It turns out that the 13th harmonic of 11.155 MHz is exactly
145.015 MHz. Although this harmonic is weak, a slight amount of it will still
sneak back into the RF stage, and fool the receiver into thinking there is a
weak, unmodulated signal at that frequency. Unless your desired signal is
substantially stronger than this false signal it will not be heard.
The solution in this case is to change the second oscillator frequency from
10.7 + 455 kHz to 10.7 - 455 kHz, or 10.245 MHZ.
This new oscillator frequency has harmonics at different places; while this
removes the birdie at 145.015 MHz, it introduces birdies elsewhere, such as
143.43 (which is the 14th harmonic of 10.245 MHz.) Designing wide-band
receivers (receivers designed to receive a wide range of frequencies) is thus
always a problem; there are always some false signal somewhere, and the
designer has to carefully choose his oscillator and IF frequencies to try to
place the birdies at places where they will not interfere with normal operation.
3.5.1 The Converter
Many radios combine the mixer and the oscillator into one circuit called the
converter. Figure 3.25 shows the converter used in many popular
Figure 3.25 An AM receiver converter
1
C
1
1
L
R
C
1
R R
C 2
Q
3
3 2
5
C
V

1 IF
Transformer
T
4
Oscillator coil
C
2
IF Output
T
Antenna
coil
V
cc
cc
st
1
73 Telecommunication Systems
AM broadcast radios; there are several useful techniques that are worth
mentioning. L and C are the RF tuned circuit, with C being the tuning
1 1 1
capacitor. But L does several different jobs. The top part of the winding
1
(above the ground connection) is the part that actually resonates with the
capacitor; the bottom part (connecting to C ) acts as the secondary of a
2
transformer, to bring the signal from L to the transistor without loading down
1
the tuned circuit (which would reduce the Q.) At the same time, L is also the
1
antenna. As we have seen, coils or loops of wire can act as antennas; in this
case, L is wound on a ferrite core (a ceramic core which contains ferrous
1
metal particles); the core helps to pick up the energy from the radio signal,
and concentrate it in the coil. The transistor also does two jobs. First, it
oscillates at a frequency 455 kHz above the signal you want to pick up. To do
this, we need an amplifier with positive feedback. The transistor is the
amplifier, with its output coming out of the collector, going through oscillator
coil T , and back through C into the emitter of the transistor. Capacitor C
1 3 4
resonates with the secondary of this coil to control the oscillator frequency. At
the same time, however, the transistor amplifies the RF signal coming from
the antenna coil, and mixes it with the oscillator signal. Because the transistor
is non-linear, it also produces the sum and difference heterodyne
frequencies. The primary of IF transformer T and capacitor C resonate at
2 5
455 kHz, and send the 455 kHz difference frequency on to the IF amplifier.
Notice that T and T both use taps on one winding (the tap is a third
1 2
connection part way into the winding.) This reduces the loading on the
resonant circuit, and keeps the Q from being lowered.
3.5.2 Receiver Sensitivity and Selectivity Sensitivity:
Sensitivity describes the ability of a radio to pick up weak signals. Our crystal
radio has low sensitivity, because it can only pick up really strong stations.
Sensitivity has to be judged in relation to noise. Just picking up a station is not
enough, if the station is so noisy that it is not pleasant to listen to. Spec sheets
and advertising literature usually specify receiver sensitivity by measuring
how much voltage from the antenna (usually measured in microvolts) is
required to make the desired signal (usually the sound out of the speaker) 10
times or 100 times stronger than the noise. This ratio of signal to noise is then
called the signal-to-noise ratio; a decent radio might provide a 10-to-1 or 100-
to-1 signal-to- noise ratio with an antenna signal of under 1 microvolt. This
definition of sensitivity is useful for most radio receivers, but not for a crystal
74 Telecommunication Systems
radio. Typical receivers have amplifiers which produce noise when tuned to a
weak or no station, so measuring the signal-to-noise ratio is possible.
Desired signal (usually the sound out of the speaker) 10 times or 100 times
stronger than the noise. This ratio of signal to noise is then called the signal-
to-noise ratio; a decent radio might provide a 10-to-1 or 100-to-1 signal-to-
noise ratio with an antenna signal of under 1 microvolt. This definition of
sensitivity is useful for most radio receivers, but not for a crystal radio. Typical
receivers have amplifiers which produce noise when tuned to a weak or no
station, so measuring the signal-to-noise ratio is possible. With a crystal set,
however, there is really no noise to be heard from the headphones, so
measuring the ratio is tough. Still, you need several hundred thousand
microvolts of antenna signal to hear anything at all, so sensitivity is clearly
bad.
Figure 3.26: Actual and ideal resonant response
(i). A flat top; this lets the carrier and all sidebands get through the tuned
circuit equally well.
(ii). Steep skirts; the skirt is the vertical part at the left and right. Steep
skirts make sure that the response drops very fast, so that no adjacent
stations get through.
(iii). A definite bandwidth; ideally this should be just as wide as the
bandwidth of the signal we are trying to receive - no more, and no
less. The actual tuned circuit response on the left of Figure 4.21a has
none of these.
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
1
R
e
s
p
o
n
s
e

Frequency
75 Telecommunication Systems
The top is not flat, so the carrier can get through, but the farther out a
sideband is, the less of it gets through. The sides are not steep enough to
keep out adjacent stations, since even pretty far away from the peak, the
curve still has fairly high response. And finally, there is no definite bandwidth
to the circuit. The top can be flatten out a bit by widening the whole curve.
The bandwidth of a tuned circuit determines the relative width of the curve.
The bandwidth in turn is determined by the Q or Quality Factor of the circuit.
The higher the Q, the narrower the response is; the lower the Q, the wider it
is. Unfortunately, there is a conflict here a lower Q would flatten out the top
and thus provide more even transmission of the desired signal, but it also
widens the bandpass and makes the skirts even less steep. It now becomes
obvious that a single tuned circuit simply cannot provide the right selectivity
for a radio, even under ideal conditions.
3.5.3 Superheterodyne Sensitivity and Selectivity
By splitting the amplification into separate sections, a superhet can provide
more total gain without the danger of signals feeding back and causing
oscillation. Further, because the IF amplifier does not need to be re-tuned
each time you change stations, it can be optimized, and carefully adjusted at
the factory, to provide the best possible bandpass characteristics steep
skirts and a flat top. But there is more to it than that. Recall our definition of the
Quality factor Q of a resonant circuit:
Q = resonant frequency / 3db bandwidth B
The 3-db bandwidth doesnt really specify how well the circuit will reject
adjacent stations; in order to reject such interference, the response of the
tuned circuit has to be 30, 40, or even more db down from the top of the curve
at the frequencies of any adjacent stations. We can rewrite the above
equation as
3db bandwidth BW = resonant frequency / Q
To get a small bandwidth, we have to either make the resonant frequency
small, or make the Q big. But in most resonant circuits, there is a limit on how
big Q can get; it is affected by the resistance of the rest of the circuit, and is
should be 20 or 30. Increasing Q is not a feasible approach to making the
bandwidth small. So, to get a small bandwidth, it would help if you could make
the resonant frequency small. But in a TRF receiver, you must tune the
resonant circuits to the frequency of the station you want to receive, so you
really can not make the resonant frequency small to get a good bandwidth.
The bandwidth will change as you tune to different stations, further
76 Telecommunication Systems
complicating the design. As against this, in a superhet all the selectivity is
obtained in the IF stages, and their frequency stays the same for all stations.
3.6 Summary of Operation of AM and Superheterodyne Receiver
(a) Operation of TRF AM Receiver:
The main point of interest here is the structure of the AM detector. The basic
structure of the AM detector and of the AM modulator are the same: a
nonlinear device followed by a bandpass filter. In the detector, the nonlinear
device reproduces the original signal sinusoid from the AM-modulated carrier
and also produces many unnecessary sinusoid of other frequencies; the filter
removes these unnecessary sinusoid and passes the original information
signal. The main difference between the AM modulator and the AM detector
is the frequency band passed by the filter: the modulator passes a band at
high radio frequencies; the detector passes a band at low audio frequencies.
see figure 3.27.
77 Telecommunication Systems
Figure 3.27 Operation of AM and Superheterodyne Receiver
ANTENNA
RE AMP. &
bandpass filter
DETECTOR
IDEAL NON-
LINEAR
DEVICE
BAND-PASS
FILTER
AUDIO
AMPLIFIER
SPEAKER
Amplitude (Volts)
Time
(Sec.)
Voltage (Volts)
Voltage (Volts)
Time
(Sec.)
Time
(Sec.)
Time
(Sec.)
(fC-f ) Frequency
(Hz)
(Hz)
Frequency
(Hz)
dc f
m
Gain
0
1
Amplitude
m fC fC+fm) (
Amplitude (Volts)
-
(fC
-
f ) m fC fC+fm) ( Frequency
(fC f ) m fC fC+
fm) ( Frequency
Amplitude (Volts)
Frequency
(Hz)
Frequency
(Hz)
Amplitude (Volts)
Amplitude (Volts)
f
m
f
m
Voltage (Volts)
Voltage (Volts)
Voltage (Volts)
Time
(Sec.)
78 Telecommunication Systems
(b) Operational summary of Superheterodyne AM Receiver
The structure of this receiver and that of the TRF receiver are very similar.
The main difference is the frequency range in which most of the signal
amplification is done. The TRF receiver amplifies the signal at the same high
radio frequencies at which it is received initially by the antenna.
Unfortunately, amplification at these high frequencies is inefficient, i.e., the
amplifier gains are low. To correct this error, the superheterodyne receiver
does most of its signal amplification at a lower "intermediate frequency" band
for greater efficiency. Since this intermediate frequency band is the fixed
passband of the filter in the IF amplifier, each incoming signal must be
lowered to this fixed intermediate frequency band by using a frequency
converter, which consists of a mixer (which is a nonlinear device) connected
to an oscillator of variable frequency. This is called the "local oscillator." By
changing the oscillator frequency appropriately, any station's signal can be
lowered to the given intermediate frequency range for efficient amplification.
This is shown in figure 3.28.
79 Telecommunication Systems
Figure 3.28 Operation Of Superheterodyne AM Receiver
ANTENNA
RFAMP. &
bandpass filter
DEVICE (mixer)
DETECTOR
IDEAL NON-
LINEAR
DEVICE
BAND-PASS
FILTER
AUDIO
AMPLIFIER
SPEAKER
LO
Voltage (volts)
Time
(Sec.)
Amplitude (Volts)
Amplitude (Volts)
Amplitude (Volts)
Amplitude (Volts)
Amplitude (Volts)
Amplitude (Volts)
Amplitude (Volts)
Filter selects information signal
Amplitude
Amplitude
Filter selects band around fi
the intermediate frequency
Amplitude (Volts)
(fC-fm)
Frequency
(Hz)
Frequency
(Hz)
( ) Frequency
(Hz)
Frequency
(Hz)
Frequency
(Hz)
(Hz)
Frequency
(Hz)
Frequency
(Hz)
Frequency
(Hz)
Frequency
(Hz)
dc
Gain
0
1
Voltage (volts)
Time
(Sec.)
Time
(Sec.)
Voltage (volts)
Voltage (volts)
Voltage (volts)
Voltage (volts)
Voltage (volts)
Time
(Sec.)
Time
(Sec.)
Time
(Sec.)
Time
(Sec.)
Time
(Sec.)
fC (fC fm) +
f
LO Amplitude (Volts)
(f
C
-f
m
) fC
(f
C
- f
m
)
(f
m
< f
I
< f
C
f
LO
) f
LO
(
f
-
fm)
fI (
fI+
fm)
f
C-
f
m
fC ( ) f
C
f
m +
O
(f I -fm
) f ( )
I f fm +
fm (f -fm) I fI (fI+fm)
f
m
fm
IF amplifier
FILTER
IF AMPLIFIER
PERSE
80 Telecommunication Systems
3.7 Mesurement Of Amplitude Modulatlated Waves
With a d.s.b. a.m. Wave form, the parameter that is generally measured in
the depth of modulation (m). This can be measured by means of a cathode
ray oscilloscope (c. r. o.), a modulation meter, or a true r. m. s. responding
ammeter or voltmeter.
3.7.1 Use of a C. R. O.
An amplitude- modulated wave can be displayed on a c.r.o. in two different
ways. The signal and the time base set to operate at the frequency of the
modulating signal or perhaps two or three times the modulating frequency if
more than one cycle of the envelop is to be displayed. The modulation
envelop is then stationary, and an amplitude- modulation envelop, such as
that shown in fig 3.29, in displayed.
An alternative method, that makes the detection of waveform distortion
easier, is to connect the modulated wave to the Y- input and terminals the
modulating originalss to the X- input terminals with the internal time base
switched off (see fig 1.11a). The resulting display in then trapezoidal, as
shown at fig b. it can be shown that the depth of modulation of the displayed
waveform is given by (a-b)/ (a+b) percent. The accuracy of the methods is
limited mainly by the lack of discrimination the results from the need to
reduce the peak- to- peak variation of the modulated wave into the area of the
c. r. o. screen. The reduction in measurement accuracy is particularly
Fig. 3.29 Measurement of modulating factor using a C.R.O.
b
(b)
a
Modulating
Signal
Modulating
wave
C
.
R
.
O
x
Y
(a)
81 Telecommunication Systems
noticeable when there is little difference between the maximum a and
minimum b dimensions in centimeters, i.e. when the modulation factor is
small.
3.7.2 Use of a modulator Ammeter
A modulation ammeter is an instrument which has been designed for the
direct measurement of modulation depth. Essentially the instrument consists
of a radio receiver with a direct- coupled diode detector. If the measurement
procedure specified by the manufacturer is followed carefully, accurate
measurements of modulation depth can be carried out.
3.7.3 Use of an R. M. S. responding ammeter
The r. m. s. value of an amplitude- modulated current wave is, given by
2
I = I N (1 + m ) ................................... (3.1)
C
Where I is the r. m. s. value of the unmodulated current waveform. The
C
measurement procedure is as follows. The r. m. s. value of the current with no
modulation applied is measured first then the modulation is applied, and the
new indication of the true r. m. s. responding ammeter is noted. The
modulation factor can be calculated using equation (3.1), or in practice, read
off from a graph of modulation factor plotted against the ratio I/I .
c
Example: In a measurement of modulation depth using an r. m. s.
responding ammeter the unmodulated current was 50A, use the graph in
figure 3.30. to determine the depth of modulation if the r. m. s. current with
modulation applied is (a) 55A, (b) 50. 5A
Figure 3.30 the relationship between I/Ic of the r. m. s. current of amplitude-
modulated and unmodulated waves and the modulation factor
M
o
d
u
l
a
t
i
o
n

f
a
c
t
o
r
m
1. 0
0. 9
0. 8
0. 7
0. 6
0. 5
0. 4
0. 3
0. 2
0. 1
0. 0
1.05 1.1 1.15 1.250 1.25
I/I
C
82 Telecommunication Systems
Solution:
(a) I/I = 55/50 = 1.1
c
Therefore, from the graph, Depth of modulation m = 65% (Ans)
(a) I/I = 50.5/50 = 1.01
c
Therefore, depth of modulation m = 14% (Ans)
This method of measurement is capable of accurate result for higher value of
modulation depth, out for smaller values below about 30%, the accuracy
suffer because of lack of discrimination. Alternatively, if an instrument known
as spectrum analyzer is available, the component displayed of the waveform
can be individually displayed on the analyzer c.r.t. screen and their
amplitudes measured. Fig 1.13b shows the kind of display to be expected.
The required degree of linearity can then be quoted in terms of the maximum
permissible amplitude of the intermodulation products.
Figure 3.3.1 (a) The signal waveform, (b) the spectrum diagram at the o/p
of an ISB channel whose linearity is under test.
3.8 Receiver Test and Measurements
Measuring instrument used for receiver and transmitter tests and
measurements includes signal generators, electronic voltmeters, power
meters and multi- range moving- coil instruments. In addition, certain
auxiliary pieces of equipment, such as dummy aerial, are regarded. Signal
generators for use in receiver tests should be accurate to belter than 1% and
should be directly calibrated. The output voltage should be precisely known
and variable from 1mv upwards. It is convenient if the output can be varied
using a control which is calibrated in decibels. Alternatively, an extra
calibrated attenuator may be used.
Voltage
+
-
(a)
Time
f1 f
2
f
2
1 f
2
-
2f
2
f
1
f - f f + f
2 1 2 1
-
(b)
83 Telecommunication Systems
Standard modulation frequencies which should be available are 400hz and
less frequently used 1000hz. It's often useful to be able to vary the
modulation between 50 Hz and a few thousand hertz. The standard
modulation depth is 30% but it is convenient, additionally to be able to vary
the modulation. The output impedance should be low; it is often 50,
sometimes 10. The signal generator should be well screened so that
signals cannot be coupled into the equipment under test except through the
proper connection. Likewise, output from the generator should not be able to
reach the equipment being tested through common main supply leads or in
any other extraneous way. During any test on relievers the impedance at the
receiver input terminals should be about the same as the impedance of the
aerial system with which the receiver is likely to be used. The input
impedance of communication relievers is commonly 75.
This may substantially match the signal generator impedance. For 10
signal generator (figure 3.32(a) a 65 resistor series with the output suffices
to provide a reasonable match. For a balanced input receiver the signal
generator resistance and the additional input resistance should be balanced,
i.e. divided between the two input lines. For broadcast- type receiver an
average circuit shown in figure 3.32(b). This, over the range of frequencies
from below 1Mhz to about 2.0MHz, roughly equates to the average aerial
impedance likely to be encountered. Bearing in mind the wide variety of
aerial type in use, it is clear that a large degree of approximation is involved.
Figure 3.32 Receiver Testing and input circuits
For a sound receiver the output should properly be measured and evaluated
at a loudspeaker or telephone headset. To do this is very complicated and
methods are not standardized. In practice, therefore the output is measures
Signal
Gen
Signal
Gen
Receiver
65
10 75
200PF
20NF
Receiver
400PF
400
(a)
(b)
C
L
R
C
84 Telecommunication Systems
either as a power in a power meter, or as a voltage. Output power should be
measures in a non inductive resistance of ohmic value equal to the effective
speech coil impedance at 400 hz. Standard output power for loudspeaker
sets is usually 50mw: if the output is to be taken to a land line or, if the head
phone operation is to take place in a noisy situation, the higher standard of
1mw may be adopted.
3.8.1 Measurement of A Frequency- Modulated Wave
The parameter of a frequency modulated wave that is usually measured is
the frequency deviation. Commercial f. m. deviation meters are available but
the measurement can be carried out by the CARRIER DISAPPEARANCE
METHOD The amplitude of the c carrier frequency component of an fm.
wave is a function of the modulation index. The carrier voltage is zero for v
values of modulation index of 2.405, 5.52, 8.65, e. t. c. If, for any one of these
is known, the frequency deviation can be calculated using the following
formula;
Kf = m f
d f m
To measure the frequency deviation of an f. m. wave the signal is applied to
an instrument known as the spectrum analyzer. The spectrum analyzer is
an instrument which displays voltage to a base frequency (as opposed to a c.
r.o. which displays voltage to a base of time). The spectrum analyzer
therefore displays the spectrum diagram of the f. m. signal. It is adjusted to
display only the carrier and the first- order side frequencies.
With the modulating frequency kept at a constant value, the amplitude of the
modulating signal is increased from zero which varies the frequency
deviation until the carrier first goes to zero. Then m= 2.405 and the frequency
f
deviation can be calculated. Further increase in the modulating signal
voltage will cause the carrier component to reappear and then again go to
zero when the modulating index becomes 5.52.
For example, in a measurement of the frequency deviation of an f. m. signal,
the frequency of a signal generator was not at 3KHz. Calculate the frequency
deviation at (a) the first and (b) the second carrier disappearance.

85 Telecommunication Systems
Solution
3
(a) m = 2.405 / 3 x 10 = Kf
f d
3
Kf = 2 405 x 3 x 10 = 7.215 KHz (Ans)
d
3
(b) Kf = 5.52 x 3 10 = 16. 56 KHZ (Ans)
d
3.8.2 Measurement of Performance of Amplitude Modulated Receivers
A number of measurements can be carried out to determine the performance
of a super heterodyne radio receiver. Some of these tests are appropriate for
both amplitudes while others only apply to one type of receiver. In this
treatment only the more important of the amplitude modulation receiver
measurements will be described; these are adjacent channel ratio, and (d)
image channel response ratio.
(a) Sensitivity: The sensitivity of an amplitude modulation radio receiver is
the smallest input signal voltage, modulated to a depth of 30% by a 1000HZ
(or 400HZ) tone, needed to produce 50mw output power with signal to
noise ratio of 20dB. The circuit used to carry out a sensitivity measurement is
shown in fig.3.33. The signal generator is set 30% modulation depth at the
required frequency of measurement and its output voltage is set to about a
value about 10dB above the expected Sensitivity.
Figure 3.33: Measurement of radio receiver sensitivity.
The audio: frequency gain of the receiver is the then set to approximately its
half maximum position and the receiver is tuned to the measurement
frequency. The signal generator frequency is then varied slightly to give the
maximum reading on the output power meter. The input voltage producing
the necessary audio output condition can now be determined. The input
voltage is varied until the power meter indicates 50M.W; then the signal
generator modulation is switched off and the power meter indication is noted
say1mW. The output signal to-noise ratio is now 10log x (50/P) dB. If this
10
ratio is not equal to the required 2.0dB the modulation of again signal
Signal
Generator
Receiver
Under text
Power
Output
Meter
86 Telecommunication Systems
generator is switched on again and the input voltage to the receiver in
increased or decreased as appropriate.
The A.F. gain is adjusted to obtain 50mW indication on the power meter
before the modulation is again switched off and the new signal-to-noise ratio
determined. This procedure is repeated until the required power output of
50mw is obtained together with 20dB signal-to-noise ratio. The input signal
voltage giving the required output conditions is the sensitivity of the receiver.
(ii). Noise Factor: The noise factor F of a radio receiver is the ratio
F = (Noise Power appearing at the output of the Rx) / (that part of the above
which is due to thermal agitation at the input terminals).
This definition of noise factor is, for most conditions, is equivalent to
F = (Input signal to noise ratio) / (Output signal-to-noise ratio)
Figure 3.34: Measurement of radio receiver noise figure
Figure 3.34 shows the circuit used for the measurement of the noise
generator of a receiver with the noise generator switched off, the indication of
the power output meter is noted. The noise generator is then switched on and
without altering any of the receiver controls; its noise output is increased until
the indication of the power meter is exactly double its previous value. The
noise output of the generator is directly proportional to the current indicated
by an noise milli-ammeter and do the noise factor of the receiver is equal to
F = 20I R .......................... (3)
a
Where I is the indication of the milli-ammeter and R is the (matched).
a
impedance of the receiver and the noise generator . As is often the case at
V.H.F. and at U.H.F., R = 50, the noise factor of the receiver is equal to the
milli-ammeter reading.
Noise
Generator
Receiver
Under
Text
Power
Output
Meter
87 Telecommunication Systems
For example, In a measurement of the noise factor of a 50 input impedance
radio receiver the reading of the output power meter is doubled when the
noise generator's milli-ammeter indicates 6mA. Calculate the noise factor of
the receiver in dB.
Solution:
F = 6 or 10log 6 = 7.78dB
10
(c) Adjacent Channel Selectivity
The selectivity of a radio receiver is its ability to select the wanted signal
present at the aerial. The selectivity curves given in figure 3.36 indicates how
well the wanted rejects unwanted signal when the wanted signal is not
present. This is of course, not of prime interest since the important factor is
the adjacent channel voltage needed to adversely affect reception of the
wanted signal. This feature of a receiver is expressed by its adjacent channel
response ratio which can be measured using the arrangement shown in
figure 3.35. With signal generator 2 producing zero output voltage, signal
generator 1 is set to the required test frequency and then is modulated to a
depth of 30%. With the input signal voltage at 10mV,
-
0
Frequency off tune
Figure 3.36 plot of output power and frequency of tune
10mV
i
n
p
u
t

v
o
l
t
a
g
e

r
e
d

t
o

p
r
o
d
u
c
e

-

3
0
d
B

o
u
t
p
u
t

p
o
w
e
r
+
88 Telecommunication Systems
Figure. 3.35: Measurement of radio receiver adjacent channel response ration
the a.f. gain of the receiver is adjusted to give an audio output power greater
than 50mW but below the overload point. The modulation below the overload
point. The modulation of signal generator 1 is then switched off. Signal
generator 2 is than set to a frequency that is 9KHz above the test frequency
and modulation to the signal of 30%. The output voltage of the signal
generator 2 is then increased until the audio output power is 30dB less than
the previous value. The adjacent channel response ratio of there voltages.
The measurement can be carried our at a number of other frequencies and
the results plotted in figure.
3.36 Image Channel Response Ratio
The image channel response ratio (or rejection ratio) is the ratio:
20log (Input voltage at image frequency / Input voltage at signal frequency)
10
To produce the name audio output power the measurement can be carried
out using the circuit given in figure 3.33 the signal generator and the receiver
are each tuned the text frequency and the input voltage adjusted to given an
audio output power 50mW. Then, without altering to the image frequency.
The input voltage is then increased until 505mW audio output power is again
registered by the power meter. The ratio response ratio is then, given by the
ratio of the two necessary input voltages, expressed in dB.
3.3 Measurement of V.S.W.R.
The V.S.W.R. on a mismatched transmission line can be determined by
measuring the maximum and minimum voltages that are present on the line.
In practice the measurement is generally carried out using an instrument
known as a STANDING-WAVE INDICATOR. Measurement of V.S.W.R. not
only shoes up the presence of reflection on a line but it also offers a most
convenient method of determining the nature of the load impedance. The
measurement procedure is as follows;
Signal
Signal
generator
generator
2
1
Combining
Power
network
output
meter
Under
Receiver
Test
89 Telecommunication Systems
The V.S.W.R. is measured and the voltage in Wavelength this from the load to
the voltage minimum nearest to it is determined. The values obtained allow
the magnitude and angle of the voltage reflection coefficient to be calculated.
Then, using equation (3.3), then unknown load impedance can be worked
out unfortunately, the arithmetic involved in the latter calculation is fairly
lengthy and tedious, and it is customary to use a graphical aid known as the
smith chart which simplifies the work. If the load impedance is purely
restive, a much easier method of measurement is available. Suppose for
example that E = R , = 3R . (Remember that R is always purely resistive at
L L o o
radio frequency) then,
0
Z - Z = 3R - R = O
v 1 0 0 0
Z + Z 3R + R
L 0 o o
Therefore: S = 1 + I I = 1 + = 3
v
1 - ( ) 1 -
v
Now suppose that Z = R = 1/3 R
L L o
0
= 1/3R - R = 180
v o o
1/3R + R
o o
and S = 1 + = 3 as before
1-
It should be noted that the V.S.W.R is equal to the ratio R /Z or Z /R .
L o o L
This simple relationship is always true provided the line losses are negligibly
small and the load impedance is purely resistive.
90 Telecommunication Systems
CHAPTER FOUR
TRANSCEIVER AND SSB TECHNIQUES
4.0 Introduction
A transceiver is a combination of transmitter and receiver in a single package.
The term applies to wireless communications devices such as cellular
telephone and cordless telephone sets, handheld two-way radios, and
mobile two-way radios. In a radio transceiver, the receiver is silenced while
transmitting. An electronic switch allows the transmitter and receiver to be
connected to the same antenna, and prevents the transmitter output from
damaging the receiver. With a transceiver of this kind, it is impossible to
receive signals while transmitting. This transmission mode is called half
duplex. Transmission and reception often, but not always, are done on the
same frequency. Some transceivers are designed to allow reception of
signals during transmission periods. This mode is known as full duplex, and
requires that the transmitter and receiver operate on substantially different
frequencies so the transmitted signal does not interfere with reception.
Cellular and cordless telephone sets use this mode. Satellite
communications networks often employ full-duplex transceivers at the
surface-based subscriber points. The transmitted signal (transceiver-to-
satellite) is called the uplink, and the received signal (satellite-to-transceiver)
is called the downlink. Another mode of communication is called simplex,
which a device can only act as a transmitter or receiver, but not both. Thus the
direction of communication is constantly one way. Thus communication
modes are: Simplex, Half-Duplex and Full-Duplex.
Transmission Media
Transmission media is classified into two groups: Guided and unguided.
Guided media. The waves are guided along a physical path, e.g.: twisted
pair, coaxial cable and optical fiber.
Two-wire open line. Two-wire open line is the simplest transmission
medium, which supports up to 50m transmissions with 19.2kbps. This type of
medium must be protected from cross coupling (cross talk) of electrical
signals, it is also susceptible to noise signals and electromagnetic radiation.
91 Telecommunication Systems
Twisted-pair line. Twisted pair is the ordinary copper wire that connects
home and many business computers to the Telephone Company. To reduce
cross talk or electromagnetic induction between pairs of wires, two insulated
copper wires are twisted around each other. Each connection on twisted pair
requires both wires. This type of media can support up to 1Mbps over short
distance (100m). For some business locations, twisted pair is enclosed in a
shield that functions as a ground. This is known as shielded twisted pair
(shielded twisted pair or STP), which has protective screen to reduce signal
interference effect. Ordinary wire to the home is unshielded twisted pair
(Unshielded Twisted Pair or UTP), which is used in telephone and networks
(data communication) communication.
Coaxial Cable. To overcome the skin effect, Coaxial cable use protective
layers to shield the center conductor from external interference from the
outer conductor and electromagnetic radiation. It can be used with various
signal types and can reach several hundred meters in 10Mbps.
Optical Fiber. FO carries the transmission in the form of light beam in a glass
fiber. A light wave has much wider bandwidth than electrical signal in a wire. It
also immune from electromagnetic interference and cross talk, thus it can be
used for high-speed transmission or low speed transmission in a noisy
environment. FO can reach hundreds of Mbps
Unguided media. Provides means for transmitting electromagnetic waves
but not guide them, e.g. propagation through air, vacuum and seawater.
Satellite. A microwave beam is transmitted to the satellite on board circuit
(transponder), which then relayed to a pre-defined destination.
Communication using satellite usually requires 2 channels, one for up-link
and the other for downlink connection both will use extremely high frequency
band. E.g. of the communication application using this type of medium is ATM
machine with its VSAT (Very Small Aperture Terminal) and mobile cell phone.
Terrestrial Microwave. Terrestrial microwave links is widely used to provide
communication links when it is too expensive to establish physical
transmission medium. Terrestrial microwave link requires the existence of
unobstructed line of sight and it can be used reliably over 50Km distance.
E.g. of the application using this type of media would be the PSTN/Cell-
phone provider transmission between ground stations in different provinces.
92 Telecommunication Systems
Radio link. Radio wave is almost similar with terrestrial microwave, but it
over much shorter area coverage and usually used in distributed computer
networks where it would be much too expensive to establish extensive wired
connection.
4.1 Transceiver Types
Meter Transceiver: A meter transceiver is basically a two-way radio capable
of both receiving and transmitting. A basic 2 meter radio makes use of the
amateur radio band in the VHF spectrum and uses frequencies from 144.000
megahertz (MHz) to 148.000 MHz within North and South America, Hawaii,
Asia and Oceania. Europe, Russia and Africa can make use of frequencies of
144.000 MHz to 146.000. Since 2 meter transceivers use the VHF
frequencies, height means how far away it is possible to communicate
clearly. To get the necessary height, repeaters are used and are located in
skyscraper tops in cities or mountain range tops in country sides. Repeaters
are meter transceivers that pick up a signal from a 2 meter transceiver and
retransmit the received signal on their antenna at the same time as received
and allow a 2 meter to transmit a long distance. If the repeater is high enough,
reception is good for around 100 miles, though the usual repeater rate is for
somewhere between 30 to 40 miles distance. A typical FM meter transceiver
setup would have a 50 watt set and rooftop vertical antenna for transmission
to the local repeater. Transceivers come with three main capabilities:
scanners for listening only on airband frequencies, com-only transceivers for
receiving and transmitting on airband, and nav-com transceivers for
transmitting, receiving, and interpretations and displays of VHF
omnidirectional range (VOR) signals for navigation. Most popular and most
widely used of the types of transceivers are the com-only meter transceivers
and, with headset adapters, they can even be used with aviation headsets in
a cockpit. A feature called channel recall allows storage of around ten most
frequently used frequencies to scroll through on a trip without having to
program them into the unit on some transceivers. Emergency services make
use of these types of transceivers as well; not only police and fire services,
but also Red Cross shelters and ambulance services. The 2 meter
transceivers and frequencies are most useful when mounted units and hand-
held units can work together to spread emergency efforts over large areas of
a community. Satellite communications to achieve longer distance
communications are even possible with smaller transceivers like the 2 meter
transceiver, which can share with 10 meter bands, 70 meter bands and even
93 Telecommunication Systems
microwave bands using cross-band repeating. Software modes on board
can dictate a satellite's frequency at any given time from a published
schedule and uplink and downlink from amateur radio satellites can achieve
communication distances of up to 3,000 miles from low Earth satellites. From
the higher orbit satellites, distances of up to 30,000 miles can be achieved via
what are called satellite footprints and these higher flying satellites are
basically just elliptically orbiting repeaters.
VHF Transceiver: A very high frequency (VHF) transceiver is a device that is
composed of a transmitter and receiver that operates between 30 megahertz
(MHz) to 300 megahertz (MHz). The wavelength of a VHF transceiver varies
between 39.37 inches (1 m) to 393.70 inches (10 m), mainly depending on
the frequency used. Wavelength combined with line-of-sight (LOS)
propagation determines VHF devices such as walkie-talkies' and citizen
band (CB) radios' receiving and transmitting range. VHF propagation is
generally not affected by the ionosphere in the same manner high
frequencies (HF) are. As a result of non-ionospheric interference VHF radio
transmissions are restricted to a local area; which prevents cross-talk
interference several thousand miles away. Propagation distances for VHF
devices also depend on environmental topography, antenna height and
several other factors. In order for VHF transceiver devices to effectively
transmit and receive information with one another, LOS radio propagation
should not be obstructed. Solid objects such as trees and buildings usually
weaken or completely block LOS propagation. HF and ultra-high frequency
(UHF) bands are often included in a VHF transceiver device to increase
transmission reliability. Many countries have certain VHF bands restricted to
navigational and emergency use. In some countries the VHF radio
frequencies of 108 MHz to 118 MHz are reserved for navigational beacons;
while 118 MHz to 137 MHz is used for air traffic control. The VHF frequency of
121.5 MHz is often used for emergency signals. VHF transceiver devices are
also used in personal and business use. Personal use of VHF devices
usually involves leisure activities where cellular devices are not appropriate.
For businesses such as taxi cabs and other transportation industries, base
station repeaters are used to extend a VHF device's communication range.
Transceiver devices vary in aesthetics, radio bands and operating settings.
Despite differences in models and settings, basic operating principles
remain the same. Most VHF transceivers will have a push-to-talk button for
easy and fast communication. The push-to-talk button on most transceivers
94 Telecommunication Systems
will allow a party to transmit or communicate to another party on the same
frequency and channel. When using the button only one person at a time can
transmit while the other is receiving. For greater peace-of-mind many
transceiver devices such as walkie-talkies include encryption and privacy
channel options. Without security options sensitive information can still be
intercepted by an unauthorized third party. To secure a channel, the walkie-
talkie's encryption function will generate a code or password to be used
between parties. Another security option that is often used in conjunction with
private codes is the use of voice scrambling.
UHF Transceiver: An ultra-high frequency (UHF) transceiver is a device
which usually houses a transmitter and receiver operating between the radio
frequencies of 300 megahertz (MHz) to 3 gigahertz (GHz). Depending on the
frequency used, the corresponding wavelength of a transceiver using a UHF
band ranges between 3.94 inches (10cm) to 3.28 feet (1m). Due to the
relatively short wavelength, UHF transceivers such as walkie-talkies and
citizen band (CB) radios are limited to a radius of several miles. The actual
operating distance of the devices will largely depend on several factors
including environmental topography, use of repeaters and antenna height. A
UHF transceiver relies on line-of-sight radio propagation, which means the
devices communicate with one another in a direct path. Physical objects such
as trees and buildings will often weaken or even block line-of-sight
propagation, decreasing communication reliability. To increase reliability,
UHF transceivers bands such as high frequency (HF) and very high
frequency (VHF). UHF and multi-band transceivers such as walkie-talkies
and CB radios are used for short range communications between two or more
parties. Walkie-talkies and CB radios are used by a variety of sectors
including public, commercial and military. Public use may involve leisure
activities that require communication mobile phones cannot provide due to a
weak or non-existent signal. Some countries may reserve certain UHF
frequencies for military use only and require a special permit to operate a
UHF transceiver. In many commercial and military settings, base station
repeaters are utilized to extend a UHF transceiver operating range.
Operating instructions for a UHF transceiver will most likely vary due to
differing device models and settings. While there are a few differences in how
to access certain features in transceiver devices, most operating principles
remain the same. For example, most walkie-talkies will have a push-to-talk
button which allows a person to transmit or communicate with a device on the
95 Telecommunication Systems
same frequency and channel. The person will receive the message and will
be able to respond after the incoming communication is done transmitting.
Care should be taken while transmitting sensitive information. Interception of
a radio transmission by a third party is entirely possible, especially if the
channel is not encrypted or secure. For this reason many walkie-talkie
manufacturers have implemented encrypted or privacy channel options.
Generally a code or a password is either entered or generated to secure a
transmission session between communicating parties. In addition to privacy
codes, a voice scrambling function is offered in some transceivers to ensure
maximum transmission security.
FM Transceiver: The FM transceiver is a type of radio transceiver that is
capable of receiving and transmitting a frequency modulation (FM) signal.
Equipment of this type ensures the signal is within a certain band range and
can be easily picked up by other transceivers that are structured to receive
and send FM signals. Equipment of this type is used in basic and
sophisticated communication equipment used by the military and other
organizations in various parts of the world. With the FM transceiver, the
device is capable of sending and receiving frequency modulation signals.
The nature of the signals may be voice communications, music, or any other
type of audio transmission. Unlike an FM transmitter, which can only send
signals on the FM receiver that is capable of receiving the frequency
modulation broadcast, the FM transceiver is configured for both
transmission and reception of signals within a certain bandwidth.
This makes the device ideal for a number of applications, ranging from
enjoying conversations with people located halfway around the world as well
as a providing a means to manage proprietary communications on protected
bandwidths. Among the different types of FM transceivers, there are sets
designed for basic as well as professional use. Other communication tools
have largely replace the use of the FM transceiver in some applications,
there are still areas of the world in which this particular type of equipment is
used by professional organizations, including military and law enforcement
units. Since using an FM transceiver is relatively simple, requiring nothing
more than adjusting the gain and using the tuner on the equipment to find the
right position on the band to send and receive, this remains a viable option,
especially during natural disasters that may render other communication
options such as telephone communications temporarily unavailable.
96 Telecommunication Systems
Transceiver Circuit: A transceiver circuit is electrical circuitry with the ability
to both transmit and receive signals. Though transceiver use was originally
confined to two-way radios in military and police applications, they now are
incorporated into a wide range of consumer electronics, from lightweight
consumer walkie-talkies and citizen's band (CB) radios, to cell phones,
computer wireless networks, cordless telephones, high frequency (HF) and
ultra-high frequency (UHF) radio transmitters, and more. Early forms of radio
wave transceiver circuitry could only send signals or receive them, but not do
both at the same time, known as simplex or half duplex circuits. Most modern
transceiver circuits are duplex, however, allowing for simultaneous
transmission of two signals over one channel, with reception of the signals at
the same time. Devices virtually identical to transceivers in function are
ransmitter-receivers, where separate circuitry exists inside a casing for each
function of transmitting signals and receiving them. Transponders are
another form of circuitry related to a transceiver circuit, where signals are
transmitted and received simultaneously, but only in automated fashion, with
one application being as a form of safety and identification beacon on aircraft.
Transverters are another application of transceiver circuit technology.
Amateur radio operators often use a transverter, which can convert HF or
very high frequency (VHF) transceiver circuit signals to intermediate
frequency (IF) ranges to amplify reception. Using a transceiver circuit in the
past meant carrying on audio conversations that required taking turns
sending and receiving voice messages, and standard cell phones and radio
frequency (RF) radios today allow constant back-and-forth voice
transmission.
As broadband transmission capability has advanced, fourth-generation (4G)
smartphones and other devices now allow video transmission on transceiver
circuits as well. If a transceiver circuit in a smartphone is in motion as
someone rides on public transport or drives a car, maximum data
transmission speed is 100 megabits per second (Mbit/s). A stationary user of
a 4G transceiver-based device can send and receive signals at up to one
gigabit per second however (Gbit/s), making video transmission practical on
such devices for the first time in history. Such 4G transceiver circuit systems
are also being built into laptop computers and other mobile devices as well.
Every time someone purchases a telecommunications device in one form or
another that incorporates current technology, they are likely buying a
transceiver circuit. Transceivers are at the core of most modern
97 Telecommunication Systems
communications technology, and are built into everything from satellites to
electronic keys for expensive automobiles that won't start unless the code
transmission in the key housing is validated by the computer built into the
car's ignition system. Even the radio frequency identification (RFID) chips
built into some consumer product packaging to prevent theft and certain
credit cards, contain transceivers for decoding, along with transponders to
continuously send out information on the card or passport for scanners to
read .If drawn on several pages, there will be labels on edges of the
schematic indicating connection to other pages. For instance, +Vcc is a
common positive direct current (DC) supply voltage. The negative side of the
power supply is usually indicated by a small triangle with one tip pointing
downward. A transmitter schematic indicates a stage usually with a crystal
oscillator circuit, which is the frequency reference that controls the carrier
generator for the transmitter. Very simple transmitters have one crystal-
controlled stage that operates on a single frequency. Multiple-frequency
transmitters usually employ one reference crystal with an integrated circuit
that usually synthesizes the various frequencies for a multiple-channel
transmitter.
The transmitter needs to have a fairly accurate crystal to make sure remote
receivers will find the carrier it is sending out. Schematic symbols are
accompanied by a single letter or a single identifier followed by a number. A
resistor may be labeled as R1, a transistor as Q1, an integrated circuit as
IC1 or U1, and a capacitor as C1. A transceiver schematic also has
abbreviations such as power supply unit (PSU), local oscillator (LO), receiver
(RCVR), transmit (TX), crystal (XTAL), and many others. Standard
transceivers can be placed on a desk, such as a base transceiver, while
handheld transceivers are portable transceivers. Making a transceiver can
be an interesting hobby. In the early days of radio, hobbyists and enthusiasts
had fun building the electronics as well as the cabling for the antenna system.
Usually, the bigger the antenna, the farther is the range of the signal. When
using a transceiver, you have to know the needed receiver frequency and be
able to set it on the transceiver. Digital controls allow the frequency to be
preset. This way, you can select the right frequency to listen to or monitor.
98 Telecommunication Systems
4.2 Transceiver Operation
(a) AM Transmitter simplified block diagram.
Modern transceivers are based on superheterodyne (superhet) architecture.
Prior to the advent of SSB in the mid-1950s, an amateur HF station generally
used separate transmitter and receiver: " A superhet receiver, usually single-
conversion with 455 kHz IF. " An AM/CW transmitter consisting of a crystal
oscillator or VFO, buffer/multipliers, driver, PA and modulator. The receiver
and transmitter had no common subsystems other than the transmit/receive
(T/R) relay and possibly an antenna tuner. The acceptance of the heterodyne
SSB exciter with crystal or mechanical filters (a superhet in reverse) drove
research into sharing RX and TX subsystems. Figure 4.1(a) and (b) shows
the block diagrams of an AM and SSB transmitters. Early SSB stations
featured separate receivers and transmitters. The transmitters antenna
relay switched the antenna between RX and TX, and muted the receiver on
transmit. Many transmitter-receiver pairs allowed one-knob transceive
operation by tuning both the receiver and transmitter with the RX or TX VFO.
Figure 4.2(a) and (b) shows a simple superhet receiver and SSB/CW
receiver
Antenna
RF Power
Amplifier
Amplitude
Modulator
Driver/ Buffer
Speech
Amplifier
Carrier
Oscillator
Microphone
Tuning Dial - VFO
14.1 MHz
14.1 MHz
14.1 MHz
audio audio
14.1 MHz
Class C for Audio
higher efficiency
Isolates Osc & Amp
speech
99 Telecommunication Systems
(b) SSB Transmitter simplified block diagram.
Figure 4.1 Transmitter Block Diagrams
(a) Simple Superhet Receiver: frequency relationships
Antenna
Microphone
Carrier
Oscillator
Balanced
Modulator
RF Power
Amplifier
(RF)
4.0 MHz
Speech
Amplifier
Filter
Mixer
& Filter
VFO
speech
14.103 MH
z
14.103 MHz
(Linear Amplifier)
6.097

MHz
rejected by filter
3 kHz audio
USB
LSB
10.1MHz
Tuning Dial
14. 1 MHz
double sideband
Lower Side Band = 3.997 MHz
Upper Side Band = 4.003 MHz
no carrier
4.003
MHz
Up-converts signal
to transmit frequency
Variable Freq.
Oscillator VFO.
Sets Transmit
Frequency
selects
sideband
RF RF IF
AF
IF
AF
IF
TUNED
CIRCUIT
MIXER
AMPLIFIER
DETECTOR
AMPLIFIER
IF+RF
OSCILLATOR
LOCAL
A.G.C
AF
100 Telecommunication Systems
R F RX
Amplifier
Filier
Product
Amplifier
Antenna
Detector
Amplifier
I F
I F
A F
Speaker,
Phones

Oscillator
Carrier Local
Oscillator
Mixer
(b)
Figure 4.2 Receiver Block Diagrams:
Basic SSB/CW Superhet Receiver

The Complete Transceiver Circuit.
If we add the transmitter and receiver sections of the basic AM and SSB/CW
together we will get a complete transceiver circuit shown in figure 4.3. The
Tx/Rx relay routes antenna to Rx input or Tx output as required. Referring to
figure 4.3a, The Carrier oscillator, IF filter and local oscillator are shared
between receiver and transmitter. The Carrier oscillator feeds the carrier
signal to the Balanced Modulator. The Mic audio is amplified and mixed the
with carrier to yield the upper side band (USB) and lower side band signals. IF
Filter passes USB and suppresses LSB. The Local oscillator is tuned to the
required frequency.
The transmitter mixer mixes the IF with local oscillator output to yield USB TX
signal. The RF power amplifier raises TX signal power.
Receiver AGC (automatic gain control): An AGC detector samples the
average audio or IF output signal level, and feeds it back to the RF and/or IF
stages to hold the gain constant over a range of input signal levels. The AGC
line also drives the S-meter.
Transmitter ALC (automatic level control): A reflectometer samples the
forward and reflected power at the output of the RF power amplifier , and
feeds it back to the transmit IF amplifier to level the transmitter output at a
preset value and protect the transmitter against damage due to load
mismatch.
Automatic Antenna Tuner (Auto ATU): A T-network (series C shunt L series
C) located between the antenna socket and the TX/RX relay. It can be
101 Telecommunication Systems
RF Power
Amplifier
TX
Mixer
I F
Amplifier
Balanced
Modulator
Speech
Amplifier
Product-
meker
Relay
TXRX
Local
Oscillator
Auto
ATU
ANT S-Mixer
R F
Bandpass
Filters
R F
Amplifier
RX
Mixer
I F
Product
Filier
I F
Amplifier Detector
A F
Amplifier
AGC Line
Receiver
Speaker,
Phones
Carrier
Oscillator
Side
Tone
Osc
Key
Transmitter
Mic
ALCLine
ATU Control Line
ATU Control Line
R F
RX
Amplifier
Product
Mixer Filier
I F
Amplifier
I F
Detector
Amplifier
A F
Receiver
TXFX
Relay
ANT
Local
Oscillator
RF Power
Amplifier Mixer
TX
Carrier
Oscillator
Side
Tone
Osc
Speaker,
Phones
Key
Transmitter
Mic
Speech
Amplifier
Balanced
Modulator
Amplifier
I F
switched out of signal path if desired. Auto ATU matches complex antenna
impedance to the 50 load required by the transmitter. It will also provide
near optimum noise matching for the receiver. Auto ATU is controlled by
reflected-power signal from reflectometer in transmitter. RF Bandpass Filters
(pre-selector filters) suppress image response, and protect receiver RF
amplifier (pre-amp) against overload by strong out-of-band signals.
(a) SSB Transceiver
(b) SSB-CW Transceiver
(a CW IF filter is narrower than the SSB filter)
102 Telecommunication Systems
RF Gain & Attenuator:
Transmit signal flow: Audio - Third IF kHz - 2nd IF MHZ - 1st IF MHz RF and
Receive signal flow: RF - 1st IF MHz - 2nd - 3rd IF MHz - Audio.
Almost all modern HF transceivers employ up-converting architecture. Many
current transceivers have DSP (digital signal processing) at the final IF.
Figure 4.5 Audio Amplification
Audio Amplification: Demodulator output drives the pre-amplifier, the pre-
amplifier may incorporate adjustable audio filter. Power amplifier typically
delivers 2 ~ 5W at 10% THD (total harmonic distortion). Power amplifier
drives internal speaker, external speaker or headset. Internal speaker muted
Figure 4.4 shows the gain controlled RF amplifier with
front end RF attenuator. RF front-end attenuator is located between antenna
input and preselector filter. The RF Gain control increases AGC bias on gain-
controlled RF amplifier (and/or 1st IF amplifier in some designs); raises AGC
threshold. Receiver dynamic range increases by amount of attenuation
inserted. Usually, band noise is 10 to 12 dB above Rx noise floor; attenuation
does not significantly degrade noise figure. Attenuator & RF Gain can be
used together.
Figure 4.4 Gain-controlled RF amplifier
with front end front end RF attenuator
R F
Antenna
R F
Attenuator
Preselector
Filter
Amplifier
Low-pass
Filter
to Mixer
AGC Line
DC
Amplifier
RF
Gain
Control
Select
Loudspeaker
Pre-
amplifier
Volume
Control
Power
Amplifier
103 Telecommunication Systems
when external speaker or headset is plugged in. Figure 4.5 shows the audio
amplification section of the transceiver.
4.3 Overview of Single Sideband
4.3.1 Introduction
Single Sideband Modulation, SSB
SSB modulation offers a far more effective solution for two way radio
communication because it provides a significant improvement in efficiency.
Single sideband modulation is widely used in the HF portion, or short wave
portion of the radio spectrum for two way radio communication. There are
many users of single sideband modulation. Many users requiring two way
radio communications will use single sideband and they range from marine
applications, generally HF point to point transmissions, military as well as
radio amateurs or radio hams. Single sideband modulation or SSB is derived
from amplitude modulation (AM) and SSB modulation overcomes a number
of the disadvantages of AM. Single sideband modulation is normally used for
voice transmission, but technically it can be used for many other applications
where two way radio communication using analogue signals is required. As a
result of its widespread use there are many items of radio communication
equipment designed to use single sideband radio including: SSB receiver,
SSB transmitter and SSB transceiver equipment's.
Single sideband, SSB modulation is basically a derivative of amplitude
modulation, AM. By removing some of the components of the ordinary AM
signal it is possible to significantly improve its efficiency. It is possible to see
how an AM signal can be improved by looking at the spectrum of the signal.
When a steady state carrier is modulated with an audio signal, for example a
tone of 1 kHz, then two smaller signals are seen at frequencies 1 kHz above
and below the main carrier. If the steady state tones are replaced with audio
like that encountered with speech of music, these comprise many different
frequencies and an audio spectrum with frequencies over a band of
frequencies is seen. When modulated onto the carrier, these spectra are
seen above and below the carrier. It can be seen that if the top frequency that
is modulated onto the. carrier is 6 kHz, then the top spectra will extend to 6
kHz above and below the signa1. In other words the bandwidth occupied by
the AM signal is twice the maximum frequency of the signal that is used to
modulated the carrier, i.e. it is twice the bandwidth of the audio signal to be
carried. Amplitude modulation is very inefficient from two points. The first is
104 Telecommunication Systems
that it occupies twice the bandwidth of the maximum audio frequency, and
the second is that it is inefficient in terms of the power used. The carrier is a
steady state signal and in itself carries no information, only providing a
reference for the demodulation process. Single sideband modulation
improves the efficiency of the transmission by removing some unnecessary
elements. In the first instance, the carrier is removed - it can be re-introduced
in the receiver, and secondly one sideband is removed - both sidebands are
mirror images of one another and the carry the same information. This leaves
only one sideband - hence the name Single Side Band/SSB.
SSB Receiver.
While signals that use single sideband modulation are more efficient for two
way radio communication and more effective than ordinary AM, they do
require an increased level of complexity in the receiver. As SSB modulation
has the carrier removed, this needs to be re-introduced in the receiver to be
able to reconstitute the original audio. This is achieved using an internal
oscillator called a Beat Frequency Oscillator (BFO) or Carrier.
Insertion Oscillator (CIO). This generates a carrier signal that can be mixed
with the incoming SSB signal, thereby enabling the required audio to be
recovered in the detector. Typically the SS8 detector itself uses a mixer circuit
to combine the SSB modulation and the BFO signals. This circuit is often
called a product detector because (like any RF mixer) the output is the
product of the two inputs. It is necessary to introduce the carrier using the
BFO/CIO on the same frequency relative to the SSB signal as the original
carrier. Any deviation from this will cause the pitch of the recovered audio to
change. Whilst errors of up to about 100 Hz are acceptable for
communications applications including amateur radio, if music is to be
transmitted the carrier must be reintroduced on exactly the correct frequency.
This can be accomplished by transmitting a small amount of carrier, and
using circuitry in the receiver to lock onto this.
When receiving SSB it is necessary to have a basic understanding of how a
receiver works. Most radio receivers that will be used to receive SSB
modulation will be of the superheterodyne type. Here the incoming signals
are converted down to a fixed intermediate frequency. It is at this stage where
the BFO signal is mixed with the incoming SSB signals. It is necessary to set
the BFO to the correct frequency to receive the form of SSB, either LSB or
105 Telecommunication Systems
USB, that is expected. Many radio receivers will have a switch to select this,
other receivers will have a BFO pitch control which effectively controls the
frequency. The BF 0 needs to be positioned to be in the correct position for
when the signal is in the centre of the receiver passband. This typically
means that it will be on the side of the passband of the receiver. To position
the BFO, tune the SSB signal in for the optimum strength, i.e. ensure it is in
the centre of the passband, and then adjust the BFO frequency for the correct
pitch of the signal. Once this has been done, then the main tuning control of
the receiver can be used, and once a signal is audible with the correct pitch,
then it is also in the centre of the receiver passband. Tuning an SSB signal
with the BFO set is quite easy. First set the receiver to the SSB position or the
BFO to ON, and then if there is a separate switch set the LSB/USB switch t6
the format that is expected and then gradual1y tune the receiver. Adjust the
main tuning control so that the pitch is correct, and the signal should be
comprehensible. If it is not possible to distinguish the sounds, then set the
LSB/USB switch to the other position and re-adjust main tuning control if
necessary to return the signal to the correct pitch, at which point the signal
should be understandable. With a little practice it should be possible to easily
tune in SSB signals.
Single sideband power measurement
It is often necessary to define the output power of a single sideband
transmitter or single sideband transmission For example it is necessary to
know the power of a transmitter sued for two way radio communication to
enable its effectiveness to be judged for particular applications. Power
measurement for an SSB signal is not as easy as it is for many other types of
transmission because the actual output power is dependent upon the level of
the modulating signal. To overcome this a measure known as the peak
envelope power (PEP) is used. This takes the power of the RF enve10pe of
the transmission and uses the peak level of the signa1 at any instant and it
includes any components that may be present. Obviously this includes the
sideband being used. but it also includes any residual carrier that may be
transmitted. The level of the peak envelope power may be stated in Watts, or
nowadays figures quoted in dBW or dBm may be used. These are simply the
power levels relative to 1 VVatt or 1 milliwatt respectively. As an example a
signal of 10 watts peak envelope power is 10 dB above a 1 Watt signal and
therefore It has a power of 10 dBW. Similar logic can be used to determine
powers in dBm.
106 Telecommunication Systems
SSB Advantages
Single sideband modulation is often compared to AM, of which it is a
derivative. It has several advantages for two way radio communication that
more than outweigh the additional complexity required in the SSB receiver
and SSB transmitter required for its reception and transmission.
1. As the carrier is not transmitted, this enables a 50% reduction in
transmitter power level for the same level of information carrying
signal. (for an AM transmission using 100% modulation, half of the
power is used in the carrier and a total of half the power in the two
sideband - each sideband has a quarter of the power.)
2. As only one sideband is transmitted there is; a further reduction in
transmitter power.
3. As only one sideband is transmitted the receiver bandwidth can be
reduced by half. This improves the signal to noise ratio by a factor of
two, i.e. 3 dB. because the narrower bandwidth used will allow through
less noise and interference.
4.3.2 SSB Transmission.
The double side band with full carrier (DSBFC) is the conventional
amplitude modulation technique, in which both the side bands along with the
carrier are transmitted This has been found as an uneconomical
technique. The two side bands are exact image of each other, hence it is not
necessary to transmit both the side bands. Usually one side band with or
without carrier is transmitted. This is called Single side band transmission. In
the theory of amplitude modulation (AM), we have seen that a carrier and two
sidebands (SBs) are required for AM transmission. But it is not necessary
to transmit all the three signals (1 carrier and 2 sidebands). The carrier or one
of the sidebands may be removed (or attenuated). The SSB modulation is the
fastest spreading form of analog modulation. The greatest advantage is its
ability to transmit signals by using a very narrow band, width, very low power
for the distances involved. For 100% modulation (m = 1), only 1/3rd of the
total power is present in one of the sidebands, while 2/3rd power is carried by
the carrier, which contains no information. Thus if the carrier and one of the
sidebands is eliminated from the signal, the transmission will need only 1/6th
of the total power. The Fig.4.6(a) shows double sideband with full carrier
(DSBFC) and (b) shows double sideband with suppressed carrier (DSBSC)
and (c) shows single sideband transmission with suppressed carrier
(SSBSC). It can be noted that (c) requires only half the bandwidth (BW) as
required to (a) and (b).
107 Telecommunication Systems
Figure 4.6 DSBSC Spectrum
The evolution of SSB amplitude modulation may be done in following steps:
(i) The carrier contains no power and all the power is contained in the
sidebands.
(ii) Therefore there is no need to transmit carrier. V.
(iii) The modulated wave contains three frequencies, f , f +f and f -f
c c m c m
(iv) Two sidebands are exact images of each other; since each is affected
by changes in the modulating voltage via the exponent m EJ . Recall
2
that m is the modulation index and E the carrier voltage.
(v) Therefore all the information may be transmitted by the use of one
sideband only, as the carrier is superfluous and the other sideband is
redundant.
(vi) If the carrier is suppressed only the two sidebands power remains and
2
which is equal to = Pc.m /4 about 66% saving will be done. Recall that
is the carrier power.
(vii) It one of the sidebands is also suppressed, the remaining power is Pc.
2
m /4 a further saving of 50% power will be achieved.
The SSB system is not used for broadcasting due to following
reasons.
(a)
(b)
( c)
Carrier
USB LSB
f
c
f
m
f
c f
c
f
m
+
f
c
f
m f
c
f
m
+
f
c
f
m
+
USB
LSB
USB
-
f f
-
108 Telecommunication Systems
(i) The SSB transmitters and receivers require an excellent frequency
stability. Even a small shift in frequency, the quality of the transmitted
signal is degraded. Thus it is not suitable for transmission of good
quality music by SSB system.
(ii) This is not possible to design a tunable receiver oscillator with a very
high frequency stability. However with the advent of frequency
synthesizers, this has become possible, but the synthesizers are very
expensive. The major application of SSB system is in long distance
radio telephone
4.3.3 Generation of SSB
The following are used for suppression of one of the two sidebands:
1. Filter method
2. Phase shift method
3. Weaver (third) method
The Balanced modulator suppresses the carrier. To obtain SSB signal, the
un wanted sideband (frequency) is to be removed. All of the above three
methods have the capability of removing any of the two sidebands.
4.3.4 Forms of amplitude modulation
The forms of amplitude modulations are:
1. Double sideband with full carrier (DSBFC) or, A3
2. Double sideband with suppressed carrier (DSBSC) or, A5C
3. Single sideband (SSB) techniques:
(i) Single side band with full carrier (SSBFC) or A3H.
(ii) Single band with suppressed carrier (SSBSC) or A3J.
(iii) Single side band with reduced carrier (SSBRC) or A3A.
(iv) Independent side band (ISB)
(v) Vestigial side band with full carrier (VSBFC).
4.3.5 Block diagram and analysis of SSBSC
In SB&SC, power is saved by eliminating the carrier component. Further
increases in the efficiency of transmission is possible by eliminating one
more sideband since the two side band are images of each other, each is
affected by changes in the modulating Voltage amplitude and each is equally
affected by changes in modulating frequency which changes the frequency
of side band itself. It is seen that all the information can be conveyed by the
109 Telecommunication Systems
use of single side band only. The carrier is superfious and the other side band
is redundant. Suppose a lower side band is required say
Figure 4.7 Block Diagram of SSBSC
Analysis : Modulating signal as it is and carrier signal (by 90 phase) shift at
the input of modulator M then o/p of modulator M will contain sum
1 1
and difference frequencies.
Similarly the modulator M as its input has carrier signal as it is and
2
modulating signal by 90 phase shift at the input. Then the o/p of M
2
The Figure 4.8 shows the block diagram showing the complete process.
Signal
AF
Amplifier
Carrier
Balanced
Modulator
M
1
1
SSB-SC
Adder
signal
Modulator
Balanced
M
2
2
V
Phase
Shifter
+/2
V
Modulating
AF
Amplifier
+/2
]
w
v =
COS
COS
=
[( )
C
C
w w t
90 t + w t COS
COS
- 90 t +
- -
-
w
w t
t
C
C
t
0
90
90
m
w +
+
+
- w t ] [
LSB USB
1
) (
( )
( )
v
2
= COS w
C
90 t +
-
w t ( ) [ ] -
COS w
C
t + w t 90 + ]
[ ( )
=
COS w
C
t - w t - 90 -
COS
w
C
t + w t + 90 ) (
V
0
V
1
w
C
t +w t +90
) ( V
2
2 COS = = +
The output of adder is
o o
m
m
o
m
o o
m m
(
o o
m m
LSB USB
o
m
110 Telecommunication Systems
Figure 4.8 Block Diagram of Complete Process
The figure 4.9 shows the modulating signal, carrier SSBSC output and
frequency spectrum of the output signal.
Figure 4.9 Frequency Spectrum
Crystal
Osc
Buffer
Balanced
modulator
USB
filter
Crystal
Osc
Balanced
mixer
USB
filter
Pilot
Carrier
SSB
Signal
Amp.
AF
AFC
Modulating signal
Carrier
DSB-SC Output
Frequency spectrum
of DSB-SC signal f
c m
f ) ( f
c
f
c m
f ) (f
c m
f ) (
_
+ t
Phase Reversal
111 Telecommunication Systems
Advantages: The SSB - BC system has the following advantages.
1. Bandwidth required for the system is half of that required for DSB
system.
2. The effect of selective fading is minimum as only one side band exists.
In long range high frequency communication, particularly in audio-
range, SSB technique is employed. The quality of communication is
better in this system.
3. It requires relatively low power for communication and efficiency of
transmission increased.
Application: The system is used in point to point radio telephony and in
marine mobile communication, specially at distress call frequencies.
Achieving frequency stability: In SBSSC system, the carrier should be
suppressed at least by 45 db at the transmitter. Earlier this system was not
successful because highly stable oscillators are required but with
introduction of Frequency synthesizers, this system is now improved a lot.
If a 100 Hz frequency shift occurs in a system through which signals of 300,
500 and 800 Hz are passed, all these signals are shifted to 200;300 and 600
Hz just deterioting the performance of the system. So this system is not
suitable for music, speech etc. The frequency stability can be obtained by
using temperature controlled crystal oscillators with the transmitter which
give highest transmitting stability. As told earlier, the introduction of
Frequency synthesizers with the receiver the frequency stability. also
improves a lot at the reception side. As the SSBSC system does not transmit
the carrier, it may cause a frequency shift, if highly stable oscillators are not
used at the transmitter as well at the receiver.
4.3.6 Single side band with reduced carrier (SSBRC-A3A) system
This is an old system and was used before invention of frequency
synthesizers. In SSBRC or Pilot carrier system a pilot carrier is transmitted
along with the SSB signal. Block diagram of this system is just an addition of
Pilot carrier to the SSB system. An attenuated (reduced amplitude) carrier
is added to the final SSB signal output. The inserted carrier level is of the
order of 15 to 25db below the unsuppressed carrier level. This pilot carrier is
used at the receiver for demodulation and tuning. The frequency of pilot
carrier is same as that of the original carrier. This system is identical to the
SSB systems studied so far. The reduced carrier and SSB signal are added
112 Telecommunication Systems
in the adder to get SSBRC signal. This system is used in transmarine point to
point radio telephony and mobile communication. The block diagram is
shown in figure 4.10.
Figure 4.10 Block Diagram of a SSBRC System
Independent side band (ISB) system/technique.
This system is usually used for medium density traffic. It is mostly a
four channel transmission system. The system carries two independent
channels simultaneously as two side bands with carrier reduced. Each
sideband is independent of the other and different transmissions can be
made on them. Each channel has a BW of 6 kHz and is fed to separate
Balanced modulators along with a 100 kHz signal from a crystal oscillator.
The balanced modulator suppresses the carrier by about 45 dB. The USB
and LSB channels are selected by Filters and Added together with a carrier
attenuated by 26 dB. The output of the Adder is mixed in a Balanced mixer
with 3 MHz oscillators output.
The proper frequency is selected from the Balance mixer output and
amplified. The signal is then given to the transmitter section, where it is again
mixed in a mixer with the output of a frequency synthesizer and frequency
multiplier to raise its frequency. The usual transmitting frequency is between
3 to 30 MHz. The resulting ISB signal is amplified to a power level of about 60
KW; and then fed to the antenna.
modulating
signal
SSB
modulator
signal
SSB
Adder
Carrier
oscillator
Carrier
attenuator
Reduced
carrier
113 Telecommunication Systems
Note: For high density point to point communication, multiplexing techniques
are used such as frequency division multiplexing (FDM). However, for low or
medium density traffic, ISB transmission is often employed. ISB essentially
consists of two SSB channels added to form two side band around the
reduced carrier. However each side band is quite independent of each other.
It can simultaneously convey a totally different transmission, to the extent
what the upper side band could. It is not advisable to mix telephone and
telegraph channels in one side band since key clicks may be heard in the
voice circuit. However such hybrid arrangements are sometime unavoidable.
4.3.7 Vestigial Side Band (VSB) technique.
In TV, where large BW is required, SSB system is very important for reducing
the BW. The BW occupied by TV video signal is at least 4 MHz. If we use
DSBFC system, minimum BW of 9 MHz will be required. If SSB system can be
used, considerable BW can be saved. Therefore a compromise between
SSBSC and DSBSC has been found which is known as Vestigial sideband
system. In VSB system the desired sideband is allowed to pass completely
but also a portion (called vestige) of the undesired sideband is also allowed to
pass through. The vestige of the undesired sideband compensates for the
loss of the desired sideband. Moreover, the VSB system does not need a
short filter. In this system 1.25 MHz of the lower side band (along with the
complete Upper side band) is also transmitted to ensure that the lowest
frequencies of the desired USB will not be distorted. As only 1.25 MHz of LSB
is transmitted net saving of 3 MHz of VHF spectrum results with every TV
channel, thus making possible to allow more number of channels in the same
BW. The sound occupies band near the video because it is required with the
picture and it is not feasible to have a separate receiver for sound operating at
some distant frequency i.e. much away from the video frequency. The VSB
frequency spectrum is shown in figure 4.11
Note: The VSB signals are easy to generate, whereas SSBSC signals are
relatively difficult to generate. In SSB signal generation using filtering
technique, the filter must have very sharp characteristics. Basically such
filters must have a flat pass band and extremely high attenuation outside the
pass band.
114 Telecommunication Systems
Figure 4.11 VSB Frequency Spectrum
4.3.8 SSB receivers and Their Qualities
The SSB receivers are of the following types:
1. Pilot carrier receiver
2. Suppressed carrier receiver.
They may also be of the following types:
1. Coherent receivers
2. Non Coherent receiver
The SSB receivers demodulate the SSB signals and process them. The SSB
receivers are not used as broadcast receivers. They are required to receive
signal in crowded frequency bands such as short wave bands. So, these are
usually made double (or multi) conversion type. There special qualities are
(i) High reliability
(ii) Simple maintenance
(iii) Ability to demodulate SSB signals
(iv) Suppression of adjacent channel signals.
(v) High SN ratio
(vi) In case of Independent side band (ISD) receivers it should be capable
to separate independent side bands.
R
e
l
a
t
i
v
e

a
m
p
l
i
t
u
d
e

Picture
carrier
Sound
carrier
Video
LSB
Video
USB
0.5
0
.
5
1
.
2
5
5
.
2
5
5
.
5
5
Relative Channel frequency (MHZ )
1.0
115 Telecommunication Systems
4.3.9 Demodulators for SSB signals.
The demodulators used for SSB signals are:
(i) Product modulator
(ii) Balanced modulator
Telecommunication Systems 116
CHAPTER FIVE
TELEVISION SYSTEM
5.0 Introduction.
The aim of a television system is to extend the sense of sight beyond its
natural limits, along with the sound associated with the scene being televised.
The TV system is an extension of the science of radio communication with the
addition of picture details transmitted together. The picture signal is
generated by a TV camera and sound signal by a microphone.
The image source is the electrical signal representing the visual image, and
may be from a camera in the case of live images, a video tape recorder for
playback of recorded images, or a film chain-telecine-flying spot scanner for
transmission of motion pictures (films).
The sound source is an electrical signal from a microphone or from the
audio output of a video tape recorder or motion picture film scanner.
The transmitter generates radio signals (radio waves) and encodes them
with picture and sound information. An antenna coupled to the output of the
transmitter is for broadcasting the encoded signals and a receiving antenna
to receive the broadcast signals is coupled th the receiver.
The receiver (also called a tuner), decodes the picture and sound
information from the broadcast signals, and whose input is coupled to the
antenna. A display device turns the electrical signals into visual images and
an audio amplifier and loudspeaker turns the electrical signals into sound
waves (speech, music, and other sounds) to accompany the images.
5.1 Basic Theories Applied in TV System
(a) 1. Units of measurements
Voltage, current, and resistance are basic measurements of electricity, but
when you need to apply electricity to television, you will need to know some
other measurements. Among these are frequency, hertz, and AC frequency.
Frequency
Frequency is an action that repeats itself. If you have an electrical circuit that
puts out repeated and equal bursts or pulses of energy at 100 of those pulses
Telecommunication Systems 117
a second, the frequency of that circuit is 100 pulses per second. But we
measure frequency in hertz (Hz), so the frequency is 100 Hz.
AC Frequency
The flow of electrons in AC current constantly changes direction. If the
electricity in your home is 240 V AC, the electricity will go from 0 V up to 240 V,
back down to 0 V, continue down to 240 V, and then go back up to 0 V. This
alternation between 240 V of positive electricity and 240 V of negative
electricity is one cycle. Your household electricity does this 50 times a
second. So the frequency of your household electricity is 50 Hz. Thus, the full
description of electricity in your house is 240 V 50 Hz AC.
Impedance
Just as DC circuits had resistance, AC circuits have impedance. Impedance
is the combination of resistance, capacitance, and inductance. Impedance
can help to tell if two or more circuits will interact well. The following
oversimplified example may help you understand the concept. If your stereo
amplifier has a speaker impedance of 8 , this means that it is designed to
hook up to speakers that have 8 of resistance. If you connect your 8-
amplifier to your 8- speakers, everything works great. But if you connect that
10,000- amplifier to speakers that have 8- resistance, you will have
problems, because they are not designed to work with that amplifier. You
have whats called a mismatch. Impedance is an important factor when
integrating electrical components.
(b). Fields (Induction) and Noise
These is another set of theories that are very necessary for understanding
the operation of the television.
(I) Fields (Induction)
Any electrical circuit that has a changing flow of electrons will create an
electromagnetic field around itself. For example, if you turned a flashlight on
and off several times, the flow of electrons would be starting and stopping
and a small electromagnetic field would be created. However, if you left the
flashlight on, the flow of electrons would be continuous and unchanging and
there would not be an electromagnetic field. Since the flashlight uses very
small amounts of electricity, its field would be very small almost
unmeasurable. But a high-tension power line running cross-country has an
Telecommunication Systems 118
extremely strong electromagnetic field. When another circuit is placed within
this electromagnetic field, a signal from the more powerful circuit is forced, or
coupled, into the weaker circuit. The signal may take the form of static, as
when you try to play the AM radio in your car near high-power lines, or it may
be actual information, as when you sometimes hear very weak background
voices on the telephone.
(ii) Noise
Another thing that can create problems is noise. To see what noise looks like
in video, unhook the antenna and/or cable from your TV. Turn your TV on.
What you see is noise. If you happen to be near a transmitter and have your
TV tuned to its channel, you will also see some picture. This noise is
obviously an undesirable feature. Too much of it will interfere with the picture
or signal. Inherent in every electrical circuit is a certain amount of this noise. If
there is too much noise, then there is a problem.
Signal-to-Noise Ratio
The measure of the relationship between the strength of the signal and the
amount of noise the circuitry creates is called the signal-to-noise ratio. We
use the decibel (dB) scale to measure this relationship. The dB scale is a
logarithmic ratio. The signal-to-noise ratio is doubled for every 3-dB
difference between the strength of the signal and the strength of the noise.
For example, if the noise in our system is 0 dB and the signal is 3 dB, then the
signal is twice as strong as the noise; if the signal is 6 dB, then its four times
as strong as the noise; if the signal is 9 dB, its eight times as strong; 12 dB, 16
times as strong; 15 dB, 32 times as strong; and so on. In video we have a
signal-to-noise ratio of at least 60 dB.
5.2 Properties of Human Visual System:
Frame Merging
Persistence of vision: the eye (or the brain rather) can retain the sensation of
an image for a short time even after the actual image is removed, this
property is applied in TV and allows the display of a video as successive
frames as long as the frame interval is shorter than the persistence period,
the eye sees a continuously varying image in time. When the frame interval is
too long, the eye observes frame flicker. The minimal frame rate
(frames/second or fps or Hz) required to prevent frame flicker depends on
display brightness, viewing distance. Higher frame rate is required with
Telecommunication Systems 119
closer viewing and brighter display; for TV viewing: 50-60 fps, for Movie
viewing: 24 fps and for computer monitor: > 70 fps. Since the human eye
does not perceive separate lines/frames when the rate is sufficiently high we
should use just enough frame/line rate at which the eye perceives a
continuous video.
Line Merging
As with frame merging, the eye can fuse separate lines into one complete
frame, as long as the spacing between lines is sufficiently small. The
maximum vertical spacing between lines depends on the viewing distance,
the screen size, and the display brightness. For common viewing distance
and TV screen size, 500-600 lines per frame is acceptable. Similarly, the eye
can fuse separate pixels in a line into one continuously varying line, as long
as the spacing between pixels is sufficiently small. This the principle behind
fully digital video representation.
5.3 Generating the Video Signal
The video signal is most often generated by a TV camera, a very
sophisticated electronic device that incorporates lenses and light-sensitive
transducers to convert the scene or object to be viewed to an electric signal
that can be used to modulate a carrier. All visible scenes and objects are
simply light that has been reflected and absorbed and then transmitted to our
eyes. It is the purpose of the camera to take the light intensity and color
details in a scene and convert them to an electric signal.
5.3.1 Video Raster and Frame Rates:
Video raster: The video raster is the rectangular formation of parallel
scanning lines that guide the electron beam on a television screen: The
rectangular area of a display screen actually being used to display images.
The raster is slightly smaller than the physical dimensions of the display
screen. Also, the raster varies for different resolutions. Real-world scene is a
continuously varying 3-D signal (temporal, horizontal, vertical). Analog
video is captured and stored in the raster format; Sampling in time:
consecutive sets of frames.
Sampling in vertical direction: successive scan lines in one frame.
Video-raster = 1-D signal consisting of scan lines from successive frames.
Video is displayed in the raster format displays successive frames and
Telecommunication Systems 120
successive lines per frame. To enable the display to recognize the beginning
of each frame and each line, special sync signals are inserted.
Frame: A frame is a single still image within a video clip. As with any digital
image, a frame consists of pixels (picture elements), with each pixel
representing a colour within the image. The higher the number of pixels, the
more accurately an image can be represented. This is called resolution and is
measured in megapixels. Frame Size describes the size of a single video
frame: width x height, measured in pixels.The width of the frame can vary
depending on whether the pixels in the frame are square pixels or non-square
pixels.
Frame Aspect Ratio: Frame Aspect Ratio describes the relationship
between he width and height of a single video frame. Video is landscape, so
the width of a frame is greater than the height. Typical Frame Aspect Ratios
for video are 4:3 and 16:9. Digital stills cameras often use 4:3 or 3:2. 4:3 is
referred to as standard. 16:9 is referred to as wide-screen. The frame rates
Depends on
(i) Human visual system properties.
(ii) Viewing conditions.
(iii) Capture/Transmission/Display technology.
Ideally we want the rate to be as high as possible to get best possible quality
but higher rates mean the capture and display devices must work with very
high data rate, and transmission of TV signals would take significant amount
of bandwidth
Scanning is a technique that divides a rectangular scene into individual lines.
The standard TV scene dimensions have an aspect ratio of 4:3; that is, the
scene width is 4 units for every 3 units of height. To create a picture, the scene
is subdivided into many fine horizontal lines called scan lines. Each line
represents a very narrow portion of light variations in the scene. The greater
the number of scan lines, the higher the resolution and the greater the detail
that can be observed.
5.3.2 Scanning
A video frame is made of horizontal lines that are
scanned from one side of a display to the other. Progressive video scanning
happens when each line of a video frame is scanned, one after another.
Interlaced scanning fills the entire frame with only half the lines, which
requires half the time, thus doubling the perceived frame rate and reducing
flicker.
Telecommunication Systems 121
5.3.1 Progressive scanning
Progressive scan differs from interlaced scan in that the image is displayed
on a screen by scanning each line (or row of pixels) in a sequential order
rather than an alternate order, as is done with interlaced scan as shown in
figure 5.1. In other words, in progressive scan, the image lines (or pixel rows)
are scanned in numerical order (1,2,3) down the screen from top to bottom,
instead of in an alternate order (lines or rows 1,3,5, etc... followed by lines or
rows 2,4,6). By progressively scanning the image onto a screen every 60th of
a second rather than "interlacing" alternate lines every 30th of a second, a
smoother, more detailed, image can be produced on the screen that is
perfectly suited for viewing fine details, such as text, and is also less
susceptible to interlace flicker. The primary intent of progressive scan is to
refresh the screen more often. Progressive scanning is much simpler than
interlaced scanning: each line is scanned consecutively until a complete
frame is drawn
(a) progressive scanning (b) interlaced scanning
Figure 5.1 Scanning methods
Interlaced Scanning
Interlaced scan-based images use techniques developed for CRT (Cathode
Ray Tube) TV monitor displays, made up of 576 visible horizontal lines
across a standard TV screen. Interlacing divides these into odd and even
Fields and Frame: Each scan of the scene is called a field and only involves
half of the total scan lines. Two complete scans of the scene is called frame.
Because the fields are scanned in rapid sequence (50 per second), the
viewer only perceives the complete picture.
5.3.2
Progressive Frame
Horizontal retrace
Interfaced Frame
Field 1 Field 2
Vertical retrace
Telecommunication Systems 122
lines and then alternately refreshes them at 30 frames per second. The slight
delay between odd and even line refreshes creates some distortion or
'jaggedness'. This is because only half the lines keep up with the moving
image while the other half waits to be refreshed. Because the fields are
changing at twice the frame rate, there is less perceived flicker than if each
frame was scanned progressively. For example, with NTSC, a field of odd
lines is scanned in 1/60 of a second and a field of even lines follows in the
next 1/60 of a second, resulting in a complete frame every 1/30 of a second.
Frame rates lower than 40 fps can cause noticeable flicker. When NTSC and
PAL were invented, faster frame rates were not practical to implement.
Interlaced scanning was devised to create a perceived frame rate of 60 fps
(NTSC) or 50 fps (PAL). Interlaced video scans the display twice, using two
fields, to complete a single frame. A single field contains only the odd lines (1,
3, 5, 7, and so on) or the even lines (2, 4, 6, 8, and so on) of the frame. If you
could stop the video scanning process to observe a single video field, you
would see that every other line is missing, like a comb. Figure 5.2 explains
the interlaced scanning as obtained in the Television screen.
Figure 5.2 Interlaced scanning as obtained in real life TV
At the time TV systems were first developed (1939-41), 60 frames/s, 525
lines/frame is technologically infeasible. Interlacing using 60 fields/s and
252.5 lines/field is a good compromise. For a display device to know when
does a line/field end, special synchronization signal (with a constant voltage
level) are used, this signals are shown in figure 5.3.
123 Telecommunication Systems
Figure 5.3 Synchronization signals
Example: Using the letter F Explain in detail the scanning principle.
Solution: In this example, the scene is a large black letter F on a white
background. The task of the TV camera is to convert this scanning scene to
an electric signal. The camera accomplishes this by transmitting a voltage of
1 V for black and 0 V for white. The scene is divided into 15 scan lines
numbered 0 through 14. The scene is focused on the light-sensitive area of a
vidicon tube or imaging CCD which scans the scene one line at a time,
transmitting the light variations along that line as voltage levels. The
simplified scanning diagram is shown in figure 5.10(a). Where the white
background is being scanned, a 0-V signal occurs. When a black picture
element is encountered, a 1-V level is transmitted. The electric signals
derived from each scan line are referred to as the video signal. They are
transmitted serially one after the other until the entire scene has been sent as
shown in figure 5.10(b). This is exactly how a standard TV picture is
developed and transmitted.
Interfaced Frame
Field 1 Field 2
Horizontal retrace
Reduce the actual time
used to scan a line
Vertical retrace
Reduce the actual number
of lines (active lines) that is
used to describe
the video
Telecommunication Systems 124
(a) Simplified explanation of scanning.
(b) The scan line voltages are transmitted serially.
These correspond to the scanned letter F in Figure 5.5a.
Figure 5.4 Principle of scanning explained|.
F
Scan line
aspect ratio
4:3
Scan
line
Corresponding
video voltage
1 V
0 V
1 V
0 V
1 V
0 V
1 V
0 V
0 V
1 V
1 V
0 V
0 V
1 V
black -
- white
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
1
2
3
4
5
6. 7. 8.
Line 1 Line 2 Line 3 Line 4
One line of video
Line 5 Line 5 Line 7 Line 8
Telecommunication Systems 125
Detailed explanation.
A more detailed illustration of the scanning process is given in Figure. 5.6.
The scene is scanned twice. One complete scanning of the scene is called a
field and contains 262.5 lines. The entire field is scanned in 160 s for a 60-Hz
field rate. In color TV the field rate is 59.94 Hz. Then the scene is scanned a
second time, again using 262.5 lines. This second field is scanned in such a
way that its scan lines fall between those of the first field. This produces what
is known as interlaced scanning, with a total of 2 x 262.5 = 525 lines. In
practice, only about 480 lines show on the picture tube screen. Two
interlaced fields produce a complete frame of video. With the field rate being
1/ 60 s, two fields produce a frame rate of 1 /30 s, or 30 Hz. The frame rate in
color TV is one-half the field
(
Figure 5.5 Interlaced scanning.
rate, or 29.97 Hz. Interlaced scanning is used to reduce flicker, which is
annoying to the eye. This rate is also fast enough that the human eye cannot
262
Lines
525
Line
-
1
2
Start of field 1
Start of field 1
Field 1
Start of field 2
End of field 1
Start of field 2
End of field 1
Trace
Retrace
End of field 2
262
Lines
-
1
2
Start of field 1
Field 2
Start of field 2
Field rate - 60 Hz
Frame rate - 30 Hz
Trace
End of field 2
Retrace
Telecommunication Systems 126
detect individual scan lines and therefore sees a stable picture. The rate of
occurrence of the horizontal scan lines is 15,750 Hz for monochrome, or
black and white, TV and 15,734 Hz for color TV. This means that it takes
about 1/15,734 s, or 63.3s to trace out one horizontal scan line. After one
line has been scanned, a horizontal blanking pulse comes along. At the
receiver, the blanking pulse is used to cut off the electron beam in the picture
tube during the time the beam must retrace from right to left to get ready for
the next left-to-right scan line. The horizontal sync pulse is used at the
receiver to keep the sweep circuits that drive the picture tube in step with the
transmitted signal. The width of the horizontal blanking pulse is about 10s.
Since the total horizontal period is 63.6s, only about 53.5s is devoted to
the video signal. At the end of each field, the scanning must retrace from
bottom to top of the scene so that the next field can be scanned. This is
initiated by the vertical blanking and sync pulses. The entire vertical pulse
blacks out the picture tube during the vertical retrace. The pulses on top of
the vertical blanking pulse are the horizontal sync pulses that must continue
to keep the horizontal sweep in sync during the vertical retrace. The
equalizing pulses that occur during the vertical retrace period help
synchronize the half scan lines in each field. Approximately 30 to 40 scan
lines are used up during the vertical blanking interval. Therefore, only 480 to
495 lines of actual video are shown on the screen.
Bandwidth and Resolution: The resolution of the picture refers to the
amount of detail that can be shown. Pictures with high resolution have
excellent definition, or distinction of detail, and the pictures appear to be
clearly focused. A picture lacking detail looks softer, or somewhat out of
focus. The bandwidth of a video system determines the resolution. The
greater the bandwidth, the greater the definition and detail.
5.4 Television Signals
The standard television signal consists of the following four elements: The
picture information, the picture blanking pulses, the picture average dc
component and the picture synchronizing pulses.
5.4.1 Picture Information: The picture information is the basic part of the
signal. It is a series of waves and pulses generated during active scanning of
the camera tube. As the scanning line travels across the tube, it is amplitude
modulated in proportion to the brightness variation in the scene it is
Telecommunication Systems 127
scanning. For commercial television, the amplitude variations are such that
the maximum video amplitude produces black, and the minimum amplitude
produces white. Ordinarily, the maximum and minimum video amplitude
values represent 75 and 15 percent of the maximum carrier voltage,
respectively.
5.4.2 Picture Blanking Pulses: To prevent undesirable signals from
entering the picture during retrace time, blanking pulses are applied to the
scanning beams in both the camera tube and the receiver picture tube .
Camera blanking pulses are used only in the pickup device. They serve only
to close the scanning aperture on the camera tube during retrace periods,
and never actually appear in the final signal sent to the receiver. In some
systems, the same pulse that triggers the scanning circuit and blanks the
receiver picture tube also closes the camera aperture. The function of the
blanking pulses is to suppress the scanning beam during both vertical and
horizontal flyback times. The blanking pulses are simple rectangular pulses,
somewhat wider than the corresponding camera blanking pulses. They have
a duration slightly longer than the actual retrace time. The reason for the
slightly longer blanking time is to trim up the edges of the picture and to
provide a clean, noise-free period during flyback. Figure 5.1 shows a
complete video signal that contains pulses for the removal of visible lines
during horizontal retrace periods only. The horizontal pulses
Figure 5.6.The complete video signal for three scanned lines.
recur at intervals of 1/15,750 of a second. At the bottom of the picture, they
are replaced by vertical blanking pulses. These are similar to the horizontal
pulses, except they are of much longer duration (approximately 15 scanning
lines) and have a recurrence of 1/60 of a second. Note that the blanking
100
%

A
M
P
L
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U
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75
50
25
0
15. 75 0
SEC
HORIZ. SYNC. PULSE
BLANKING
VOLTAGE LEVEL
BLACK LEVEL
INFRA-BLACK
REGION
CAMERA
SIGNAL
REGION
BRIGHTEST
LEVEL
GRAYLEVEL
CAMERA SIGNAL
(IMAGE DETAIL)
TIME
VISIBLE PART
OF LINE
Telecommunication Systems 128
pulses (and synchronizing pulses) are added at a relatively high-level point in
the transmitter because they are considered to be noise-free at that level.
The importance of noise-free blanking and synchronizing pulses should be
emphasized. They determine the stability of the viewed picture or the degree
to which a picture remains locked-in on the picture tube, even under the most
adverse transmission conditions.
5.4.3 Picture Average Dc Component: If a television picture is to be
transmitted successfully with the necessary fidelity, it needs the dc
component of the picture signal. This component is a result of slow changes
in light intensity. The loss of the dc component occurs in ac or capacitive
coupling circuits. The loss is evidenced by the picture signal tending to adjust
itself about its own ac axis. The dc component is returned to the video signal
by means of a dc restorer or inserter circuit.
5.4.4 Picture Synchronizing Pulses: Synchronizing the scanning beams
in the camera and the receiver must be exact at all times to provide a
viewable picture. To accomplish this, synchronizing information is provided
by electrical pulses in the retrace intervals between successive lines and
between successive pictures (figure 5.6). The retrace periods should be as
short as circuit considerations will allow. These periods are in areas where
synchronization pulses may be inserted without interfering with the picture.
Synchronizing pulses are generated in the equipment that controls the timing
of the scanning beam in the pickup device. They become a part of the
complete signal that is transmitted to the receiver. In this manner, scanning
operations at both ends of the system are always in step with each other. In
general, synchronizing signals should provide positive synchronization of
both horizontal and vertical sweep circuits. They should be separable by
simple electronic circuits to recover the vertical and horizontal components of
the composite sync signal. They should be able to be combined with the
picture and blanking signals to produce a standard composite television
signal. Most television systems produce synchronizing information that
conforms to the basic requirements of synchronization. Figure 5.7 shows
how the synchronizing signal waveform is added to the picture information
and blanking signals to form a complete composite picture signal ready to be
transmitted. Note that the duration of the horizontal sync pulses is
considerably shorter than that of the blanking pulses. Vertical sync pulses are
rectangular, but they are of much shorter duration than the horizontal pulses.
Telecommunication Systems 129
Thus, they provide the necessary means for frequency discrimination.
Another series of pulses is added before and after the vertical sync pulses to
prevent the pairing problem and to maintain continuous horizontal
synchronizing information throughout the vertical synchronization and
blanking interval. These are equalizing pulses (figure. 5.7).
Figure 5.7.Vertical synchronizing and equalizing pulses
The time between the last horizontal sync pulse and the first equalizing pulse
changes from a full horizontal line interval to one-half of a horizontal line
interval every other field. This is caused by the ratio between 15,750 Hz and
60 Hz. The ratio produces the necessary difference between fields to provide
interlaced scanning. Since the horizontal oscillator is adjusted to the
frequency of the horizontal sync pulses, it is triggered only by every other
equalizing pulse or serration of the vertical sync pulse.

The sync pulses of a television waveform need to be able to allow the
receiver or monitor to reliably produce an accurate picture. The form of the
synchronization waveforms is described here. The description given here
applies to the PAL signals but the arguments can be applied to other
interlaced tv systems. A television picture is built up of a spot scanned rapidly
on the faceplate of a cathode ray tube horizontally and (relatively slowly)
vertically to produce a 'raster. The brightness of the spot is varied to produce
the picture. A synchronizing signal to control the position of the spot on the
screen is combined with the brightness (or luminance) information producing
5.5 TV Synchronisation
A
M
P
L
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T
U
D
E

H IS 64
MICROSECONDS
EQUALIZING PULSES
SERRATED
VERTICAL
SYNC PULSE
H 3H 3H 3H 9 TO12H
TIME FOR
VERTICAL
RETRACE
FIRST LINE
OF VIDEO
OF VIDEO
LAST LINE
100 %
50 %
0
-
-
-
-
TIME
Telecommunication Systems 130
a 'composite' television signal. The sync and brightness information are kept
separate by assigning them unique signal level ranges (see line waveform
below). Normally, the total range of a monochrome (black and white) signal is
1 Volt peak-to-peak although the absolute dc levels may vary (usually the
signal is ac coupled). The luminance information occupies a range of around
0.7 V and the sync 0.3 V as shown in figure 5.8. With respect to the lowest
sync level, the brightest parts of the picture are at a level of 1 V with the black
level at 0.3 V. Black level is the same as the blanking level in CCIR system
which is not necessarily the case for other systems. Blanking occurs in non-
picture parts of the waveform when it is necessary for the electron gun of the
crt to be 'off' so that retrace is not visible on the screen.
Figure 5.8. Signal's voltage level
The television waveform carries pulses that allow synchronization of both the
horizontal and vertical deflection circuits. These pulses are separated by the
video information using a 'sync separator', this can be just a comparator with
its threshold set around halfway between black level and the sync tips. There
are two deflection generators (timebases) - horizontal and vertical. Both
must be triggered at the right time to ensure that the picture is correctly
reproduced. Therefore both timebases need to be synchronized and there
needs to be a method of triggering either one independently using the same
single set of sync pulses. The method used to allow the receiver to
distinguish between the two types of sync is to use different widths for the
horizontal and vertical sync pulses. The sync pulse is separated from the
active picture information by the 'porches': the 'back' and 'front' porches.
These avoid the picture detail affecting the accuracy of the synchronization.
Peak white level
Video Signal
Banking level
(Black level)
Sync level
0.7 V
OV DC
0.3 V
Telecommunication Systems 131
5.5.1 Synchronization Pulse: Starting of each Horizontal line is marked by
a Horizontal sync pulse and the starting of each field by a vertical sync pulse.
There are 625 Horizontal sync pulses per frame and 50 vertical sync pulses
per second. Synchronisation pulses ensure that the video image is locked on
a video monitor (or VCR etc) vertically and horizontally without any jitter or
rolling. If vertical sync is lost, picture may move/tear vertically. If horizontal
sync is lost, picture may move/tear horizontally. Video information is carried
on each line except portions which are in blank periods (Horizontal & Vertical
blanking / retrace period). For monochrome video signals, video information
is basically the intensity or luminance information (Y signal). 0V represents
the black level and 0.7V represents the peak white level . Sync pulses have
an amplitude of -0.3V with respect to blanking level.
5.5.2 Horizontal and Vertical Synchronization
Horizontal Sync Pulse: The synchronizing pulse at the end of each line that
determines the start of horizontal retrace. For accurate reproduction, both the
camera and the television receiver must be synchronized to scan the same
part of the scene at the same time. At the end of each horizontal line the beam
must return to the left side of the scene. This is called horizontal retrace.
Coordination of the horizontal retrace is handled by the horizontal sync pulse.
Figure 5.9 Horizontal sync pulse at the end of each line
determines the start of horizontal retrace
At the bottom of the scene, when the last line in first field of the horizontal lines
have been scanned, it is time for the beam to return to the top of the scene.
Vertical Sync Pulse: The synchronizing pulse at the end of each field which
signals the start of vertical retrace. The start of vertical retrace is signaled by
the vertical sync pulse which is different in width than horizontal sync pulses.
Since the vertical retrace takes much longer than horizontal retrace, a longer
Horizontal Sync Pulse
1st Line 2nd Line
Telecommunication Systems 132
vertical synchronizing interval is employed. See figure 5.10.
signals the start of vertical retrace.
Figure 5.10
Vertical sync is obtained from the last few and first lines of each field. These
lines contain a series of special sync pulses which differ on alternate fields
shown in figure 5.11: - The format for the first field starting at line 623 ends at
line 5 inclusive): 6 Pre-equalizing pulses.. 5 long sync pulses... 5 Post-
equalizing pulses. The format for the second field (starting at line 311ends at
line 317 inclusive): 5 Pre-equalizing pulses.. 5 long sync pulses... 4 Post-
equalizing pulses. The pre- and post- equalizing pulses are "short syncs"
(active low as usual) of 2 microseconds followed by a delay of 30
microseconds, therefore they last half a scanline each. The "long syncs" are
30 microsecond low pulses with a 2 microsecond delay after them, they last
half a line each too. The different vertical sync pulse trains of each field is the
means by which the raster beam is offset half a scan line for the interlacing
Figure 5.11 Vertical sync pulses
Vertical sync pulse at the end of each field
line 312 line 312.5
etc.
Horizontal Sync
Pulse
Vertical Sync
Information
EQUALIZING
PULSE
VERTICAL
SYNC
PULSE
EQUALIZING
PULSE
HORIZONTAL
SYNC PULSES
H H
3 H 3 H 3 H
VERTICAL BLANKING INTERVAL
(21 H)
BOTTOM
OF
PICTURE
BEGIN LINE 1
OF FIELD 1
TOP
OF
PICTURE
Telecommunication Systems 133
5.5.3 The blanking pulses.
The composite video signal contains horizontal and vertical blanking pulses
to blank the corresponding retrace intervals by raising the signal amplitude
slightly above the black level (75 per cent) during the time the scanning
circuits produce retraces. The repetition rate of horizontal blanking pulses is
therefore equal to the line scanning frequency while the frequency of the
vertical blanking pulses is equal to the field-scanning frequency, the values
here are 15625 Hz and 50Hz respectively. During the time when horizontal
and vertical retrace are taking place, the electron beams in the camera and
home TV are cut off. This time period is called blanking. Blanking means that
nothing will be written on the television screen or the time period when picture
information is shut off. Blanking is the same voltage levels the black picture
level. Synchronizing signals which control invisible retrace of scanning are
active during the blanking period.
During horizontal blanking, sync and burst occur. During vertical blanking,
vertical sync ,vertical equalizing pulses, and vertical serrations occur. The
equalizing pulses are inserted to ensure that the video fields begin at the
proper points to achieve interlace. The vertical serrations keep the television
receiver's horizontal sync circuitry from drifting off frequency during the time
when no horizontal picture information is present. figure 5.12 shows the
horizontal and vertical blanking pulses.
Figure 5.12 Horizontal and vertical blanking pulses in video signal.
ACTIVE
PICTURE
Equalizing
Pulses
Vertical
Sync
Equalizing
Pulses
Horizontal
Pulses
Vertical Serration
BLANKING FOR
VERTICAL SYNC
& FIELD FLYBACK
BLANKING FOR
HORIZONTAL
SYNC & LINE
FLYBACK
BLANKING LEVEL
Burst
Telecommunication Systems 134
5.5.1 The horizontal and vertical sync details
Front porch: This is a brief period of 1.5 s inserted between the end of the
picture detail for that line and the leading edge of the line sync pulse which
allows the receiver video circuit to settle down from whatever picture voltage
level exists at the end of the picture line to the blanking level before the sync
pulse occurs

Figure 5.11
Line sync pulse: At the end of the front porch of blanking, horizontal retrace
is produced when the sync pulse starts. The flyback is blanked out because
the sync level is blacker than black. The duration for the line sync pulses is 4.7
s, during this period the beam on the raster almost completes its retrace and
arrives at the extreme left end of the raster.
The horizontal line and sync details compared to horizontal deflection
sawtooth and picture space on the raster is illustrated in figure 5.11.
t
Horizontal sync details
H
represents he interval between horizontal scanning lines. The line blanking
period is divided into three sections. These are the front porch, the line sync
pulse and the back porch. Their location and effect on the raster is as shown
in figure 5.13.
Back porch (blanked)
Front porch (blanked)
80
75
60
40
20
125
0
Picture space
on
the raster
Horz sync
pulse = 4.7 s
Back porch
= 5.8 s
Horz blanking
pulse = 12 s
t
t
Blanking ends
Retrace
Trace
Blanking begins
Retrace
begins
information = 52 s
Picture
Front porch = 1.5 s
H = 64 s
Picture
Retrace ends
Horz
deflection
sawtooth
0
A
m
p
l
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e

%
100
Telecommunication Systems 135
Back porch:
5.8 s and his period of 5.8 s at
the blanking level allows plenty of time for line flyback to be completed. It also
permits time for the horizontal time-base circuit to reverse direction of current
for the initiation of the scanning of next line. The back porch also provides the
necessary amplitude equal to the blanking level or reference level and
enables to preserve the dc content of the picture information at the
transmitter.
5.5.5 Video Signal Details and Explanation
The black-and-white information contained in a scene is made up of the
varying light intensity of that image. This information is referred to as the
luminance information or the luminance signal. The luminance signal is
generated at the electronic camera by measuring the light intensity of each
element of the image to be transmitted. To reproduce the luminance
information properly, the receiver must be perfectly synchronized with the
transmitting camera. This synchronization is controlled by synchronization
Back-Porch is where colour synchronisation occurs and is
empty for monochrome. It has a period of t
Horizontal Blanking Period:
Horizontal Blanking Period = Front-Porch + H-Sync pulse + Back-Porch. The
Start of H-Sync signifies start of scanline. Many more details (rise/fall times
etc.) left out here.
Timing Details: The sync timing details for PAL and NTSC television system
is give in table 5.1.
Table 5.1 Sync Timing Details
Area PAL NTSC
Whole Scanline 64s 63.55s
Front Porch 1.65s 1.5s
H-Sync pulse 4.7s 4.7s
Back Porch 5.7s 4.5s
Blanking period (total) 12.05s 10.7s
Active Display' period 51.95s 52.9s
Contains the 'start of scanline' sync pulse.
Telecommunication Systems 136
signals or sync signals as they are commonly called. These sync signals fine
tune the receiver's horizontal and vertical sweep generators. There also
needs to be a signal that will turn off the reproducing spot at the receiver
between scan lines and fields. Therefore, four signals are required to
transmit a black-and-white image. These signals are summarized as follows:
the luminance signal carrying instantaneous brightness information, a sync
signal to control the horizontal sweep, a sync signal to control the vertical
sweep, and blanking signals between lines and between frames. These four
signals are combined into a unique composite picture signal combining
video, blanking, and synchronization information (abbreviated to VBS, also
described as video baseband signal suitable for broadcast as shown in figure
5.13. The level of the video signal when the picture detail being transmitted
corresponds to the maximum whiteness to be handled, is referred to as
peak-white level. This is fixed at 10 to 12.5 percent of the maximum value of
the signal while the black level corresponds to approximately 72 percent.
The sync pulses are added at 75 percent level called the blanking level. The
difference between the black level and blanking level is known as the
Pedestal which indicates average brightness since it measures how much
the average value differs from the black level. The final radiated signal has a
picture to sync signal ratio (P/S) equal to 10/4.. Hence the video information
may vary between 10 percent to about 75 percent of the composite
Figure 5.13 Video signal details
v/v
max
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Horz sync
pulses
One line
duration
64 s
64 s
Active line
period
52 s
S
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80
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40
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0.4
0.2
0
0.4
0.2
0.6
0.8
1.0
t
Telecommunication Systems 137
video signal depending on the relative brightness of the picture at any instant.
The darker the picture the higher will be the voltage within those limits. In
addition to continuous amplitude variations for individual picture elements,
the video signal has an average value or dc component corresponding to the
average brightness of the scene. The dc component of the video signal is the
average value for complete frames rather than lines since the background
information of the picture indicates the brightness of the scene. In the
absence of dc component the receiver cannot follow changes in brightness
as the ac camera signal, say for grey picture elements on a black background
will then be the same as a signal for white area on a grey back-ground.
5.6 Basic Television Standards
Two basic standards have been adopted for the international exchange of TV
programs:
FCC Standard CCIR Standard
Lines / frame 525 625
Fields/s 60 50
Colour system NTSC PAL/SECAM
Video Bandwidth 4.2 MHz 5 / 5.5 / 6 MHz
Colour Subcarrier 3.58 MHz 4.43 MHz
The different video bandwidths of the CCIR standard are not so much due to
field and line scanning procedures, but rather to the bandwidth available in
the TV transmitter channels.
5.6.1 Line Standards
The choice for the number of lines per frame is not easy. Because the
interlaced systems require accurate placement of scanning lines it is
necessary to make sure that the horizontal and vertical timebases are in a
precise ratio. This is achieved by passing the one through a series of
electronic 'divider' circuits to produce the other. Each division is by a small
number, usually odd and prime. 243 for example is 3 x 3 x 3 x 3 x 3, and 343 is
7 x 7 x 7. The 30-line standard, being purely mechanical, has no oscillators to
synchronize together. The prime factors for the line standards are as
follows:.
90. 2 x 3 x 3 x 5 96. 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 x 3
180. 2 x 2 x 3 x 3 x 5 240. 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 x 3 x 5
Telecommunication Systems 138
243. 3 x 3 x 3 x 3 x 3 343. 7 x 7 x 7
375. 3 x 5 x 5 x 5 405. 3 x 3 x 3 x 3 x 5
440. 2 x 2 x 2 x 5 x 11 441. 3 x 3 x 7 x 7
450. 2 x 3 x 3 x 5 x 5 455. 5 x 7 x 13
525. 3 x 5 x 5 x 7 605. 5 x 11 x 11
625. 5 x 5 x 5 x 5 819. 3 x 3 x 7 x 13
5.6.2 Line and Field Numbering
Line numbering: Lines are numbered consecutively in time, eg from 1 to 625,
and not in the order in which they are displayed down the screen. Odd fields
do not contain only odd numbered lines. Even fields do not contain only even
numbered lines. In an interlaced line standard the second field starts half-
way along the middle line in the series, eg halfway along Line 313. Line 1
always occurs in Field 1 (and therefore also Field 3), though its actual
position depends on the line standard.
Field numbering: In an interlaced standard there are two fields in every
frame. In monochrome standards they are numbered 1-2. In colour
standards, the fields are numbered 1-4 because there are patterns of colour
subcarrier phase and burst blanking which repeat every four fields. In the
PAL standard there is a relationship between subcarrier phase and line sync
pulses which repeats every eight fields, but the fields are still numbered 1-4.
Field 1 is defined as the field in which the leading edge of the field sync pulse
is coincident with the leading edge of the line sync pulse. Field 2 is therefore
the field in which the field pulse occurs mid-way through a line.
In the 625-line standard the lines of Fields 1 and 3 appear on the screen
above those of Fields 2 and 4, (ie the half line at the top belongs to Field 1 or
3) whilst in all other standards they are displayed below (ie the half line at the
top belongs to Field 2 or 4). In all line standards a full frame comprises Field 1
followed by Field 2 (or Field 3 followed by Field 4). Abrupt changes in picture
content (ie 'cuts') should occur between Field 2 and Field 3 of Frame n, or
Field 4 of frame n and Field 1 of Frame n+1. Where the picture information
contained in two consecutive fields comes from the same time period (eg
when originated on film) these should be Field 1 and Field 2, or Field 3 and
Telecommunication Systems 139
Field 4, of Frame n (this is often not possible in 60fps standards, where the
'3:2' pull-down form of telescene is used).
Odd/Even: Alternate fields are labelled as Odd or Even. The definition is
such that in the 625-line standard Fields 1 and 3 are 'Even', whilst Fields 2
and 4 are 'Odd'. This is because of the odd number of equalization pulses (5
of them) preceding each field sync pulse in the 625-line standard. In all other
standards Fields 1 and 3 are 'Odd' whilst Fields 2 and 4 are 'Even'. The odd
fields are defined as the ones that end in a half-line and even fields are those
ending in a full line.
5.6.3 Obsolete and Current Standards:
Tabulated below is a summary of the obsolete and current standards used in
television system and the country they are deployed..

The 405-Line Standard
Summary of features: Although the 405-line standard was a development
of previous systems, and its requirements seem modest by today's
standards, it was touch-and-go whether the system would actually work
properly. It was the first standard to employ interlace, which, together with the
2.5MHz vision bandwidth effectively doubled the resolution of the Baird
system in the horizontal, vertical and temporal dimensions. In fact because
the Kell effect was unknown at the time, the horizontal resolution was made
greater than that required to match the vertical resolution - especially since
Obsolete Standards Current Standards
405-lines: System A
(monochrome, obsolete)
Republic of Ireland until 23 Nov
1982

United Kingdom until 2 Jan 1985

819-lines: System E
(monochrome, obsolete)

France until 1984, Monaco until 198


: System F (monochrome,
obsolete)

RTB Belgium until February 1968
Luxembourg until 1 September 1971

525-lines: System M (NTSC
colour)

United States of America, Japan
and most other territories with 60Hz
mains

625-lines: Systems B, D, G, K, K1
and L (SECAM colour)

France from 1982

Luxembourg

People's Republic of China

:Systems B, D, G, H, I, K, K1 and
N (PAL colour)
Most other territories.


Telecommunication Systems 140
many receivers were incapable of displaying 100% accurate interlace
(resulting in 'line pairing' which reduced the apparent vertical resolution and
emphasised the coarse line structure even further). The choice of horizontal
and vertical blanking times was generous to give receiver timebases plenty
of time for the flyback stroke to occur while the signal was at black level. The
pulses were fairly primitive, there being no equalising pulses nor pedestal,
often called 'set up'. Narrow horizontal synchronising pulses were detected
by a 'differentiating' circuit in the receiver and made to trigger the flyback of
the line timebase which was set to free-run slightly slowly. Similarly, several
broad field pulses were detected by an 'integrating' circuit, directly triggering
the vertical timebase. The choice of positive modulation, with sync tips at 0%
and peak white at 100% modulation levels meant that 30% of the vision
carrier modulation was devoted to video. However, with positive modulation
it is difficult to implement an automatic gain control in the receiver that is
independent of the video level, and impulse interference results in white
spots which are noticeable and annoying.
The 525-Line StandardSummary of featuresThe 525-line NTSC standard
was developed in the USA which has a 60Hz mains electricity supply and so
was given a 60 field-per-second interlaced repetition rate. Apart from the
improved vertical, horizontal and temporal resolutions, there are several
features not found in the 405-line standard. Firstly, a set of equalising pulses
at twice the line frequency was added at the end of each field, allowing the
field pulse integrator to fire at precisely the same moment on both odd and
even fields, allowing much better interlace in the receiver. Black level was
made higher than blanking level, which means that during line and field
flyback the beam current is always cut off and no flyback lines are visible on
the display tube face. The vision bandwidth of 4.2MHz was chosen so that
the horizontal and vertical resolutions would be the same after Kell
adjustment. Negative modulation was chosen which allows receivers to
measure the carrier level simply and accurately by sampling the sync level
which is always 100% modulation. However, interference pulses, while
black and therefore less visible, confuse the sync separater circuits causing
false triggering of the line and field oscillators. This was less of a problem
when 'flywheel' rather than direct synchronisation began to be used. Peak
white level is set to give 10% carrier level, though colour subcarrier
excursions take the level lower. Only around 60% of the carrier modulation is
141 Telecommunication Systems
devoted to video. The sound carrier is frequency modulated, which allows
the 'intercarrier sound' technique to be used, making fine tuning much easier
and less critical. When the NTSC colour system was introduced, it became
impossible for the original line and field frequencies to co-exist with the
4.5MHz vision-sound carrier spacing, and so slightly different timebase
frequencies were chosen. In fact the field and line frequencies were each
multiplied by (1000/1001) so that there was no longer an integral number of
frames per second. Because of the necessarily low colour subcarrier
frequency the resolution of the NTSC colour system (both luminance and
chrominance) is severely limited when compared to the 625 line standard.
Also the colour system itself often led to hue errors that could not be
corrected automatically. Later decoders featuring 'comb' filters largely
overcame these limitations.
The 625-Line Standard
Summary of features: The 625-line standard was developed in Germany
after the second world war as a 50Hz version of the US NTSC standard. The
horizontal timebase frequencies are almost the same, but because of the
higher number of scanning lines, the vision bandwidth was increased to 5.0
(CCIR), 5.5 (UK) or 6.0MHz (OIRT). Generally no pedestal is used, and
black level is the same as blanking level. Most countries used the NTSC
method of negative vision modulation and frequency modulated sound, but
France (and Belgium originally) opted for positive modulation and amplitude
modulated sound. Intercarrier sound therefore cannot be used in France,
though where Nicam digital sound is present, the vision modulation depth is
reduced so that there is at least 5% carrier during sync pulses.
The 819-Line Standard
Summary of features: The 819-line standard was developed in France
after the war as a high-definition alternative to the 441-line standard used
previously. Because it had more than twice the number of lines of the 405-
line standard, and therefore over twice the horizontal timebase frequency, it
required four times the vision bandwidth (10MHz). Otherwise, the standard
was very similar to 405-lines. There were no equalising pulses or pedestal in
the French version, and instead of a series of broad field sync pulses there
was just a single one, half a line period in length, though the Belgian version
differed (in this respect
Telecommunication Systems 142
only) by having seven broad field pulses preceded and followed by sets of
seven equalizing pulses in a similar way to the 625-line standard. Positive
modulation vision and amplitude modulated sound were used, together with
the usual vestigial sideband, though a mixture of upper and lower sideband
channel allocations was devised whereby adjacent channels in Band III
overlapped, allowing more transmitters to be accommodated in the same
spectrum. It could be said that 819-lines was a High Definition standard
before its time. In modern digital parlance it would be described as '800x738
50 2:1', though the aspect ratio was 4:3 and the pictures were monochrome
only. For comparison, the coarsest current (16:9) digital HD standard is
'1280x720 50 1:1', of which the centre 4:3 portion would be 960x720 pixels.
Modern HD standards use 'square pixels' rather than Kell-factor elongated
ones since they are expected to be displayed on dot matrix rather than
rasterised displays, and so the horizontal and vertical resolutions are
compromised equally by being separated into discrete pixels in both
directions instead of only the vertical.
5.6.4 Difference Between Television Standards.
There is no major differences between the three world standards (NTSC,
PAL, SECAM) have been highlighted. The differences that do exist mainly
concern the way of modulating this subcarrier and its frequency.
NTSC
This system uses a line-locked subcarrier at 3.579545MHz, amplitude
modulated with a suppressed carrier following two orthogonal axes
(quadrature amplitude modulation, or QAM), by two signals, I (in phase) and
Q (quadrature), carrying the chrominance information.These signals are two
linear combinations of (R Y ) and (BY ). NTSC was very sensitive to phase
rotations introduced by the transmission channel, which resulted in very
important tint errors, especially in the region of flesh tones, thus, leading to
the necessity of a tint correction button accessible to the user on the
receivers and to the famous never twice the same color expression. This
led Europeans to look for solutions to this problem, which resulted in the
SECAM and PAL systems
Telecommunication Systems 143
SECAM
This standard eliminates the main drawback of the NTSC system by using
frequency modulation for the subcarrier, which is insensitive to phase
rotations; however, FM does not allow simultaneous modulation of the
subcarrier by two signals, as does QAM. The clever means of circumventing
this problem consisted of considering that the color information of two
consecutive lines was sufficiently similar to be considered identical. This
reduces chroma resolution by a factor of 2 in the vertical direction, making it
more consistent with the horizontal resolution resulting from bandwidth
reduction of the chroma signals. Therefore, it is possible to transmit
alternately one chrominance component, on one line and the other on the
next line. It is then up to the receiver to recover the two signals
simultaneously, This system is very robust, and gives a very accurate tint
reproduction, but it has some drawbacks due to the frequency modulation:
the subcarrier is always present, even in non-colored parts of the pictures,
making it more visible than in NTSC or PAL on black and white, and the
continuous nature of the FM spectrum does not allow an efficient comb
filtering; rendition of sharp transients between highly saturated colors is not
optimum due to the necessary truncation of maximum FM deviation. In
addition, direct mixing of two or more SECAM signals is not possible.
PAL
This is a close relative of the NTSC system, whose main drawback it
corrects. It uses a line-locked subcarrier at 4.433619MHz, which is QAM
modulated by the two color difference signals U = 0493 (B Y ) and V = 0877
(R Y ). In order to avoid drawbacks due to phase rotations, the phase of the
V carrier is inverted every second line, which allows cancellation of phase
rotations in the receiver by adding the V signal from two consecutive lines by
means of a 64 s delay line In order to synchronize the V demodulator, the
phase of the reference burst is alternated from line to line between +135 and
135 compared to the U vector. Other features of PAL are very similar to
NTSC. In addition to the main PAL standard (sometimes called PAL B/G),
there are two other less well-known variants used in order to accommodate
the 6MHz channels taken from NTSC: PAL M used in Brazil (525 lines/59.94
Hz, subcarrier at 3.575611 MHZ) and PAL N used in Argentina (625 lines/50
Hz, subcarrier at 3.582056 MHZ).
Telecommunication Systems 144
5.7 Colour Television Basic Principles
The Sound and Light Spectrum: Video is a combination of light and sound,
both of which are made up of vibrations or frequencies. We are surrounded
by various forms of vibrations: visible, tangible, audible, and many other
kinds that our senses are unable to perceive. We are in the midst of a wide
spectrum which extends from zero to many millions of vibrations per second.
The unit we use to measure vibrations per second is Hertz (Hz). Sound
vibrations occur in the lower regions of the spectrum, whereas light
vibrations can be found in the higher frequency areas. The sound spectrum
ranges from 20 to 20,000 Hertz (Hz). Light vibrations range from 370 trillion
to 750 trillion Hz. When referring to light, we speak of wavelengths rather
than vibrations. As a result of the very high frequencies and the speed at
which light travels (300,000 km per second), the wavelength is extremely
short, less than one thousandth of a millimeter. The higher the vibration, the
shorter the wavelength. Not all light beams have the same wavelength. The
spectrum of visible light ranges from wavelength of 780 nm to a wavelength
of 380 nm. We perceive the various wavelengths as different colors. The
longest wavelength (which corresponds to the lowest frequency) is seen by
us as the color red followed by the known colors of the rainbow: orange,
yellow, green, blue, indigo, and violet which is the shortest wavelength (and
highest frequency). White is not a color but the combination of the other
colors. Wavelengths which we are unable to perceive (occurring just below
the red and just above the violet area), are the infrared and ultraviolet rays,
respectively. Visible light is only visible because we can see the source and
the objects being illuminated. The light beam itself cannot be seen. The
beams of headlights in the mist for instance, can only be seen because the
small water drops making up the mist reflect the light. Figure 5.14 shows the
electromagnetic spectrum.
(a) Electromagnetic Spectrum
radio microwave infrared
ultra
violet
X- rays
gamma
rays
wavelength
in narometres
(1 nm =
1 billionth
of a metre)
10
9
10 10 10 10 10
8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 -1 -2 -3
10 10 10 10 10 10 10
light
visible
red orange yellow green blue indigo violet
380 nm 780 nm
Telecommunication Systems 145
(b) Visible Light Spectrum
Figure 5.14 Visible light as part of the electromagnetic spectrum.
Luminosity
Besides differing in color (frequency), light can also differ in luminosity, or
brightness. A table lamp emits less light than a halogen lamp, but even a
halogen source cannot be compared with bright sunlight, as far as luminosity
is concerned. Luminosity depends on the amount of available light. It can be
measured and recorded in a numeric value. In the past, it was expressed in
Hefner Candlepower, but nowadays Lux is used to express the amount of
luminosity. Luminosity is the basic principle of the black-and-white television.
All shades between black and white can be created by adjusting the
luminosity to specific values.
Brightness Values:
Candle light at 20 cm 10-15 Lux
Street light 10-20 Lux
Normal living room lighting 100 Lux
Office fluorescent light 300-500 Lux
Halogen lamp 750 Lux
Sunlight, 1 hour before sunset 1000 Lux
Daylight, cloudy sky 5000 Lux
Daylight, clear sky 10,000 Lux
Bright sunlight > 20,000 Lux
Red Orange Yellow Green Blue Indigo Violet
Telecommunication Systems 146
5.7.1 Color Mixing
There are two kinds of color mixing: additive and subtractive color mixing.
The mixing of colorants, like paint, is called subtractive mixing. The mixing of
colored light is called additive mixing. Color TV is based on the principle of
additive color mixing. Primary colors are used to create all the colors that can
be found in the color spectrum.
Additive Color Mixing: In video, the color spectrum contains three primary
colors, namely red, green and blue. By combining these three, all the other
colors of the spectrum (including white) can be produced.
red + blue = magenta (cylamen)
red + green = yellow
blue + green = cyan (turquoise)
green + magenta = white
red + cyan = white
blue + yellow = white
red + blue + green = white
Making colors in this way is based on blending, or adding up colored light,
which is why it is called additive color mixing. Combining the three primary
colors in specific ratios and known amounts enables us to produce all
possible colors.
Subtractive Colour Mixing: White light is derived from a ratio of 30% red,
59% green, and 11% blue, see figure 5.15. This is also the ratio to which a
color TV is set for black-and-white broadcasts. Shades of grey can be created
by maintaining the ratio percentages and by varying the luminosity to specific
values. 30% red + 59% green + 11% blue = white
Figure 5.15 subtractive colour mixing: By combining the three primary colors red,
green and blue, other colors can be mixed, including white.
Additive color mixing Yellow
(red and green)
(red and blue)
Magenta or violet
White
(all three primary
colors)
Green
Cyan or blue-green
(blue and green)
Red
Blue
Telecommunication Systems 147
5.7.2 Light Refraction
Light refraction is the reverse process of color mixing. It shows that white light
is a combination of all the colors of the visible light spectrum. To demonstrate
refraction a prism is used, which is a piece of glass that is polished in a
triangular shape. A light beam traveling through a prism is broken twice in the
same direction, causing the light beam to change its original course. Beams
with a long wavelength (the red beams) are refracted less strongly than
beams with a short wavelength (the violet beams), causing the colors to fan
out. The first fan out is enlarged by the second fan out, resulting in a color
band coming out, consisting of the spectrum colors red, orange, yellow,
green, blue, indigo, and violet. There are no clear boundaries between the
various colors, but thousands of transitional areas. A rainbow is a perfect
example of the principle of light refraction in nature. When white light, such
as sunlight passes through a prism, it is refracted in the colors of the rainbow.
5.7.3 Color Temperature
Color temperature relates to the fact that when an object is heated, it will emit
a color that is directly related to the temperature of that object. The higher the
color temperature, the more 'blue' the light, and the lower the color
temperature the more 'red' the light. Color temperature of light can be
measured in degrees Kelvin (K). Daylight has a color temperature between
6000 and 7000 K. The color temperature of artificial light is much lower:
approximately 3000 K. In reality, color temperatures range from 1900 K
(candlelight) up to 25,000 K (clear blue sky). Television is set to 6500 K,
simulating 'standard daylight
5.7.4 The Human Eye
The eye tends to retain an image for about 80 milliseconds after it has
disappeared. Advantage is taken of this in television and cinematography,
where a series of still pictures (25 per second) create the illusion of a
continuously moving picture. Other characteristics of the human eye are that
it is less sensitive to color detail than to black-and-white detail, and that the
human eye does not respond equally to all colors. The eye is most sensitive
to the yellow/green region, and less in the areas of red and (particularly) blue.
5.7.5 Colour video signal generation and connections
The term black and white is rather misleading because there is all the
different shades of grey in between, as well. Monochrome (one colour) is the
Telecommunication Systems 148
term to use, but even that is not totally correct (neither black, white, nor grey
are colours, so it is not even one colour).
An image passes through the camera lens, and lands on the video target,
where it is scanned and turned into an electronic signal that is representative
of the picture. If it were done this simply, though, the picture would look rather
wierd, as some things would look brighter than they should do, and other
things too dark, because our eyes are sensitive to different colours in a
certain ratio. So the spectral response of the camera is set up to mimic
human vision, which is mostly sensitive to green light, with lesser sensitivities
to red and blue light (the ratios being approximately 59% green, 30% red,
and 11% blue), so that the monochrome image looks natural. Using
photographic filters and/or the photosensitive characteristics of the target,
the amount of red, green, and blue light reaching the target is adjusted to
produce a natural response.
5.7.6 Colour Video
When we see colour, it is due to receptors in our eyes that are mostly
sensitive to red, green, and blue light, and between the three of them, we see
the full spectrum of colours. So the colour television system, again, is
designed to work in a similar way using red, green, and blue light-sensitive
components to produce a colour signal. At the simplest level, there are three
video targets, one for each colour, with optical filters and prisms (or mirrors),
between the lens and targets separating the colours. Those targets are
scanned and gamma corrected, this gives three separate red, green, and
blue (RGB) video signals. Since we want just one video signal (composite
video) that carries all that information, and it is desirable for it to be
compatible with monochrome televisions, too. So there must be a way to
combine all the signals together in a way that they could be separated, again,
in the colour television receiver, and in a way that the colour signals wouldn't
be noticed by the older monochrome television sets. The light in any scene
can be divided into its three basic color components by passing the light
through red, green, and blue filters. This is done in a color TV camera, which
is really three cameras in one (see figure 5.16). The lens focuses the scene
on three separate light-sensitive devices such as a vidicon tube or an
imaging CCD by way of a series of mirrors and beam splitters. The red light in
the scene passes through the red filter, the green through the green filter, and
the blue through the blue filter. The result is the generation of three
Telecommunication Systems 149
simultaneous signals (R, G, and B) during the scanning process by the light-
sensitive imaging devices.
Figure 5.16 Generating colour signals using camera
The red, green, and blue signals are combined together in the right
proportions to produce a natural monochrome video signal; the luminance
signal (Y being the abbreviation used for it). This gives us a picture signal
for the old monochrome television sets to use, and provides the majority of
the picture detail on the colour sets.
Next was needed a way to send the colour information. The technique used
is called a colour-difference system, where information is transmitted that
are the differences between the black and white image and the colour one.
Technically, it is done by electrically combining the red and blue signals with
the luminance signals, producing a red minus the luminance signal, and a
blue minus the luminance signal. At this stage we have what's known as
component video (separate signals for luminance, and the two colour-
difference signals of R-Y & B-Y) (see figure 5.17a), as used in professional
analogue video systems and found on the back of many DVD players.
Those colour-difference signals are encoded into a single chrominance
signal (see figure 5.17b), which will be added to the luminance video signal in
a manner that is not noticed by most monochrome sets , to produce a
composite video signal.
Assembly of
beam splitters
and mirrors
Lens
Filters
S
c
e
n
e
Light-sensitive imaging
device (CCD, etc)
Color
Amplifiers
signals
R
G
B
B
l
u
e
G
r
e
e
n
R
e
d

Telecommunication Systems 150
Figure 5.17 Video signal encoding
The R, G, and B signals also contain the basic brightness or luminance
information. If the color signals are mixed in the correct proportion, the result
is the standard B&W video or luminance Y signal. The Y signal is generated
by scaling each color signal with a tapped voltage divider and adding the
signals, as shown in Fig. 5.18. Note that the Y signal is made up of 30 percent
red, 59 percent green, and 11 percent blue. The resulting Y signal is what a
B&W TV set will see. The color signals must also be transmitted along with
the luminance information in the same bandwidth allotted to the TV signal.
This is done by a frequency-division multiplexing technique shown in figure
5.17(a). Instead of all three color signals being transmitted, they are
combined into I and Q color signals. These signals are made up of different
proportions of the R, G, and B signals according to the following
specifications:
Q = 21 percent red, - 52 percent green, 31 percent blue
I = 60 percent red, 28 percent green, - 32 percent blue
(b) The chrominance signals are phase-encoded.
(a) Simplified diagram of colour video encoding
Red video
Green video
Blue video
Sync
Signal
matrixing
Red-Y
Blue-Y
Y
Colour
encoder
(e.g. PAL or NTSC)
C
Y
Pass filters
&
mix amps
CVBS
Composite video
S-Video
(luminance + sync)
Component video
RGB video
(Orange)
(R Y)
(B Y) (B Y)
(B Y)
(b)
Q
I
Q
(Burst phase)
I
o
57
(a)
Telecommunication Systems 151
The minus signs in the above expressions mean that the color signal has
been phase inverted before the mixing process.
The I and Q signals are referred to as the chrominance signals. To
transmit them, they are phase-encoded; i.e., they are used to modulate a
subcarrier which is in turn mixed with the luminance signal to form a complete,
or composite, video signal. These I and Q signals are fed to balanced
modulators along with 3.58-MHZ (actually 3.579545-MHz) subcarrier signals
that are out of phase see figure 5.18. This type of modulation is referred to as
a quadrature modulation, where quadrature means a 90 phase shift. The
output of each balanced modulator is a double-sideband 90
Figure 5.18 NTSC composite video signal is generation
Different countries uses different approaches as to how they encoded the
colour- difference signals into a chrominance signal; PAL, NTSC, SECAM,
etc. We have separate luminance (Y) and chrominance (C) signals which
can be used directly between equipment (as Y/C signals, as found in S-
Video connectors), but will be combined together to form a composite video
signal (known as CVBS, which is short for composite video, blanking, and
sync) to be used for analogue television broadcasting, or simply for cabling
video equipment together that's designed for composite video. For the color
signals to be accurately recovered, the subcarrier at the receiver must have a
phase related to the subcarrier at the transmitter. To ensure the proper
conditions at the receiver, a sample of the 3.58-MHz subcarrier signal
C
a
m
e
r
a

o
u
t
p
u
t

s
i
g
n
a
l
s

R
G
B
Inverting
amplifier
31% B
52% G
11% B
32% B
28% G
59% G
30% R
60% R
21% R
Linear
mixer
Linear
mixer
Linear
mixer
(adder)
(Chrominance)
(I + Q)
LPF
0.5 MHz
LPF
1.5 MHz
Balanced
modulator
o
90
Linear
mixer
Y (luminance)
Y + C
to main mixer
3.579545-
oscillator
(subcarrier)
Balanced modulator
Q
MHz
-
-
-
Telecommunication Systems 152
developed at the transmitter is added to the composite video signal. This is
done by gating 8 to 12 cycles of the 3.58-MHz subcarrier and adding it to the
horizontal sync and blanking pulse as shown in figure 5.19. This is called the
color burst, and it rides on what is called the back porch of the horizontal sync
pulse. The receiver uses this signal to phase-synchronize the internally
generated subcarrier before it is used in the demodulation process.
Figure 5.19 The composite video, blanking, and sync signal
The combining of the Y & C signals also requires some reduction in the
resolution of the luminance signal, so that they don't interfere with each other.
This means that the composite video signal is almost the worst choice, of the
lot, for connecting a signal from one thing to another.
5.7.7 Color Spaces
Colour television CRTs typically have three electron guns that illuminate
three different kinds of phosphor dots on the screen. Those phosphor dots,
when illuminated, glow with the red, green, and blue primary colors of light.
From these primary colors, all other shades are generated. A combination of
real world physical characteristics determines what the human vision system
perceives as color. A color space is a mathematical representation of these
characteristics. Color Spaces are always three-dimensional. There are many
possible color space definitions:
Front
Porch
75%
50%
25%
12.5%
Back
Porch
A
m
p
l
i
t
u
d
e
Blacker Than Black
A
Blanking
Pedestal
Video
Time
63.5 Sec
[15,750 Hz]
White Level
Next
Pedestal
Blanking
Level
Blank
Level
White Level
A
Color Burst
(at least 8 cycles)
Sync
Pulse
100%
Telecommunication Systems 153
(i) Digital imagery often uses the red/green/blue color space, known
simply as RGB.
(ii) The cyan/yellow/magenta space, known as CYM, is used in printing.
(iii) Hue, saturation, and intensity, (or HSI) is the color space typically used
by artists.
(iv) Intensity-chromaticity color spaces, YUV and YIQ, are used for
television broadcast.
Though most work in digital imagery is performed in RGB, image processing
applications require transformation to the other color spaces.
5.7.7.1 Luminance-Chrominance
Luminance and chrominance is the colour models that correspond to
brightness and color. These color models are denoted as YUV and YIQ. The
YUV space is used for the PAL broadcast television system used in Europe.
The YIQ color space is used for the NTSC broadcast standard in North
America. The two methods are nearly identical, using slightly different
conversion equations to transform to and from RGB color space. In both
systems, Y is the luminance or brightness component and the I and Q (or U
and V) are the chrominance, or color, components. These are the variables
that are changed by the brightness, color, and tint controls on a television.
The advantages of using YUV or YIQ for broadcast is that the amount of
information needed to define a color television image is greatly reduced.
However, this compression restricts the color range in these images. Many
colors that can appear on a computer display cannot be recreated on a
television screen.
5.7.7.2 RGB to YIQ & YIQ to RGB (NTSC)
The YIQ system is the color primary system adopted by National Television
System Committee (NTSC) for color TV broadcasting. The YIQ color solid is
made by a linear transformation of the RGB cube. Its purpose is to exploit
certain characteristics of the human eye to maximize the utilization of a fixed
bandwidth. The human visual system is more sensitive to changes in
luminance than to changes in hue or saturation, and thus a wider bandwidth
should be dedicated to luminance than to color information. Y is similar to
perceived luminance, I and Q carry color information and some luminance
information. The Y signal usually has 4.2 MHz bandwidth in a 525 line system.
Telecommunication Systems 154
Originally, the I and Q had different bandwidths (1.5 and 0.6 MHz), but now
they commonly have the same bandwidth of 1 MHZ.
RGB-to-YIQ (NTSC)
Y = .299R + .587G + .114B
I = .596R - .274G - .322B
Q = .212R - .523G + .311B
YIQ-to-RGB
R = 1.00Y + .956I + .621Q
G = 1.00Y - .272I - .647Q
B = 1.00Y - 1.105I + 1.702Q
5.7.7.3 RGB to YUV & YUV to RGB (PAL)
Listed below are the equations for converting RGB colors into YUV and back
to RGB. These equations assume that the red, green, and blue components
have values between 0.0 and 1.0. Since this range is typical represented
using 8-bit values between 0 and 255, they need to be scaled and processed
as floating-point numbers:
RGB-to-YUV (PAL)
Y = .299R + .587G + .114B
U = -.147R - .289G + .436B
V = .615R - .515G - .100B
YUV-to-RGB
R = 1.00Y + .000U + 1.14V
G = 1.00Y - .396U - .581V
B = 1.00Y + 2.029U + .000V
5.7.8 Synchronisation
Whether colour or monochrome, there's a common requirement for them
both, that the television screen is synchronised with the transmitted video
signal, so that the picture is drawn in the right place. A video signal is a
serialised signal, the picture is scanned from left to right across the screen,
from the top down to the bottom. Sync signals indicate where the edges of
the frames are, both horizontally and vertically.
Telecommunication Systems 155
For RGB systems the sync signals may be carried on separate cables (one
for horizontal sync, the other for vertical sync), or the two may be combined
into composite sync and supplied with just one cable, or that composite sync
may be added to one or more of the video signals (adding it to the green signal
is quite common). For all the other systems, composite sync is added to the
luminance signal.
The encoded colour systems also have a colour synchronisation signal, the
colour burst. This is added to the chrominance signal. It's appears, briefly,
for a moment before the start of a horizontal line of video. It's not something
that's seen by the viewer, it's off the edge of the visible frame. In the receiver,
the colour decoding circuitry uses it to align its colour sub-carrier oscillators
with the encoder's.
The complete spectrum of the transmitted color signal is shown in figure 5.20.
Note the color portion of the signal. Because of the frequency of the
subcarrier, the sidebands produced during amplitude modulation occur in
clusters that are interleaved between the other sidebands produced by the
video modulation. Remember that the 3.58-MHZ subcarrier is suppressed by
the balanced modulators and therefore is not transmitted. Only the filtered
upper and lower sidebands of the color signals are transmitted. To
demodulate these double-sided (DSB) AM signals, the carrier must be
reinserted at the receiver. A 3.58-MHz oscillator in the receiver generates the
subcarrier for the balanced modulator-demodulator circuits.
Figure 5.20 Transmitted video and color signal spectrum
3.58-MHz suppressed subcarrier
6 MHz
Total signal bandwidth
4.5 MHz
80 kHz
Sound
carrier (FM)
0.5 MHz
1.5 MHz
Band width of / and Q signals
Picture
carrier (AM)
Total video bandwidth
1.25 MHz
Telecommunication Systems 156
5.7.9 Connections
When connecting a device to a video monitor, and they both have choices of
different connection types, you should pick the best one possible. Some
connection options are quite noticeably better than others. The least amount
of stages between source and display, the better the results (picture clarity,
colour response, etc.). For analogue video, the following list is in order of
best to worst choices:
RGB, Component, S-Video, Composite video and RF.
If you have digital video connections, and you're dealing with signals which
are digital, then you're best to use them, but passing analogue signals
through digital connections is not a good idea (it will involve conversion to
digital, and back to analogue, which will introduce losses). When you have
analogue and digital signals to monitor, use different inputs on your monitor
appropriate for each of them. For digital video, you have a list of choices like:
HDMI, DVI and VGA
Audio-wise, you want to pick the same route as the video connections. If you
are connecting the video digitally, you should do the audio the same way
(particularly as sometimes there can be a delay between the sound and
picture, and you want them to be in time with each other). With digital audio,
you have connection choices of optical or electrical digital audio.
5.8 Complete Television Encoder and Decoder.
Figure 5.21 shows a simplified block diagram of an NTSC color TV decoder.
with the functions of each component explained as follows;
Figure 5.21 Simplified block diagram of an NTSC color TV encoder
+
Audio
R(t) Y(t)
B(t)
I(t)
Q(t)
G(t)
R
G
B
to
Y
I
Q
LPF 1
0-4.2MHz
LPF 2
0-1.5MHz
LPF 3
0-0.5MHz
-/2
BPF
2-4.2MHz
VSB
FM modulator
4.5MHz
To transmit
antenna
Acos(2f t)
c
+
Telecommunication Systems 157
The RGB to YIQ converter converts the original signal from RGB to YIQ
coordinates. The three low pass filters (LPF1,LPF2, LPF3) band limit each
signal according to its expected bandwidth and the allocated frequency
band. The dashed box implements the QAM function, which multiplex the I
and Q components into a single signal at a color sub-carrier frequency of fc.
The BPF is a bandpass filter, which band limits the multiplexed I and Q signal
to the range of 2-4.2 MHz. This is necessary because at fc=3.58 MHz, the
multiplexed signal would have a bandwidth of 3.58-1.5=2.08 to
3.58+1.5=5.08MHz because the bandwidth of the I signal is 1.5 MHz.
Without the BPF, the multiplexed signal will interfere with the audio signal.
This BPF essentially leaves the Q signal as is, but cut off some of the upper
sideband of the I signal. The FM modulator shifts the audio signal to the audio
subcarrier frequency of 4.5 MHz. Then the modulated audio, the Y signal and
the multiplexed I and Q signal are added together. Finally they go through the
VSB modulator, which modulate the combined signal to a designated picture
carrier frequency and removes most of the lower side band.
5.9 The Receiver.
Figure 5.22 shows a simplified block diagram of an NTSC color TV decoder
with the functions of each component explained as follows;
Figure 5.22 Simplified block diagram of an NTSC color TV decoder.
Composite
video
BPF.
4.4-
4.6
MHz
BPF.
0.4-
4.2
MHz
LPF 1
0-4.2MHz
FM demodulator
LPF 2
0-1.5MHz
LPF 3
0-0.5MHz
-/2
Y
I
Q
to
R
G
B
VSB
Demodulator
From antenna
2Acos(2f t)
c
_
+
Q(t)
I(t)
Y(t) R(t)
Audio
To
Speaker
G(t)
To
monitor
B(t)
+
Telecommunication Systems 158
The VSB demodulator brings the received signal from its picture carrier
frequency to the baseband. The BPF at left extracts the audio signal, the BPF
at the right extracts the composite video signal. The extracted audio signal is
still at the audio sub-carrier frequency. The FM demodulator brings the audio
signal back to the baseband, which is then sent to the speaker. The LPF1
extracts the luminance signal (Y) from the composite video signal. The
difference between the composite video and the extracted Y signal is the
multiplexed I and Q signal. The dashed box implements QAM demodulator
and separates the I and Q signal and bring each back to its baseband. The
YIQ to RGB converter converts the YIQ components to RGB components,
which are then sent to the monitor.
5.10 Complete Television Transmitter and Receiver
The block diagram of a TV transmitter is shown in Figure 5.23. The sweep
and sync circuits create the scanning signals for the vidicons or CCDs as
well as generate the sync pulses that are transmitted along with the video and
color signals. The sync signals, luminance Y, and color signals are added to
form the final video signal that is used to modulate the carrier. Low-level AM is
used. The final AM signal is amplified by very high-power linear amplifiers
and sent to the antenna via a diplexer, which is a set of sharp bandpass filters
that pass the transmitter signal to the antenna but prevent signals from
getting back into the sound transmitter.
At the same time, the voice or sound signals frequency-modulate a carrier
that is amplified by class C amplifiers and fed to the same antenna by way of
the diplexer. The resulting VHF or UHF TV signal travels by line-of-sight
propagation to the antenna and receiver.
Telecommunication Systems 159
Figure 5.23 Complete TV transmitter.
5.11 TV Receiver
The block diagram of a monochrome and colour television receiver is shown
in figure 5ccc and 5ddd. A simplified block diagram of a black and white TV
receiver is shown in figure 5.24. The receiving antenna intercepts radiated
RF signals and the tuner selects desired channels frequency band and
converts it to the common IF band of frequencies. The receiver used two or
three stages of intermediate frequency (IF) amplifiers. The output from the
last IF stage is demodulated to recover the video signal. This signal that
carries picture information is amplified and coupled to the picture tube which
converts the electrical signal back into picture elements of the same degree
of black and white.
H
V
R
G
S
TV
camera
Lens
Image
3.58MHz
V H
H +
V + C
burst
High-power
linear amplifier
Antenna
Diplexer
High-power
class C amplifier
Sound carrier
oscillator
FM modulator
Audio
amplifiers Microphone
Picture carrier
oscillator
Final
video
Composite
video
Color processing
(from Fig.
19-10a)
Color
burst
generator
Horizontal and
vertical sync
pulse generators
Horizontal and
vertical sweep
circuits for scanning
Mixer
(adder)
Low-level
AM modulator
Telecommunication Systems 160
Figure 5.24 Block diagram a monochrome television Receiver
The block diagram of a colour receiver is similar to the black and white
receiver shown in figure 5.25. The colour picture tube has three guns
corresponding to the three pick-up tubes in the colour camera. The screen of
this tube has red, green and blue phosphors arranged in alternate stripes.
Each gun produces an electron beam to illuminate corresponding colour
phosphor separately on the fluorescent screen. The eye then integrates the
red, green and blue colour informations and their luminance to perceive
actual colour and brightness of the picture being televised. The sound signal
is decoded in the same way as in a monochrome receiver The main
difference between the monochrome and colour tubes is the need of a colour
or chroma subsystem which accepts only the colour signal and processes it
to recover (B-Y) and (R-Y) signals. These are combined with the Y signal to
obtain VR, VG and VB signals as developed by the camera at the transmitting
end. VG becomes available as it is contained in the Y signal. The three colour
signals are fed after sufficient amplification to the colour picture tube to
produce a colour picture on its screen.
Receiver
antenna
Sound IF
amplifier
FM sound
demodulator
Audio
amplifier
Loudspeaker
Picture tube
RF
tuner
Common
IF
amplifiers
Video
detector
Video
amplifier
Light
Scanning and
synchronizing
circuits
161 Telecommunication Systems
Figure 5.25 Block diagram of a colour television receiver
5.11.1 The Picture Tube
The basic elements of a CRT are the envelope, electron gun, and phosphor
screen (figure 5.26a). The envelope, typically made of glass, serves as a
vacuum enclosure, substrate for the phosphor screen, and for the electron
gun. The envelope is typically funnel-shaped, with the small end blocked by a
glass stem that supports the electron gun. The electron gun produces,
controls, focuses, and deflects the electron beam that causes the phosphor
screen to glow. The large end of the funnel is sealed by a glass panel or
faceplate on the inside of which the phosphor screen is deposited. The
phosphor screen emits light when excited by electron bombardment, and
thereby produces a viewable image. CRTs produced with one color
phosphor are monochromatic, that is, the image is black-and-white, black-
and-green, or any other color contrasted with black. Color CRTs use several
colors of phosphor, generally red, green, and blue, and produce full-color
images as additive combinations of these colors. To produce a color
television picture tube, the most commonly employed CRT is a thin screen of
perforated metal called an aperture mask is welded to a frame mounted
within the panel. This aperture mask must travel with the glass panel
throughout the production process. Using the aperture mask as a pattern,
multiple coatings and rinsings of the panel are performed, leaving a surface
with thousands of narrow lines of red, green, blue, and black (figure 2.6b).
The panel, with aperture mask in place, is then sealed to the envelope. The
assembly of
Antenna
IF sound
signal trap
Sound strip L.S.
To AGC circuit
Y signal
To sweep
circuit
Colour
picture tube
C signal
Y signal
VR
V
G
V
B
Red gun
Green gun
Blue gun
Detection
yoke
Colour
phosphor
screen
B
G
R
Tuner and
IF sections
Chroma
signal filter
Video
detector and
buffer amp.
Video
amplifier
Chroma
sub-su
Chroma
sub-system
Telecommunication Systems 162
(a) Basic elements of CRT
(b) CRT electron gun, aperture mask, and matrix line screen
Figure 5.26 The television Picture tube.
electron guns and deflection yoke is fitted to the rear of the envelope, the air is
evacuated from the envelope, and the envelope is sealed. The proper
alignment of guns, aperture mask, and panel is of critical importance in the
assembly of a tube and determines the not only the quality of the image but
whether or not the tube will function. Glass forms the outer shell of the CRT
and functions as much more than a simple container. The composition of the
glass in the tube is designed to minimize optical defects, provide electrical
insulation for The thickness of the glass must be increased as tube size is
increased, to high voltages, and provide protection against X-radiation
base
connections
three
electron
guns
electro-
magnetic
deflection
yoke
aperture
mask
fluorescent light-emitting
three-color screen
three
electron
beams
special
glass bulb
electron gun
aperture mask
matrix line screen
(inside faceplate)
Telecommunication Systems 163
emissions. withstand the atmospheric pressure exerted on the tube which
contains a vacuum.
5.11.2 Picture Yube Oparating Principles
The picture tube is the largest component of a television set, consisting of
four basic parts. The glass face panel is the screen on which images appear.
Suspended immediately behind the panel is a steel shadow mask,
perforated with thousands of square holes. (Connected to the mask is a
metal shield to neutralize disruptive effects of the Earth's magnetic field.) The
panel is fused to a glass funnel, which comprises the rear of the picture tube.
The very rear of the funnel converges into a neck, to which an electron gun
assembly is connected. The inside of the panel is painted with a series of very
narrow vertical stripes, consisting of red, green and blue phosphors. These
stripes are separated by a narrow black graphite stripe guardband. When
struck by an electron beam, the phosphors will illuminate, but the graphite
will not. This prevents color impurity by ensuring that the electron beam only
strikes the phosphor stripes it is intended to light. The electron beam is
generated by the electron gun assembly, which houses three electron guns
situated side-by-side. Each of the three guns emits an electron beam (also
called a cathode ray) into the tube, through the mask and onto the panel.
Because the three beams travel side-by-side, the holes in the mask ensure
that each beam, because of its different angle of attack, will hit only a specific
phosphor stripe - red, green or blue. The three phosphors, lighted in different
combinations of intensity, can create any visible color when viewed from
even a slight distance. The three electron beams are directed across the
screen by a series of electromagnets, called a yoke, which draw the beams
horizontally across the screen a line at a time. Depending on the screen size,
the beam draws about 500 lines across the entire screen. Each time, the
phosphors light up to produce an image. The electron guns and the yoke are
electronically synchronized to ensure the lines of phosphors are lighted
properly to produce an accurate image. The image lasts only for about a 30th
of a second. For that reason, the picture must be redrawn 30 times a second.
The succession of so many pictures produces the illusion of movement, just
like the frames on movie film. Color combinations produced by a picture tube
Telecommunication Systems 164
Red Green Blue
Red X
Yellow X X
Blue X
Green X
White X X X
Black
Magenta X X
Cyan X X
5.12 Television Receiver Controls
Majority of monochrome television receivers have the following controls on
their front panel
(i) channel selector: The channel selector switch is used for selecting
the desired channel
(ii) fine tuning: The fine tuning control is provided for obtaining best
picture details in the selected channel.
(iii) brightness: The brightness control varies beam intensity of the
picture tube and is set for optimum average brightness of the picture.
(iv) contrast: The contrast control is actually gain control of the video
amplifier. This can be varied to obtain desired contrast between white
and black contents of the reproduced picture.
(v) horizontal hold: The hold control is used to get a steady picture in
case it rolls up or down.
(vi) volume controls: The volume and tone controls form part of the audio
amplifier in sound section, and are used for setting volume and tonal
quality of the sound output from the loudspeaker.
Besides an ON-OFF switch. Some receivers also provide a tone
control.
In colour receivers there is an additional control called colour or saturation
control. It is used to vary intensity or amount of colours in the reproduced
picture. In modern colour receivers that employ integrated circuits in most
sections of the receiver, the hold control is not necessary and hence usually
not provided.
5.13 Other Screen Displays
Apart from the CRT for a display, new display methods have been perfected
and brought to market. These include liquid-crystal displays (LCDs), plasma,
Telecommunication Systems 165
projection, Digital Light Processing (DLP), and a few others. These new
displays are more expensive than CRTs, but they have brought two major
benefits to TV displays.
(i), The displays are flat or thin. CRTs require depth to function properly
and so take up a great deal of room on a table or desk. The typical
depth of a CRT is 18 to 24 in. LCD and plasma displays are very thin
and rarely more than 5 in thick.
(ii) Alternative displays can be made in much larger sizes. The maximum
CRT size made today is 36 in. Other displays can be made in sizes
from about 37- to 60-in diagonal measurement. Many of these displays
are capable of being wall-mounted. A brief summary of the most
common types are as follows;
Plasma. A plasma screen is made up of many tiny cells filled with a special
gas. When the gas is excited by an electric signal, the gas ionizes and
becomes a plasma that glows brightly in shades of red, blue, and green. The
cells are
organized to form triads or groups of the three colors that are then mixed and
blended by your eye to form the picture. Scanning signals turn on the cells
horizontally as in a CRT.
LCD. Liquid-crystal displays use special chemicals sandwiched between
pieces of glass. These chemicals are designed to be electrically activated so
that they block light or pass light. A bright white light is placed behind the
screen. Then the red, blue, and green sections of the screen are enabled to
pass the desired amount of light. The screen is also made in the form of
groups of three color dots or segments to produce any desired color. Electric
signals scan across the color dots horizontally, as in other TV sets, to
reproduce the picture. LCD screens are very common in computer video
monitors but are now practical for TV sets. As prices decline more TV sets will
use them.
Projection screens. A popular large screen option is an LCD projection TV.
A very bright light is passed through a smaller LCD screen and then through a
lens, creating a picture from 40 to 60 in diagonally. Another projection screen
uses Texas Instruments Digital Light Processing (DLP) chips. These chips
are made with microelectromechanical systems (MEMS). They consist of
Telecommunication Systems 166
thousands of tiny mirror segments each whose tilt angle is controllable.
These mirrors reflect light through color lenses to create a very large back-
projected image.
5.14 Summary of Television Operation
The pictures you see on your TV are drawn by a beam of electrons fired out of
a gun at the back of the set. When the beam hits chemicals (called
phosphors) that are painted on the inside of the picture tube, the phosphors
glow. But because they glow only for a fraction of a second, the beam has to
immediately draw another picture. In fact, the beam draws a picture 30 times
every second which is so fast that, together, the pictures look like they are
moving.
The TV receives electrical signals, either through the air from broadcast
stations, or over cable or from a VCR. Those signals are pulses of electrical
energy that arrive in waves. Those waves can have many different shapes,
and each shape can tell the TV something about what it's supposed to do. A
TV uses two kinds of waves, AM (for Amplitude Modulation) and FM (for
Frequency Modulation). As their names suggest, AM waves vary in strength
but not how frequently they repeat, while FM waves vary in frequency but not
their strength.
Each TV channel uses multiple AM signals and one FM signal. And there are
several channels broadcast at the same time. It's the job of the tuner in the TV
set to filter out all channels except the one you want to watch. For example, if
you want to watch channel 7, the tuner blocks out all the channels below 7, and
all the channels above 7. The only one it lets through is channel 7, with its AM
and FM signals. After the channel passes through the tuner, it travels through
a series of filters that separate the FM waves from the AM waves, and then
separates the multiple AM waves from each other. The FM signal, which is
the same kind used to carry FM radio signals, carries the sound information,
just like a radio. FM signals can carry multiple audio channels - in this case,
two, for stereo sound. AM waves, which are the same kind used to carry AM
radio signals, carry the picture information. The TV uses one AM wave to
carry the basic picture information which is needed to draw a black & white
picture. In effect, it tells the electron gun how brightly to illuminate the screen
at each point along a horizontal line. When it finishes drawing that line, it
draws another and another, until it fills the screen with 525 lines. And when it
Telecommunication Systems 167
finishes drawing a screen, it draws a second, and a third, and so on, at a rate
of 30 pictures every second.
The TV "draws" pictures by synchronizing the electron guns (which shoot the
beams that light the screen) with the yoke, a circle of magnets that deflect, or
"pull," the electron beam left and right, and up and down, across the screen.
Together, the guns and the yoke can draw pictures, by knowing what to draw
and where to draw it. Another AM signal carries the color information - it tells
the TV where to put the color. This signal actually consists of two signals on
the same wave, separated by time.
On a color TV, black is produced when no colors are lit. White is produced
when red, green and blue are lit together. If the TV lights only blue, the TV will,
of course, produce blue. But if it lights red and green, the TV will produce
yellow. If it lights blue and green, the TV produces cyan. In fact, using only
red, green and blue, the TV can produce any color.
Telecommunication Systems 168
CHAPTER SIX
TELEVISION ANTENNA SYSTEM
The antenna (aerial, EM radiator) is a device, which or receives
electromagnetic waves. The antenna is the transition between a guiding
device line, waveguide) and free space (or another usually unbounded
medium).Its main purpose is to convert the energy of a guided wave into the
energy of a free-space wave (or vice versa) as efficiently as possible, while in
the same time the radiated power has a certain desired pattern of distribution
in space.
An antenna, otherwise known as an arial, is a device created to send or
receive signals through air waves. The word antenna comes from the Latin,
meaning, "sail yard." There are many types of antennae and many ways to
categorize them. Man-made antennas are made for the basic purpose
communication: to send and receive signals, signs and other forms of
communication. They are mostly metal and have many different designs,
sizes, and shapes. The major categorical division between those devices that
transmit signals called "transmitting antennas" and those that receive signals
called "receiving antennas." It is possible to have antennas that function as
both, that is, for transmitting and receiving signals. However, transmitting
units can handle a great deal more energy than receiving antennas. Antenna
types can be used to differentiate between those used for radio, television,
radar systems and much more. Since antennae can be built for transmission
on different frequencies, another way to categorize them is by their frequency.
For a radio antenna, it is important to know whether they are built for
frequency modulation (FM) which broadcasts at 88-108 MHZ (megahertz) or
amplitude modulation (AM) which broadcasts at 535-1605 KHZ (kilohertz).
For television antennae, you can distinguish between UHF (ultra high
frequency) and VHF (very high frequency) antennas or perhaps even those
which pick up both.
6.0 Definition and circuit theory description.
6.1 General Review of Antenna Geometries and Arrangement.
From the general review point of view, a review of antennas based on their
geometries and arrangements will be considered in this section. This review
will consider the following the single-element radiators aperture antennas,
Telecommunication Systems 169
printed antennas, printed slot radiators, leaky waves antennas, reflector
antennas and lense antennas.
6.1.1 Single Element Radiators
Figure 6.1. A Wire radiators (single-element)
Figure 6.2. Aperture antennas (single element)
There is a variety of shapes corresponding to each group. For example,
loops can be circular, square, rhombic, etc. Wire antennas are simple to
make but their dimensions are commensurable with the wavelength. This
limits the frequency range of their applicability. At low frequencies, these
antennas become increasingly large.
Aperture antennas
Aperture antennas are those whose beam width is determined by the
dimensions of a horn, lens or reflector. They are excited by a propagating
wave produced by another transducer which itself is an antenna and
provides transmission line connection for the aperture antenna. See fig. 6.2.
(a) Pyramidal horn (b) Conical horn
wire antenna elements
straight-wire elements
(dipoles/monopoles)
loops helices
Telecommunication Systems 170
Printed Antennas
The patch antennas consist of a metallic patch etched on a dielectric
substrate, which has a grounded metallic plane at the opposite side. They
contain some sort of opening through which electromagnetic waves are
transmitted or received. They are commonly used in aircraft or spacecraft
applications. The feed of a parabolic dish or other type of reflector antenna is
often an aperture antenna such as an open-ended wave guide or horn.
These types of antennas are preferable in the frequency range of 1-2 GHz.
Figure 6.2 shows single element aperture antennas.
(a) circular patch (b) rectangular Patch
( c) Printed Dipole
Figure 6.3 Printed Patch Radiators
There is great variety of geometries and ways of excitation. Figure 6.3 shows
three geometries of patch antennas. There are virtually unlimited number of
patch patterns, for which the basic configurations used in practice is given in
figure 6.4.

Ground plane
t1 Subscribe
t Patch
A
t
A
L
Ground plane
t1 Subscribe
SQUARE DICK DICK WITH SLOT
RECTANGULAR
ELLIPSE
DISK SECTOR
Telecommunication Systems 171
Figure 6.4. Forms of Patches
They
are suited for integration with slot-line circuits, which are usually designed to
operate at frequencies > 10 GHz. Both patch and slot antennas share some
common features. They are easy and cheap to fabricate. They are easy to
mount; they are light and mechanically robust. They have low cross-
polarization radiation. Their directivity is not very high. They have relatively
high conducting and dielectric losses. These radiators are widely used in
patch/slot arrays, which are especially convenient for use in spacecraft,
satellites, missiles, cars and other mobile applications.
6.1.4 Leaky-Wave Antennas
This is a waveguide structure that possesses a mechanism that permits it to
leak power all along its length shown in figure 6.5 in a leak wave antenna with
continuous slit along its length. Since the leakage occurs over the length o f
the slit in the waveguide structure, the whole length constitutes the antennas
aperture. they are classified into uniform leaky wave antenna (ULWA) and
periodic leaky wave antenna (PLWA). These are antennas derived from
millimeter-wave (mm-wave) guides, such as dielectric guides, microstrip
lines, coplanar and slot lines. They are developed for applications at
6.1.3 Printed Slot Antennas (Radiators)
A slot antenna is a transmitting aerial which the radiating elements are open
slots surrounding a metal sheet. Printed slot antennas comprises a slot on
the ground plane of a grounded substrate. The slot can have virtually any
shape and can be fed either by a microstrip line or coplanar waveguide.
PENTAGON
RING
RIGHT-ANGLED
ISOSCELES TRIANGLE
EQUILATERAL
TRIANGLE
SEMI DISK ELLIPTICAL RING
Telecommunication Systems 172
Figure 6.5. Leaky Wave Antennas
Reflector Antennas
This are antennas which the principle of mirror reflection from curvilinear
metal surfaces is used to focus high frequently electromagnetic energy.
These reflectors is larger than the wavelength. structurally, reflector
antennas are metallic or metal-plated surfaces of various shapes. Figure 6.6
shows typical reflectors. The two most important characteristics of directional
antennas are directivity and power gain. A reflector is used to concentrate the
EM energy in a focal point where the receiver/feed is located. Optical
astronomers have long known that a parabolic cylinder mirror transforms
rays from a line source on its focal line into a bundle of parallel rays.
Reflectors are usually parabolic (paraboloidal). Reflector antennas have
very high gain and directivity. Typical applications: radio telescopes,
Frequencies > 30 GHz, infrared frequencies included. Periodical
discontinuities are introduced at the end of the guide that lead to substantial
radiation leakage (radiation from the dielectric surface).
Intal strips
Reflector
Feed
Reflector
Sub-reflector
Feed
(b) Parabodic reflector with Cruepain feed (a) Parabodic reflector with fecal feed
Telecommunication Systems 173
Figure 6.6. Typical Reflectors
Lens Antennas
This is a microwave antenna with a dielectric lense placed in front of a dipole
or horn radiator to concentrate the radiated energy into a narrow beam or
focus the received energy on the dipole or horn. The shape of the lense
depends on the refractive index n, the ratio of the phase velocity of
propagation of a radio wave in a vacuum to that in the lense. If n > 1 we define
a decelerating lense antenna, but if n < 1 we define an accelerating lense
antenna, See figure 6.7. Lenses play a similar role to that of reflectors in
reflector antennas. They collimate divergent energy into more or less plane
EM wave. Lenses are often preferred to reflectors at higher frequencies (f >
100 GHz). They are classified according to their shape and the material they
are made of.
(a) Lense antenna with index of refraction n > 1
Reflector
Feed
(c) Corner reflector
Convex-plane Convex-convex Convex-concave
Telecommunication Systems 174
6.2 Antenna Arrays
Antenna arrays consist of multiple (usually identical) radiating elements.
Arranging the radiating elements in arrays allows achieving unique radiation
characteristics, which cannot be obtained through a single element. There
are two types of antenna arrays:
Driven arrays all elements in the antenna are fed RF from the transmitter
Parasitic arrays only one element is connected to the transmitter. The other
elements are coupled to the driven element through the electric fields and
magnetic fields that exist in the near field region of the driven element.
There are many types of driven arrays. The four most common types are:
(i) Collinear array
(ii) Broadside array
(iii) Log Periodic Array
(iv) Yagi-Uda Array
(b) Lense antenna with index of refraction n < 1
Figure 6.7. Lense Antennas
6.2.1 Collinear Array
The collinear array consists of /2 dipoles oriented end-to-end. The center
dipole is fed by the transmitter and sections of shorted transmission line
known as phasing lines connect the ends of the dipoles as shown figure 6.8a.
Convex-convex Convex-concave Convex-plane
Telecommunication Systems 175
(b) Feed and Phasing lines (b) Phasing lines adjustment.
Figure 6.8 Collinear Array
The length of the phasing lines are adjusted so that the currents in all the
dipole sections are in phase, as shown figure 6.b. The input impedance of a
collinear array is approximately 300 ohms. The directivity of a collinear array
slowly increases as the number of collinear sections is increased.
6.2.2 Broadside Array
A broadside array consists of an array of dipoles mounted one above another
as shown below. Each dipole has its own feed line and the lengths of all feed
lines are equal so that the currents in all the dipoles are in phase.
(a) Vertical (b) Horizontal ( c) Two Dimensional
Figure 6.9. The Broadside Array
Rows of broadside arrays can be combined to form a two dimensional array
as shown figure 6.9c. The two-dimensional array is used in high performance
radar systems. The amplitude and phase of each input current is adjusted so
that the antenna radiates its RF in a narrow beam. By making changes to the
input phase and amplitude, the beam can be made to scan over a wide range
ANTENNA
RF CURRENT
MAGNITUDE z
X
Y
Phasing Lines Phasing Lines
Feed Line
Phasing Lines
Telecommunication Systems 176
of angles. Electronic scanning is much faster than mechanical scanning
(which uses a rotating antenna) and permits rapid tracking of large numbers
of targets. A special type of phased array consisting of 2 or more vertical
antennas is widely used in AM broadcasting. Consider an AM transmitter
located in a coastal city . It would make no sense to radiate a signal in all
directions; there is only water to the east of city. Two or more antennas could
be used to produce a directional pattern that would radiate most of the signal
to the west.
6.2.3 Log Periodic Dipole Array
The log periodic dipole array (LPDA) shown in figure 6.10 is one antenna that
almost everyone over 40 years old has seen. They were used for years as TV
antennas. The chief advantage of an LPDA is that it is frequency-
independent. Its input impedance and gain remain more or less constant
over its operating bandwidth, which can be very large. Practical designs can
have a bandwidth of an octave or more. Although an LPDA contains a large
number of dipole elements, only 2 or 3 are active at any given frequency in
the operating range. The electromagnetic fields produced by these active
elements add up to produce a unidirectional radiation pattern, in which
maximum radiation is off the small end of the array. The radiation in the
opposite direction is typically 15 - 20 dB below the maximum. The ratio of
maximum forward to minimum rearward radiation is called the Front-to-Back
(FB) ratio and is normally measured in dB.
Figure 6.10 Log-Periodic Dipole Array
DIRECTION OF
MAXIMUM
RADIATION
Telecommunication Systems 177
The log periodic antenna is characterized by three interrelated
parameters.as well as the minimum and maximum operating frequencies,
f and f . The diagram figure 6.11 shows the relationship between these
MIN MAX
parameters. Unlike many antenna arrays, the design equations for the LPDA
are relatively simple to work with.
Figure 6.11. Relationship Between Log Periodic Array Parameters
6.3 Television Transmission Antennas
Horizontal polarization is standard for television broadcasting, as signal to
noise ratio is favorable for horizontally polarized waves when antennas are
placed quite high above the surface of the earth. The height of the antenna is
determined as follows;
Since the height of the antenna is a function of the wavelength . The
minimum height of the antenna is given by /4.
i.e the height of the antenna is /4 = c / 4f
where = c / f
8
c = speed of light = 3 x 10
f = transmitting frequency.
Hence from the expression above, as the transmitting frequency is increased
the height of the antenna is decreased.
a
L
n+1
L
n
n+1
D
D
n
L
N
f
MIN
L
1
f
MAX 4tan(a)
D
n
D
n+1
= =
= = =
500 360

Q
1-
L
n+1
L
n
Telecommunication Systems 178
6.3.1 Turnstile Antenna
Essentially, the turnstile antenna consists of two dipoles at 90 degree angles
to each other. One dipole is connected to the main feed line, in this case a 50-
Ohm line. Its gain is almost less 3dB than that of a single dipole in its direction
of maximum radiation, because each element of the turnstile receives only
one-half the transmitter power. It also has very good reception pattern.
Figure below shows the basic layout of the turnstile antenna.
Figure 6.12. Turnstile antenna Layout
Another important characteristics of turnstile antenna is SWR value. Since
the turnstile impedance is about 36 Ohms, a 50-Ohm feed line will show an
SWR of between 1.3:1 and 1.4:1. Do not try to tune the antenna for a 1:1
SWR, since that will require shortening the elements below individual dipole
resonance. The resultant pattern will no longer be omni-directional. Figure
6.13a shows the geometry of turnstile antenna and figure 6.13b shows the
omni-directional radiation pattern of turnstile antennas.
Another important characteristics of turnstile antenna is SWR value. Since
the turnstile impedance is about 36 Ohms, a 50-Ohm feed line will show an
SWR of between 1.3:1 and 1.4:1. Do not try to tune the antenna for a 1:1
SWR, since that will require shortening the elements below individual dipole
resonance. The resultant pattern will no longer be omni-directional. Figure
3.2 shows the geometry of turnstile antenna and figure 3.3 shows the omni-
directional radiation pattern of turnstile antennas.
Main
Feedline
Dipole 2
Dipole 1
Dipole 1
90 Deg.
Dipole 2
90- Degree
Phasing Line
Basic
Turnstile
Outline
Telecommunication Systems 179
(a) Geometry
(b) Radiation Pattern
Figure 6.13. Turnstile Antenna Geometry and radiation Pattern
Turnstile antennas are most used for FM broadcast reception by take the
advantage of their reasonable performance in all directions without the need
for a rotor. It also survive at harshest weather. The turnstile antenna also can
be a useful antenna for net control stations. However, the turnstile antenna
has limitations.
One-Half
Wavelength
0
Feed 90
Out of phase
One-Half
Wavelength
- 20 - 10 -
90
60
30
0
330
300
270
240
210
180
150
120
Max Null: 1 dB
40 30 -
10-Meter Turnstile Azimuth Pattern
Height: 35; Elevation Angle : 14 Degrees
Max Gain: 5.0 dBi Max Null: 1 dB
Fig. 2
Telecommunication Systems 180
6.3.2 Vertically stacked turnstile array
A system includes an antenna array consisting of a plurality of antenna
elements, a plurality of receivers to process the signals from the antenna
elements of the antenna array, and a combiner to combine receiver outputs
so as to minimize the effect of undesirable signals such as multipath or
interference while maintaining a nominal gain in the direction of the desired
signal. The combiner takes into account variation or uncertainty in the
assumed antenna array response, such as imprecise knowledge of the
angle of arrival and uncertainty in the array manifold and multiplicative
uncertainties due to gain variations between receivers, as well as non-
uniformity in the response due to coupling between elements and coupling
with the antenna structure. This system is applicable to antenna arrays with
non-uniform responses, such as closely spaced arrays in which the coupling
between elements is significant.
Another antenna system that is often used for band I and band III transmitters
consists of dipole panels mounted on the four sides at the top of the antenna
tower as shown in figure 6.14. Each panel consists of an array of full-wave
dipoles mounted in front of reflectors. For obtaining unidirectional pattern the
four panels mounted on the four sides of the tower are so fed that the current
o
in each lags behind the previous by 90 . This is achieved by varying the field
cable length by /4 to the two alternate panels and by reversal of polarity of
the current.
6.3.3 Dipole Panel Antenna System
6.3.4 Combining Network
The AM picture signal and FM sound signal from the corresponding
transmitters are fed to the same antenna through a balancing unit called
diplexer. As illustrated in figure 6.15, the antenna combining system is a
bridge configuration in which first two arms are formed by the two radiators of
the turnstile antenna and the other two arms consist of two capacitive
reactances. Under balanced conditions, video and sound signals though
radiated by the same antenna, do not interfere with the functioning of the
transmitter other than their own.
Telecommunication Systems 181
Figure.6.14. Dipole panel antenna system (a) panel of dipoles
(b) radiation pattern of four tower mounted dipole antenna panels.
Figure 6.15. Equivalent bridge circuit of a diplexer for feeding picture and
sound transmitters to a common turnstile array.
6.4 Television Receiver Antennas
For both VHF and UHF television channels, one-half-wave length is a
practical size and therefore an ungrounded resonant dipole is the basic
1 2
1 2
1 2
(a) (b)
Dipole 1
2
3
4
Tower
Balun
Picture
transmitter
Reactance
Sound
transmitter
Reactance
Antenna load north-
south turnstile
elements
Antenna load east-
west turnstile
elements
Telecommunication Systems 182
antenna often employed for reception of television signals. The dipole
intercepts radiated electromagnetic waves to provide induced signal current
in the antenna conductors. In fact a single antenna can be designed to
receive signals from several channels that be close to each other. While a
half-wave dipole will deliver satisfactory signal for receivers located close to
the transmitter, elaborate arrays become necessary for locations far away
from the transmitter.
6.4.1 Yagi-Uda Antenna
A Yagi-Uda antenna is familiar as the commonest kind of terrestrial TV
antenna to be found on the rooftops of houses. It is usually used at
frequencies between about 30MHz and 3GHz, or a wavelength range of 10
metres to 10 cm. The rod lengths in a Yagi-Uda are about a half wavelength
each, and the spacings of the elements are about 1/3 of a wavelength. This
puts the overall sizes of Yagi-Udas in the ranges
frequency transverse length length length
dimension (/2) 3 elements 5 elements 15 elements
30MHz 5 metres 6 metres 13 metres 47 metres
100MHz 1.5 metres 1.8 metres 3.9 metres 14 metres
300MHz 50 cm 60 cm 1.3 metres 4.7 metres
1GHz 15 cm 18 cm 39 cm 1.4 metres
3GHz 5 cm 6 cm 13 cm 47 cm
From table 6.1 one can get a very good idea of the approximate frequency of
the link by looking at the antenna from afar. A diagram of a 7 element Yagi-
Uda layout is given in figure 6.16.
Figure 6.16. Element Yagi-Uda Layout
reflector
directors
forwards direction
driven
folded
dipole
Telecommunication Systems 183
There are three kinds of elements (or rods) mounted on a longitudinal
connecting bar or rod. It doesn't matter if this connecting rod conducts, as it is
orientated at right angles to the currents in the elements, and to the radiating
electric fields; it supports little or no current, and does not contribute to the
radiation. It does not matter what it is made of other than that it should have
good structural properties. If it is made of conducting metal as are the
elements, it can be connected electrically to the directors and to the reflector
(but not to the driven element) without disturbing any of the properties of the
antenna.The three types of element are termed the driving element, the
reflector(s) and the director(s). Only the driving element is connected directly
to the feeder; the other elements couple to the transmitter power through the
local electromagnetic fields which induce currents in them. The driving
element is often a folded dipole, which by itself would have a driving point
impedance of about 300 ohms to the feeder; but this is reduced by the
shunting effect of the other elements, so a typical Yagi-Uda has driving point
impedance in the range 20-90 ohms. The maximum gain of a Yagi-Uda is
limited to an amount given approximately by the gain of a dipole (1.66
numerical) times the total number of elements. Thus, a single element has
maximum gain 1.66 = 2.2dBi, a driving element with a single reflector has
maximum gain 3.3 (numerical) or 5.2dBi, a three element antenna consisting
of a single director, driving element, and reflector has maximum gain about 5
(numerical) or 7dBi and a 15 element Yagi-Uda with 13 directors has
maximum gain about 25 (numerical) or 14dBi. There may be compromises in
the design to achieve the required front/back ratio, driving point impedance,
and bandwidth, so the gains may be somewhat less than these numbers in a
practical antenna.
6.4.2 Yagi Antenna Design
The following expressions can be used as a starting point while designing
any Yagi antenna array.
Length of dipole (in metres) 143/f (MHz) ( f is the centre frequency of the
channel)
Length of reflector (in metres) 152/f (MHz)
Length of first director (in metres) 137/f (MHz)
Length of subsequent directors reduces progressively by 2.5 per cent.
Spacing between reflector and dipole = 0.25 75/f (MHz)
Spacing between director and dipole = 0.13 40/f (MHz)
Telecommunication Systems 184
Spacing between director and director = 0.13 39/f (MHz)
The above lengths and spacings are based on elements of 1 to 1.2 cm in
diameter. It may be noted that length of the folded dipole is measured from .
centre of the fold at one end to the centre of the fold at the other end. It must
be remembered that the performance of Yagi arrays can only be assessed if
all the characteristics like impedance, gain, directivity and bandwidth are
taken into account together. Since there are so many related variables, the
dimensions of commercial antennas may differ from those computed with the
expressions given above. However, for single channel antennas the
variation is not likely to be much.
In fringe areas where the signal level is very low, high-gain antenna arrays
are needed. The gain of the antenna increases with the number of elements
employed. A Yagi antenna with a large number of directors is commonly used
with success in fringe areas for stations in the VHF band. As already
mentioned, a parasitic element resonant at a lower frequency than the driven
element will act as a mild reflector, and a shorter parasitic element will act as
a mild concentrator of radiation. As a parasitic element is brought closer to
the driven element, then regardless of its precise length, it will load the driven
element more and therefore reduce its input impedance. This is perhaps the
main reason for invariable use of a folded dipole as the driven element of
such an array.

6.4.3 Indoor Antennas


An aerial device especially designed in order to reach the reception over the
air transmission TV signals, which are broadcasted at frequency range of
about 41 to 250 MHz in the VHF band, and 470 to 960 MHz in the UHF band
in diverse nations is called as a television antenna. In order to cover up this
complete range, characteristically antennas have multiple conductors of
varying lengths which match up to the wavelength range the antenna is
expected to take delivery of.
Indoor TV antennas may possibly be positioned at locations where signals
are sufficiently strong enough to get through antenna limitations. They are
basically plugged in to the small screen receiver and positioned by rights,
habitually on the top of the receiver ("set-top"). At times the display is required
Telecommunication Systems 185
to be tested with to catch up with the finest image quality. In addition an indoor
TV antenna can put on from RF amplification, in general called a TV booster.
They are to the largest part suitable for yellow zone while an amplified one
possibly will work well in green or light green zones as well. Indoor antennas
are by no means a good quality option for places with weak signal.
A necessity to reallocate an antenna just about while changing channels and
spotty or mottled reception and is an exceptionally universal slow down of
indoor TV antennas, for the most part of directional indoor antennas. Indoor
antennas for TV more or less never have a line of vision to the towers and at
all times receive a reverberation, an echoed signal which bounces off the
surroundings and off the residential walls. The path and strength of the
reverberated signal to a great extent depends on weather, time of a day and
frequency. RF emission is absorbed in different ways by different building
materials thus making indoor TV antennas presentation be dependent on the
manufacturing stuff or the direction in which ones windows are being gazing
at. In contrast to outdoor antennas, indoor antennas do not give many
benefits. They are by and large better for individuals who only have need of
minimal signal gain and can just about get the channels they need. Even so,
indoor antennas are being employed for various reasons, with ease of
installation being the most ubiquitous one. They are more than ever all the
rage with individuals residing in apartments or rented homes, as they are not
capable of installing anything on a permanent basis. In strong signal areas it
is sometimes feasible to use indoor antennas provided the receiver is
sufficiently sensitive. These antennas come in a variety of shapes. Most
types have selector switches which are used for modifying the response
pattern by changing the resonant frequency of the antenna so as to minimize
interference and ghost signals. Generally the switch is rotated with the
receiver on, until the most satisfactory picture is obtained on the screen.
Almost all types of indoor antennas have telescopic dipole rods both for
adjusting the length and also for folding down when not in use.
6.4.4 Conical Dipole Antenna
This antenna consists of two half-wave dipoles inclined at about 30 from the
horizontal plane, similar to a section of a cone. In some designs a horizontal
dipole is provided in between the two half-wave dipoles.
186 Telecommunication Systems
Figure 6.17. VHF fan (conical) dipole with reflector
The dipoles are tilted by about 30 inward towards the wave front of the
arriving signal. This as shown in figure 6.17 results in a total included angle of
120 between the two conical sections in the broadside direction. A straight
reflector is provided behind the conical dipoles. This arrangement is an
improvement over the conventional dipole where an element cut for the low
frequencies will have a multi-lobed pattern on the higher channels, and an
element cut for the high frequencies will have a poor response on the lower
channels. Though, one conical antenna array may be adequate for all VHF
channels, sometimes three or four such arrays are stacked high for better
and more uniform reception. Another combination antenna which is known
as in-line antenna is shown in figure. 6.18. It consists of a half-wave folded
dipole with reflector for the lower VHF band, that is in line with the shorter half-
wave folded dipole meant for the upper VHF band. The distance between the
two folded dipoles is approximately one-quarter wavelength at the high-band
dipole frequency.
Figure 6.18. In-line YAGI antenna array for lower and upper VHF bands
Lead wire
Dipoles
Mast
(a)
Reflector
Low band folded
dipole
High-band
folded dipole
Directors
Reflector
Telecommunication Systems 187
6.5 UHF Antennas
Due to the higher attenuation suffered by the UHF signals, it becomes
necessary to have very high gain and directive antennas. Besides this,
higher gain is also necessary because receivers are less sensitive and tend
to be more noisy at these frequencies than at lower frequencies. At
microwave frequencies, some special type of antennas are used, in which
the basic optical properties are utilized to concentrate the radiated waves for
higher directivity and more gain. The two types that find wide application for
television reception are the Bow-Tie or Di-Fan Antenna and Parabolic
Reflector Antenna.
Figure 6.19. Fan Dipole UHF Antenna.
6.6 Bow Tie
Bow tie antennas are, not surprisingly, shaped like the outline of a bow tie.
Used primarily for UHF TV reception, these antennae feature two
conductors---just like a loop antenna. As shown in figure 6.19, the dipoles are
triangular in shape made out of metal sheet, instead of rods. This unit has a
broad band response with radiation pattern resembling the figure of eight.
When a screen reflector is placed at its back the response becomes
unidirectional. For greater gain two or four sets of dipoles can be put together
to form an array.
Mesh-screen
reflector
Specially
designed dipoles
Telecommunication Systems 188
However, the antenna does not connect the conductors. More closely related
to the dipole "rabbit-ears" antennae, used for VHF TV reception, bow tie
antennae consist of two "bows," each of which extends from a single
conductor, loops back and reconnects to that same conductor.
6.7 Parabolic Reflector Antenna
A reflector is used to concentrate the EM energy in a focal point where the
receiver/feed is located. Optical astronomers have long known that a
parabolic cylinder mirror transforms rays from a line source on its focal line
into a bundle of parallel rays. Reflectors are usually parabolic (paraboloidal).
Actually, the first use of a parabolic (cylinder) reflector was used for radio
waves by Heinrich Hertz in 1888. Rarely, corner reflectors are used.
Reflector antennas have very high gain and directivity.
The parabolic reflector antenna shown in figure 6.20 has its dipole placed at
the focal point of a parabolic reflector. The incoming electromagnetic waves
are concentrated by the reflector towards the dipole. This provides both high
gain and directivity. Note that instead of using an entire parabolic structure
only a
Figure 6.20
in operation, combination antennas serve to simplify reception problems
from all the channels. Various combinations of different VHF and UHF
antennas are in use.
section is used. The use of such a reflector provides a gain of 8 db over
that of a resonant half-wave dipole. In areas where both VHF and UHF
stations are
Parabolic reflector antenna.
Reflector
Dipole
Lead-in wire
Telecommunication Systems 189
6.8 Log-Periodic Dipole Arrays (LPDA)
The LPDA has several dipoles arranged in echelon and criss-cross fed from
the front. The name comes from the geometric growth, which is logarithmic.

Figure 6.21. Log periodic Antenna Types
This is a very wideband antenna with a gain of up to about 7 dBi. For any
frequency, only about three of the elements are carrying much current. The
other elements are inactive. As frequency increases, the active elements
move toward the front of the array. Most VHF TV antennas are LPDAs. TV
LPDAs come in two types: straight and Vee shown in figure 6.21. The Vee
type (LPVA) has a very slightly higher gain for channels for some channels.
The basic construction of a log periodic antenna consisting of a six element
array is illustrated in figure 6.22.
Figure 6.22. Six Element Log Periodic Antenna
TV station
LPDA
straight type
overhead view
overhead view
Vee type
LPDA
Staggered feeder
system
Transmission
line
Telecommunication Systems 190
From figure 6.22, the largest dipole is at the back and each adjacent element
is shorter by a fixed ratio typically 0.9. Also the distance between the dipoles
becomes shorter and shorter by a constant factor which is typically 35 per
cent of quarter wave spacing. As a result, the resonant frequencies for the
dipoles overlap to cover the desired frequency range. All the dipoles are
active elements without parasitic reflectors or directors. The active dipoles,
as shown in the figure, are interconnected by a crossed wire net which
transposes the signal by 180. When this antenna is pointed in the direction
of the desired station, only one or two of the dipole elements in the antenna
react to that frequency and develop the necessary signal. All the other
elements remain inactive, i.e., do not develop any signal at that particular
frequency. However, for any other incoming channel some other elements
will resonate to develop the signal. When the largest dipole is cut for channel
2, the array will cover all the low-band VHF channels as antenna resonance
moves towards the shorter elements at the front. However, for the high-band
VHF channels i.e 174 to 223 MH,z the elements operate as 3 /2 dipoles.
They are angled in as a V to line up with the split lobes in the directional
response for third harmonic resonance. Figure 6.23 illustrates a log periodic
antenna for colour Tv reception.
Figure 6.23 A colour log periodic antenna. The elements are veed
to eliminate dual phase problems.
Veed elements
Mast
191 Telecommunication Systems
When the largest dipole is cut for the lowest channel in the UHF band of 470
to 890MHz, the array can cover all the UHF channels. The UHF antenna
array can be mounted along with the VHF array where a diplexer network (a
U/V splitter) connects the two antennas to a common transmission line .
6.9 Antenna Installation
The following information about antennas is a guide to their installation.
Choosing the right antenna:
Outdoor antennas are preferred to the indoor variety whose performance can
be affected by wall insulation, plumbing, electrical wiring, roofing materials
and even people moving around a room.
Choice of an outdoor antenna depends on the channels in your area:
Very High Frequency (VHF)
Band I antennas for channels 0 to 2
Band II antennas for channels 3 to 5
Band III antennas for channel 5A to 11
Multi-channel VHF antennas for channels 0 to 11
Ultra High Frequency (UHF)
Band IV antennas for channels 28 to 35
Band V antennas for channels 39 to 69
Band IV/V antennas for channels 28 to 69
The UHF antenna size depends on how close you are to the transmitter. In
most areas, where you can see the transmitting station, a yagi antenna with 8
to 10 elements or cross-pieces should be used. At distances greater than
20km from the transmitter, or in difficult terrain, a 10 to 18 element antenna
will be needed. This type of antenna, because of its length, may have to be
mounted on a stronger mast. In most locations, particularly where channels
from both band 4 and band 5 are used, a phased array antenna is usually
suitable.
Mounts or Masts:
Numerous forms of mounting brackets are available for antennas. These can
range from chimney brackets to fascia board mounts to free-standing masts
for brackets to be bolted to the wall of your house. Separate antennas for VHF
and UHF signals are recommended. These can be mounted on the same
post or mast, but always ensure that the UHF antenna is positioned about 1
Telecommunication Systems 192
meter above the VHF antenna. Mount the antenna on the mast in such a way
that the antenna and the transmitter are in clear line of sight. It is usually best
to mount an antenna on the side of the house closest to the transmitter.
6.9.1 Installation tips:
When installing your antenna:
Disconnect the power supply to your television set before starting any
installation work.
Ground your antenna mast electrically, using heavy gauge earthing
wire"6mm" and a grounded rod. This will protect anyone who touches
the antenna. It also offers your property some protection against
lightening.
Mount the antenna clear of power lines.
The minimum height is the width of the antenna (above the roof line).
Check local government regulations for mast heights if you are
installing an antenna above your roof line.
Position your antenna:
Generally you should point the antenna towards the transmitting station. And
it is important that you have the antenna pointed at the correct signal source.
For example, in some areas there is a main transmitter and a number of
translators. Shrubs and trees, building and hills in the direct path of your
antenna may weaken the incoming signal and cause reception problems. If
you cannot see the transmitting station, experiment by pointing the antenna
in different directions-you may receive a stronger signal reflected off one of
the obstacles mentioned above. The antenna cross-pieces will need to be
either vertical or horizontal, depending on the polarization of the
transmission source.
Co-axial cable:
Use low loss coaxial feeder cable to connect the antenna to the TV set. This
type of cable is suitable for both VHF and UHF signals. Use the shortest
possible length of cable as this will mean reduced signal loss. Prevent wind
damage by attaching the cable firmly to the outside wall. From the cable into a
half-loop where it enters the house so that rainwater will drip off. Seal the
entry point.
Telecommunication Systems 193
Connections:
It is very important that proper coaxial connections are used at each end of
the coaxial cable.
When connecting coaxial cable:
Cut back the outer cover
Cut back the center insulation
Connect the center conductor cable to the antenna
Ensure that the shielding braid is firmly contacting the saddle
clamp, being careful not to crush the cable by over tightening
the saddle clamp.
Coaxial plugs and joints should be soldered or securely fastened
with screw connections.
Antenna connection:
Most antenna have a connector box where the coaxial cable is connected to
the antenna. If yours does not have such a box, then a balun is required. This
piece of equipment has a coaxial connection at one end and a ribbon at the
other. If your antenna needs a balun, connect the ribbon end to the antenna
terminals, and the coaxial cable down lead to the coaxial connection. Position
the antenna balun so that it wont collect rainwater. A balun will also be
needed at the TV end of the cable if the TV has only ribbon-type connections.
Connect the ribbon to the terminals on your set, and plug the coaxial into the
balun.
Diplexer:
A diplexer combines signals from VHF and UHF antennas into one output
cable which can then be connected to your TV set. Diplexers can be mounted
either near the antennas or near the TV. You only need a diplexer when a TV
set has just the one input socket for both VHF and UHF cables. Separate
input sockets mean that a diplexer is unnecessary.
Splitter:
More than one TV set can be connected to your outdoor antenna. A splitter
takes an input signal from one cable and divides it between two or more
outputs.
Amplifier If you use a splitter you will find that signal strength is reduced and
that you may need a masthead or distribution amplifier. This equipment
boosts the signal before it is fed into the splitter and ensures that signals of
Telecommunication Systems 194
adequate strength are supplied to each connected set. Combined
Splitter/Amplifiers are also available.
FM rejection filters:
FM broadcast signals can sometimes interfere with television signals and
cause annoying patterns in the picture. The problem occurs where high level
FM signals are present at the input of a television receiver. This can often be
solved by fitting an FM rejection filter to the receivers antenna input at the
back of the television set. This filter is sometimes described as an FM trap.
The filter enables receivers to reject FM sound signals, thus preventing them
from interfering with most television signals.
Down converter:
Older VHF-only TV sets will need a down converter to alter the UHF signal so
that it can be used by the VHF set. Most video cassette recorders can used as
a down converter. Check the manufacturers specifications of your VCR.
Master Antenna Systems "MATV:
Many hotels, apartment buildings, hospitals and office blocks provide wall-
mounted antenna sockets which are connected by cable to a master
antenna. Ensure that the cable used for such connections is high quality
coaxial cable. If it is necessary to install an FM filter to such a system, it should
be fitted between the receiving antenna and the first amplifier in the
distribution system.
Telecommunication Systems 195
CHAPTER SEVEN
TELEPHONE SYSTEMS
7.0 Introduction
A wire carrying an electric current has a magnetic field around it, i.e., there are
lines of force in concentric circles round the wire shown in figure 7.1. This
magnetic field will deflect a compass needle and the direction of the field
depends on the direction of the current. If the wire: be placed above a
magnetic needle lying in the magnetic meridian, i.e., lying in the line of the
North and South magnetic poles, a current flowing south to north over the
needle will deflect the north-seeking pole to the west.
Figure 7.1 Lines of force around a current carrying wire.
Direction of current downwards through the plane of the paper
This is readily remembered by the right hand rule which is explained as
follows: Place the right hand (palm downwards) between the wire and the
needle. If the current be flowing from the wrist to the fingers, the outstretched
thumb will indicate the direction in which the north-seeking pole of the needle
will be deflected. By arranging a number of turns of wire in the form of a coil,
technically termed a solenoid, figure 7.2 a stronger magnetic field can be
obtained. The strength of the field depends on two things-the number of turns
of wire and the current flowing. Iron conducts lines of force far better than air,
and the introduction of an iron core enormously increases the magnetic field.
The softer the iron the greater is its effect. Figure 7.3 illustrates one form of
electro-magnet. The two limbs are united at their base by the soft iron yoke,
and the armature of similar material is placed above. The path of the lines of
Telecommunication Systems 196
force, termed the magnetic circuit, is shown by the dotted line. In order to
obtain opposite polarity on the two poles of the electro the windings are
reversed on the two limbs. The effect of the current is to cause the armature to
be attracted; and here it may be said that in any electro-magnetic
arrangement there is always a tendency for the armature to move in such a
way as to shorten the lines
Figure 7.2 A solenoid
of force as though, indeed, a tension or pull existed along their length. When
an electro-magnet is carrying sufficient current to perform its function of
attracting its armature, it is said to be energized.
Figure 7.3 An electro-magnet.
One of the simplest forms of signaling device consists of an electric bell,
battery and press button. By arranging that certain rings shall have definite
meanings, simple messages may be transmitted. This arrangement is termed
SOLENOID
S N
N
S
SPRING
ARMATURE
ELECTROMAGNET
Yoke
Telecommunication Systems 197
a code of signals, and is adequate for indicating, for example, that a carrier
has been placed in a pneumatic tube, that a carrier has been received, that
empty carriers are required, or similar messages.
7.1 Telephony
The common telephone as we know it today is a device connected to the
outside world by a pair of wires. It consists of a handset and its cradle with a
signaling device, consisting of either a dial or push buttons. The handset is
made up of two electroacoustic transducers, the earpiece or receiver and the
mouthpiece or transmitter. There is also a sidetone (the sound of the talkers
voice heard in his or her own receiver) circuit that allows some of the
transmitted energy to be fed back to the receiver. The transmitter or
mouthpiece converts acoustic energy into electric energy by means of a
carbon granule transmitter. The transmitter requires a direct-current (dc)
potential, usually on the order of 35 V, across its electrodes. We call this the
talk battery, and in modern telephone systems it is supplied over the line
(central battery) from the switching center and has been standardized at 48
V dc. Current from the battery flows through the carbon granules or grains
when the telephone is lifted from its cradle or goes off hook. When sound
impinges on the diaphragm of the transmitter, variations of air pressure are
transferred to the carbon, and the resistance of the electrical path through the
carbon changes in proportion to the pressure. A pulsating direct current
results. The typical receiver consists of a diaphragm of magnetic material,
often soft iron alloy, placed in a steady magnetic field supplied by a
permanent magnet, and a varying magnetic field caused by voice currents
flowing through the voice coils. These currents cause the magnetic field of
the receiver to alternately increase and decrease, making the diaphragm
move and respond to the variations. Thus an acoustic pressure wave is set
up, more or less exactly reproducing the original sound wave from the distant
telephone transmitter. The telephone receiver, as a converter of electrical
energy to acoustic energy, has a comparatively low efficiency, on the order of
23%.
7.1.1 Manual Telephone Exchange.
Alexander Graham Bell in 1870 invented the telephone; a wired system for
two way voice communication between remote locations. This system was
somewhat limited in that it only allowed communication with one fixed
location, so it was an obvious advance to have lines going to other locations.
Telecommunication Systems 198
an operator was alerted and you would tell her who you wished to speak to .
The operator would then take a wire from your socket on her switchboard and
plug you into the other persons socket. When you completed the call, you
would hang up your receiver and the operator would remove the plug from
the called party's socket. This was very labour intensive and as the popularity
of the telephone grew, the number of operators employed by the Post Office
grew; large switching centres (exchanges) could have many tens of
operators, each with their own switchboard. If you wished to make a call to
someone outside your own local exchange, say to the next exchange, your
operator would call an operator at the adjacent exchange and then ask her to
connect through to the desired subscriber. If you wanted to call someone
much further away, then the call would have to be set up with a whole chain of
operators, each one calling the next. As such, although long distance calls
were possible, it was a very complicated process involving a lot of operators.
7.1.2 Switching Systems
7.1.2.1 The magneto system: The magneto system was among the
earliest switching systems used in manual telephony. As the name implies
the system uses a low frequency subscriber's voltage for the purpose of
signaling. The signaling voltage is produced by manually operated
generators both at the exchange and at the subscribers telephone. When an
exchange is handling a large volume of traffic the use of hand operated
generators at each position reduces the overall operating efficiency. It is
usual, therefore, at large magneto exchanges to instal a machine driven
alternator and for the operator to connect the signaling voltage to a circuit by
means of a key. In the central battery signaling (C.B.S.) system a direct
current is used for signaling, when subscribers call the exchange. The source
of e.m.f, for signaling is obtained from a battery situated at the exchange. An
important similarity between the two systems discussed in this pamphlet is
the need for a local battery at the subscribers telephone. The local battery
provides the source of current for the energization of the transmitter. In the
magneto system and the central battery signaling system the calling device,
on the switchboard consists of an electromagnetic flap indicator. Although, in
some cases magneto switchboards have had the indicators replaced by
lamps.
199 Telecommunication Systems
Sequence in setting up a connection:
1. The subscriber to call the exchange lifts the telephone and turns the
handle of the generator associated with the telephone.
2. The operator to answer the calling subscriber inserts the answering
cord into the subscriber's answering jack.
3. The calling subscriber's indicator flap is restored manually by the
operator.
4. The speak key associated with the answering cord circuit is thrown by
the operator and the number of the wanted subscriber is requested.
5. If the wanted subscriber is connected to the same exchange, the
operator inserts the calling end of the same cord circuit into the jack
associated with the subscriber to be called.
6. To call the subscriber, the operator throws the ring key and connects
ringing current to the required line.
7. When the called subscriber answers, the setting up of the call is
complete and the operator withdraws from the circuit by restoring the
speak key.
8. To operate the cord circuit supervisory indicator at the completion of
the call the subscribers operate their hand generators.
9. When the cord circuit supervisory indicator flap
7.1.2.2 Central Battery Signaling (C.B.S.) Systems: In the C.B.S.
systems calling and clearing signals are automatically controlled by the
removal and replacement of the subscriber's receiver. Two supervisory relays
are provided on each pair of cords, one on the answering side and one on the
calling side, these relays operate the supervisory signals when a call is in
progress. The central battery located at the exchange is used for all general
signaling purposes and a battery of 2 cells for speaking purposes, is
associated with each telephone at the subscribers' stations.
The advantages of the three C.B.S. systems as compared with the magneto
System are:
(i) Automatic signaling between the subscriber and the exchange.
(ii) Automatic signaling over junction circuits.
(iii) The external plant is necessarily maintained in the high condition of
efficiency which the system demands for satisfactory working.
(iv) No generator is required at the subscriber's station.
Telecommunication Systems 200
The disadvantages of the systems are:-
(i) Relatively large batteries required at small exchanges.
(ii) Complexity of the exchange apparatus, and of that at a subscribers
premises when extension circuits are necessary.
(iii) Complexity of junction circuits.
7.1.2.3 Crossbar Switching
Crossbar, as the name implies, depends on the crossing or intersection of
two points to make a connection. The switching matrix is shown in Figure
7.4a. It is called a cross point array. Its operation depends on energizing a
vertical line and a horizontal line and the point where they intersect
represents the connection made. The crossbar system utilizes a switching
matrix, which is externally managed by common control, to route telephone
calls. Its operation depends on a connection made by energizing a vertical
line and a horizontal line in the matrix
(a) Cross point array
11
12
13
14
15
16
01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 010
OUTPUTLINES
Telecommunication Systems 201
Figure 7.4 Cross-bar switching.
as shown in Figure 7.4b, the crossbar matrix is controlled by common control.
Control signals from transmission lines are detected and used to control the
matrix to connect the proper lines for the path from the calling telephone to
the called telephone.
7.1.2.4 Electro mechanical Switches: An electro mechanical version
utilizes electromagnets to open and dose contacts in the matrix. After many
operations, the contacts may prove to be unreliable. Reed relay switches,
although also electro mechanical devices, are more dependable because
they are in a sealed envelope. They open or dose depending on the polarity of
the electrical impulses input.
7.1.2.5 Digital Switches: Most central offices employ digital switching.
This replaces the maintenance intensive electro mechanical switches with
reliable semiconductors.
7.1.2.6 Automatic Switching: Almon B. Strowger was an undertaker in
Kansas City, USA. The story goes that there was a competing undertaker
locally whose wife was an operator at the local (manual) telephone
exchange. Whenever a caller asked to be put through to Strowger, calls were
deliberately put through to his competitor. This obviously frustrated Strowger
CROSSPOINT
MATRIX
SIGNALING CONTROL SIGNALING
(b) System Organization
Telecommunication Systems 202
greatly and he set about devising a system for doing away with the human
part of the system. Strowger developed a system of automatic switching
using an electromechanicalcal switch based around around electromagnets
and pawls. With the help of his nephew (Walter S. Strowger) he produced a
working model in 1888. In this selector, a moving wiper (with contacts on the
end) moved up to and around a bank of many other contacts, making a
connection with any one of them.
7.1.2.7 Selector Theory: A selector starts in the 'home' position and
with each 'impulse' the wiper contacts would progress round the output bank
to the next position. Each output would be connected to a different subscriber,
thus the caller could connect to any other subscriber who was connected to
that bank, without any manual assistance from an operator.
(a) A simple Selector
203 Telecommunication Systems
(b) A Two-Motion "Final" Selector
Figure 7.5 The Telephone Selector
In Figure 7.5a, the selector has 10 outputs, so a caller can choose to connect
to any of 10 different subscribers by dialing any digit from 1 to 0 (0=10). This
sort of automatic selector is known as a Uniselector, as it moves in just one
plane (rotary). By mounting several arcs of outlets on top of each other, the
number of outlets can be increased significantly but the wipers are then
required to move both horizontally to select a bank and then vertically to
move around that bank to the required outlet. Such a selector is known as a
Two-Motion Selector. Two-motion selectors typically have 10 rows of 10
outlets, thus 100 possible outlets altogether. A two-motion selector can
therefore accept two dialed digits from a subscriber and route the call to any
of 100 numbers. The selector 'wipers' always start in their resting 'home'
position. The first digit moves the selector vertically up to the corresponding
level and then the second digit moves the wipers around the contacts of that
level. This is shown in figure 7.5b. The type of selector shown above is known
as a Final Selector as it takes the final two digits of the number dialed. Most
numbers dialed are several digits longer, and therefore pass through a chain
of selectors. Selectors previous to the Final Selectors are different; they are
called Group Selectors. Group selectors take only ONE digit from the caller,
and step up the number of levels according to the digit dialed. The rotary
Level 5
Sub 58
Rotary Stepping
( Viewed from above)
Stepped round to level 8 Stepped up to level 5
( Viewed from side)
Vertical Stepping
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
9
0
0
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Telecommunication Systems 204
movement is then automatic; the wipers search around that level to find a free
outlet - i.e. the next free selector in the chain.
The Rotary Dial: In Strowger's system, selecting digits to dial was done by a
complicated system involving five separate wires. Later, the system of Timed
Pulse (TP) dialing was invented using a rotary dial. With TP dialing, only one
pair of wires is required for a telephone, the speech pair. To dial a digit, the
circuit is interrupted according to the number dialed so, for example, if you
dialed a '4' then the line would be pulsed four times, quickly in succession.
After a moment, it was assumed that the digit was complete and that any
further pulses belonged to the next digit. In order to ensure that successive
digits did not come too soon and thus be mistaken for pulses belonging to the
previous digit, the finger stop on the dial was put some way round so that after
removing your finger from the dial, there was a minimum time taken for the
dial to return to the home position. It is important to note here that for the
purposes of dialing, the digit '0' sends TEN pulses for dialing - i.e. the selector
will step around to the 10th position.
Progress Tones: A series of distinctive tones was developed which were
produced by a machine called a Ring Generator. The ring generator was
entirely electro mechanical; different cadences and tones were produced by
rotating cams connected to a generator. As well as generating the tones, the
Ring Generator machine also provided timed pulses which were used by
various processes throughout the exchange. The progress tones produced
were as follows :
(i) Dial Tone (DT). This is a 33 c/s continuous note and is applied to the line
after the subscriber has lifted his handset and the switching equipment
has allocated him an available outlet for this call to proceed. There
would have been a physical limit on the number of calls an exchange
could handle so if all equipment was already in use, the subscriber
would not get dial tone. The actual pitch of the dial Tone varied from
exchange to exchange depending on the adjustment of the ring
generator.
(ii) Busy Tone (BT). A higher pitched note of 400 c/s interrupted to give a
cadence of 0.75 seconds on, 0.75 seconds off. Busy tone indicated
either that the called subscriber is already off-hook (busy) or that the
route to the called subscriber is congested. In later systems, a slightly
Telecommunication Systems 205
different cadence was introduced in order to distinguish between these
two scenarios.
(iii) Number Unobtainable Tone (NUT). Identical pitch to the busy tone but
continuous. This tone is used to indicate that a number is out of service,
faulty or that a spare line has been dialed.
(iv) Ring Tone (RT). A tone of 133c/s which interrupted in the same
cadence as the ring current which rings the telephone's bell at the
called party's end : 0.4 seconds on, 0.2 seconds off.
7.2 Telephone Numbering Schemes: There were many different
versions of Strowger type exchanges. The smallest ones, serving small
remote villages would handle just a few subscribers. The larger exchanges in
urban districts could handle thousands of subscribers. In a small village, there
might be just 50 subscribers and so three digits would be plenty to identify
them all. For example, subscribers on a very small rural exchange might be
allocated numbers in the range 200-299 - on the final selector, level 2. Of
course, numbers of just two digits would have been enough to cover 50
subscribers, but three digits were used to allow for special codes (Operator,
Emergency, Telegrams etc.) and also to separate payphones onto other
'levels'. On larger exchanges, four or five digits were used, allowing a
theoretical maximum of 10000 or 100000 subscribers. The range was limited
of course because there were no subscribers on levels '0' or '1' as they were
reserved for trunk and operator calls respectively.
7.2.1 The Director System: To connect to another exchange, its code could
be dialed and the selectors would route accordingly, but that dialing code
would have to vary depending on where the call originated from because
obviously routes would vary. From the subscriber's point of view, it would be
unacceptable to have to dial a different number depending on where you
were. To get around this, a set of uniform dialing codes was introduced so that
a subscriber could dial the same exchange from any other exchange always
using the same dialing code. Because the actual routing would vary
depending on where the call originated from, a piece of equipment called a
Translator was introduced. This took the uniform dialing code as the
subscriber dialed it and translated it into the necessary impulse trains so that
selectors could be routed accordingly. The translator was electromechanical
Telecommunication Systems 206
of course. The translator also includes 'digit absorbtion' facilities so that if a
subscriber dials someone on the same exchange, the exchange code is
ignored and the call routed locally. When the subscriber dials the exchange
code, the translator cannot start 'translating' until it has all three digits, then it
can get to work, but in the meantime, the subscriber may dial the rest of the
number. To allow for this, the translator must have Digit Storage facilities so
that it can store the rest of the digits dialed by the subscriber and repeat them
to the remote exchange once the connection has been established.
7.2.2 The Mnemonics System: It was thought that people would have
problems remembering seven digit numbers (3 exchange + 4 subscriber) so
a system of allocating letters to the dial to make area mnemonics was
developed. Each exchange was then given a code according to the location,
as closely as possible. The original British lettering scheme was as follows:
Table 7.1 Lettering scheme
This 'letter to number' scheme varies between countries and nowadays even
between manufacturers, particularly with mobile telephones. The letter 'O'
was mapped to the digit '0' in order to avoid confusion. The letters Q and Z
were not used in the original scheme to avoid confusion with 'O' and '2'. When
the scheme was first devised, the letters were black and the figures in red (all
phones were owned by the Post Office).
Some Examples :
BARnet (227)
EALing (325)
HENdon (436)
KINgston (546)
MILl Hill (645)
PUTney (788)
VICtoria (842)
1
2
3
4
5
ABC
DEF
GHI
JKL
MN
PRS
TUV
WXY
0 (Operator)
6
7
8
9
0
Not Allocated
Telecommunication Systems 207
7.3 Automatic Telephone Exchanges
The required features of any automatic switching system is summarized in
table 7.2. Figure 7.6 shows an the call routing system with its different
components.
Table 7.2 Automatic telephone Exchange Features
Function
Performed by
To detect that a caller has lifted his handset
To busy his line so that he is not interrupted
To allocate equipment to the caller, if available
To indicate to that the caller that he may proceed with
dialling
To accept digits from the caller and route accordingly
To connect the call through to the appropriate
subscriber
To either return Busy Tone if busy or apply ring signal
to the called partys phone
and ring tone to caller and then cease ringing when
the called party answers
To detect the answering of the call and register it
against the callers account
To alert engineers in case of fault
Subscriber Line
Circuit
Subscriber Line
Circuit
Line finder &
Allotter
Dial Tone
Group Selectors
Final Selectors
Final Selectors
& Ring Generator
PG/CSH Alarms
etc.
Metering Circuits
Telecommunication Systems 208
Subscriber's Line Circuit: Every subscriber is connected to his local
exchange by one pair of wires; this single pair carries the voice in both
directions and the ring current to ring the bell when a call is received. Within
the subscriber's premises, the line is actually then split into three wires to
allow for an anti-tinkling circuit but it's important to bear in mind that only two
wires run from exchange to subscriber (known as a & b). Once at the
exchange, an additional one or two wires is added to the line. These are used
for internal signaling are known as P (or Private) and M (or Meter). At the
exchange, every subscriber's line terminates into its own Subscribers Line
Circuit (SLC). This consists of a pair of relays dedicated to that subscriber; if
there are 1000 subscribers on that exchange, then there are 1000 SLCs. All
other equipment onwards in the chain is shared between all subscribers -
otherwise if there were 1000 of everything the cost and size of an exchange
would be astronomical and wasteful. It would only be necessary if it was
expected that every subscriber was going to place a call at exactly the same
time, and that would never happen. As such, when an exchange is designed,
consideration is given to the maximum amount of traffic that would ever need
to be carried at one time, and equipment is therefore provided to allow for
that.
Line Finder & Allotter: When the subscriber lifts his handset, current start to
flow on the line; this is detected by the SLC. As you will recall, dialing of the
digits causes selectors to step up or round the corresponding number of
pulses. As there are many subscribers, but only a few selectors, there has to
be a method for;
(i) Finding a free (available) selector and
(ii) Connecting the calling subscriber to that selector.
Step (i) is done by the Allotter. Step (ii) is done by the Linefinder. See figure
7.6. Although the linefinder is shown looking like a Uniselector in the diagram
it is in fact normally a two-motion selector which means that it can serve up to
100 or 200 subscribers. The Allotter, on the other hand is usually a
uniselector, with 25 or 50 outlets, thus allowing access to 25 or 50 first group
selectors. n.b. the Subscriber's Line Circuits are not shown in the diagram,
but would be in the line between the subscribers' telephones and the
linefinders. Another function of the SLC is to 'mark' the caller's line as 'busy' so
that incoming calls will detect that the line is in use.
Telecommunication Systems 209
Figure 7.6. Simplified Routing of a Local Call
Charging: With the introduction of automatic exchanges, the need arose for
automatic charging. Every subscriber was allocated a digit counter (meter) in
the exchange. This consisted of an electromagnet which closed with every
metering 'pulse'. The electormagnet's armature drove a set of numerical
decimal cams. For every meter pulse, the meter clicked one unit. At the end
of each billing period, a photographer would take a photograph of all
subscribers' meters. These photographs were then sent to the billing
department to be read, and bills sent out accordingly. Meters typically had
four or five digits, wrapping round to '0000' after '9999'. The first meter pulse
was generated as soon at the called subscriber answers the call. This pulse
is generated by the final selector and sent back down the chain of selectors to
the caller's meter to register one 'unit'. For local calls, a piece of equipment
called a Local Call Timer (LCT) was in circuit between the final selector and
previous group selectors. After the initial 'answering' pulse, the LCT starts
rotating, clicking round once from each timed pulse. These timed pulses are
generated by the Ring Generator. After 10 clicks round, the LCT is back to it's
original position and if the call is still active, it sends another metering pulse,
LINE FINDER 1 ALLOTTER 1
2
4
3
6
GROUP SELECTOR 2
FINAL SELECTOR (Level 8)
Sub. 836
8
Telecommunication Systems 210
and another unit is charged to the caller. The LCT only stops rotating when
the calling party clears. If the called party hangs up, the metering continues
for sometime until it is automatically dropped by the system.
For non local calls, a system of multi-metering was introduced. A meter pulse
generator produced different pulse rates and the appropriate one of these
would be applied to the call timer depending on the destination of the call.
Alarms: In order to facilitate efficient operation of an exchange, all Strowger
type exchanges are fitted with a number of alarms to alert the engineer to any
problems. Some alarms indicate equipment failure, whereas other alarms
just indicate unusual operation which might be cause for concern. The most
important alarms are as follows :
Permanent Glow (PG) : This alarm indicated that a subscriber's
phone was offhook and that a call was not in progress. This is not
necessarily a fault; a subscriber could have just forgotten to replace
their handset properly or deliberately taking their phone off the hook to
avoid calls. Doing this meant that the subscriber could be holding onto
exchange equipment, thus preventing other subscribers from using it.
If enough subscribers left their phone off the hook, no-one else could
make any calls. If an engineer spotted a PG alarm, he would work out
which selector it was one and release that selector from the
subscriber. In unattended rural exchanges(where no engineer was
permanently on-site) the subscribers line circuit differed slightly in that
a 'parking' relay was provided so that a PG condition was
automatically cleared. The term 'Permanent Glow' originates from the
days of manual switchboards when a subscriber being off hook would
be shown by his light 'glowing' on the board.
Called Subscriber Held (CSH) : This condition occurs when the
called party hangs up his phone but the caller still remains active. A
CSH alarm is not harmful, and is common - for instance, if someone
puts the phone down to go and take the call in another room, a CSH
condition will occur whilst their phone is back on the hook. As soon as a
CSH condition is detected, a timer starts. If a period of (say) 3 minutes
elapses without the called subscriber picking their handset up again
then the call is cleared down and charging ceases.
Telecommunication Systems 211
Release Alarm (RA) : The release alarm is the important one. The
earth supply to most selector electromagnets is connected via the
release alarm. As these electromagnets are intended to operate for
brief moments only (to drive the selectors), then if current is drawn for
more than a few seconds, then it is assumed that the selector has
jammed. In order to avoid burning out the selector, the PG alarm is
raised, drawing the engineers attention to the particular rack at fault
and he can rush round and clear it. In an unattended exchange,
circuitry is provided to automatically lower the current to the faulty
selector in order to stop it burning out until the engineer arrives.
7.4 The Morden Telephone System
An early acronym for the telephone company was TELCO, which was
replaced by POTS (Plain Old Telephone System). Either one is easier to use
than spelling out telephone system or telephone company. Since the
divesture of AT&T in 1984, another acronym emerged which was used to
describe some of the local telephone companies, RBOC (Regional Bell
Operating Company). The elements of the telephone system is shown in
figure 7.7.
Figure 7.7 Elements of a Telephone system
Toll
Line
Trunk
Switch
Station
Local
Switch
Station
Trunk
Line
(4-Wire)
Hybrid
Circuit
Repeater
Repeater
Trunk Lines
Trunk Lines
Toll
Line
Local
Loop
Subscriber
Subscriber
Local
Loop
(2-Wire)
Trunk
Switch
Station
Local
Switch
Station
Hybrid
Circuit
Telecommunication Systems 212
The most common and familiar use of TELCO begins when a user, known as
a subscriber, picks up the telephone handset and initiates a call by going off
hook. In the telephone set, a multiganged switch activates with release of the
handset from its cradle or hook. This switch completes a direct current path
between the subscriber and the local switch station.
7.4.1 Touch Tone Pad
The dialer has long since been replaced by the Touch Tone keypad, which is
laid out as block numbered push buttons. Each button, when selected and
pushed, sends a pair of tones to the local switching office, which interprets the
tones as the number associated with the button pushed. The name for this
method of sending and detecting phone numbers is dual tone multiple
frequency (DTMF). The Touch Tone pad and the tonal frequencies
associated with each row and column of the pad are shown in Figure 7.8.
Pressing one of the buttons on the pad sends the two tones associated with
that buttons row and column.
7.4.2 Long Distance Lines
Figure 7.8 Dual Tone Multiple Frequency (DTMF) Touch
Tone Pad and Associated Frequencies
For long distance or message unit calls, the call is routed through trunk lines
via toll stations. Toll stations are switching stations used to select which long
distance trunk lines are to be used to route your call. These trunk lines are
terminated in another toll station, which may connect the call to another trunk
line or to a local switch station, depending on the calls destination. Longer
calls may require longer trunk lines and additional intermediate switching
1 2 3
4 5 6
7 8 9
*
0 #
697 H z
770 H z
852 H z
941 H z
1,209 1,336 1,477
H z H z H z
Telecommunication Systems 213
stations. The hierarchy of the telephone company switching stations, shown
in Figure 7.9, begins with the local switch station, which has direct
connections to the local subscribers. Many calls are completed at the local
switch station. Other calls require connections through higher levels of
switching. Local switch stations are classified as class 5 stations. They are
connected to each other and in clusters to a tandem switch, which is also
classified as a class 5 station. The subscribers, tandem, and local switch
stations are considered as the local loop. Tandem stations, in turn, may
connect the incoming call to other tandem
Figure 7.9 hierarchy of the telephone company switching stations
Local
Sectional
Center
Regional
Center
Sectional
Center
Primary
Center
Toll
Station
Tandem
Switch
Local
Switch
Station
Primary
Center
Toll
Station
Tandem
Switch
Local
Switch
Local
Local
Toll
Toll
Local
Loop
Subscriber Subscriber
Telecommunication Systems 214
stations, which pass the call on to a local switch station to be connected to the
called subscriber. Tandem stations are also the beginning of the long
distance connection.
(a) (b)
Figure 7.10 Hybrid Two-Wire/Four-Wire Interface.
7.4.3 Two-Wire and Four-Wire Interfaces: A circuit called a hybrid circuit is
used to interface the two-wire unbalanced twisted pair (UTP) lines to a four-
wire trunk line that transports the conversation in a half duplex mode. The
hybrid circuit shown in Figure 7.10 receives the call signals on a pair of wires,
sending them through the primary windings of transformers T1 and T2 and
impedance matching components, R1, R2, and C. The calls are coupled to
the transformer secondaries, amplified, and sent out on one pair of wires. The
same signals appear at the output of a second amplifier, but being in phase,
have no potential difference and are canceled. Conversations returning are
amplified through the second amplifier and fed, out of phase, to the junction of
T1 and T2 and to one side of a two-wire connection. The signal traveling
through the primaries of T1 and T2 are now out of phase and are coupled
across to the secondaries and canceled at the input of amplifier 1. Hence, the
signal returns along the two-wire path but is not echoed back along the four-
wire line.
Amplifier
Return
4-Wire Send
Active
Hybrid Transformer
T1 T2
Active R1
2-Wire
Send
Return
Amplifier
Signal Flow
Direction
R2
C
4-Wire Receive
Send Loops Receive Loops
Return
Active
2-Wire
Receive
Signal Flow
Direction
T1 T2
Amplifier
4-Wire Send
R1
C
R2
Amplifier Active
Return
2
1
4
2
1
Telecommunication Systems 215
7.4.4 The Telephone Set.
7.4.4.1 Functions
The telephone set performs eight electrical functions to provide us with
service. The most important ones are:
1. It requests the use of the telephone system when the handset is lifted.
2. It indicates that the system is ready for use by receiving a tone, called
the dial tone.
3. It sends the number of the telephone to be called to the system. This
number is initiated by the caller when the number is pressed (or the dial
is rotated in older telephones).
4. It indicates the state of a call in progress by receiving tones indicating
the status (ringing, busy, etc.).
5. It indicates an incoming call to the called telephone by ringing bells or
other audible tones.
6. It changes speech of a calling party to electrical signals for
transmission to a distant party through the system. It changes
electrical signals received from a distant party to speech for the called
party.
7. It automatically adjusts for changes in the power supplied to it.
8. It signals the system that a call is finished when a caller hangs up the
handset
A single pair of wires connects the telephone to the central switching office.
This connection is called a local loop. One connection is called the tip (T) and
the other connection the ring. When the receiver handset is in the offhook,
the offhook signal tells the exchange that someone wants to make a call. The
exchange returns a dial tone to the called phone to let the caller know that the
exchange is ready to accept a telephone number. The telephone number
also may be referred to as an address. Numbers are sent either by a stream
of pulses (pulse dialing) or by a series of audio Touch tones (tone Dialing.
The connection having been made at the switching office, a ringing signal is
sent to the called telephone. Removing the handset at the ringing telephone
results in a loop current flow. The transmitter converts acoustical energy into
equivalent electric current variations. The receiver converts these electrical
variations into the equivalent acoustical energy-calleded sound. If either
telephone handset is hung up, the current loop is opened and the central
office releases the line connection.
Telecommunication Systems 216
7.4.4.2 Telephone Set Components
There are several components in even the tiniest handset used for making
calls. These are described below:
Handset: This is the part of the telephone you hold in your hand to speak and
listen to a conversation. It is also common to have the handset built into a
headphone and microphone set for those people who spend a lot of time on
the phone or need their hands free while speaking and listening on the phone.
Inside the handset are a transmitter and a receiver. You speak into the
transmitter and listen from the receiver.
Switch hook: This is the switch that is pushed down when the handset rests
on its cradle (on-hook). When you lift the handset to place a call, you release
the switch hook and it pops up. The circuit is now off-hook and current flows
through the telephone. When the telephone is placed back on-hook, current
flow ceases.
Hybrid 2- to 4-wire converter: Four wires, organized in two pairs, run from the
handset, one pair from the transmitter and another pair from the receiver, to
the hybrid, which provides the conversion between the 4-wire handset and
the 2-wire local loop. The converter is the communications bridge between
the handset equipment and the 2 wires to the telephone company.
Sidetone: This is a planned, audible result emanating from the hybrid in the
phone, through which a portion of speech is allowed to bleed over into the
Speech Circuit
Dialing
Circuits
Polarity &
Transient
Protection
Hook Switch
Ring (-48v)
Tip (Ground)
Analogue
Polarity &
Transient
Protection
Ringer
Circuits
Analogue
Switches
Digital
Switches
BORSCHT
Battery Feed
(15-80mA, 56v)
Over Voltage
Protection
Ring (20Hz, 90v)
Line Cards
Supervision
Coding
Hybrid
Test
Coding
PBX or Central
Office
Plain Old Telephone System
7.11. Telephone Set and Central Office Connection
Telecommunication Systems 217
earpiece during a conversation so that users can judge how loudly they are
speaking.
Dialer: This is the touch pad or rotary dial that signals the telephone company
that you are placing a call. When you push the buttons on a touch pad or spin
the dial on a rotary telephone that is in the off-hook state, you send a signal to
the telephone company, specifying the location you are calling. Keep in mind
that for flexibility many push-button phones have a setting that permits them
to send either tones or pulses for signaling.
Ringer: When someone is trying to call you, the telephone company notifies
you by sending alternating current (AC) voltage through the wires to your
telephone set. The voltage triggers a device, the ringer, that makes a ringing
sound. An electrical component called a capacitor prevents direct current
(DC) from flowing through this circuit when the phone goes off-hook and dial
tone DC voltage is received.
7.4.4.3 Telephone Set Features
Display Screen - Lets you view standard phone information, access menus,
and use softkeys to select calling features like Conference and Transfer. In
standard view, the screen displays the time, date, and your telephone
number; the screen displays an envelope icon when you have messages
waiting.
Headset: Lets you listen hands-free by inserting the plug of the headset into
the headset jack and then toggling the Headset key on or off.
Hold Key: Place calls on hold.
Indicator Light: Blinks or glows red when you have an incoming call, green
when the call has been answered.
Dial Pad: Works exactly like the dial pad on a traditional phone.
Menu Key: Lets you change the phone settings for contrast (shades of the
display screen), select the ring type (multiple ring types are provided), and set
caller preferences such as Call Waiting or activate features such as Do Not
Disturb and Speed Dial.
Mute Key: Lets you toggle one/off the microphone during a conversation.
Navigation Arrows - Four keys let you navigate through the menu system and
scroll through on-screen text.
Services: The Services key is used to access the Public view of the Penn
Online Directory.
Softkeys: Are used to activate various features and functions (softkeys are
displayed along the bottom of your phone screen). The options displayed
Telecommunication Systems 218
above the softkeys will change depending on the state of phone. For
example, when you are speaking with someone the End Call option appears;
when the phone is idle New Call, Callers and Dir are displayed.
Speaker :Toggle speaker phone on/off.
Volume: Lets you adjust the volume during a conversation. When the phone
is idle, you can also use the Volume key to adjust the ringer volume.
7.4.5 The Public Switched Telephone Network
This is the global collection of interconnections originally designed to support
circuit-switched voice communication. It provides the traditional pots (Land
Line Phone) service to residence and other establishments. It caries
analogue data. Most central office exchanges can handle up to 10,000
telephones. But what if we have a need to connect more than 10,000 phones,
or to connect phones in different cities, different states, or different countries,
a complex network of many telephone exchanges has to be established to
accomplish these requirements.
Exchange Destinations: Telephone exchanges exist in a network hierarchy.
Usually the first four classes are for long-distance switching, and the fifth for
connection to the subscription telephones.
Interconnections: The network attempts to make connection at the lowest
possible level, and therefore the shortest path. If the lines are all busy, trunk
groups at the next highest level are used.
Structure: The control and voice signals are carried by three types of
facilities-local, exchange area, and long-haul.
Local Network: The local network consists of homes and businesses
connected via wire pairs to a central office.
Exchange area network:
The exchange area network fills the transmission gap between local and long
distance trunks. A simplified example is shown in Figure 7.12. Exchanges are
interconnected with exchange area transmission systems. These systems
may consist of open wire pairs on poles, wire pairs in cables, microwave radio
links, and fiber optic cables. The exchange area network normally
interconnects local exchanges and tandem exchanges. Tandem exchanges
219 Telecommunication Systems
are those that make connections between central offices when an interoffice
trunk is not available.
Figure 7.12. Exchange Area network
Long haul network:
Toll or backbone switches (core or tandem switch; high capacity switch
positioned in the physical core or backbone of a network) provide long
distance connectivity over long distance trunks. each toll switch can handle
more than 100,000 simultaneous phone calls. The long-haul network is made
up primarily of high capacity fiber optic cables. Long-distance carriers
primarily employ fiber optic cables in favor of satellite and microwave links,
which are relegated to situations where optical fiber installation is not practical
or economical. The long haul network has the following characteristics;
(i) Higher level of users
(ii) More stringent performance requirements such as high quality circuits
(iii) Long distances between users including world wide distances
(iv) Higher traffic volumes and densities
(v) Larger switches and trunk cross section
CITY D
CITY E
CITY B
CITY C
CITY A
Sectional Center
Primary Center
Toll Center
Central Office
Microwave Land Links
Cable
Open Wire
Telecommunication Systems 220
7.5 Electronic Central office
Interfaces are used to couple two telephone subsystems to each other. They
contain the hardware and programming to transfer all voice, data, and power.
Subscriber calls are first handled at the central office level. Depending on the
ultimate destination, the call will be switched one or more times to different
levels and carried through line side and trunkside interfaces.
7.5.1 Line side interface: The largest number of interfaces in the telephone
network occur between the telephone set and the local office. Because this
interface has evolved through the days of magneto ringers, rotary dials, and
step-by-step switches, the line side interface has been more difficult to
replace with electronics and still meet the standards and characteristics that
have evolved over the years. Because there are so many local loops, this is
the interface that will be part of the network longer than any other telephone
network are referred to as BORSCHT, which means Battery, Over voltage
protection, Ringing, Signaling Supervision, Coding, Hybrid, and Test. Let's
now examine the functions of the conventional line side or subscriber
interface in more detail. The TELCO term for interfacing calls through the
switching station hierarchy has been termed BORSHT, the letters of which
are initials for the following elements of the TELCO system:
Battery, signifying the 48V battery used to supply the direct current for off
hook and dial detection.
Over voltage protection, which is built-in protection against voltage surges
and induced voltages from electrical storms.
Ringing, designating the 20Hz ringing signal.
Supervision control, which is the response to on-/off-hook, etc.
Hybrid circuit, that interfaces two-wire and four-wire lines.
Testing, for purposes of checking the system.
7.5.2 Trunkside Interface: A trunk usually refers to the channel(s) between
the equipment at two switching locations. A trunk circuit is the interface
between the trunk and the switching system. The transmission method may
be wire pairs or multiplexed analog or digital signals. The trunk must have a
battery supply, supervision signaling, and termination. Short-distance trunks
may be pairs of wires, while long-distance trunks are usually implemented
through multiplexed analog or digital carrier systems. The trunk itself may be
Telecommunication Systems 221
one way or two way, and either automatic or operator handled. The trunkside
interface at the central office accommodates these varying types and
provides the same sort of functions that the lineside interface provides,
although with more variations and complexity.
7.6 Telephone Wiring
Table 7.3 UTP Cables and Uses
7.6.1 Cable Categories: The Electronic Industries Alliance (EIA) and the
Telecommunications Industry Association (TIA) are trade associations that
have developed telecommunication industry standards. The category rating
system was developed by the TIA in response to industry demands for higher
data rate specifications on applications over Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP)
and is now part of standard document EIA/TIA568A which covers UTP
cables as well as connecting devices such as jacks, cross-connect blocks
and patch panels for Commercial Building Cabling. EIA/TIA-570-A entitled
Residential Telecommunications Cabling Standard provides specifications
for premises cabling. Table 7.3 shows the UTP cable category/level, their
uses and supported speed.
7.6.2 Color Coding/ Tip and Ring: Standard color codes have been
developed to enable the installer to quickly identify a pair within a bundle,
thus facilitating termination at different points within a wiring system. Both
solid and striped colors are common. Each pair has a tip and a ring conductor.
The terms tip and ring originated from the earliest types of telephone
systems, where the operator had to physically use patch cords to route the
calls. The operators switchboard plug had three conductors: tip, ring and
UTP Cable
Cat./Level
Uses
Speeds
Supported
1
2
3
4
5
Voice, Low Speed Data
Low Speed LAN, 4 Mbps Token Ring (all above)
10 Base T Ethernet, 100 Base T4, 100 VG Any
LAN (all above)
16 Mbps Token Ring (all above)
100 Base TX,ATM, TP-PMD (all above)
1
MHz
MHz
MHz
4
10
20 MHz
Telecommunication Systems 222
sleeve. The tip conductor was connected to the very tip of the plug and had a
positive voltage. The ring conductor had a negative voltage and was
connected to a small collar or ring, just back and isolated from the tip. Located
behind the ring, the sleeve or ground conductor provides a shield ground
when used. The colors used to identify tip conductors are different from the
colors used to identify ring conductors. There are five colors associated with
tip conductors, and five different colors associated with ring conductors.
Polarity must be maintained within each pair, since telephone systems
provide all dialing and voice functions on the polarized tip and ring pair.
Further, the tip and ring conductors must be isolated from others, that is, the
pairs must be used as pairs. If you use the tip conductor from one pair and the
sleeve from another, data transmission will be impaired and crosstalk may
result.
7.6.3 Common Outlet Configurations:
A standard 4 pair wiring codes is given in table 7.4. Note that for 6-wire jacks:
use pair 1, 2 and 3 color codes. For 4-wire jacks: use pair 1 and 2 codes.
Twist: Twisted pair copper wire is most prevalent in telecommunication
media. Each pair is twisted to prevent induction and crosstalk from other pairs
in the same bundle and from outside power circuits and motors. (The
unwanted transfer of intelligence from one or more circuits to other circuits is
called crosstalk.) Crosstalk is reduced by twists, cable lay, shielding and
physical separation made during the cable manufacturing process.
Table 7.4 Standard 4-pair Wiring Color Code
Pair 1
Pair 2
Pair 3
Pair 4
T
R
T
R
T
R
T
R
White/Blue
Blue/White
Orange/White
White /Orange
White/Green
Green/White
White/Brown
Brown/White
Telecommunication Systems 223
7.6.4 Cabling Installation Techniques:
Use the shortest practical route
Conceal cable for damage protection
When drilling access holes through exterior walls:
Slope holes upward from the outside
Drill holes only slightly greater than cable diameter
Provide cable "drip loop" outside of building to avoid water ingress
Use plastic bushings
Seal holes after installing cable
Fire stopping, bonding and grounding must be performed according to
fire, building and electrical codes that apply
Every connection degrades system performance, so use the minimum
number necessary
Better to provide excess capacity in terms of cable and outlets than not
enough. Later additions are costly and time consuming
Wire to the highest anticipated data rate (speed) or greater never less
Never install components of unknown/questionable origin or quality. At
the very best, the system will transmit signals to the level of its weakest
component. Every element and connection is important
Document all connections carefully, and keep installations tidy
Tag wires at demarcation point for later troubleshooting
Test everything
Install jacks at the same height as electrical outlets. Wall-mount phone
jacks should be 48 to 52 inches from the floor
Cover unused wall boxes with a blank wall plate to protect and mark
their location
Do not splice cable runs
Pull 4-pair cable per manufacturers specifications but not more than
25 lbs. pulling tension. EIA/TIA-568A and -570 recognize 4-pair UTP
as a minimum pair count
Do not run cable parallel to power wiring and do not share bored holes.
Avoid sharp bends and sheath nicks
Maintain polarity. Match wire colors of tip (+) and ring (-) pairs. Polarity
reversal interferes with most data devices and some telephones
Use a recommended 4-pair jack for 2 line telephones
Leave pull cord in conduit, if used, to facilitate running new wire
Do not run power in same conduit with telecommunications cable
Use insulated staples to support wire, leaving wire loose within staples
Telecommunication Systems 224
Avoid under-carpet wiring runs
Use inner walls whenever possible for reasons of safety and
appearance
Leave 18" of spare wire at outlets
Most importantly, always check for ground, open and shorts after
wiring is roughed in.
7.6.5 Standards and Codes: Standards help to ensure system
performance by providing installation guidelines and requirements. Codes
generally address safety requirements.
Some standards affecting Telecommunications are:
(i). ANSI/EIA/TIA standards influence installation, required cable, designs
and hardware for telecommunication systems in buildings.
(ii). National Electrical Code (NEC)
(iii). ANSI/ NFPA-70 published by NFPA provides electrical safety
standards regarding fires and electrical hazards.
(iv). Lightning Protection Institute publishes a Material Standard and
Installation Practice Standard based on ANSI/ NFPA 780
(v) Underwriters Laboratories (UL) an independent testing laboratory
7.7 The Mobile Telephone System.
The traditional telephone system will still not be able to satisfy a growing
population of users. People now expect to make phone calls from cars,
swimming pools, and while jogging in the park as well as send e-mail and surf
the Web from all these locations and more. Consequently, there is a
tremendous amount of interest in wireless telephony. Wireless telephones
come in two basic varieties: cordless phones and mobile phones (sometimes
called cell phones). Cordless phones are devices consisting of a base station
and a handset sold as a set for use within the home. The mobile system is
used for wide area voice and data communication. Mobile phones have gone
through three distinct generations, with different technologies:
(i). Analog voice.
(ii). Digital voice.
(iii). Digital voice and data (Internet, e-mail, etc.).
225 Telecommunication Systems
Figure 7.13 the mobile Phone system
Figure 7.13 shows a mobile telephone system. The base station can transmit
and receive on several different frequencies simultaneously to provide
several individual channels for use at the same time. The number of
frequencies available depends on the nature of the system.
7.7.1 Mobile Telephone Generations:
7.7.1.1 First-Generation Mobile Phones: Analog Voice: In 1946, the first
system for car-based telephones was set up. This system used a single large
transmitter on top of a tall building and had a single channel, used for both
sending and receiving. To talk, the user had to push a button that enabled the
transmitter and disabled the receiver. Such systems, known as push-to-talk
systems. In the 1960s, IMTS (Improved Mobile Telephone System) was
installed. It used a high-powered (200-watt) transmitter, on top of a hill, but
BASE ANTENNA
450 MHz
MOBILE UNIT
FROM/TO
MOBILE ANTENNA
20 TO 30 MILES
FROM/TO
BASE ANTENNA
TELEPHONE
LAND LINE
CONTROL TERMINAL
RECEIVER TRANSMITTER RECEIVER TRANSMITTER
CONTROL LOGIC
BASE STATION MOBILE STATION
HANDSET
FIXED-POSITION
LAND-BASED
TELEPHONE
TRANSMISSION
LINK
CENTRAL
OFFICE
CENTRAL
OFFICE
SWITCHING
NETWORK
SWITCHING
NETWORK
NATIONAL/INTERNATIONAL
TELEPHONE SYSTEM
Telecommunication Systems 226
now had two frequencies, one for sending and one for receiving, so the push-
to-talk button was no longer needed. Since all communication from the
mobile telephones went inbound on a different channel than the outbound
signals, the mobile users could not hear each other unlike the push-to-talk
system used in taxis. It had the disadvantages of limited number of channels
in the given bandwidth and adjacent system had to be spaced kilometers
apart to avoid interference. This limited capacity made the system
impractical.
Advanced Mobile Phone System: All that changed with AMPS (Advanced
Mobile Phone System), invented by Bell Labs and first installed in in 1982. In
England, where it was called TACS, and in Japan it was called MCS-L1. In all
mobile phone systems, a geographic region is divided up into cells, which is
why the devices are sometimes called cell phones. In AMPS, the cells are
typically 10 to 20 km across; in digital systems, the cells are smaller. Each cell
uses some set of frequencies not used by any of its neighbors. The key idea
that gives cellular systems far more capacity than previous systems is the
use of relatively small cells and the reuse of transmission frequencies in
nearby (but not adjacent) cells. Whereas an IMTS system 100 km across can
have one call on each frequency, an AMPS system might have 100 10-km
cells in the same area and be able to have 10 to 15 calls on each frequency, in
widely separated cells. Thus, the cellular design increases the system
capacity by at least an order of magnitude, more as the cells get smaller.
Furthermore, smaller cells mean that less power is needed, which leads to
smaller and cheaper transmitters and handsets. The idea of frequency reuse
is illustrated in figure. 7.14(a). The cells are normally roughly circular, but they
are easier to model as hexagons. In figure 7.14 (a), the cells are all the same
size. They are grouped in units of seven cells. Each letter indicates a group of
frequencies. Notice that for each frequency set, there is a buffer about two
cells wide where that frequency is not reused, providing for
Telecommunication Systems 227
Figure 7.14 frequency reuse; (a) Frequencies are not reused
in adjacent cells. (b) To add more users, smaller cells can be used.
good separation and low interference. In an area where the number of users
has grown to the point that the system is overloaded, the power is reduced,
and the overloaded cells are split into smaller microcells to permit more
frequency reuse, as shown in figure 7.14(b). At the center of each cell is a
base station to which all the telephones in the cell transmit. The base station
consists of a computer and transmitter/receiver connected to an antenna. In
a small system, all the base stations are connected to a single device called
an MTSO (Mobile Telephone Switching Office) or MSC (Mobile Switching
Center).
Frequency Reuse and Cell Splitting: Two essential elements are unique to
the cellular concept: frequency reuse and cell splitting. Frequency reuse
refers to using the same frequency or channel simultaneously for different
conversations, in the same general geographic area. The idea of having
more than one transmission on a given frequency is not new; it is done in
virtually all radio services. What is unique to cellular is the closeness of the
users; two users of the same frequency may be only a few dozen miles apart,
rather than hundreds of miles. This is done by using relatively low power
transmitters on multiple sites, rather than a single high-power transmitter.
Each transmitter covers only its own cell, and cells sufficiently far apart may
be using the same frequency. Cell splitting is based on the notion that cell
sizes are not fixed, and may vary in the same area or over time. The principle
G
B
C
A
F
E
D
G
B
C
A
F
E
D
G
B
C
A
F
E
D
(a) (b)
Telecommunication Systems 228
is shown in Figure 7.15. Initially, all the cells in an area may be relatively large
as shown in Figure 7.15a. When the average number of
Figure 7.15 Cell Splitting
users in some cells becomes too large to be handled with proper service
quality, the overloaded cells are split into smaller cells by adding more
transmitters, as shown in Figure 7.15b. The same MTSO can continue to
serve all of the cell sites, but expansion of its computer and switching facilities
probably will be required.
Handoff: At any instant, each mobile telephone is logically in one specific cell
and under the control of that cells base station. When a mobile telephone
physically leaves a cell, its base station notices the telephones signal fading
away and asks all the surrounding base stations how much power they are
getting from it. The base station then transfers ownership to the cell getting
the strongest signal, that is, the cell where the telephone is now located. The
telephone is then informed of its new boss, and if a call is in progress, it will be
asked to switch to a new channel because the old one is not reused in any of
the adjacent cells. This process, called handoff, takes about 300 msec.
Channel assignment is done by the MTSO, the nerve center of the system.
The base stations are really just radio relays. Handoff can be done in two
ways. In a soft handoff, the telephone is acquired by the new base station
before the previous one signs off. In this way there is no loss of continuity. The
downside here is that the telephone needs to be able to tune to two
6
7
2
1
3
4
5
2
3
4
5
6
7
1
Cell
Splitting
(a) Initial Cell-Site Pattern (b) No. 1 Cell-Site Split
Telecommunication Systems 229
frequencies at the same time (the old one and the new one). Neither first nor
second generation devices can do this. In a hard handoff, the old base station
drops the telephone before the new one acquires it. If the new one is unable
to acquire it (e.g., because there is no available frequency), the call is
disconnected abruptly. Users tend to notice this,
Figure 7.16 handoff between cells
but it is inevitable occasionally with the current design In a larger one, several
MTSOs may be needed, all of which are connected to a second-level MTSO,
and so on. The MTSOs are essentially end offices as in the telephone
system, and are, in fact, connected to at least one telephone system end
office. The MTSOs communicate with the base stations, each other, and the
PSTN using a packet-switching network. Figure 7.16 shows a typical handoff
between cells.
The MTSO: The Mobile Telephone Switching Office (MTSO) is the mobile
equivalent to a PSTN Central Office. The MTSO contains the switching
equipment or Mobile Switching Center (MSC) for routing mobile phone calls.
It also contains the equipment for controlling the cell sites that are connected
to the MSC. The systems in the MTSO are the heart of a cellular system. It is
responsible for interconnecting calls with the local and long distance landline
telephone companies, compiling billing information, etc. Its subordinate
CELLULAR
SWITCHING
EQUIPMENT
PUBLIC SWITCHED
TELEPHONE
NETWORK
BASE STATION 1
BASE STATION 2
BASE STATION 3
Telecommunication Systems 230
BSC/RNC are responsible for assigning frequencies to each call,
reassigning frequencies for handoffs, controlling handoffs so a mobile phone
leaving one cell (formally known as BTS)'s coverage area. It also provides
resources needed to efficiently serve a mobile subscriber such as
registration, authentication, location updating and call routing. The cell sites
are interconnected and controlled by a central mobile telecommunications
switching office (MTSO), which is basically a telephone switching office as far
as hardware is concerned.
Mobile Units: The mobile units consist of a control unit, a transceiver, and
appropriate antennas. The transceiver contains circuits that can tune to any
of the 666 FM channels from 826 to 845 MHz and 870 to 890 MHz in the
cellular range. Each cell site has at least one setup channel dedicated for
signaling between the cell and its mobile units. The remaining channels are
used for conversations. Each mobile unit is assigned a 10-digit number,
identical in form to any other telephone number. Callers to the mobile unit will
dial the local or long distance number for the desired mobile unit. The mobile
user will dial 7 or 10 digits with a 0 or 1 prefix, where applicable, as if calling
from a fixed telephone.
7.7.1.2 Second-Generation Mobile Phones: Digital Voice
The first generation of mobile phones was analog; the second generation
digital. there was also no standardization during the second generation. Four
systems are used: D-AMPS, GSM, CDMA, and PDC. The name PCS
(Personal Communications Services) is sometimes used in the marketing
literature to indicate a second-generation (i.e., digital) system. Originally it
meant a mobile phone using the 1900 MHz band, but that distinction is rarely
made now.
D-AMPS: The second generation of the AMPS systems is D-AMPS and is
fully digital. D-AMPS uses the same 30 kHz channels as AMPS and at the
same frequencies so that one channel can be analog and the adjacent ones
can be digital. Depending on the mix of phones in a cell, the cells MTSO
determines which channels are analog and which are digital, and it can
change channel types dynamically as the mix of phones in a cell changes. On
a D-AMPS mobile phone, the voice signal picked up by the microphone is
digitized and compressed using a model that is more sophisticated than the
delta modulation and predictive encoding schemes we studied earlier.
Telecommunication Systems 231
Compression takes into account detailed properties of the human vocal
system to get the bandwidth from the standard 56-kbps PCM encoding to 8
kbps or less. The compression is done by a circuit called a vocoder. The
compression is done in the telephone, rather than in the base station or end
office, to reduce the number of bits sent over the air link. One difference
between AMPS and D-AMPS is how handoff is handled. In AMPS, the MTSO
manages it completely without help from the mobile devices.
GSM (The Global System for Mobile Communications): Virtually
everywhere else in the world, a system called GSM (Global System for
Mobile communications) is used, GSM is a cellular system and frequency
division multiplexing is used, with each mobile transmitting on one frequency
and receiving on a higher frequency. Also a single frequency pair is split by
time-division multiplexing into time slots shared by multiple mobiles.
However, the GSM channels are much wider and hold relatively few
additional users giving GSM a much higher data rate per user.
CDMA (Code Division Multiple Access): CDMA is described in
International Standard IS-95 and is sometimes referred to by that name. The
brand name cdmaOne is also used in CDMA. Instead of dividing the allowed
frequency range into a few hundred narrow channels, CDMA allows each
station to transmit over the entire frequency spectrum all the time. Multiple
simultaneous transmissions are separated using coding theory. CDMA also
relaxes the assumption that colliding frames are totally garbled. Instead, it
assumes that multiple signals add linearly. CDMA is comparable to
everybody being in the middle of the room talking at once, but with each pair
in a different language. The English-speaking couple just hones in on the
English, rejecting everything that is not English as noise. Thus, the key to
CDMA is to be able to extract the desired signal while rejecting everything
else as random noise. In CDMA, each bit time is subdivided into m short
intervals called chips. Typically, there are 64 or 128 chips per bit, but in the
example given below we will use 8 chips/bit for simplicity. Each station is
assigned a unique m-bit code called a chip sequence. To transmit a 1 bit, a
station sends its chip sequence. To transmit a 0 bit, it sends the ones
complement of its chip sequence. No other patterns are permitted. Thus, for
m = 8, if station A is assigned the chip sequence 00011011, it sends a 1 bit by
sending 00011011 and a 0 bit by sending 11100100. Increasing the amount
of information to be sent from b bits/sec to mb chips/sec can only be done if
Telecommunication Systems 232
the bandwidth available is increased by a factor of m, making CDMA a form of
spread spectrum communication.
Enhanced Second-Generation Mobile Standards: Enhanced second-
generation (sometimes referred to as 2.5G or 2+G) builds upon the second-
generation standards by providing increased bit-rates and bringing limited
data capability. Data rates range from 57.6kbps to 171.2kbps. High-Speed
Circuit-Switched Data (HSCSD) provides access to four channels
simultaneously, theoretically providing four times the bandwidth (57.6) of a
standard circuit-switched data transmission of 14.4kbps. D-AMPS IS-136B
Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) is the intermediate step to Universal
Wireless Communication (UWC-136), a third-generation standard. The first
phase of D-AMPS will provide up to 64kbps. The second phase will provide
up to 115kbps in a mobile environment. General Packet Radio System
(GPRS) is an evolutionary path for GSM and IS-136 TDMA to UWC-136. It is
a standard from the European Telecommunications Standards Institute
(ETSI) on packet data in GSM systems. The Telecommunications Industry
Association (TIA), as the packet-data SDO for TDMA-136 systems, has also
accepted GPRS. GPRS supports theoretical data rates up to 171.2kbps by
utilizing all eight channels simultaneously. This data rate is roughly three
times faster than todays fixed telecommunication networks and about ten
times as fast as current circuit-switched data services on GSM networks.
GPRS is a universal packetswitched data service in GSM. It involves
overlaying a packet-based air interface on the existing circuit-switched GSM
network. Packet switching means that GPRS radio resources are used only
when users are actually sending or receiving data. Using GPRS, the
information is split into separate but related packets before being transmitted
and subsequently reassembled at the receiving end. GPRS is a non-voice-
added service that allows information to be sent and received across multiple
mobile telephone networks. It supplements today's circuit-switched data and
short messaging service. GPRS uses packet data technology, a fundamental
change from circuit-switched technology, to transfer information. It also
facilitates instant connection capability, sometimes referred to as always
connected. Immediacy is one of the key advantages of GPRS. Immediacy
enables time-critical application services
Telecommunication Systems 233
7.7.1.3 Third-Generation Mobile
The Third-generation (WCDMA in UMTS, CDMA2000 & TD-SCDMA): The
3G revolution allowed mobile telephone customers to use audio, graphics
and video applications. Over 3G it is possible to watch streaming video and
engage in video telephony, although such activities are severely constrained
by network bottlenecks and over-usage. One of the main objectives behind
3G was to standardize on a single global network protocol instead of the
different standards adopted previously. In EDGE, high-volume movement of
data was possible, but still the packet transfer on the air-interface behaves
like a circuit switch call. Thus part of this packet connection efficiency is lost in
the circuit switch environment. Moreover, the standards for developing the
networks were different for different parts of the world. Hence, it was decided
to have a network which provides services independent of the technology
platform and whose network design standards are same globally. Thus, 3G
was born. The International Telecommunication Union (ITU) defined the
demands for 3G mobile networks with the IMT-2000 standard. An
organization called 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) has
continued that work by defining a mobile system that fulfills the IMT-2000
standard. In Europe it was called UMTS (Universal Terrestrial Mobile
System), which is ETSI-driven. IMT2000 is the ITU-T name for the third
generation system, while cdma2000 is the name of the American 3G variant.
WCDMA is the air-interface technology for the UMTS. The main components
includes BS (Base Station) or nod B, RNC (Radio Network Controller), apart
from WMSC (Wideband CDMA Mobile Switching Centre) and SGSN/GGSN.
3G networks enable network operators to offer users a wider range of more
advanced services while achieving greater network capacity through
improved spectral efficiency. Services include wide-area wireless voice
telephony, video calls, and broadband wireless data, all in a mobile
environment. Additional features also include HSPA (High Speed Packet
Access) data transmission capabilities able to deliver speeds up to 14.4
Mbps on the downlink and 5.8 Mbps on the uplink. In many countries, 3G
networks do not use the same radio frequencies as 2G, so mobile operators
must build entirely new networks and license entirely new frequencies; an
exception is the United States where carriers operate 3G service in the same
frequencies as other services.
Telecommunication Systems 234
Third Generation Mobile Standards: Third-generation systems will
provide wide-area coverage at 384kbps and local area coverage up to
2Mbps. The primary motivation for the development of third generation
wireless communications is the ability to supplement standardized 2G and
2G+ services with wideband services. Essentially, this offers voice plus data
capability. The existing array of incompatible second-generation
technologies, together with the restricted amount of information that can be
transferred over these narrowband systems, prompted the ITU to work
towards defining a new global standard for the next-generation broadband
mobile telecommunication systems. Known as IMT-2000 (International
Mobile Telecommunications-2000), he project was started to attain
authorship of a set of globally harmonized standards for broadband mobile
communications. The first set of IMT-2000 recommendations was recently
approved by the ITU. IMT-2000 is the term used by the International
Telecommunications Union for this set of globally harmonized standards.
The initiative was to define the goal of accessing the global
telecommunication infrastructure through both satellite and terrestrial mobile
systems. IMT-2000 has reflected the explosion of mobile usage and the need
for future high-speed data communications, with wideband mobile
submissions. IMT-2000 is a flexible standard that allows operators around
the world the freedom of radio access methods and of core networks so that
they can openly implement and evolve their systems.
7.7.1.4 Fourth Generation( 4G) Mobile Networks
In contrast to 3G, the new 4G framework to be established will try to
accomplish new levels of user experience and multi-service capacity by also
integrating all the mobile technologies that exist (e.g. GSM - Global System
for Mobile Communications, GPRS - General Packet Radio Service, IMT-
2000 - International Mobile Communications, Wi-Fi - Wireless Fidelity,
Bluetooth). The fundamental reason for the transition to the All-IP is to have a
common platform for all the technologies that have been developed so far,
and to harmonize with user expectations of the many services to be provided.
The fundamental difference between the GSM/3G and All-IP is that the
functionality of the RNC and BSC is now distributed to the BTS and a set of
servers and gateways. This means that this network will be less expensive
and data transfer will be much faster. The current generation of mobile
telephony, 4G has been developed with the aim of providing transmission
rates up to 20 Mbps while simultaneously accommodating Quality of Service
235 Telecommunication Systems
(QoS) features. QoS will allow you and your telephone carrier to prioritize
traffic according to the type of application using your bandwidth and adjust
between your different telephone needs at a moment's notice. Only now are
we beginning to see the potential of 4G applications. They are expected to
include high-performance streaming of multimedia content. The deployment
of 4G networks will also improve video conferencing functionality. It is also
anticipated that 4G networks will deliver wider bandwidth to vehicles and
devices moving at high speeds within the network area.
Long Term Evolution(LTE) Basics: Long Term Evolution has long been
seen as the first advancement towards stronger, faster and more efficient 4G
data networks. The technology under LTE can currently reach downlink peak
rates of 100Mbps and uplink speeds of 50Mbit/s. The LTE technology is also
a scalable bandwidth technology for carriers operating anywhere from
20Mhz town to 1.4Mhz. Long Term Evolution offers some excellent
advantages over current 3G systems including higher throughput, plug and
play compatibility, FDD (Frequency Division Duplexing) and TDD (Time
Division Duplexing), low latency and lower operating expenditures. It also
offers legacy modes to support devices operating on GPRS systems, while
supporting seamless passthrough of technologies operating on other older
cellular towers. The technologies put forth by LTE will not only be
implemented over time, they are designed to be scalable. This scalability
means the company can slowly introduce LTE technologies over time,
without disrupting current services. LTE is also designed with a full Internet
Protocol (IP) network infrastructure. This means it can support full voice in
packet domains, while also offering advanced radio techniques for achieving
higher performance levels beyond what basic CDMA networks and 3G data
packets can currently achieve.
Telecommunication Systems 236
7.8 Traffic Engineering
The telephone exchanges are connected by trunks or junctions. The number
of trunks connecting exchange X with exchange Y is the number of voice
pairs or their equivalent used in the connection. One of the most important
steps in telecommunication engineering practice is to determine the number
of trunks required on a route or connection between exchanges. To
determine (dimension) a route correctly, we must have some idea of how
many people will wish to talk at once over the route. The usage of a
transmission route or a switch brings us into the realm of traffic engineering,
and the usage may be defined by two parameters: (1) calling rate, or the
number of times a route or traffic path is used per unit period, or, more
properly defined, the call intensity per traffic path during the busy hour and
(2) holding time, or the duration of occupancy of a traffic path by a call, or
sometimes, the average duration of occupancy of one or more paths by
calls. A traffic path is a channel, time slot, frequency band, line, trunk,
switch, or circuit over which individual communications pass in sequence.
Carried traffic is the volume of traffic actually carried by a switch, and offered
traffic is the volume of traffic offered to a switch. To determine the traffic path
or size of a telephone exchange, we must know the hourly, daily and weekly
traffic intensity. There are weekly and daily variations in traffic within the busy
season. Traffic is very random in nature. However, there is a certain
consistency we can look for. For one thing, there usually is more traffic on
Mondays and Fridays and a lower volume on Wednesdays. A certain
consistency can also be found in the normal workday hourly variation. The
busiest period, the busy hour (BH), is between 10 A.M. and 11 A.M. From one
workday to the next, originating BH calls can vary as much as 25%. To these
fairly regular variations, there are also unpredictable Variations that may be
caused by weather, natural disaster, international events, sporting events,
and so on. Nevertheless, suitable forecasts of BH traffic can be made.
Some common Busy Hour Definitions are as follows:
1. Busy Hour. The busy hour refers to the traffic volume or number of call
attempts, and is that continuous 1-h period lying wholly in the time
interval concerned for which this quantity (i.e., traffic volume or call
attempts) is greatest.
2. Peak Busy Hour. The busy hour each day; it usually is not the same
over a number of days.
Telecommunication Systems 237
3. Time Consistent Busy Hour. The 1-h period starting at the same time
each day for which the average traffic volume or call-attempt count of
the exchange or resource group concerned is greatest over the days
under consideration.
4. The engineering period (where the grade of service criteria is applied)
is defined as the busy season busy hour (BSBH), which is the busiest
clock hour of the busiest weeks of the year.
5. The average busy season busy hour (ABSBH) is used for trunk groups
and always has a grade of service criterion applied. For example, for
the ABSBH load, a call requiring a circuit in a trunk group should
encounter all trunks busy (ATB) no more than 1% of the time.
7.8.1 Measurement of Telephone Traffic: If we define telephone traffic as
the aggregate of telephone calls over a group of circuits or trunks with regard
to the duration of calls as well as their number, we can say that traffic flow (A)
is expressed as
A = C T
where C designates the number of calls originated during a period of 1 h and
T is the average holding time, usually given in hours.
A is a dimensionless unit because we are multiplying calls/hour by hour/call.
Suppose that the average holding time is 2.5 min and the calling rate in the
BH for a particular day is 237. The traffic flow (A) would then be 237 2.5, or
592.5 call-minutes (Cm) or 592.5/60, or about 9.87 call-hours (Ch). The unit
of traffic intensity is the erlang, named after the Danish mathematician A. K.
Erlang. The erlang is a dimensionless unit. One erlang represents a circuit
occupied for 1 h. Considering a group of circuits, traffic intensity in erlangs is
the number of call-seconds per second or the number of call-hours per hour.
If we knew that a group of 10 circuits had a call intensity of 5 erlangs, we
would expect half of the circuits to be busy at the time of measurement.
There are other traffic units. For instance: call-hour (Ch);1 Ch is the quantity
represented by one or more calls having an aggregate duration of 1 h; call
second (Cs);1 Cs is the quantity represented by one or more calls having an
aggregate duration of 1 s; traffic unit (TU), a unit of traffic intensity. One TU is
the average intensity in one or more traffic paths carrying an aggregate traffic
Telecommunication Systems 238
of 1 Ch in 1 h (the busy hour unless otherwise specified). 1 TU = 1 E (erlang)
(numerically). The equated busy hour call (EBHC) is a European unit of traffic
intensity. 1 EBHC is the average intensity in one or more traffic paths
occupied in the BH by one 2-min call or an aggregate duration of 2 min. Thus
we can relate our terms as follows:
1 erlang = 30 EBHC = 36 CCS = 60 Cm
assuming a 1-h time-unit interval.
7.8.2 Blockage, Lost Calls, and Grade of Service: Lets say, an isolated
telephone exchange serves 50 subscribers and that no more than 10% of the
subscribers wish service simultaneously. Therefore, the exchange is
dimensioned with sufficient equipment to complete 5 simultaneous
connections. Each connection would be, of course, between any two of the
50 subscribers. Now let subscriber 51 attempt to originate a call. The caller
cannot because all the connecting equipment is busy, even though the line
wishes to reach may be idle. This call from subscriber 51 is termed a lost call
or blocked call because the capacity of the system is for 50.
Grade of service expresses the probability of meeting blockage during the BH
and is expressed by the letter p. A typical grade of service is = 0.01. This
means that an average of one call in 100 will be blocked or lost during the
BH. Grade of service, a term in the Erlang formula, is more accurately defined
as the probability of blockage. It is important to remember that lost calls
(blocked calls) refer to calls that fail at first trial. We discuss attempts (at
dialing) later, that is, the way blocked calls are handled.
Example: Assume that there are 354 lines connected for service and 6
blocked calls (lost calls) during the BH, what is the grade of service?
Grade of service = Number of lost calls / Total number of offered calls
= 6 / 354 + 6
= 6 / 360
= 0.017
The average grade of service for a network may be obtained by adding the
grade of service contributed by each constituent switch, switching network, or
trunk group.
Telecommunication Systems 239
7.8.3 Erlang And Poisson Traffic Formulas: When determining a route,
we want to find the number of circuits that serve the route. There are several
formulas at our disposal to determine that number of circuits based on the BH
traffic load. To determine which traffic formula to use given a particular set of
circumstances. These factors primarily dealt with are;
(1) call arrivals and holding time distribution,
(2) number of traffic sources,
(3) availability,
(4) handling of lost calls.
The Erlang B loss formula has been widely used today . Loss here means the
probability of blockage at the switch due to congestion or to all trunks busy
(ATB). This is expressed as grade of service (EB) or the probability of finding x
channels busy. The other two factors in the Erlang B formula are the mean of
the offered traffic and the number of trunks of servicing channels available.
Thus;
EB = (An/n!) / (1 + A + A2/2! + +An/n!)
where n is the number of trunks or servicing channels, A is the mean of the
offered traffic.
EB is the grade of service using the Erlang B formula.
This formula assumes the following:
(i) Traffic originates from an infinite number of sources.
(ii) Lost calls are cleared assuming a zero holding time.
(iii) The number of trunks or servicing channels is limited.
(iv) Full availability exists.
7.8.4 Time and Call Congestion: Time congestion, of course, refers to the
decimal fraction of an hour during which all trunks are busy simultaneously.
Call congestion, on the other hand, refers to the number of calls that fail at first
attempt, which we term lost calls. Keep in mind that the Erlang B formula
deals with offered traffic, which differs from carried traffic by the number of
lost calls.
Telecommunication Systems 240
CHAPTER EIGHT
TELEGRAPHY
7.0 Introduction
Telegraphy is used to transfer information in the written form. It is a
combination of two words. "Tele" means at a distance and "Graph" means to
write. Hence telegraphy is to write at a distance. In the early days of
civilization, there were various methods of transferring information
(messages) over long distances these methods went on improving with the
passage of time and today we have the most modern methods of
communication.
Telegraphy was the first electrical communication system that allowed the
people to communicate with each other beyond the limited ranges of voice
and vision. Telegraph depends upon the transmission of electrical signals,
which are arranged according to some definite code. The information to be
sent is first converted into some form of code for ease of transmission and
reception. Codes are symbols that represent units of information
understandable by both sender and receiver.
7.1 Telegraphy Code Types:
In the unequal length code all the characters are represented by marks and
spaces, and the time of transmission is not the same (equal). There is no limit
to the number of characters combinations possible from this code. The most
common unequal length code is the Morse code. In the equal length code
each character consists of equal number of elements, each having the same
duration, which is also the basic time unit of the system. Five-unit code is an
equal length code and is most extensively used in machine telegraphy.
7.1.1 Morse Code
Morse code is named in honor of Samuel F.B. Morse, an American who
invented the telegraphic code. The morse code basically consists of two
elements, the dot (.), called "dit", which is the shortest element, also called
unit element and the lash (-), called "dah", which is the longer element. The
dot is about one-fourth the duration of a second. The dash is three times
longer than the dot. The relative durations of dots, dashes and other elements
have been fixed by international agreement. Thus:
241 Telecommunication Systems
A dot length = l/4lh of a second.
A dash length = 3 dots length.
Spacing between elements of a character = 1 dot length.
Spacing between character of a word = 3 dots length.
This new code was called the "CONTINENTAL" or "INTERNATIONAL" MORSE
CODE and became the universal standard for Radio Telegraph Communications
Here is a list which shows the dot and dash equivalents of letters and numbers in the
Original Morse code (American Morse Code), and the Continental (International)
code . An explanation of the timing and length of the characters is shown in table 7.5
with Dot = * Dash = - Long Dash = ---- .
The first telegraph message ever sent was a short one, but very interesting.
The message was: What God Hath Wrought. The reader should try to put
the message in the encoder to see what it looks like.
Telecommunication Systems 242
Table 8.1 Timing and length of the characters
MORSE CODE CONTINENTAL CODE
CHARACTER: AMERICAN MORSE INTERNATIONAL CODE
A * - * -
B - * * * - * * *
C * * * - * - *
D - * * - * *
E * *
F * - * * * - *
G - - * - - *
H * * * * * * * *
I * * * *
J - * - * * - - -
K - * - - * -
L ---- * - * *
M - - - -
N - * - *
O * * - - -
P * * * * * * - - *
Q * * - * - - * -
R * * * * - *
S * * * * * *
T - -
U * * - * * -
V * * * - * * * -
W * - - * - -
X * - * * - * * -
Y * * * * - * - -
Z * * * * - - * *
1 * - - * * - - - -
2 * * - * * * * - - -
3 * * * - * * * * - -
4 * * * * - * * * * -
5 - - - * * * * *
6 * * * * * * - * * * *
7 - - * * - - * * *
8 - * * * * - - - * *
9 - * * - - - - - *
0 ------ - - - - -
Period * * - - * * * - * - * -
Comma * - * - - - * * - -
Question - * * - * * * - - * *
Telecommunication Systems 243
Explanation of Spacing and Timing:
To standardize the International Code Transmission Speed, the 5-letter word
PARIS is used to establish the number of ''words-per-minute''. For example, if
the word PARIS was sent 5 times in a minute, the transmission speed would
be 5-words-per-minute or WPM. The following relationships exist between
the elements of the code (dits and dahs), the characters (letters) and the
words:
The DIT is the Basic UNIT of Length.
The DAH is equal in length to three DITS.
The space between the DITS and DAHS within a character (letter) is equal to
one DIT.
The space between characters (letters) in a word is equal to three DITS.
The space between words is equal to seven DITS.
7.1.2 Speed In Words-per-minute Or Wpm:
The following information about the calibration of the speed of transmission in
WPM (Words-Per-Minute).The speed in WPM is defined as the number of
times the word "PARIS" for instance is sent in one minute with normal 1:3:7
spacing and weighting. "PARIS" was chosen because it has the right number
of dits and dahs to represent an average word length in Morse.
7.1.3 Machine Telegraph Codes
Other codes have been introduced with the development of keyboard
operation and machine telegraphy. Codes were developed by Jean Maurice
Baudot and Donald Murray using five elements of mark or space in serial
form for each character symbol. Five elements are insufficient to separately
define all letters of the alphabet, numeric figures and punctuation and hence
two character symbols were allocated to shift between letters and figures or
punctuation so that each other character symbol performed two functions.
Added to each five element symbol were also two additional elements to
define the start and stop of the symbol for synchronisation. The five element
codes are still in use today in the communications services, including
amateur radio, but these codes are quite different to the first code introduced
by Baudot. The Baudot code was designed to suit manual operation from a
pianoforte type keyboard of five keys, one for each element in a symbol. This
original code is also known as the CCITT No 1 code and this is shown in table
7.2. (CCITT is an abbreviation for Consultative Committee for International
Telegraph and Telephone).
Telecommunication Systems 244
One limitation of the five element codes is that there are no provision for both
upper and lower case alpherbetic letters. This limitation was overcome by the
Murray code; A binary code with five binary digits per letter developed on the
basis of the CCIT2 code shown in figure 7.3.
The Ascii Code
The ASCII code is much more versatile than the five element codes with one
bit state difference between upper and lower letters and additional symbols
for control and printing operations, particularly suited to use with computers.
With the development of computers and high speed data exchange, ASCII
has become a common serial data code and this code uses seven mark or
space elements or bits to define each character. ASCII is an abbreviation for
American National Standard Code for Information Interchange and was
adopted by the American National Standards Institute in 1968. The code
actually utilises an eight bit byte with the eighth bit often used for parity error
check on the other bits. Additional start and stop bits are also included when
operated in the non-synchronous mode as used in the teletype service. With
seven bits available, all letters (including upper and lower case), all numerals
and all punctuation characters are allocated a unique character symbol or
byte. The arrangement of the first seven bits, for each of the characters, is
shown in table 7.
Telecommunication Systems 245
0 Indicates Space - positive current in a Baudot multiplex.
1 Indicates Mark - negative current in a Baudot multiplex.
* Indicates Free for internal use by a country or administration.
Table 8.2 - The Baudot or CCITT Code No 1
Telecommunication Systems 246
Table 8.3 The Murray or CCITT No 2 with variations
Notes: Transmission order: Bit 1 Bit 5
* Black - no action international alpherbet #2
unassigned (domestic variation not used internationlly
Telecommunication Systems 247
Table 7.4. The ASCII Code
Start & Stop Bits
The five element codes and the ASCII code use similar start and stop
elements or bits. The start bit is a zero or space signal equal in period of time
to a single character bit. The stop bit is a one or mark signal with a minimum
period of time between that of one and two character bits, depending on the
system. The maximum stop period is as long as desired as the stop mark
condition remains until the next character is initiated by the start space pulse.
The ASCII Data Code
7
6
5
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
1
0
0
1
1
1
0
0
1
0
1
1
1
0
1
1
1
4321
0000
0001
0000
00011
0 1 0 0
0 1 0 1
0 1 1 0
0 1 1 1
1000
1001
1010
1011
1100
1101
1110
1111
NUL
SOH
STX
ETX
EOX
ENO
ACK
BEL
BS
HT
LF
VT
FF
CA
SO
SI
OLE
OCI
DC2
DC3
DC4
MAX
SYN
ETB
CAN
EM
SUB
ESC
FS
GS
AS
US
SPC
1
-

=
%
&
(
)
.
+
_
/
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
=
=
<
=
>
?
U
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I
J
K
L
M
N
O
O
R
S
T
U
V
W
X
Y
Z
[
\
>
- -
a
b
c
d
e
l
g
h
I
l
k
1
m
n
0
p
q
r
s
l
u
v
w
x
y
z
[
]
]
P
DEL
ACK
BEL
BS
CAN
CR
DC1
DC2
DC3
DC4
DEL
DLE
ENO
EM
LOT
ESC
ETB
ETX
= acknowledge
signal bell
backspace (_)
cancel
carriage return
device control 1
device control 2
device control 3
device control 4
(delete)
data link escape
enquiry (WRU)
end of medium
end of trans.
escape
end of block
end of text
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
FF
FS
GS
HT
LF
NAK
NUL
RS
SI
SO
SOH
SPC
STX
SUB
SYN
US
VT
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
form feed (horme)
file separator
group separator
line feed (+))
not acknowledge
null
record separator
shill in
shill out
start of loading
space
start of text
substitute
unit separator
vertical tab ( +)
Telecommunication Systems 248
Typical timing formats for a character train in the five unit and ASCII codes are
shown in figure 7.1 (a) and (b), respectively.
(a) Time sequence of a typical Baudot character, the letter 0
(b) Time sequence of a typical ASCII character, the letter S. The eighth or
parity bit may be set for any of four conditions; (1) always mark, (2) always
space, (3) odd parity or (4) even parity. All four choices are
in common usage.
Figure 7.1 Start and Stop bits
REST
CONDITION
MARK
(CURRENT ON)
(CURRENT OFF)
SPACE
START
PULSE
CHARACTER NO.1
CHARACTER NO:2
1 2 3 4 6
(m) (s) (s) (m) (s)
DATA PULSES FOR D
TIME
(m) (s)
1 2
STOP
PULSE
START
PULSE
CHARACTER NO.1
CHARACTER
NO:2
REST
CONDITION
MARK
(CURRENT ON)
(CURRENT OFF)
SPACE
START
PULSE
STOP
PULSE
STAP
PULSE
TIME
PULSES DATA FOR S
(m) (s) (s) (m) (m) (s) (m) (s)
Telecommunication Systems 249
7.2 Morse code Telegraph System
The morse code telegraph system is a simple electric circuit consisting of the
following components:
1. A battery: which acts as a source of electrical energy in the circuit.
2. Morse key: It is a manual key and acts as a switch to open and close the
circuit. Thus causing pulses of current to flow on the line. When the operator
starts opening and closing of the key. The transmission of information and
encoding starts at the same time.
3. Transmission line: Acts a medium for the transmission information
between the two stations. The dots and dashes flow-on the line in the form of
electrical energy and are carried instantly through the wires from the
transmitter to the receiver.
i4. Receiver: The receiver used is called a sounder, because it produces
click like sound. The receiver consists of electromagnet and a movable
armature. When a pulse of current passes through the electromagnet, it
attracts the armature and click is produced. When the pulsed stops, the
armature returns to its normal position with the help of a spring and again
makes a click. The time between the clicks represents a dot or a dash. These
clicks are heard by an operator and are decoded into messages in the written
form by him. The morse code telegraph system is illustrated in t figure 7.25.
Figure 7.2 The morse code telegraph system
Morse Key
Morse Sounder
Morse System
Telecommunication Systems 250
7.2.1 Single and Double Current Morse code System
The morse code system may be either single current or double current. In the
single current system single battery is used. The current on the line flows only
in one direction. There is current on the line when dot or dash is transmitted
and no current when neither dot nor dash is transmitted. The advantage of
single current system is low power consumption. However, the flow of current
is slower and thus is a disadvantage. In the double current system two
batteries of opposite polarities are used. There is always current on the line,
which may be either positive or negative. For dot or dash the current on the
line is positive while for space it is negative. The double current system is
more sensitive and speedier than the single current system. This is illustrated
in figure 7.3.
Figure 7.3 Single and double current system.
7.3 Teleprinter
A teleprinter (teletypewriter, Teletype or TTY) is a electro mechanical
typewriter that can be used to communicate typed messages from point to
point and point to multipoint over a variety of communication channels that
range from a simple electrical connection, such as a pair of wires, to the use
of radio and microwave as the transmission medium. They could also serve
letter space
word space
word space
letter space
letter space
U S E
O F C
O D
E
U S E
O F C
O D
E
letter space
word space
word space
letter space
letter space
O
O
(a) Single current Morse code
(b) Single current Morse code
Telecommunication Systems 251
as a command line interface to early mainframe computers and
minicomputers, sending typed data to the computer with or without printed
output, and printing the response from the computer. The salient features of
teleprinter are listed below:
1. A teleprinter is a telegraph transmitting receiving machine.
2. Teleprinter resembles a typewriter because it has a typewriter like
keyboard.
3. A teleprinter is a mechanical device driven by electrical motors,
recently Electronic machine has been introduced, controlled by the
microprocessor.
4. Code used by teleprinter machine is the 5-unit code,
5. A teleprinter works on the start-stop principle.
6. A teleprinter acts both as a transmitter and as a receiver.
7. When used as a receiver, the signals are received in the serial form are
converted into Parallel. Then a detector converts it into the character
and the printer prints it on the paper.
8. Every teleprinter has also the facility of local record,
9. The actual mechanical arrangement of a teleprinter machine is very
Complicated, but a block diagram which shows the different parts of
the machine is figure 7.4.
Figure 7.4. Block Diagram of teleprinter
Motor
Platen unit
Selector
unit
Electro
magnet
Type
head
Aggregate
motor unit
Keyboard
Clutch
Translater
unit
T
r
a
n
s
m
i
t
t
e
r

Telecommunication Systems 252
7.3.1 Application of the Teleprinter
1. The teleprinter is basically used for sending and receiving of Telegraph
signals,
2. Teleprinter switching system is used in Telex (teleprinter exchange)
which is a convenient method of sending printed messages. An auto-
telex service has the advantage of communication as in telephone
astern and transfer of written record as in telegraph system.
3. Due to these two advantages, these services are used both for
commercial and industrial purposes,
4. The teleprinter can also be used for typing the local records.
7.4 Wireless Telegraphy
At the transmitter side, when the key is pressed, the telegraph signal current
passes through the modulator, where high frequency signal from the
oscillator is also received. The two are mixed and then after passing through
amplifier, the antenna radiates power in the air and is received by the distant
receiving antenna. At the receiver side the signal received, after passing
through amplifier, is demodulated and is again converted into telegraph
signals. The functions of the various blocks- in the block diagram in figure 7.5.
Figure 7.5 Block Diagram of wireless Telegraphy
Modulator
Telegrapgh
Signal input
Oscillator
Demodulator
Rx Amp
Rx Antenna
Tx Amp
Tx Antenna
Telegrapgh
Signal output
Telecommunication Systems 253
Modulator
The modulator is a circuit, which combines or mixes two frequencies. The
telegraph signal, which is a low frequency signal and a carrier, which is a high
frequency signal are mixed in the modulator. Both frequencies appear as
modulated signal at the output of the modulator. The modulated signal-is a
high frequency signal and is more suitable for transmission.
Demodulator
The demodulator is an essential part of the receiver. It does the reverse
function as that of the modulator. The original telegraph signal is separated
from the carrier signal by the demodulator circuit.
Amplifier
The amplifier is used to amplify the power level of the signal to a sufficient
amount. The transmitting amplifier boosts the signal power level more
suitable for transmission. The receiving amplifier raises the power level of the
received signal to an adequate amount.
Oscillator
The oscillator is a circuit, which generate radio frequency signal called carrier.
At the transmitter side the carrier signal is mixed with the signal containing
information and thus resulting in a high frequency modulated wave suitable
for transmission. At the receiver side the output of the oscillator is used to
select the required signal from the various radio frequency signals picked up
by the antenna and reject all others.
7.5 Facsimile
FACSIMILE (fax) is a method of transmitting still images over an electrical
communications system. The images, called "pictures" or "copy" in fax
terminology, may be weather maps, photographs, sketches, typewritten or
printed text, or handwriting. The still image serving as the fax copy or picture
cannot be transmitted instantly in its entirety. Three distinct operations are
performed. These are scanning, transmitting, and recording or receiving.
Scanning consists of subdividing the picture in an orderly manner into a large
number of segments. This process is accomplished in the fax transmitter by a
scanning drum and phototube arrangement. The picture you want to transmit
is mounted on a cylindrical scanning drum. This drum rotates at a constant
speed and at the same time moves longitudinally along a shaft. Light from an
Telecommunication Systems 254
exciter lamp illuminates a small segment of the moving picture and is
reflected by the picture through an aperture to a phototube. During picture
transmission, the light crosses every segment of the picture as the drum
slowly spirals past the fixed lighted area. The amount of light reflected back to
the phototube is a measure of the lightness or darkness of the segment of the
picture being scanned. The phototube changes the varying amounts of light
into electrical signals. These are used to amplitude modulate the constant
frequency output of a local oscillator. The modulated signal is then amplified
and sent to the radio circuits. Signals received by the fax receiver are
amplified and actuate a recording mechanism. This recorder makes a
permanent recording (segment by segment) on paper. The paper is attached
to a receiver drum similar to the one in the fax transmitter. The receiver drum
rotates synchronously with the transmitter drum. Synchronization of the
receiver and transmitter is done to reduce distortion. Synchronization is
obtained by driving both receiver and transmitter drums with synchronous
motors operating at the same speed. Drum rotation continues until the
original picture is reproduced. The recording mechanism may reproduce the
picture photographically by using a modulated light source shining on
photographic paper or film. It may also reproduce directly by burning a white
protective coating from specially prepared black recording paper. The
receiver drum is FRAMED with respect to the transmitter drum by a series of
phasing pulses that are transmitted just before transmission. The pulses
operate a clutch mechanism that starts the scanning drum in the receiver.
This ensures proper phasing with respect to the starting position of the
scanning drum in the transmitter.
7.5.1 Details of a fax machine
1. Facsimile or fax machine is an electronic system. It is used for
transmitting graphical information through wires or through free space
(i.e. with the help of electro-magnetic waves).
2. To send a fax means to send graphical information on a paper.
3. When we want to send a fax, the graphical information on paper is
SCANNED by strong light beam (its working is fairly similar to Xerox
machine).
4. While scanning, reflected light varies depending on the details in
graphical information.
5. The variations in light are converted into equivalent electrical signals.
Telecommunication Systems 255
6. This conversion is done with the help of Charge Coupled Device
(CCD) and electronic memory circuits.
7. Then the signals are transmitted over telephone line or through free
space.
8. By opposite process, the transmitted graphical information is
reproduced in printed form (on paper) at receiving end of fax machine.
9. Fax machine is used to send letters, photographs, maps etc. In short,
any information in printed form on paper can be sent with the help of fax
machine.
7.5.2 Scanning a Document.
Figure 7.6 shows the mechanism of scanning used in fax machine. The
process of scanning is done electronically. The paper is fed into the rollers.
Upper rollers rotate clockwise and lower rollers rotate anticlockwise. So the
paper is pulled into the machine. The light source focuses a strong light beam
on the paper. The light beam reflects from paper surface and through mirror
assembly, it is incident on CCD (Charge Coupled Devices).
The CCD is a light sensitive semiconductor device. It has a very large number
of tiny capacitor like devices. These are reverse biased silicon photo diodes
arranged in matrix form on a silicon chip. They convert variations in light
signals into proportional electrical signals.
Figure 7.6 Scanning mechanism of a Fax Machine
CCD
electronic
circuit
mirror
mirror
r
e
f
l
e
c
t
e
d

l
i
g
h
t

paper
direction of paper
rollers
(note direction
of rotation)
paper feed
light source
mirror
Telecommunication Systems 256
The complete information on paper is NOT stored on CCD. The beam of light
source scans the paper along width of paper, row-by-row. When it goes from
one end to another, the CCD becomes occupied. Then charged information
on CCD is given out to electronic memory and next scanning process starts,
until complete paper is scanned. Block diagram of fax machine is shown in
figure 7.7 with the operation of each block as explained below:
Transmitter block: When paper as graphical information is inserted into fax
machine, it is scanned rowbyrow. The CCD converts this information into
proportional analog signals. This output is fed to A/D converter circuit. Its
output is in digital form. This digital data becomes extremely huge due to
scanning details in the document. So it is compressed with the help of digital
data compression circuit. This circuit is made up of VLSI (Very Large Scale
Integration) technology. Hence, the size of data in bits (binary digits) is
reduced. This size of data in terms of bits is sufficient to represent the image
of document. With compression, size of storage memory is reduced and data
transmission rate is increased. The compressed data output is fed to
modulator. It is the modem, which can modulate & demodulate digital data. In
modem, a carrier wave is modulated using the data and transmitted over
telephone line. In some cases, PSK or QAM techniques are used in
modulation.
Figure 7.7 Block diagram of a Fax Machine
CCD
A/D
converter
modulator
circuit
digital data
compresion
telephone
line
interface to/from
telephone
line
demodulator
circuit
operator
controls
control
logic
digital data
expansion
motor control
circuits
thermal
printer
roller drive
motors
RECEIVER BLOCK
TRANSMITTER BLOCK
Telecommunication Systems 257
Receiver block: When fax signal reaches receiver block through telephone
line, it is demodulated using demodulator within modem. Thus, at its output
we get original data only in compressed form. To expand the data it is fed to
digital data expansion block. This circuit is also made up of VLSI (Very Large
Scale Integration) technology. The data is recovered by removing its data
compression into original size. the signals are fed to thermal printer. this
printer requires special heat sensitive paper. The head (stylus) of printer,
which prints the information on paper, has tiny heating elements (coils).
These elements rapidly turn on/off, depending on the signals received. It
moves on the paper and actually burns it into black/shades of black (i.e. gray
shades). In this way, it prints exact image of original document.
Control blocks: This is very complex circuit used for handshaking between
two fax machines, during communication. During this process, different audio
tones and beeps are exchanged and produced. This process takes place as
follows;
(i) When a fax machine is dialed, called machine responds to it by
producing an audio tone.
(ii) The calling machine sends synchronous signals, so both machines
start at the same time.
(iii) The called machine compares this signal as per its own standards and
acknowledges to sync. signals. Then the printing begins.
The operator controls block of a typical fax machine say, the G3 Fax
Machine
provides user-friendly controls like start, stop, number to be dialed and a
number of other functions. Motor control circuit controls speed of motor and
paper rollers. It is a constant speed controller circuit called as governor circuit.
The total communication between two fax machines is half-duplex type. The
standards of modern fax machine are set as per CCITT (International
Telegraph & Telephone Consultative Committee). This is important to avoid
compatibility problems.
Telecommunication Systems 258
i
Index
A
AA, 42
ABC, 207
ABSBH, 238
absolute, 10, 131
ac, 52, 58, 129, 131, 138
access, 95, 209, 218, 224, 233, 235
accurate, 82-83, 98, 130, 132, 138, 141, 144, 164
ACK, 248
acoustic, 198
action, 26, 117, 247
active, 10, 26, 124, 127, 131, 133-134, 177,
190-191, 210-211
actuate, 255
adapters, 93
Adder, 39, 110, 113
adder, 110, 113, 152, 160
addition, 32, 37, 83, 96, 112, 117, 138, 144, 186
Additive, 147
additive, 147, 162
address, 216, 225
adjacent, 16, 75-76, 86, 88-89, 115, 143, 191, 199,
227-229, 231
adjust, 70, 106, 129, 219, 236
aerial, 46, 83-84, 88, 169, 172, 185
AF, 52, 70, 72, 100, 110-111
AFC, 41, 43, 47-48, 111
AGC, 101-103, 162
alarm, 211-212
Alarms, 208, 211
ALC, 101
align, 156
alignment, 163
Allotter, 208-209
alloy, 198
alternate, 122, 133, 161, 181
alternating, 218
alternation, 118
alternator, 199
AM, 11-12, 16, 18, 20, 23-28, 30, 33, 35-38, 48,
66, 68-69, 73-74, 77-80, 99, 101, 104-105, 107,
119, 156, 159-160, 167-169, 177, 181
amateur, 46, 93-94, 99, 105, 244
ammeter, 81-82, 87-88
Amp, 70, 72, 99, 111, 253
amp, 62, 102, 162
amplification, 3, 16, 30, 46, 52, 68, 76, 79, 104,
161, 186
amplified, 29, 40, 101, 113, 159-160, 186, 215, 255
amplifier, 1, 18, 27-30, 33-37, 46, 52, 64-65,
68-69, 74, 76, 79-80, 101-103, 117-118, 152,
160-162, 165, 194-195, 215, 253-254
amplifiers, 28, 36, 52, 61-62, 64-65, 67-69, 75,
159-161
amplify, 52, 61, 97, 254
amplifying, 50
AMPLITUDE, 128
Amplitude, 11-13, 15, 19-21, 23, 26, 30, 38, 49,
51, 78, 80-81, 86, 99, 104, 135, 153, 167
amplitude, 2, 11-21, 26-28, 30, 34-36, 39, 46,
48-49, 56, 81-83, 85-86, 104, 107-109, 112,
115, 127-128, 132, 134, 136, 138, 142-143, 156,
169, 176, 255
amplitudes, 13, 15, 18-19, 22-23, 83, 86
AMPS, 227, 231-233
Amstrong, 48
ii
Index
analog, 2, 9, 11-12, 107, 221, 231, 257
analogue, 104, 150, 152, 157, 219
analyzer, 13, 15, 83, 85
AND, 25, 91
angle, 12, 19, 39-41, 56, 59, 90, 164, 167, 181, 187
ANSI, 225
antenna, 2, 10, 25, 36-37, 46, 50, 52, 62, 69,
74-75, 79, 91, 93-95, 98-99, 101-103, 113, 117,
119, 157-161, 169-172, 174-195, 228, 253-254
aperture, 128, 162-163, 169-172, 255
apparatus, 201
application, 2, 8, 40, 92, 97, 109, 188, 233, 236
applications, 25, 28, 36, 43-44, 58, 96-97,
104-106, 154, 171-173, 222, 234, 236
architecture, 6, 99, 103
area, 81, 93-94, 120, 124, 138, 145, 192, 207, 219,
225, 227-229, 231, 234-236, 255
arial, 169
arithmetic, 90
Armstrong, 48-49
array, 175-177, 181-182, 184-185, 187-188,
190-192, 201, 235
arrays, 172, 175-176, 178, 181, 183, 185, 187
ASCII, 245, 248-249
aspect, 121, 125, 143
assembly, 162-164, 256
Asynchronous, 7, 9
ATB, 238, 240
ATM, 92, 222
atmospheric, 9, 164
attenuated, 107, 112-113
attenuation, 103, 114, 188
attenuator, 83, 103, 113
ATU, 101-102
audible, 106, 145, 216-217
audio, 1, 9, 23-25, 46, 52, 61, 65, 68-69, 77, 86,
89, 96-97, 99-101, 103-105, 117, 157-159, 165,
167, 216, 234, 258
audiorange, 112
authentication, 231
automated, 97
automatic, 41, 43, 47, 101, 141, 203-205, 208,
210, 222
Azimuth, 180
B
backbone, 5, 220
background, 119, 124, 138
backspace, 248
Baird, 140
Balanced, 34, 49, 100-102, 109-111, 113, 116, 152
Balun, 182
balun, 194
BAND, 38, 78, 80
band, 16, 23, 26, 35, 40, 46, 48, 50, 71, 73, 77,
79-80, 92-97, 101-104, 107, 109-110, 112-115,
148, 158, 160, 181, 185, 187-188, 191-192, 231,
237
Bandpass, 35, 37, 64, 68, 102
bands, 24, 93-95, 107, 113, 115, 187
bandwidth, 6-7, 10, 16, 19-20, 22-24, 33, 57, 61,
64-66, 68, 71-73, 75-76, 92, 96, 104-105, 107,
121, 127, 138, 140-142, 144, 151, 154-156, 158,
177, 184-185, 227, 232-233, 236
BARnet, 207
base, 27, 29, 33, 81, 85, 94-95, 98, 136, 163, 196,
225-226, 228-230, 232
baseband, 7, 11, 16, 137, 159
battery, 197-200, 221, 250-251
Baudot, 244, 246, 249
beacon, 97
beacons, 94
beam, 92, 120, 127-129, 132-133, 135, 141, 145,
148-150, 161-162, 164-165, 167-168, 170, 174,
176, 255-257
beams, 128-129, 134, 145, 148, 163-164, 168
Bearing, 84
Beat, 105
beeps, 3, 258
BEL, 248
Bessel, 18
BFO, 105-106
bias, 41-44, 103
biasing, 41-42
binary, 1, 9, 245, 257
bipolar, 41
bit, 8-9, 63, 76, 155, 232-233, 245, 248-249
bits, 1, 7-9, 12, 232, 245, 248-249, 257
BJT, 41
blanking, 10, 127-132, 134-137, 139, 141-142,
152-153
block, 2, 7, 34-36, 39, 45-46, 48, 61-63, 72, 94-95,
99-100, 110, 113, 157-161, 166, 213, 248,
252-253, 257-258
Blue, 146-147, 150-151, 162, 165, 223
Bluetooth, 235
Boltzmann, 10
booster, 186
BORSCHT, 217, 221
boundaries, 148
BPF, 34, 40, 47, 157-159
BPSK, 12
broadband, 7, 97, 234-235
iii
Index
broadcast, 1, 8, 11, 47, 50, 70, 74, 84, 96, 115,
117, 137, 154, 167, 180, 195
broadcasting, 108, 117, 152, 154, 177-178
Broadside, 175-176
Brown, 223
browser, 1
brushes, 10
BS, 234, 248
BSBH, 238
BSC, 231, 235
BT, 205
BTS, 231, 235
Buffer, 35, 37, 45, 47, 49, 99, 111
bulb, 163
bundle, 173, 189, 222-223
burst, 10, 134, 139, 144, 153, 156, 160
bus, 5
bushings, 224
busy, 205-206, 208-209, 216, 219, 237-240
BW, 6-7, 10, 76, 107, 113-114
byte, 9, 245
C
cable, 1, 91-92, 119, 156, 167, 181, 193-195,
222-225
cables, 1-2, 10, 156, 194, 219-220, 222
cabling, 98, 152, 222
calibration, 244
camera, 117, 120, 124, 127-129, 132, 134, 136,
138, 149-150, 160-161
Candlepower, 146
capacitance, 40-45, 54, 118
capacitive, 42-43, 129, 181
capacitor, 30, 41, 45, 54-55, 58-59, 74, 98, 218,
256
capacity, 6, 36, 220, 224, 227, 234-235, 239
capture, 9, 121
carbon, 198
carriage, 248
Carrier, 12, 19, 27, 35, 37-38, 49, 99-102, 105,
108, 110-111, 113
carry, 52, 86, 105, 154, 167
cascaded, 65
casing, 97
cassette, 9, 195
cathode, 3, 81, 130, 164
CATV, 7
CCD, 124, 149-150, 256-257
CCDs, 159
CCIR, 131, 138, 142
CCIT, 245
CCITT, 244, 246-247, 258
CDMA, 231-234, 236
cell, 6, 92, 97, 225, 227-231
Cellphone, 92
cells, 166, 200, 227-230
cellular, 91, 94, 227-228, 230-232, 236
Celsius, 10
centimeters, 82
channel, 1-3, 7, 9, 24, 66, 83, 86, 88-89, 93, 95-98,
113-115, 119, 143, 160, 165, 167, 184-185,
191-192, 221, 226-229, 231, 237
channels, 2-3, 7, 9, 16, 66, 92, 113-114, 138,
143-144, 167, 182-183, 186-187, 189-192,
226-227, 231-233, 240, 251
Charge, 256
charges, 33, 45
charging, 45, 210-211
chart, 90
chip, 232, 256
choke, 31
chroma, 144, 161
chrominance, 142-144, 150-152, 154, 156
cinematography, 148
CIO, 105
circuit, 6-7, 10, 15, 26-27, 29-33, 37, 40-44, 47-48,
52, 55-63, 69, 71, 73-76, 84, 86-87, 89, 92,
97-98, 101, 105, 114, 117-119, 128-129,
135-136, 141, 162, 169, 182, 197-200, 205,
209-211, 215, 217-219, 221, 232-234, 237-238,
250, 254, 256-258
circuitry, 10, 25, 37, 62-63, 97, 105, 119, 134, 156,
212
circuits, 10, 35, 52, 61-63, 69-72, 76, 84, 97, 118,
127, 129, 131, 134, 138, 141, 156, 159-161,
165, 172, 200-201, 220, 223, 231, 238, 240,
255-257
clock, 7-8, 238
clusters, 156, 214
coarse, 141
coaxial, 16, 91, 193-195
code, 3-4, 25, 95-96, 98, 198, 206-207, 232,
241-242, 244-245, 248, 250-252
codec, 9
coded, 52
codes, 95-96, 206, 222-224, 244-245, 248-249
Coding, 217, 221-222
Coefficient, 30
coefficient, 90
coil, 53, 55, 58-59, 73-74, 83, 85, 196
collector, 27, 30-33, 36, 74
collinear, 175-176
color, 120, 126-127, 143-149, 151-154, 156-159,
162-164, 166-168, 222-223
iv
Index
colors, 10, 144-145, 147-148, 153-155, 162, 166,
168, 222-224
colourdifference, 150
combiner, 181
communication, 1-3, 5, 7, 9-11, 18, 23, 62, 84,
91-92, 94-96, 104-107, 112-114, 117, 169, 198,
219, 225, 227, 233, 241, 251, 253, 258
communications, 1-10, 25, 72, 91, 93, 95-96, 98,
104-105, 217, 232, 235, 237, 244, 254
comparator, 131
compatibility, 236, 258
complement, 232
component, 13-15, 18-19, 30, 34, 83, 85, 109, 127,
129, 138, 144, 150, 154, 157-158, 164, 218, 224
composite, 15-16, 18, 129, 131, 134, 137,
149-150, 152-153, 156, 159
computer, 5, 8-9, 93, 97-98, 120, 154, 166,
228-229, 252
computing, 5-6
conductor, 10, 92, 189, 194, 222-223
conductors, 183, 185, 188-189, 222-223
conduit, 224
configuration, 2, 181
configurations, 5, 62, 171
congestion, 240
connect, 81, 118, 175, 189, 193-194, 199,
202-204, 206, 208, 213-214, 219, 222
connection, 1, 5, 74, 84, 92-93, 98, 157, 170, 194,
200-201, 203, 207, 215-216, 219, 224, 233-234,
237, 239, 251
connectivity, 220
connector, 194
construction, 190
consumer, 97-98
control, 8, 36, 41, 45, 47, 74, 83, 94, 101, 103,
106, 130, 134, 137, 141, 165, 180, 201-202,
219, 221, 229, 231, 245, 248, 257-258
controller, 258
controls, 45, 87, 98, 106, 129, 154, 162, 165,
257-258
converter, 37, 64-66, 68-69, 73, 79, 158-159, 195,
198, 217, 257
convex, 174-175
coordinates, 158
coplanar, 172
copper, 1, 92, 223
cord, 200, 224
cordless, 91, 97, 225
core, 74, 97, 196, 220, 235
cos, 16, 39-40
cosine, 13
counter, 210
cradle, 198, 213, 217
Crosby, 47
crossbar, 201-202
CROSSPOINT, 202
Crosstalk, 223
CRT, 122, 153, 162-163, 165-166
CRTs, 162, 166
crystal, 18, 36, 41, 44, 47-48, 72, 74-75, 98-99,
112-113, 165-166
Current, 45, 57, 60, 140, 198, 251
currents, 34, 176, 184, 198
Curve, 56
curve, 34, 53-54, 56-58, 76
curvilinear, 173
cutoff, 28
CVBS, 151-152
CW, 25-26, 99, 101-102
cyan, 147, 154, 168
cycle, 28, 33, 81, 118
cylinder, 173, 189
CYM, 154
D
DAH, 244
DAHS, 244
dahs, 244
dash, 52, 241-242, 250-251
dashes, 3, 25, 241, 250
data, 1, 5-9, 11, 46, 52, 92, 97, 121, 219, 221-225,
232-236, 245, 248, 252, 257-258
dB, 11, 14-15, 19, 23, 68-69, 86-89, 103, 106-107,
113, 119, 177, 179
dBi, 180, 184, 190
dBm, 106
dBW, 106
DC, 31, 44, 98, 103, 118, 131, 218, 248
decibel, 11, 119
decibels, 83
decimal, 210, 240
decline, 166
decoder, 157-158
decoding, 98, 156
decompress, 1
deflection, 131, 135, 163
degrees, 10, 59, 148
DEL, 248
delay, 123, 133, 144, 157
delta, 231
demodulated, 67, 160, 253, 258
demodulation, 11, 65, 105, 112, 153
demodulator, 24, 50, 65, 68, 144, 156, 158-159,
161, 254, 257-258
v
Index
density, 113-114
depth, 81-84, 86, 88, 142, 166
derivative, 39-40, 104, 107
design, 6, 35, 46, 77, 109, 178, 184, 227, 230, 234
detection, 8, 11, 18, 50, 52, 81, 221
detector, 52, 61-62, 64, 68-69, 77, 82, 101, 105,
161-162, 252
deviation, 16-17, 39-40, 47-48, 85, 105, 144
device, 3, 8-9, 34, 37, 40, 42-43, 48, 62, 65, 77,
79, 91, 94-97, 117, 120, 123, 128-129, 150, 157,
169, 185, 197-199, 218, 228, 248, 252, 256
devices, 8-10, 26, 28, 41, 52, 91, 94-95, 97, 121,
149-150, 169, 202, 222, 224-225, 227, 230, 232,
236, 256
diagram, 2, 30-31, 34-37, 39, 41, 45-46, 48, 56,
59, 61-63, 72, 83, 85, 99-100, 109-110,
112-113, 124, 151, 157-162, 178, 183, 209,
252-253, 257
dial, 24, 198, 205-207, 216, 218, 221, 231
Dialer, 218
dials, 207, 221
diameter, 185, 224
diaphragm, 198
dielectric, 171-174
differentiating, 141
digital, 1-2, 7, 9, 11-12, 103, 120-121, 142-143,
154, 157, 202, 221, 227, 231, 257-258
digits, 1, 204-210, 231, 245, 257
dimension, 42, 183, 237
dimensional, 153, 176
dimensions, 82, 120-121, 140, 170, 185
diode, 26-28, 37, 41, 43-44, 65, 82
diodes, 10, 26-28, 41, 43, 63, 256
diplexer, 159, 181-182, 192, 194
dipole, 174-177, 179, 181-187, 189, 191-192
dipoles, 170, 175-176, 179, 181-182, 186-188,
190-191
directional, 173, 177, 179, 186, 191
directivity, 172-173, 176, 185, 188-189
directors, 183-185, 191
discrete, 9, 143
discriminator, 48, 52
dish, 171
DISK, 171-172
distortion, 3, 6, 16, 18-19, 22-23, 36, 50, 63, 81,
103, 123, 255
DITS, 244
domain, 13-15, 22
domains, 15, 236
dot, 52, 143, 241-242, 250-251
dots, 3, 25, 153, 166, 241-242, 250
downlink, 91-92, 94, 234, 236
downward, 98
drain, 42-43
driven, 27, 175, 183-185, 199, 234, 252
drives, 30, 97, 101, 103
DSB, 15, 27, 34-35, 111-112, 156
DSBFC, 30, 33, 35-37, 107, 109, 114
DSBSC, 107-109, 114
DSP, 103
DTMF, 213
dual, 191, 213
dummy, 83
duplex, 8, 91, 97, 215, 258
Duplexing, 236
DVD, 150
E
EALing, 207
EBHC, 239
EDGE, 234
efficiency, 8, 11, 15, 24, 27, 33, 79, 99, 104-105,
109, 112, 198-200, 234
EIA, 222, 224-225
electormagnet, 210
electric, 3, 10, 120, 124, 166, 175, 184, 196-198,
216, 250
electrical, 1-4, 35, 41, 52, 91-92, 97, 117-119, 129,
157, 160, 163, 167, 192, 198, 202, 216, 218,
221, 224-225, 241, 250-252, 254-256
electricity, 117-118, 141
Electro, 202, 252
electromagnet, 210, 250
electromagnetic, 3, 5, 35, 91-92, 118-119,
145-146, 163, 169, 171, 173, 177, 183-184, 189,
199
electromechanical, 206
electron, 52, 120, 127, 131, 134, 153, 161-164,
167-168
electronic, 3, 5, 10, 26-27, 35, 41, 83, 91, 98, 120,
129, 136, 138, 149, 255-257
element, 28, 124, 136, 169-171, 175, 179,
183-185, 187, 190-192, 224, 241, 244-245, 248
elements, 41, 105, 121, 127, 138, 160, 162-163,
170, 172, 175, 177, 179, 181-185, 190-192, 212,
221, 228, 241-242, 244-245, 248, 258
emf, 55, 58
emission, 25, 186
emitter, 27-30, 33, 36, 74
emitters, 25
encode, 5
encoder, 151, 156-157, 242
encoding, 151, 231-232, 250
encryption, 95
vi
Index
energized, 197
energy, 4-5, 10, 35, 52, 74, 117, 167, 169,
173-174, 189, 198, 216, 250
England, 227
equalizing, 127, 130, 133-134, 143
equates, 17, 84
EQUIPMENT, 230
equipment, 2, 9-10, 25-26, 46, 83-84, 96, 104, 129,
152, 194, 205-206, 208-211, 217, 221, 230, 239
equivalents, 242
Erlang, 238-240
erlangs, 238
error, 8, 79, 245
errors, 8-9, 105, 142-143
ESC, 248
essence, 68
Ethernet, 222
ETSI, 233-234
ETX, 248
F
faceplate, 130, 162-163
Facsimile, 254-255
Fan, 188
FCC, 138
FDD, 236
FDM, 114
features, 95, 140-142, 144, 172, 208, 218, 234,
236, 252
feedback, 74
feeder, 184, 190, 193
Feedline, 179
FET, 41-42
fI, 80
fiber, 1, 3, 91-92, 219-220
Fidelity, 235
Field, 122, 124, 126, 139-140
fields, 122-123, 126, 130, 133-134, 137, 139-141,
175, 177, 184
Filter, 35, 38, 66, 80, 100-101, 103, 109
filters, 65, 72, 99, 102, 114, 142, 149, 151,
158-159, 167, 195
FINDER, 210
Finder, 209
flicker, 10, 119, 121-123, 126
fluorescent, 146, 161, 163
flyback, 128, 135-136, 141
flywheel, 33, 141
FM, 11-12, 17-21, 23-24, 38-40, 43-52, 70-71, 93,
96, 144, 156-161, 167, 169, 180-181, 195, 231
focuses, 149, 162, 256
fps, 119-120, 123, 140
frame, 119-123, 126, 132, 138-139, 156, 162
frequencies, 6, 10-11, 13, 18, 23, 26-27, 30-31,
37-38, 45, 50-52, 56-57, 61-65, 67-70, 72-74,
76-77, 79, 84-85, 89, 91, 93-95, 98, 104, 108,
110, 112, 114, 142, 145, 160, 169-170, 172-174,
178, 183, 187-188, 191, 213, 226-227, 230-231,
234, 254
frequency, 2, 7-8, 10-27, 29-31, 33, 35, 37-41,
43-48, 50-62, 64-68, 70-74, 76-77, 79-81,
85-86, 88-92, 94-98, 100-101, 104-106, 109,
111-115, 117-118, 130, 134, 141-146, 151, 156,
158-160, 167, 169-171, 177-178, 183-187,
190-191, 199, 213, 227-228, 230, 232, 237,
253-255
fuse, 120
G
gain, 29-30, 36, 38, 62, 65, 67-69, 76, 86-87, 89,
96, 101, 103, 141, 165, 173, 177, 179, 181,
184-186, 188-190
gateways, 235
gating, 26, 153
Gbit, 97
generation, 16, 46, 97, 114, 148-149, 152,
230-231, 233-235
generator, 40, 84-89, 98, 160, 200, 205, 211
generators, 83, 131, 137, 160, 199-200
geometries, 169, 171
Geometry, 180
GHz, 10, 95, 171-174, 183
gigabit, 97
gigahertz, 95
glowing, 211
GPP, 234
GPRS, 233, 235-236
Grade, 239
graphite, 164
gray, 258
grey, 138, 147-149
ground, 74, 92, 138, 172, 223, 225
GSM, 231-233, 235
guardband, 164
Guided, 3, 91
vii
Index
H
habitually, 185
halfwave, 187
Halogen, 146
handoff, 229-230, 232
handoffs, 231
handset, 198, 205, 208-209, 211, 213, 216-217, 225
handshaking, 258
hardware, 1, 221, 225, 231
harmonics, 33, 37, 63, 73
Hartley, 6
haul, 219-220
HD, 143
HDMI, 157
headphones, 52, 75
headset, 84, 93, 103-104, 218
henrys, 53, 55, 58
hertz, 10, 27, 84, 117-118
heterodyne, 25, 63, 73-74, 86, 99
heterodyning, 62-63, 65
HF, 94-95, 97, 99, 103-104
hierarchy, 214, 219, 221
highfrequency, 11, 31
hook, 118, 198, 205, 211, 213, 217-218, 221
HSCSD, 233
HSI, 154
HSPA, 234
HT, 248
Hue, 154
hue, 142, 154
huge, 257
Human, 119, 121, 148
Hybrid, 212, 215, 217, 221
Hz, 47, 51, 62-63, 78, 80, 84, 105, 112, 118-119,
126-127, 130, 134, 140-142, 144-145, 153, 217,
221
I
IC, 45, 52, 59, 98
IF, 62, 64-74, 76-77, 79-80, 97, 99-103, 160-162
IFRR, 67
ignition, 98
impedance, 36, 41-43, 56, 59-60, 84-85, 87-90,
102, 118, 176-177, 179, 184-185, 215
IMT, 234-235
IMTS, 226-227
inches, 94-95, 224
indicator, 199-200
indicators, 199
indigo, 145, 148
inductance, 40, 43, 53, 55, 58, 118
induction, 92, 223
inductive, 42-43, 85
inductor, 41, 53
inductors, 63
Industry, 222, 233
information, 1-3, 6-7, 9, 11-12, 15, 25, 36-37,
50-51, 61, 65, 77, 80, 94-96, 98, 105, 107-109,
117, 119, 127, 129-132, 134-139, 143-144,
149-151, 154, 160, 167-168, 192, 218, 230,
232-233, 235, 241, 244, 250, 254-258
informations, 161
infrared, 145, 173
Input, 2, 38, 44, 47, 49, 87, 89
inputs, 44, 62-63, 105, 157
Inside, 217
inside, 39, 62, 97, 162-164, 167
instal, 199
installed, 226-227
installer, 222
instrument, 3, 82-83, 85, 89
insulated, 92, 224
integral, 38-39, 142
integrated, 39, 50, 52, 98, 165
integrating, 118, 141, 235
integration, 18, 39, 172
integrator, 141
intelligence, 25, 52, 223
intent, 122
Intercarrier, 142
Interception, 96
intercepts, 160, 183
intercoms, 36
interconnect, 5
interconnected, 5, 191, 219, 231
interface, 215, 221-222, 233-234, 252, 257
interfacing, 221
intermodulation, 16, 83
Internet, 225, 236
Inverter, 45
ionosphere, 94
ionospheric, 94
IP, 235-236
IR, 52
ISB, 83, 109, 113-114
ISD, 115
ITU, 234-235
I,90
viii
Index
J
jack, 200, 218, 224
John, 5
jXc, 42
K
kbps, 91, 232-233, 235
Kelvin, 10, 148
key, 3-5, 25, 98, 114, 199-200, 218-219, 227,
232-233, 250, 253
keyboard, 244, 252
Keying, 12
keypad, 213
kHz, 10, 16, 23-24, 47, 49, 66, 69-74, 99-100,
103-104, 113, 156, 231
km, 145, 192, 227
kTBW, 10
KW, 113
L
lags, 53, 181
LAN, 5, 222
landline, 230
layers, 92
LCD, 166
LCR, 55, 57, 59, 61
leaky, 170, 172
lens, 149, 166, 170
Level, 35-36, 137, 153, 204, 210, 222
LF, 248
limit, 16, 28, 76, 158, 205, 241
Line, 102-103, 120, 125-126, 132, 135, 138-142,
176, 179, 208-209, 212, 217, 219, 221
Linefinder, 209
link, 92-93, 183, 232, 248
links, 6, 92, 219-220
loading, 74, 248
lobes, 191
local, 65-68, 79, 93-94, 98, 101, 184, 193, 199,
202, 209-217, 219, 221, 230-231, 235, 252-253,
255
location, 1, 135, 198, 207, 218, 224, 231
locations, 5, 92, 183, 185, 192, 198, 221, 225
logarithmic, 11, 15, 119, 190
logic, 106, 257
loop, 47-48, 188, 193, 214, 216-217, 224
loops, 74, 170, 189, 221
Lost, 239-240
LOT, 248
loudspeaker, 3, 52, 84-85, 117, 165
LPDA, 177-178, 190
LPDAs, 190
LPF, 47, 152, 157-159
LPVA, 190
LSB, 13-15, 25, 100-101, 105-106, 108, 110,
113-115
LTE, 236
luminance, 130-132, 136-137, 142, 150-154, 156,
159, 161
luminosity, 146-147
Lux, 146
M
mA, 88, 217
machines, 258
magenta, 147, 154
magnet, 196-198, 252
magnetic, 164, 175, 196-198, 255
magneto, 3-4, 199-200, 221
magnitude, 19, 90, 227
mainframe, 252
maintenance, 7, 115, 202
manage, 96
manifold, 181
maps, 254, 256
Marconi, 3, 5
margins, 20
masts, 192
material, 174, 196, 198
mathematical, 13, 65, 67, 153
matrix, 143, 163, 201-202, 256
matrixing, 151
MATV, 195
Mbit, 97, 236
Mbps, 92, 222, 234-236
measurement, 15, 81-83, 85-90, 106, 166, 238
mega, 27
megabits, 97
megahertz, 93-95, 169
megapixels, 121
ix
Index
memory, 256-257
Merging, 119-120
meter, 81, 85-89, 93, 101, 193, 210-211
metering, 210-211
meters, 3, 83, 85, 92, 210
MH, 99, 191
MHz, 45, 47-48, 70-73, 84, 93-95, 99-100, 103,
113-114, 138, 140-144, 152-158, 160, 183-185,
192, 222, 226, 231
microcells, 228
microphone, 2, 46, 117, 217-218, 231
microprocessor, 252
microstrip, 172
microwave, 16, 92-94, 145, 174, 188, 219-220, 251
millimeter, 145, 172
Mixer, 39-40, 47, 49, 64-66, 69-70, 72, 100,
102-103, 160
Mnemonics, 207
mobile, 91-92, 95, 97, 112-113, 172, 207,
225-227, 229-235
modem, 257-258
modulate, 2, 11, 16, 31, 120, 152, 158-159, 255,
257
modulating, 2, 11-13, 16-20, 23-24, 26-31, 33-35,
37-41, 43-44, 47-48, 81, 85, 106, 108-111, 113,
143
modulation, 7, 11-18, 20-22, 25-26, 28-30, 33-34,
36-37, 39-41, 43-44, 46-50, 81-87, 89, 96,
104-105, 107-109, 141-144, 152, 156, 169, 231,
257
modulator, 3, 15, 18, 26-37, 39, 41-44, 46-48, 50,
65, 77, 82, 99, 109-111, 113, 116, 152, 156-158,
160, 253-254, 257
modulators, 26-28, 33-34, 36, 43, 113, 152, 156
moment, 141, 156, 205, 236
monitor, 98, 120, 122, 130, 132, 157-159
monochrome, 127, 131-132, 136, 139-140, 143,
149-150, 155, 160-161, 165
Morse, 3-4, 241-242, 244, 250-251
motor, 252, 257-258
motors, 10, 223, 252, 255, 257
MSC, 228, 230
MTSO, 228-232
multipath, 181
multiplex, 158, 246
multiplexing, 2, 7, 16, 114, 151, 232
Murray, 244-245, 247
mV, 88
mW, 86-87, 89
N
narrowband, 39-40, 235
NEC, 225
negative, 28, 44, 98, 118, 142, 223, 246, 251
network, 1, 5-6, 9, 35-37, 49, 62, 89, 101, 192,
219-221, 230, 233-236, 239
networks, 5, 91-93, 97, 233-236
NFPA, 225
nodes, 5
noise, 1-3, 9-11, 24, 35-36, 50-51, 64, 74-75,
86-88, 91, 102-103, 107, 119, 128-129, 178, 232
nonlinear, 18, 27, 30, 36-37, 62, 65, 69, 77, 79
nonlinearly, 29
NTSC, 123, 136, 138, 140-144, 151-152, 154-155,
157-158
O
OFDM, 12
ohms, 42, 52-56, 58, 176, 184
optical, 91, 149, 157, 163, 188, 220
optimum, 102, 106, 144, 165
orange, 145, 148
Orthogonal, 12
oscillator, 18, 35-37, 41, 43-48, 65-74, 79, 98-99,
101, 105, 109, 113, 130, 152, 156, 160, 253-255
oscilloscope, 81
outlets, 204, 209, 224-225
OUTPUTLINES, 201
P
packet, 6, 230, 233-234, 236
packets, 233, 236
PAL, 123, 130, 136, 138-140, 143-144, 151-152,
154-155
panels, 181-182, 222
paraboloidal, 173, 189
parameters, 6, 12, 178, 237
parasitic, 185, 191
parity, 8, 245, 249
passband, 79, 106
x
Index
passive, 10, 26
patch, 171-172, 222
pattern, 4, 162, 169, 177, 179, 181-182, 186-188
patterns, 3-5, 139, 171, 195, 232
PBX, 217
PCB, 1
PCM, 232
PCS, 231
PDC, 231
peak, 12, 17, 23, 48, 76, 81, 106, 131-132, 137,
141, 236
Pedestal, 137, 153
Phasing, 176, 179
phone, 85, 92, 208, 211, 213, 216-220, 224-225,
227, 230-231
phones, 95, 97, 207, 218-219, 225, 227, 231
picture, 114, 117, 119, 121-122, 124, 126-132,
134-139, 148-150, 155, 157-162, 164-167,
181-182, 186, 195, 254-255
Pilot, 111-112, 115
pink, 10
pixel, 121-122
pixels, 120-122, 143
placed, 98, 119, 166, 174, 178, 188-189, 196, 198,
217
plasma, 165-166
plate, 224
PLL, 1, 65
PLWA, 172
Poisson, 240
polarity, 181, 197, 202, 224
polarization, 178, 193
police, 93, 97
porch, 135-136, 153
Postequalizing, 133
POTS, 212
power, 1, 10-11, 14-16, 18, 23-24, 26-28, 30-31,
33, 35-37, 46, 69, 83, 85-89, 98, 101-102,
105-109, 112-113, 118-119, 159-160, 169,
172-173, 179, 184, 193, 216, 221, 223-224,
227-229, 251, 253-254
PPM, 12
Preamplifier, 35, 37
Preemphasis, 50-51
preselector, 64-65, 67-69, 103
present, 5, 26, 29, 88-89, 106-107, 134, 142, 144,
195
preserve, 136
processing, 103, 154, 160
Progressive, 121-122
propagates, 2
propagating, 170
propagation, 92, 94-95, 159, 174
properties, 17, 121, 184, 188, 232
PSK, 257
PSTN, 5, 92, 230
PSU, 98
pulse, 127-128, 130-133, 135-136, 139-141, 153,
160, 210-211, 216, 248, 250
PulsePosition, 12
Q
QAM, 12, 143-144, 158-159, 257
QoS, 236
quadrature, 143, 152
R
rabbit, 189
radar, 2, 69, 169, 176
radiate, 177
radiation, 2, 91-92, 163, 172-173, 175, 177,
179-180, 182, 184-185, 188
radiator, 169, 174
radiators, 170, 172, 181
radio, 2-3, 5, 8, 11, 23-26, 31, 37, 46, 52, 58,
61-67, 69-71, 74-77, 79, 82, 86-91, 93-98,
104-107, 109, 112-113, 117, 119, 145, 167, 169,
173-174, 189, 219, 228-229, 233-236, 244, 251,
254-255
radios, 71-74, 91, 94-95, 97
Radiotelegraphy, 25
rainbow, 145, 148
raster, 120, 130, 133, 135
rays, 145, 173, 189
RBOC, 212
RCVR, 98
reactance, 40-43, 53-54
reactive, 41-42
receiver, 1-4, 7-8, 10-11, 15, 25, 50-52, 61-69,
71-74, 76, 79, 82-84, 86-89, 91, 94-96, 98-99,
101-102, 104-107, 109, 112, 114-115, 117,
127-132, 134-138, 141, 144, 149, 152-153, 156,
159-162, 165, 173, 181, 185-186, 189, 195,
198-200, 216-217, 226, 228, 241, 250, 252-255,
258
receivers, 5, 52, 61, 70-71, 73-75, 97-99, 105-106,
109, 115, 141, 143, 165, 181, 183, 188, 195
xi
Index
reception, 1, 3, 8, 10, 52, 63, 88, 91, 93, 96-97,
107, 112, 179-180, 183, 185-189, 191, 193, 241
receptors, 149
records, 253
Red, 93, 146-147, 150-151, 162, 165
Reed, 202
reflected, 101-102, 120, 193, 235, 255
reflection, 89-90, 173
reflectometer, 101-102
reflector, 170-171, 173-174, 183-185, 187-189
reflectors, 173-174, 181, 189, 191
refraction, 148, 174-175
refractive, 174
relay, 99, 101, 202, 211
Repeater, 212
repeaters, 93-95
resistor, 45, 84, 98
resolution, 121, 127, 140-142, 144, 153
resolutions, 120, 141, 143
resonance, 56-57, 59-61, 179, 191
restorer, 129
retrace, 122, 124, 127-129, 131-135
reuse, 227-228
RF, 25, 35-37, 43, 46, 52, 61-62, 64-74, 97,
99-103, 105-106, 157, 160-161, 175-176, 186
RFC, 31, 33, 43
RFID, 98
RGB, 149, 151, 154-159
rhombic, 170
rid, 71
Ringer, 217-218
RNC, 231, 234-235
rotor, 180
RTB, 140
S
satellite, 10, 91-92, 94, 220, 235
satellites, 94, 98, 172
saturation, 28, 30, 154, 165
sawtooth, 135
SBSSC, 112
scan, 9, 120-122, 124-127, 132-133, 137, 166, 176
scanline, 133, 136
scanning, 120-130, 134-136, 138, 142, 150,
159-160, 177, 254-257
SCDMA, 234
scene, 117, 120-122, 124, 126-127, 132, 136, 138,
149
schematic, 30, 98
scrambling, 95-96
screen, 81, 83, 92, 120-123, 126-127, 130-131,
134, 139, 153-155, 161-164, 166-168, 185-186,
188, 218
SECAM, 138, 140, 143-144, 152
selectivity, 52, 58, 61-62, 65, 68, 71-72, 76-77, 88
selectors, 204, 206, 209-210, 212
semiconductor, 10, 256
sender, 1, 241
sensitivity, 52, 61-62, 64, 74-75, 86-87
sensor, 9
separated, 6, 23, 131, 143, 149, 164, 168, 227,
232, 254
sequential, 122
serial, 9, 244-245, 252
settings, 94-95, 218
SGSN, 234
shunt, 101
sideband, 13-15, 18-19, 22-23, 25-26, 34-35, 65,
76, 100, 104-109, 113-114, 143, 152, 158
sidebands, 15-16, 18-20, 22-23, 25, 37-40, 69, 75,
105, 107-109, 156
sidetone, 198
siemens, 42
Signal, 12, 38, 44, 47, 49, 51, 81, 83-84, 86, 89,
110-111, 119-120, 131, 136, 151, 215, 253
signaling, 197-200, 209, 218, 221, 231
signals, 1, 3, 6-9, 11, 16, 19, 23, 26, 37, 45, 52,
60-63, 65, 69-71, 73-74, 76, 84, 91, 93-94,
96-97, 101-102, 104-107, 112, 114-117, 121,
123-124, 128-130, 132-134, 137, 143-144,
149-153, 155-157, 159-161, 166-169, 181, 183,
185-186, 188, 192-195, 198, 200, 202, 215-216,
218-219, 221, 224, 227, 232, 241, 252-258
sinusoidal, 11, 13-14, 19-20, 29, 45, 53
SLC, 209
slot, 170, 172, 237
smartphones, 97
SNR, 11
socket, 101, 194, 199
softkeys, 218-219
Software, 94
SOH, 248
solar, 10
solenoid, 196-197
sonar, 2
sounder, 3, 250
speaker, 4, 74-75, 103-104, 118, 159, 219
spectral, 17-19, 149, 234
spectrum, 10, 13, 15-16, 19-21, 25, 39, 52, 67, 83,
85, 93, 104, 111, 114, 143-149, 156, 232-233
speech, 2, 5, 11, 23, 52, 85, 99-100, 104, 112, 117,
205, 216-217
speed, 27-28, 92, 97, 145, 178, 222, 224, 235,
244-245, 254-255, 258
xii
Index
splitter, 192, 194
Splitting, 228-229
SSB, 15-16, 25, 34, 91, 99-102, 104-116
SSBFC, 109
SSBRC, 109, 112-113
SSBSC, 107, 109-112, 114
stereo, 118, 167
storage, 93, 257
STP, 92
strength, 52, 106, 119, 167, 186, 194-196
strip, 64, 162
Strowger, 202-203, 205-206, 211
subcarrier, 139, 141-144, 152-153, 156, 158
subscriber, 91, 199-200, 203-211, 213, 215, 221,
231, 239
subscribers, 199-201, 204, 206, 209-211, 214, 239
subsystems, 2, 99, 221
subtracting, 34
superhet, 62, 69, 72, 76-77, 99
superheterodyne, 62-63, 66-67, 72, 79, 99, 105
superposition, 26
Supervision, 217, 221
supervisory, 200
suppressed, 15, 34-35, 48, 107-109, 112, 143, 156
switch, 4, 25, 27-28, 91, 106, 165, 186, 203,
213-215, 217, 220, 229, 234, 237, 239-240, 250
switchboard, 199, 222
switches, 26, 28, 186, 202, 220-221
switching, 5-6, 26-28, 198-199, 201-203, 205, 208,
213-214, 216, 219, 221, 229-231, 233, 239, 253
SWR, 179
symmetrical, 14, 30, 33
sync, 121, 127, 129-137, 139-142, 151-153, 156,
159-160, 258
synchronisation, 136, 141, 156, 244
synchronization, 7-8, 123, 129-131, 136-137
synchronizing, 127, 129-130, 132-133, 161, 168
synchronous, 7-8, 245, 255, 258
synthesizers, 109, 112
systems, 2, 4, 7, 16, 36, 97, 112, 123, 128-131,
138, 140, 143, 150, 154, 156, 166, 169, 176,
198-201, 205, 219, 221-223, 225-227, 230-231,
233, 235-236
T
TACS, 227
talkie, 8, 36, 96
Tandem, 214-215, 219
TDD, 236
TDMA, 233
techniques, 9, 12, 16, 74, 109, 114, 122, 236, 257
TELCO, 212-213, 221
Telegrams, 206
Telegrapgh, 253
telegraph, 3-4, 114, 242, 250, 252-254
Telegraphy, 241, 253
telephone, 3-5, 16, 84, 91-92, 96, 109, 114, 119,
198-202, 205-206, 208, 212-214, 216-219,
221-223, 225-226, 229-234, 236-239, 253,
256-258
telephones, 3, 97, 207, 209, 216, 219, 224-228
telephony, 112-113, 199, 225, 234-235
teleprinter, 251-253
telescene, 140
teletypewriter, 52, 251
television, 117-118, 120, 127-132, 134, 136, 140,
146, 148-150, 152-155, 160-165, 169, 178,
182-183, 185, 188, 193, 195
Telex, 253
terminals, 41-43, 81, 84, 87, 194
termination, 221-222
Terrestrial, 92, 234
THD, 103
TIA, 222, 224-225, 233
timebase, 141-142
tip, 98, 216, 222-224
Token, 222
traffic, 6, 94, 113-114, 199, 209, 220, 236-240
transceiver, 91, 93-98, 101, 104, 231
transceivers, 91, 93-99, 103
transconductance, 41-42
transducer, 2-3, 170
transformer, 29, 62, 74, 215
transistor, 26-27, 29-33, 37, 41, 74, 98
transistors, 10, 26-28, 52, 63
transmission, 1-3, 5-9, 11, 16, 19-20, 22, 25-26,
36, 47, 76, 89, 91-94, 96-98, 104-107, 109,
112-114, 117, 121, 129, 143, 169-170, 175, 185,
192-193, 202, 216, 219, 221, 223, 227-228,
233-235, 237, 241, 244, 250-251, 254-255, 257
transmitter, 1-4, 7-8, 11, 18, 25-26, 28, 35-37, 41,
45-48, 50, 83, 91, 94-96, 98-99, 101-102, 104,
106-107, 112-113, 117, 119, 129, 136, 138,
152-153, 159-160, 175, 177, 179, 181-184,
192-193, 198-199, 216-217, 226, 228, 250,
252-255
transmitters, 16, 36, 46, 48, 97-99, 109, 143,
181-182, 227-229
transponder, 92
TRF, 61-62, 76-77, 79
trunk, 206, 213, 215, 219-221, 237-239
trunks, 219-221, 237-238, 240
TTY, 251
tuner, 96, 99, 117, 160-161, 167
xiii
Index
tuning, 43, 64, 70, 74, 99, 106, 112, 142, 165
turnstile, 179-182
TV, 8-9, 63, 69, 114, 117, 119-124, 126-127, 130,
134, 138, 147, 149, 151, 154, 157-160, 166-168,
177, 183, 185-186, 188-190, 193-195
Twist, 223
twisted, 1, 91-92, 215, 223
TX, 98-99, 101-102, 222
U
UART, 9
Uda, 175, 183-184
UHF, 18, 94-95, 97, 159, 169, 182, 185, 188-189,
192-195
ULWA, 172
UMTS, 234
Uniselector, 204, 209
units, 36, 93, 96, 121, 169, 227, 231, 238, 241
universal, 186, 233, 242
unmodulated, 13-14, 16, 18-19, 39, 41, 73, 82
uplink, 91, 94, 234, 236
USB, 13-15, 25, 100-101, 106, 108, 110-111,
113-115
UTP, 92, 215, 222, 224
UWC, 233
V
varactor, 41, 43-44
VBS, 137
VCO, 1, 45, 47
VCR, 132, 167, 195
vestige, 114
Vestigial, 109, 114
VFO, 99-100
VGA, 1, 157
VHF, 18, 93-95, 97, 114, 159, 169, 182, 185, 187,
189-195
Video, 115, 120-121, 131-132, 136-138, 145, 149,
151, 153, 157, 161-162
vidicon, 124, 149
violet, 145, 147-148
virtual, 6
VLSI, 257-258
voice, 1, 4-7, 9, 11, 16, 23, 95-97, 104, 114, 159,
198, 209, 219, 221, 223, 225, 231, 234-237, 241
voltage, 2, 11-12, 14, 18-19, 23, 25, 29-30, 36,
40-45, 48, 53-54, 56, 59, 61, 74, 83, 85-90, 98,
108, 123-125, 128, 131, 134-135, 138, 151, 199,
218, 221, 223
voltages, 89, 125, 163, 221
voltmeter, 81
Volts, 13, 38, 51, 78, 80
VSAT, 92
VSB, 114-115, 157-159
VSBFC, 109
W
walkietalkie, 95
WAN, 5
watts, 10, 106
wave, 2-3, 5, 11-15, 17-18, 25, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45,
52, 62-63, 81-82, 85, 92-93, 97, 104, 108, 115,
167-172, 174, 181-183, 186-187, 189, 191, 198,
254, 257
waveform, 12, 30, 44, 46, 81-83, 129-131
waveguide, 169, 172
wavelength, 94-95, 145, 148, 170, 173, 178, 183,
185, 187
waves, 2-3, 5, 63, 82, 91-92, 117, 127, 167,
169-171, 178, 183, 188-189, 255
WCDMA, 234
Web, 225
why, 147, 227
wideband, 39-40, 190, 235
wire, 2, 4, 74, 91-92, 170, 187, 189, 191, 193, 196,
199, 215, 217, 219, 221, 223-225
wireless, 1, 3, 5, 36, 91, 97, 225, 234-235, 253
wiring, 192, 222-225
WMSC, 234
Wpm, 244
Y
Yagi, 175, 183-185
YagiUda, 183
yellow, 145, 147-148, 154, 168, 186
YIQ, 154-155, 158-159
xiv
Index
yoke, 162-164, 168, 196
YUV, 154-155
i
Index
A
AA, 42
ABC, 207
ABSBH, 238
absolute, 10, 131
ac, 52, 58, 129, 131, 138
access, 95, 209, 218, 224, 233, 235
accurate, 82-83, 98, 130, 132, 138, 141, 144, 164
ACK, 248
acoustic, 198
action, 26, 117, 247
active, 10, 26, 124, 127, 131, 133-134, 177,
190-191, 210-211
actuate, 255
adapters, 93
Adder, 39, 110, 113
adder, 110, 113, 152, 160
addition, 32, 37, 83, 96, 112, 117, 138, 144, 186
Additive, 147
additive, 147, 162
address, 216, 225
adjacent, 16, 75-76, 86, 88-89, 115, 143, 191, 199,
227-229, 231
adjust, 70, 106, 129, 219, 236
aerial, 46, 83-84, 88, 169, 172, 185
AF, 52, 70, 72, 100, 110-111
AFC, 41, 43, 47-48, 111
AGC, 101-103, 162
alarm, 211-212
Alarms, 208, 211
ALC, 101
align, 156
alignment, 163
Allotter, 208-209
alloy, 198
alternate, 122, 133, 161, 181
alternating, 218
alternation, 118
alternator, 199
AM, 11-12, 16, 18, 20, 23-28, 30, 33, 35-38, 48,
66, 68-69, 73-74, 77-80, 99, 101, 104-105, 107,
119, 156, 159-160, 167-169, 177, 181
amateur, 46, 93-94, 99, 105, 244
ammeter, 81-82, 87-88
Amp, 70, 72, 99, 111, 253
amp, 62, 102, 162
amplification, 3, 16, 30, 46, 52, 68, 76, 79, 104,
161, 186
amplified, 29, 40, 101, 113, 159-160, 186, 215, 255
amplifier, 1, 18, 27-30, 33-37, 46, 52, 64-65,
68-69, 74, 76, 79-80, 101-103, 117-118, 152,
160-162, 165, 194-195, 215, 253-254
amplifiers, 28, 36, 52, 61-62, 64-65, 67-69, 75,
159-161
amplify, 52, 61, 97, 254
amplifying, 50
AMPLITUDE, 128
Amplitude, 11-13, 15, 19-21, 23, 26, 30, 38, 49,
51, 78, 80-81, 86, 99, 104, 135, 153, 167
amplitude, 2, 11-21, 26-28, 30, 34-36, 39, 46,
48-49, 56, 81-83, 85-86, 104, 107-109, 112,
115, 127-128, 132, 134, 136, 138, 142-143, 156,
169, 176, 255
amplitudes, 13, 15, 18-19, 22-23, 83, 86
AMPS, 227, 231-233
Amstrong, 48
ii
Index
analog, 2, 9, 11-12, 107, 221, 231, 257
analogue, 104, 150, 152, 157, 219
analyzer, 13, 15, 83, 85
AND, 25, 91
angle, 12, 19, 39-41, 56, 59, 90, 164, 167, 181, 187
ANSI, 225
antenna, 2, 10, 25, 36-37, 46, 50, 52, 62, 69,
74-75, 79, 91, 93-95, 98-99, 101-103, 113, 117,
119, 157-161, 169-172, 174-195, 228, 253-254
aperture, 128, 162-163, 169-172, 255
apparatus, 201
application, 2, 8, 40, 92, 97, 109, 188, 233, 236
applications, 25, 28, 36, 43-44, 58, 96-97,
104-106, 154, 171-173, 222, 234, 236
architecture, 6, 99, 103
area, 81, 93-94, 120, 124, 138, 145, 192, 207, 219,
225, 227-229, 231, 234-236, 255
arial, 169
arithmetic, 90
Armstrong, 48-49
array, 175-177, 181-182, 184-185, 187-188,
190-192, 201, 235
arrays, 172, 175-176, 178, 181, 183, 185, 187
ASCII, 245, 248-249
aspect, 121, 125, 143
assembly, 162-164, 256
Asynchronous, 7, 9
ATB, 238, 240
ATM, 92, 222
atmospheric, 9, 164
attenuated, 107, 112-113
attenuation, 103, 114, 188
attenuator, 83, 103, 113
ATU, 101-102
audible, 106, 145, 216-217
audio, 1, 9, 23-25, 46, 52, 61, 65, 68-69, 77, 86,
89, 96-97, 99-101, 103-105, 117, 157-159, 165,
167, 216, 234, 258
audiorange, 112
authentication, 231
automated, 97
automatic, 41, 43, 47, 101, 141, 203-205, 208,
210, 222
Azimuth, 180
B
backbone, 5, 220
background, 119, 124, 138
backspace, 248
Baird, 140
Balanced, 34, 49, 100-102, 109-111, 113, 116, 152
Balun, 182
balun, 194
BAND, 38, 78, 80
band, 16, 23, 26, 35, 40, 46, 48, 50, 71, 73, 77,
79-80, 92-97, 101-104, 107, 109-110, 112-115,
148, 158, 160, 181, 185, 187-188, 191-192, 231,
237
Bandpass, 35, 37, 64, 68, 102
bands, 24, 93-95, 107, 113, 115, 187
bandwidth, 6-7, 10, 16, 19-20, 22-24, 33, 57, 61,
64-66, 68, 71-73, 75-76, 92, 96, 104-105, 107,
121, 127, 138, 140-142, 144, 151, 154-156, 158,
177, 184-185, 227, 232-233, 236
BARnet, 207
base, 27, 29, 33, 81, 85, 94-95, 98, 136, 163, 196,
225-226, 228-230, 232
baseband, 7, 11, 16, 137, 159
battery, 197-200, 221, 250-251
Baudot, 244, 246, 249
beacon, 97
beacons, 94
beam, 92, 120, 127-129, 132-133, 135, 141, 145,
148-150, 161-162, 164-165, 167-168, 170, 174,
176, 255-257
beams, 128-129, 134, 145, 148, 163-164, 168
Bearing, 84
Beat, 105
beeps, 3, 258
BEL, 248
Bessel, 18
BFO, 105-106
bias, 41-44, 103
biasing, 41-42
binary, 1, 9, 245, 257
bipolar, 41
bit, 8-9, 63, 76, 155, 232-233, 245, 248-249
bits, 1, 7-9, 12, 232, 245, 248-249, 257
BJT, 41
blanking, 10, 127-132, 134-137, 139, 141-142,
152-153
block, 2, 7, 34-36, 39, 45-46, 48, 61-63, 72, 94-95,
99-100, 110, 113, 157-161, 166, 213, 248,
252-253, 257-258
Blue, 146-147, 150-151, 162, 165, 223
Bluetooth, 235
Boltzmann, 10
booster, 186
BORSCHT, 217, 221
boundaries, 148
BPF, 34, 40, 47, 157-159
BPSK, 12
broadband, 7, 97, 234-235
iii
Index
broadcast, 1, 8, 11, 47, 50, 70, 74, 84, 96, 115,
117, 137, 154, 167, 180, 195
broadcasting, 108, 117, 152, 154, 177-178
Broadside, 175-176
Brown, 223
browser, 1
brushes, 10
BS, 234, 248
BSBH, 238
BSC, 231, 235
BT, 205
BTS, 231, 235
Buffer, 35, 37, 45, 47, 49, 99, 111
bulb, 163
bundle, 173, 189, 222-223
burst, 10, 134, 139, 144, 153, 156, 160
bus, 5
bushings, 224
busy, 205-206, 208-209, 216, 219, 237-240
BW, 6-7, 10, 76, 107, 113-114
byte, 9, 245
C
cable, 1, 91-92, 119, 156, 167, 181, 193-195,
222-225
cables, 1-2, 10, 156, 194, 219-220, 222
cabling, 98, 152, 222
calibration, 244
camera, 117, 120, 124, 127-129, 132, 134, 136,
138, 149-150, 160-161
Candlepower, 146
capacitance, 40-45, 54, 118
capacitive, 42-43, 129, 181
capacitor, 30, 41, 45, 54-55, 58-59, 74, 98, 218,
256
capacity, 6, 36, 220, 224, 227, 234-235, 239
capture, 9, 121
carbon, 198
carriage, 248
Carrier, 12, 19, 27, 35, 37-38, 49, 99-102, 105,
108, 110-111, 113
carry, 52, 86, 105, 154, 167
cascaded, 65
casing, 97
cassette, 9, 195
cathode, 3, 81, 130, 164
CATV, 7
CCD, 124, 149-150, 256-257
CCDs, 159
CCIR, 131, 138, 142
CCIT, 245
CCITT, 244, 246-247, 258
CDMA, 231-234, 236
cell, 6, 92, 97, 225, 227-231
Cellphone, 92
cells, 166, 200, 227-230
cellular, 91, 94, 227-228, 230-232, 236
Celsius, 10
centimeters, 82
channel, 1-3, 7, 9, 24, 66, 83, 86, 88-89, 93, 95-98,
113-115, 119, 143, 160, 165, 167, 184-185,
191-192, 221, 226-229, 231, 237
channels, 2-3, 7, 9, 16, 66, 92, 113-114, 138,
143-144, 167, 182-183, 186-187, 189-192,
226-227, 231-233, 240, 251
Charge, 256
charges, 33, 45
charging, 45, 210-211
chart, 90
chip, 232, 256
choke, 31
chroma, 144, 161
chrominance, 142-144, 150-152, 154, 156
cinematography, 148
CIO, 105
circuit, 6-7, 10, 15, 26-27, 29-33, 37, 40-44, 47-48,
52, 55-63, 69, 71, 73-76, 84, 86-87, 89, 92,
97-98, 101, 105, 114, 117-119, 128-129,
135-136, 141, 162, 169, 182, 197-200, 205,
209-211, 215, 217-219, 221, 232-234, 237-238,
250, 254, 256-258
circuitry, 10, 25, 37, 62-63, 97, 105, 119, 134, 156,
212
circuits, 10, 35, 52, 61-63, 69-72, 76, 84, 97, 118,
127, 129, 131, 134, 138, 141, 156, 159-161,
165, 172, 200-201, 220, 223, 231, 238, 240,
255-257
clock, 7-8, 238
clusters, 156, 214
coarse, 141
coaxial, 16, 91, 193-195
code, 3-4, 25, 95-96, 98, 198, 206-207, 232,
241-242, 244-245, 248, 250-252
codec, 9
coded, 52
codes, 95-96, 206, 222-224, 244-245, 248-249
Coding, 217, 221-222
Coefficient, 30
coefficient, 90
coil, 53, 55, 58-59, 73-74, 83, 85, 196
collector, 27, 30-33, 36, 74
collinear, 175-176
color, 120, 126-127, 143-149, 151-154, 156-159,
162-164, 166-168, 222-223
iv
Index
colors, 10, 144-145, 147-148, 153-155, 162, 166,
168, 222-224
colourdifference, 150
combiner, 181
communication, 1-3, 5, 7, 9-11, 18, 23, 62, 84,
91-92, 94-96, 104-107, 112-114, 117, 169, 198,
219, 225, 227, 233, 241, 251, 253, 258
communications, 1-10, 25, 72, 91, 93, 95-96, 98,
104-105, 217, 232, 235, 237, 244, 254
comparator, 131
compatibility, 236, 258
complement, 232
component, 13-15, 18-19, 30, 34, 83, 85, 109, 127,
129, 138, 144, 150, 154, 157-158, 164, 218, 224
composite, 15-16, 18, 129, 131, 134, 137,
149-150, 152-153, 156, 159
computer, 5, 8-9, 93, 97-98, 120, 154, 166,
228-229, 252
computing, 5-6
conductor, 10, 92, 189, 194, 222-223
conductors, 183, 185, 188-189, 222-223
conduit, 224
configuration, 2, 181
configurations, 5, 62, 171
congestion, 240
connect, 81, 118, 175, 189, 193-194, 199,
202-204, 206, 208, 213-214, 219, 222
connection, 1, 5, 74, 84, 92-93, 98, 157, 170, 194,
200-201, 203, 207, 215-216, 219, 224, 233-234,
237, 239, 251
connectivity, 220
connector, 194
construction, 190
consumer, 97-98
control, 8, 36, 41, 45, 47, 74, 83, 94, 101, 103,
106, 130, 134, 137, 141, 165, 180, 201-202,
219, 221, 229, 231, 245, 248, 257-258
controller, 258
controls, 45, 87, 98, 106, 129, 154, 162, 165,
257-258
converter, 37, 64-66, 68-69, 73, 79, 158-159, 195,
198, 217, 257
convex, 174-175
coordinates, 158
coplanar, 172
copper, 1, 92, 223
cord, 200, 224
cordless, 91, 97, 225
core, 74, 97, 196, 220, 235
cos, 16, 39-40
cosine, 13
counter, 210
cradle, 198, 213, 217
Crosby, 47
crossbar, 201-202
CROSSPOINT, 202
Crosstalk, 223
CRT, 122, 153, 162-163, 165-166
CRTs, 162, 166
crystal, 18, 36, 41, 44, 47-48, 72, 74-75, 98-99,
112-113, 165-166
Current, 45, 57, 60, 140, 198, 251
currents, 34, 176, 184, 198
Curve, 56
curve, 34, 53-54, 56-58, 76
curvilinear, 173
cutoff, 28
CVBS, 151-152
CW, 25-26, 99, 101-102
cyan, 147, 154, 168
cycle, 28, 33, 81, 118
cylinder, 173, 189
CYM, 154
D
DAH, 244
DAHS, 244
dahs, 244
dash, 52, 241-242, 250-251
dashes, 3, 25, 241, 250
data, 1, 5-9, 11, 46, 52, 92, 97, 121, 219, 221-225,
232-236, 245, 248, 252, 257-258
dB, 11, 14-15, 19, 23, 68-69, 86-89, 103, 106-107,
113, 119, 177, 179
dBi, 180, 184, 190
dBm, 106
dBW, 106
DC, 31, 44, 98, 103, 118, 131, 218, 248
decibel, 11, 119
decibels, 83
decimal, 210, 240
decline, 166
decoder, 157-158
decoding, 98, 156
decompress, 1
deflection, 131, 135, 163
degrees, 10, 59, 148
DEL, 248
delay, 123, 133, 144, 157
delta, 231
demodulated, 67, 160, 253, 258
demodulation, 11, 65, 105, 112, 153
demodulator, 24, 50, 65, 68, 144, 156, 158-159,
161, 254, 257-258
v
Index
density, 113-114
depth, 81-84, 86, 88, 142, 166
derivative, 39-40, 104, 107
design, 6, 35, 46, 77, 109, 178, 184, 227, 230, 234
detection, 8, 11, 18, 50, 52, 81, 221
detector, 52, 61-62, 64, 68-69, 77, 82, 101, 105,
161-162, 252
deviation, 16-17, 39-40, 47-48, 85, 105, 144
device, 3, 8-9, 34, 37, 40, 42-43, 48, 62, 65, 77,
79, 91, 94-97, 117, 120, 123, 128-129, 150, 157,
169, 185, 197-199, 218, 228, 248, 252, 256
devices, 8-10, 26, 28, 41, 52, 91, 94-95, 97, 121,
149-150, 169, 202, 222, 224-225, 227, 230, 232,
236, 256
diagram, 2, 30-31, 34-37, 39, 41, 45-46, 48, 56,
59, 61-63, 72, 83, 85, 99-100, 109-110,
112-113, 124, 151, 157-162, 178, 183, 209,
252-253, 257
dial, 24, 198, 205-207, 216, 218, 221, 231
Dialer, 218
dials, 207, 221
diameter, 185, 224
diaphragm, 198
dielectric, 171-174
differentiating, 141
digital, 1-2, 7, 9, 11-12, 103, 120-121, 142-143,
154, 157, 202, 221, 227, 231, 257-258
digits, 1, 204-210, 231, 245, 257
dimension, 42, 183, 237
dimensional, 153, 176
dimensions, 82, 120-121, 140, 170, 185
diode, 26-28, 37, 41, 43-44, 65, 82
diodes, 10, 26-28, 41, 43, 63, 256
diplexer, 159, 181-182, 192, 194
dipole, 174-177, 179, 181-187, 189, 191-192
dipoles, 170, 175-176, 179, 181-182, 186-188,
190-191
directional, 173, 177, 179, 186, 191
directivity, 172-173, 176, 185, 188-189
directors, 183-185, 191
discrete, 9, 143
discriminator, 48, 52
dish, 171
DISK, 171-172
distortion, 3, 6, 16, 18-19, 22-23, 36, 50, 63, 81,
103, 123, 255
DITS, 244
domain, 13-15, 22
domains, 15, 236
dot, 52, 143, 241-242, 250-251
dots, 3, 25, 153, 166, 241-242, 250
downlink, 91-92, 94, 234, 236
downward, 98
drain, 42-43
driven, 27, 175, 183-185, 199, 234, 252
drives, 30, 97, 101, 103
DSB, 15, 27, 34-35, 111-112, 156
DSBFC, 30, 33, 35-37, 107, 109, 114
DSBSC, 107-109, 114
DSP, 103
DTMF, 213
dual, 191, 213
dummy, 83
duplex, 8, 91, 97, 215, 258
Duplexing, 236
DVD, 150
E
EALing, 207
EBHC, 239
EDGE, 234
efficiency, 8, 11, 15, 24, 27, 33, 79, 99, 104-105,
109, 112, 198-200, 234
EIA, 222, 224-225
electormagnet, 210
electric, 3, 10, 120, 124, 166, 175, 184, 196-198,
216, 250
electrical, 1-4, 35, 41, 52, 91-92, 97, 117-119, 129,
157, 160, 163, 167, 192, 198, 202, 216, 218,
221, 224-225, 241, 250-252, 254-256
electricity, 117-118, 141
Electro, 202, 252
electromagnet, 210, 250
electromagnetic, 3, 5, 35, 91-92, 118-119,
145-146, 163, 169, 171, 173, 177, 183-184, 189,
199
electromechanical, 206
electron, 52, 120, 127, 131, 134, 153, 161-164,
167-168
electronic, 3, 5, 10, 26-27, 35, 41, 83, 91, 98, 120,
129, 136, 138, 149, 255-257
element, 28, 124, 136, 169-171, 175, 179,
183-185, 187, 190-192, 224, 241, 244-245, 248
elements, 41, 105, 121, 127, 138, 160, 162-163,
170, 172, 175, 177, 179, 181-185, 190-192, 212,
221, 228, 241-242, 244-245, 248, 258
emf, 55, 58
emission, 25, 186
emitter, 27-30, 33, 36, 74
emitters, 25
encode, 5
encoder, 151, 156-157, 242
encoding, 151, 231-232, 250
encryption, 95
vi
Index
energized, 197
energy, 4-5, 10, 35, 52, 74, 117, 167, 169,
173-174, 189, 198, 216, 250
England, 227
equalizing, 127, 130, 133-134, 143
equates, 17, 84
EQUIPMENT, 230
equipment, 2, 9-10, 25-26, 46, 83-84, 96, 104, 129,
152, 194, 205-206, 208-211, 217, 221, 230, 239
equivalents, 242
Erlang, 238-240
erlangs, 238
error, 8, 79, 245
errors, 8-9, 105, 142-143
ESC, 248
essence, 68
Ethernet, 222
ETSI, 233-234
ETX, 248
F
faceplate, 130, 162-163
Facsimile, 254-255
Fan, 188
FCC, 138
FDD, 236
FDM, 114
features, 95, 140-142, 144, 172, 208, 218, 234,
236, 252
feedback, 74
feeder, 184, 190, 193
Feedline, 179
FET, 41-42
fI, 80
fiber, 1, 3, 91-92, 219-220
Fidelity, 235
Field, 122, 124, 126, 139-140
fields, 122-123, 126, 130, 133-134, 137, 139-141,
175, 177, 184
Filter, 35, 38, 66, 80, 100-101, 103, 109
filters, 65, 72, 99, 102, 114, 142, 149, 151,
158-159, 167, 195
FINDER, 210
Finder, 209
flicker, 10, 119, 121-123, 126
fluorescent, 146, 161, 163
flyback, 128, 135-136, 141
flywheel, 33, 141
FM, 11-12, 17-21, 23-24, 38-40, 43-52, 70-71, 93,
96, 144, 156-161, 167, 169, 180-181, 195, 231
focuses, 149, 162, 256
fps, 119-120, 123, 140
frame, 119-123, 126, 132, 138-139, 156, 162
frequencies, 6, 10-11, 13, 18, 23, 26-27, 30-31,
37-38, 45, 50-52, 56-57, 61-65, 67-70, 72-74,
76-77, 79, 84-85, 89, 91, 93-95, 98, 104, 108,
110, 112, 114, 142, 145, 160, 169-170, 172-174,
178, 183, 187-188, 191, 213, 226-227, 230-231,
234, 254
frequency, 2, 7-8, 10-27, 29-31, 33, 35, 37-41,
43-48, 50-62, 64-68, 70-74, 76-77, 79-81,
85-86, 88-92, 94-98, 100-101, 104-106, 109,
111-115, 117-118, 130, 134, 141-146, 151, 156,
158-160, 167, 169-171, 177-178, 183-187,
190-191, 199, 213, 227-228, 230, 232, 237,
253-255
fuse, 120
G
gain, 29-30, 36, 38, 62, 65, 67-69, 76, 86-87, 89,
96, 101, 103, 141, 165, 173, 177, 179, 181,
184-186, 188-190
gateways, 235
gating, 26, 153
Gbit, 97
generation, 16, 46, 97, 114, 148-149, 152,
230-231, 233-235
generator, 40, 84-89, 98, 160, 200, 205, 211
generators, 83, 131, 137, 160, 199-200
geometries, 169, 171
Geometry, 180
GHz, 10, 95, 171-174, 183
gigabit, 97
gigahertz, 95
glowing, 211
GPP, 234
GPRS, 233, 235-236
Grade, 239
graphite, 164
gray, 258
grey, 138, 147-149
ground, 74, 92, 138, 172, 223, 225
GSM, 231-233, 235
guardband, 164
Guided, 3, 91
vii
Index
H
habitually, 185
halfwave, 187
Halogen, 146
handoff, 229-230, 232
handoffs, 231
handset, 198, 205, 208-209, 211, 213, 216-217, 225
handshaking, 258
hardware, 1, 221, 225, 231
harmonics, 33, 37, 63, 73
Hartley, 6
haul, 219-220
HD, 143
HDMI, 157
headphones, 52, 75
headset, 84, 93, 103-104, 218
henrys, 53, 55, 58
hertz, 10, 27, 84, 117-118
heterodyne, 25, 63, 73-74, 86, 99
heterodyning, 62-63, 65
HF, 94-95, 97, 99, 103-104
hierarchy, 214, 219, 221
highfrequency, 11, 31
hook, 118, 198, 205, 211, 213, 217-218, 221
HSCSD, 233
HSI, 154
HSPA, 234
HT, 248
Hue, 154
hue, 142, 154
huge, 257
Human, 119, 121, 148
Hybrid, 212, 215, 217, 221
Hz, 47, 51, 62-63, 78, 80, 84, 105, 112, 118-119,
126-127, 130, 134, 140-142, 144-145, 153, 217,
221
I
IC, 45, 52, 59, 98
IF, 62, 64-74, 76-77, 79-80, 97, 99-103, 160-162
IFRR, 67
ignition, 98
impedance, 36, 41-43, 56, 59-60, 84-85, 87-90,
102, 118, 176-177, 179, 184-185, 215
IMT, 234-235
IMTS, 226-227
inches, 94-95, 224
indicator, 199-200
indicators, 199
indigo, 145, 148
inductance, 40, 43, 53, 55, 58, 118
induction, 92, 223
inductive, 42-43, 85
inductor, 41, 53
inductors, 63
Industry, 222, 233
information, 1-3, 6-7, 9, 11-12, 15, 25, 36-37,
50-51, 61, 65, 77, 80, 94-96, 98, 105, 107-109,
117, 119, 127, 129-132, 134-139, 143-144,
149-151, 154, 160, 167-168, 192, 218, 230,
232-233, 235, 241, 244, 250, 254-258
informations, 161
infrared, 145, 173
Input, 2, 38, 44, 47, 49, 87, 89
inputs, 44, 62-63, 105, 157
Inside, 217
inside, 39, 62, 97, 162-164, 167
instal, 199
installed, 226-227
installer, 222
instrument, 3, 82-83, 85, 89
insulated, 92, 224
integral, 38-39, 142
integrated, 39, 50, 52, 98, 165
integrating, 118, 141, 235
integration, 18, 39, 172
integrator, 141
intelligence, 25, 52, 223
intent, 122
Intercarrier, 142
Interception, 96
intercepts, 160, 183
intercoms, 36
interconnect, 5
interconnected, 5, 191, 219, 231
interface, 215, 221-222, 233-234, 252, 257
interfacing, 221
intermodulation, 16, 83
Internet, 225, 236
Inverter, 45
ionosphere, 94
ionospheric, 94
IP, 235-236
IR, 52
ISB, 83, 109, 113-114
ISD, 115
ITU, 234-235
I,90
viii
Index
J
jack, 200, 218, 224
John, 5
jXc, 42
K
kbps, 91, 232-233, 235
Kelvin, 10, 148
key, 3-5, 25, 98, 114, 199-200, 218-219, 227,
232-233, 250, 253
keyboard, 244, 252
Keying, 12
keypad, 213
kHz, 10, 16, 23-24, 47, 49, 66, 69-74, 99-100,
103-104, 113, 156, 231
km, 145, 192, 227
kTBW, 10
KW, 113
L
lags, 53, 181
LAN, 5, 222
landline, 230
layers, 92
LCD, 166
LCR, 55, 57, 59, 61
leaky, 170, 172
lens, 149, 166, 170
Level, 35-36, 137, 153, 204, 210, 222
LF, 248
limit, 16, 28, 76, 158, 205, 241
Line, 102-103, 120, 125-126, 132, 135, 138-142,
176, 179, 208-209, 212, 217, 219, 221
Linefinder, 209
link, 92-93, 183, 232, 248
links, 6, 92, 219-220
loading, 74, 248
lobes, 191
local, 65-68, 79, 93-94, 98, 101, 184, 193, 199,
202, 209-217, 219, 221, 230-231, 235, 252-253,
255
location, 1, 135, 198, 207, 218, 224, 231
locations, 5, 92, 183, 185, 192, 198, 221, 225
logarithmic, 11, 15, 119, 190
logic, 106, 257
loop, 47-48, 188, 193, 214, 216-217, 224
loops, 74, 170, 189, 221
Lost, 239-240
LOT, 248
loudspeaker, 3, 52, 84-85, 117, 165
LPDA, 177-178, 190
LPDAs, 190
LPF, 47, 152, 157-159
LPVA, 190
LSB, 13-15, 25, 100-101, 105-106, 108, 110,
113-115
LTE, 236
luminance, 130-132, 136-137, 142, 150-154, 156,
159, 161
luminosity, 146-147
Lux, 146
M
mA, 88, 217
machines, 258
magenta, 147, 154
magnet, 196-198, 252
magnetic, 164, 175, 196-198, 255
magneto, 3-4, 199-200, 221
magnitude, 19, 90, 227
mainframe, 252
maintenance, 7, 115, 202
manage, 96
manifold, 181
maps, 254, 256
Marconi, 3, 5
margins, 20
masts, 192
material, 174, 196, 198
mathematical, 13, 65, 67, 153
matrix, 143, 163, 201-202, 256
matrixing, 151
MATV, 195
Mbit, 97, 236
Mbps, 92, 222, 234-236
measurement, 15, 81-83, 85-90, 106, 166, 238
mega, 27
megabits, 97
megahertz, 93-95, 169
megapixels, 121
ix
Index
memory, 256-257
Merging, 119-120
meter, 81, 85-89, 93, 101, 193, 210-211
metering, 210-211
meters, 3, 83, 85, 92, 210
MH, 99, 191
MHz, 45, 47-48, 70-73, 84, 93-95, 99-100, 103,
113-114, 138, 140-144, 152-158, 160, 183-185,
192, 222, 226, 231
microcells, 228
microphone, 2, 46, 117, 217-218, 231
microprocessor, 252
microstrip, 172
microwave, 16, 92-94, 145, 174, 188, 219-220, 251
millimeter, 145, 172
Mixer, 39-40, 47, 49, 64-66, 69-70, 72, 100,
102-103, 160
Mnemonics, 207
mobile, 91-92, 95, 97, 112-113, 172, 207,
225-227, 229-235
modem, 257-258
modulate, 2, 11, 16, 31, 120, 152, 158-159, 255,
257
modulating, 2, 11-13, 16-20, 23-24, 26-31, 33-35,
37-41, 43-44, 47-48, 81, 85, 106, 108-111, 113,
143
modulation, 7, 11-18, 20-22, 25-26, 28-30, 33-34,
36-37, 39-41, 43-44, 46-50, 81-87, 89, 96,
104-105, 107-109, 141-144, 152, 156, 169, 231,
257
modulator, 3, 15, 18, 26-37, 39, 41-44, 46-48, 50,
65, 77, 82, 99, 109-111, 113, 116, 152, 156-158,
160, 253-254, 257
modulators, 26-28, 33-34, 36, 43, 113, 152, 156
moment, 141, 156, 205, 236
monitor, 98, 120, 122, 130, 132, 157-159
monochrome, 127, 131-132, 136, 139-140, 143,
149-150, 155, 160-161, 165
Morse, 3-4, 241-242, 244, 250-251
motor, 252, 257-258
motors, 10, 223, 252, 255, 257
MSC, 228, 230
MTSO, 228-232
multipath, 181
multiplex, 158, 246
multiplexing, 2, 7, 16, 114, 151, 232
Murray, 244-245, 247
mV, 88
mW, 86-87, 89
N
narrowband, 39-40, 235
NEC, 225
negative, 28, 44, 98, 118, 142, 223, 246, 251
network, 1, 5-6, 9, 35-37, 49, 62, 89, 101, 192,
219-221, 230, 233-236, 239
networks, 5, 91-93, 97, 233-236
NFPA, 225
nodes, 5
noise, 1-3, 9-11, 24, 35-36, 50-51, 64, 74-75,
86-88, 91, 102-103, 107, 119, 128-129, 178, 232
nonlinear, 18, 27, 30, 36-37, 62, 65, 69, 77, 79
nonlinearly, 29
NTSC, 123, 136, 138, 140-144, 151-152, 154-155,
157-158
O
OFDM, 12
ohms, 42, 52-56, 58, 176, 184
optical, 91, 149, 157, 163, 188, 220
optimum, 102, 106, 144, 165
orange, 145, 148
Orthogonal, 12
oscillator, 18, 35-37, 41, 43-48, 65-74, 79, 98-99,
101, 105, 109, 113, 130, 152, 156, 160, 253-255
oscilloscope, 81
outlets, 204, 209, 224-225
OUTPUTLINES, 201
P
packet, 6, 230, 233-234, 236
packets, 233, 236
PAL, 123, 130, 136, 138-140, 143-144, 151-152,
154-155
panels, 181-182, 222
paraboloidal, 173, 189
parameters, 6, 12, 178, 237
parasitic, 185, 191
parity, 8, 245, 249
passband, 79, 106
x
Index
passive, 10, 26
patch, 171-172, 222
pattern, 4, 162, 169, 177, 179, 181-182, 186-188
patterns, 3-5, 139, 171, 195, 232
PBX, 217
PCB, 1
PCM, 232
PCS, 231
PDC, 231
peak, 12, 17, 23, 48, 76, 81, 106, 131-132, 137,
141, 236
Pedestal, 137, 153
Phasing, 176, 179
phone, 85, 92, 208, 211, 213, 216-220, 224-225,
227, 230-231
phones, 95, 97, 207, 218-219, 225, 227, 231
picture, 114, 117, 119, 121-122, 124, 126-132,
134-139, 148-150, 155, 157-162, 164-167,
181-182, 186, 195, 254-255
Pilot, 111-112, 115
pink, 10
pixel, 121-122
pixels, 120-122, 143
placed, 98, 119, 166, 174, 178, 188-189, 196, 198,
217
plasma, 165-166
plate, 224
PLL, 1, 65
PLWA, 172
Poisson, 240
polarity, 181, 197, 202, 224
polarization, 178, 193
police, 93, 97
porch, 135-136, 153
Postequalizing, 133
POTS, 212
power, 1, 10-11, 14-16, 18, 23-24, 26-28, 30-31,
33, 35-37, 46, 69, 83, 85-89, 98, 101-102,
105-109, 112-113, 118-119, 159-160, 169,
172-173, 179, 184, 193, 216, 221, 223-224,
227-229, 251, 253-254
PPM, 12
Preamplifier, 35, 37
Preemphasis, 50-51
preselector, 64-65, 67-69, 103
present, 5, 26, 29, 88-89, 106-107, 134, 142, 144,
195
preserve, 136
processing, 103, 154, 160
Progressive, 121-122
propagates, 2
propagating, 170
propagation, 92, 94-95, 159, 174
properties, 17, 121, 184, 188, 232
PSK, 257
PSTN, 5, 92, 230
PSU, 98
pulse, 127-128, 130-133, 135-136, 139-141, 153,
160, 210-211, 216, 248, 250
PulsePosition, 12
Q
QAM, 12, 143-144, 158-159, 257
QoS, 236
quadrature, 143, 152
R
rabbit, 189
radar, 2, 69, 169, 176
radiate, 177
radiation, 2, 91-92, 163, 172-173, 175, 177,
179-180, 182, 184-185, 188
radiator, 169, 174
radiators, 170, 172, 181
radio, 2-3, 5, 8, 11, 23-26, 31, 37, 46, 52, 58,
61-67, 69-71, 74-77, 79, 82, 86-91, 93-98,
104-107, 109, 112-113, 117, 119, 145, 167, 169,
173-174, 189, 219, 228-229, 233-236, 244, 251,
254-255
radios, 71-74, 91, 94-95, 97
Radiotelegraphy, 25
rainbow, 145, 148
raster, 120, 130, 133, 135
rays, 145, 173, 189
RBOC, 212
RCVR, 98
reactance, 40-43, 53-54
reactive, 41-42
receiver, 1-4, 7-8, 10-11, 15, 25, 50-52, 61-69,
71-74, 76, 79, 82-84, 86-89, 91, 94-96, 98-99,
101-102, 104-107, 109, 112, 114-115, 117,
127-132, 134-138, 141, 144, 149, 152-153, 156,
159-162, 165, 173, 181, 185-186, 189, 195,
198-200, 216-217, 226, 228, 241, 250, 252-255,
258
receivers, 5, 52, 61, 70-71, 73-75, 97-99, 105-106,
109, 115, 141, 143, 165, 181, 183, 188, 195
xi
Index
reception, 1, 3, 8, 10, 52, 63, 88, 91, 93, 96-97,
107, 112, 179-180, 183, 185-189, 191, 193, 241
receptors, 149
records, 253
Red, 93, 146-147, 150-151, 162, 165
Reed, 202
reflected, 101-102, 120, 193, 235, 255
reflection, 89-90, 173
reflectometer, 101-102
reflector, 170-171, 173-174, 183-185, 187-189
reflectors, 173-174, 181, 189, 191
refraction, 148, 174-175
refractive, 174
relay, 99, 101, 202, 211
Repeater, 212
repeaters, 93-95
resistor, 45, 84, 98
resolution, 121, 127, 140-142, 144, 153
resolutions, 120, 141, 143
resonance, 56-57, 59-61, 179, 191
restorer, 129
retrace, 122, 124, 127-129, 131-135
reuse, 227-228
RF, 25, 35-37, 43, 46, 52, 61-62, 64-74, 97,
99-103, 105-106, 157, 160-161, 175-176, 186
RFC, 31, 33, 43
RFID, 98
RGB, 149, 151, 154-159
rhombic, 170
rid, 71
Ringer, 217-218
RNC, 231, 234-235
rotor, 180
RTB, 140
S
satellite, 10, 91-92, 94, 220, 235
satellites, 94, 98, 172
saturation, 28, 30, 154, 165
sawtooth, 135
SBSSC, 112
scan, 9, 120-122, 124-127, 132-133, 137, 166, 176
scanline, 133, 136
scanning, 120-130, 134-136, 138, 142, 150,
159-160, 177, 254-257
SCDMA, 234
scene, 117, 120-122, 124, 126-127, 132, 136, 138,
149
schematic, 30, 98
scrambling, 95-96
screen, 81, 83, 92, 120-123, 126-127, 130-131,
134, 139, 153-155, 161-164, 166-168, 185-186,
188, 218
SECAM, 138, 140, 143-144, 152
selectivity, 52, 58, 61-62, 65, 68, 71-72, 76-77, 88
selectors, 204, 206, 209-210, 212
semiconductor, 10, 256
sender, 1, 241
sensitivity, 52, 61-62, 64, 74-75, 86-87
sensor, 9
separated, 6, 23, 131, 143, 149, 164, 168, 227,
232, 254
sequential, 122
serial, 9, 244-245, 252
settings, 94-95, 218
SGSN, 234
shunt, 101
sideband, 13-15, 18-19, 22-23, 25-26, 34-35, 65,
76, 100, 104-109, 113-114, 143, 152, 158
sidebands, 15-16, 18-20, 22-23, 25, 37-40, 69, 75,
105, 107-109, 156
sidetone, 198
siemens, 42
Signal, 12, 38, 44, 47, 49, 51, 81, 83-84, 86, 89,
110-111, 119-120, 131, 136, 151, 215, 253
signaling, 197-200, 209, 218, 221, 231
signals, 1, 3, 6-9, 11, 16, 19, 23, 26, 37, 45, 52,
60-63, 65, 69-71, 73-74, 76, 84, 91, 93-94,
96-97, 101-102, 104-107, 112, 114-117, 121,
123-124, 128-130, 132-134, 137, 143-144,
149-153, 155-157, 159-161, 166-169, 181, 183,
185-186, 188, 192-195, 198, 200, 202, 215-216,
218-219, 221, 224, 227, 232, 241, 252-258
sinusoidal, 11, 13-14, 19-20, 29, 45, 53
SLC, 209
slot, 170, 172, 237
smartphones, 97
SNR, 11
socket, 101, 194, 199
softkeys, 218-219
Software, 94
SOH, 248
solar, 10
solenoid, 196-197
sonar, 2
sounder, 3, 250
speaker, 4, 74-75, 103-104, 118, 159, 219
spectral, 17-19, 149, 234
spectrum, 10, 13, 15-16, 19-21, 25, 39, 52, 67, 83,
85, 93, 104, 111, 114, 143-149, 156, 232-233
speech, 2, 5, 11, 23, 52, 85, 99-100, 104, 112, 117,
205, 216-217
speed, 27-28, 92, 97, 145, 178, 222, 224, 235,
244-245, 254-255, 258
xii
Index
splitter, 192, 194
Splitting, 228-229
SSB, 15-16, 25, 34, 91, 99-102, 104-116
SSBFC, 109
SSBRC, 109, 112-113
SSBSC, 107, 109-112, 114
stereo, 118, 167
storage, 93, 257
STP, 92
strength, 52, 106, 119, 167, 186, 194-196
strip, 64, 162
Strowger, 202-203, 205-206, 211
subcarrier, 139, 141-144, 152-153, 156, 158
subscriber, 91, 199-200, 203-211, 213, 215, 221,
231, 239
subscribers, 199-201, 204, 206, 209-211, 214, 239
subsystems, 2, 99, 221
subtracting, 34
superhet, 62, 69, 72, 76-77, 99
superheterodyne, 62-63, 66-67, 72, 79, 99, 105
superposition, 26
Supervision, 217, 221
supervisory, 200
suppressed, 15, 34-35, 48, 107-109, 112, 143, 156
switch, 4, 25, 27-28, 91, 106, 165, 186, 203,
213-215, 217, 220, 229, 234, 237, 239-240, 250
switchboard, 199, 222
switches, 26, 28, 186, 202, 220-221
switching, 5-6, 26-28, 198-199, 201-203, 205, 208,
213-214, 216, 219, 221, 229-231, 233, 239, 253
SWR, 179
symmetrical, 14, 30, 33
sync, 121, 127, 129-137, 139-142, 151-153, 156,
159-160, 258
synchronisation, 136, 141, 156, 244
synchronization, 7-8, 123, 129-131, 136-137
synchronizing, 127, 129-130, 132-133, 161, 168
synchronous, 7-8, 245, 255, 258
synthesizers, 109, 112
systems, 2, 4, 7, 16, 36, 97, 112, 123, 128-131,
138, 140, 143, 150, 154, 156, 166, 169, 176,
198-201, 205, 219, 221-223, 225-227, 230-231,
233, 235-236
T
TACS, 227
talkie, 8, 36, 96
Tandem, 214-215, 219
TDD, 236
TDMA, 233
techniques, 9, 12, 16, 74, 109, 114, 122, 236, 257
TELCO, 212-213, 221
Telegrams, 206
Telegrapgh, 253
telegraph, 3-4, 114, 242, 250, 252-254
Telegraphy, 241, 253
telephone, 3-5, 16, 84, 91-92, 96, 109, 114, 119,
198-202, 205-206, 208, 212-214, 216-219,
221-223, 225-226, 229-234, 236-239, 253,
256-258
telephones, 3, 97, 207, 209, 216, 219, 224-228
telephony, 112-113, 199, 225, 234-235
teleprinter, 251-253
telescene, 140
teletypewriter, 52, 251
television, 117-118, 120, 127-132, 134, 136, 140,
146, 148-150, 152-155, 160-165, 169, 178,
182-183, 185, 188, 193, 195
Telex, 253
terminals, 41-43, 81, 84, 87, 194
termination, 221-222
Terrestrial, 92, 234
THD, 103
TIA, 222, 224-225, 233
timebase, 141-142
tip, 98, 216, 222-224
Token, 222
traffic, 6, 94, 113-114, 199, 209, 220, 236-240
transceiver, 91, 93-98, 101, 104, 231
transceivers, 91, 93-99, 103
transconductance, 41-42
transducer, 2-3, 170
transformer, 29, 62, 74, 215
transistor, 26-27, 29-33, 37, 41, 74, 98
transistors, 10, 26-28, 52, 63
transmission, 1-3, 5-9, 11, 16, 19-20, 22, 25-26,
36, 47, 76, 89, 91-94, 96-98, 104-107, 109,
112-114, 117, 121, 129, 143, 169-170, 175, 185,
192-193, 202, 216, 219, 221, 223, 227-228,
233-235, 237, 241, 244, 250-251, 254-255, 257
transmitter, 1-4, 7-8, 11, 18, 25-26, 28, 35-37, 41,
45-48, 50, 83, 91, 94-96, 98-99, 101-102, 104,
106-107, 112-113, 117, 119, 129, 136, 138,
152-153, 159-160, 175, 177, 179, 181-184,
192-193, 198-199, 216-217, 226, 228, 250,
252-255
transmitters, 16, 36, 46, 48, 97-99, 109, 143,
181-182, 227-229
transponder, 92
TRF, 61-62, 76-77, 79
trunk, 206, 213, 215, 219-221, 237-239
trunks, 219-221, 237-238, 240
TTY, 251
tuner, 96, 99, 117, 160-161, 167
xiii
Index
tuning, 43, 64, 70, 74, 99, 106, 112, 142, 165
turnstile, 179-182
TV, 8-9, 63, 69, 114, 117, 119-124, 126-127, 130,
134, 138, 147, 149, 151, 154, 157-160, 166-168,
177, 183, 185-186, 188-190, 193-195
Twist, 223
twisted, 1, 91-92, 215, 223
TX, 98-99, 101-102, 222
U
UART, 9
Uda, 175, 183-184
UHF, 18, 94-95, 97, 159, 169, 182, 185, 188-189,
192-195
ULWA, 172
UMTS, 234
Uniselector, 204, 209
units, 36, 93, 96, 121, 169, 227, 231, 238, 241
universal, 186, 233, 242
unmodulated, 13-14, 16, 18-19, 39, 41, 73, 82
uplink, 91, 94, 234, 236
USB, 13-15, 25, 100-101, 106, 108, 110-111,
113-115
UTP, 92, 215, 222, 224
UWC, 233
V
varactor, 41, 43-44
VBS, 137
VCO, 1, 45, 47
VCR, 132, 167, 195
vestige, 114
Vestigial, 109, 114
VFO, 99-100
VGA, 1, 157
VHF, 18, 93-95, 97, 114, 159, 169, 182, 185, 187,
189-195
Video, 115, 120-121, 131-132, 136-138, 145, 149,
151, 153, 157, 161-162
vidicon, 124, 149
violet, 145, 147-148
virtual, 6
VLSI, 257-258
voice, 1, 4-7, 9, 11, 16, 23, 95-97, 104, 114, 159,
198, 209, 219, 221, 223, 225, 231, 234-237, 241
voltage, 2, 11-12, 14, 18-19, 23, 25, 29-30, 36,
40-45, 48, 53-54, 56, 59, 61, 74, 83, 85-90, 98,
108, 123-125, 128, 131, 134-135, 138, 151, 199,
218, 221, 223
voltages, 89, 125, 163, 221
voltmeter, 81
Volts, 13, 38, 51, 78, 80
VSAT, 92
VSB, 114-115, 157-159
VSBFC, 109
W
walkietalkie, 95
WAN, 5
watts, 10, 106
wave, 2-3, 5, 11-15, 17-18, 25, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45,
52, 62-63, 81-82, 85, 92-93, 97, 104, 108, 115,
167-172, 174, 181-183, 186-187, 189, 191, 198,
254, 257
waveform, 12, 30, 44, 46, 81-83, 129-131
waveguide, 169, 172
wavelength, 94-95, 145, 148, 170, 173, 178, 183,
185, 187
waves, 2-3, 5, 63, 82, 91-92, 117, 127, 167,
169-171, 178, 183, 188-189, 255
WCDMA, 234
Web, 225
why, 147, 227
wideband, 39-40, 190, 235
wire, 2, 4, 74, 91-92, 170, 187, 189, 191, 193, 196,
199, 215, 217, 219, 221, 223-225
wireless, 1, 3, 5, 36, 91, 97, 225, 234-235, 253
wiring, 192, 222-225
WMSC, 234
Wpm, 244
Y
Yagi, 175, 183-185
YagiUda, 183
yellow, 145, 147-148, 154, 168, 186
YIQ, 154-155, 158-159
xiv
Index
yoke, 162-164, 168, 196
YUV, 154-155