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Copyright 2006 by Altec Industries, Inc.

All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be used or reproduced by any means, or stored in a
database or retrieval system, without prior written permission of the publisher. Making copies of any part
of this publication for any purpose other than personal use is a violation of United States copyright laws.
Altec Industries, Inc. reserves the right to improve models and change specifications without notice.
Maintenance
and Parts Manual
749-20123
April 2006
AL32
Preface
This unit is the result of Altecs advanced technology and quality awareness in design,
engineering, and manufacturing. At the time of delivery from the factory, this unit met or
exceeded all applicable requirements of the American National Standards Institute. All
information, illustrations, and specifications contained within this manual are based on the
latest product information available at the time of publication. It is essential that all personnel
involved in the use and/or care of this unit read and understand the Operators Manual.
Given reasonable care and operation, according to the guidelines set forth in the manuals
provided, this unit will provide many years of excellent service before requiring major
maintenance.
The scope of this manual is limited to periodic maintenance. It does not cover methods that
may be required to inspect and repair major damage to the unit. Impacts to and excessive
forces on the hydraulic utility equipment, through vehicular accidents, rollovers, excessive
loading, and the like, may result in structural damage not obvious during a visual inspection.
If the hydraulic utility equipment is subjected to such impacts or forces, a qualified person may
need to perform additional testing such as acoustic emissions, magnuflux or ultrasonic testing
as applicable. If structural damage is suspected or found, contact Altec for additional
instructions.
Warning
Death or serious injury can result from component failure. Continued use of a mobile
unit with hidden damage could lead to component failure.
Never alter or modify this unit in any way that might affect the structural integrity or operational
characteristics without the specific written approval of Altec Industries, Inc. Unauthorized
alterations or modifications will void the warranty. Of greater concern, is the possibility that
unauthorized modification could adversely affect the safe operation of this unit, resulting in
personal injury and/or property damage.
Danger
Death or serious injury will result from unprotected contact with energized conductors.
Non-insulated units have no dielectric rating. Maintain safe clearances, as defined by
federal, state, and local authorities, and your employer, from energized conductors.
No unit can provide absolute safety when in proximity to energized conductors. No unit is
designed or intended to replace or supersede any protective device or safe work practice
relating to work in proximity to energized conductors. When in proximity to energized
conductors, this unit shall only be used by trained personnel using their companys accepted
work methods, safety procedures, and protective equipment. Training manuals are available
from a variety of sources.
Set-up requirements, work procedures, and safety precautions for each particular situation
are the responsibility of the personnel involved in the use and/or care of this unit.
7-04
Table of Contents
Section 1 Introduction
About This Manual..................................................................................................... 1
Section 2 Unit Specifications
General Specifications .................................................................................................. 3
Component Identification............................................................................................... 4
Section 3 Safety
Safety Instructions ......................................................................................................... 5
Disclaimer of Liability .................................................................................................... 5
Section 4 Preventive Maintenance and Inspection
Equipment Storage........................................................................................................ 7
Protective Measures ............................................................................................... 7
Hydraulic System .......................................................................................................... 7
Cleanliness Precautions ......................................................................................... 8
Filtration .................................................................................................................. 8
Oil Specifications .................................................................................................... 9
Oil Condition ......................................................................................................... 10
Changing Oil and Flushing the System ................................................................ 11
Lubrication ................................................................................................................... 12
Lubrication Chart and Diagram............................................................................. 14
Structures .................................................................................................................... 16
Cleaning ................................................................................................................ 16
Welds .................................................................................................................... 16
Repairs.................................................................................................................. 16
Fasteners .................................................................................................................... 18
Rotation Bearing Cap Screws............................................................................... 19
Pin and Pin Retainers.................................................................................................. 21
Pin Installation Into Self-Lubricating Bearings ...................................................... 22
Bearings ...................................................................................................................... 22
Spherical Bearings................................................................................................ 22
Self-Lubricating Bearings ..................................................................................... 22
Tapered Roller Bearings ....................................................................................... 23
Rotation Bearing ................................................................................................... 23
Cylinders ..................................................................................................................... 25
Hydraulic Lines ............................................................................................................ 25
Single Handle Control and Control Handle Covers ..................................................... 25
Fiberglass and Plastic Components............................................................................ 25
Determining the Degree of Boom Damage........................................................... 26
Repair ................................................................................................................... 27
Plastic ................................................................................................................... 29
Accident Prevention Signs .......................................................................................... 29
Accident Prevention Signs Diagram ..................................................................... 29
Section 5 Hydraulic System
Full Flow ...................................................................................................................... 33
Oil Reservoir ................................................................................................................ 33
Pump ........................................................................................................................... 33
Secondary Stowage System DC Pump ...................................................................... 33
Rotary Joint ................................................................................................................. 34
Valves.......................................................................................................................... 34
Outrigger Control Valve ........................................................................................ 34
Outrigger Interlock Valve ...................................................................................... 34
Lower Control Valve ............................................................................................. 35
Upper Control Valve (Single Handle Control) ....................................................... 35
Upper Control Valve (Multi-Lever Control) ........................................................... 35
Tool Control Valve ................................................................................................ 36
System Relief Valve.............................................................................................. 36
Outrigger/Lower Tools Relief Valve ...................................................................... 36
Hydraulic Stop Valve ............................................................................................ 36
Holding Valves ...................................................................................................... 36
Cavitation and Aeration ............................................................................................... 37
Air Bleeding ................................................................................................................. 37
Leakage ....................................................................................................................... 38
Heat Generation .......................................................................................................... 39
Hydraulic Lines ............................................................................................................ 39
Fittings and Valve Cartridges ...................................................................................... 41
Torque and Tightening Procedures ...................................................................... 41
Cylinders ..................................................................................................................... 43
Vertical Outrigger Leg Cylinder ............................................................................ 43
Articulating Arm Cylinder ...................................................................................... 44
Lift Cylinder ........................................................................................................... 45
Lower Platform Leveling Cylinder ......................................................................... 46
Upper Platform Leveling Cylinder ......................................................................... 46
Section 6 Mechanical Systems
Rotary Joint/Slip Ring Assembly ................................................................................. 49
Rotation System .......................................................................................................... 50
Rotation Bearing ................................................................................................... 51
Rotation Gearbox .................................................................................................. 53
Boom ........................................................................................................................... 54
Upper Controls ............................................................................................................ 55
Section 7 Electrical System
On/Off Circuit ............................................................................................................... 57
Truck/Machine Selector Switch ................................................................................... 57
Remote Start/Stop Control Box ................................................................................... 57
Throttle Control ............................................................................................................ 58
Outrigger Interlock System.......................................................................................... 58
Slip Ring ...................................................................................................................... 59
Section 8 Troubleshooting, Testing, and Adjustments
Troubleshooting Procedure ......................................................................................... 61
Hydraulic System ........................................................................................................ 61
Cycle Times .......................................................................................................... 61
System Pressure .................................................................................................. 61
Relief Valve........................................................................................................... 62
Pump Flow ............................................................................................................ 62
Outriggers ............................................................................................................. 63
Rotary Joint ........................................................................................................... 64
Articulating Arm Cylinder ...................................................................................... 65
Lift Cylinder ........................................................................................................... 65
Leveling Cylinders ................................................................................................ 65
Holding Valves ...................................................................................................... 65
Mechanical System ..................................................................................................... 68
Rotation Gearbox .................................................................................................. 68
Upper Controls Interlock Trigger .......................................................................... 69
Electrical System......................................................................................................... 70
Failure Identification.............................................................................................. 70
Circuit Protection .................................................................................................. 71
Remote Start/Stop Control Box ............................................................................ 71
Engine Throttle Control ......................................................................................... 71
Outrigger Interlock System ................................................................................... 72
Section 9 Dielectric, Structural, and Stability Testing
Dielectric...................................................................................................................... 75
Insulated Single Handle Control ........................................................................... 75
Structural ..................................................................................................................... 75
Stability ........................................................................................................................ 76
Appendix
Glossary
Service Tools and Supplies
Preventive Maintenance and Inspection Checklist
Accessory Checklist
Torque Values
Basic JIC Symbols
Hydraulic System Schematics
Basic Electrical Symbols
Wiring Line Diagrams
Troubleshooting Chart
Dielectric Test Forms
Stability Test Form
Section 1 Introduction 1
Section 1 Introduction
About This Manual
This manual provides step-by-step instruction to safely
inspect, repair, troubleshoot and test the unit. Charts and
figures are provided to support the text. Because options
vary from one model to another, some figures may only
be a representation of what is actually on the unit.
Contact the following organizations for additional infor-
mation.
American National Standards Institute (ANSI)
A92.2 for aerial devices; A10.31 for digger derricks
American Welding Society (AWS)
Hydraulic Tool Manufacturers Association (HTMA)
Fluid Power Society (FPS)
American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM)
Occupational Safety and Health Administration
(OSHA)
American Public Power Association
(Safety Manual for an Electric Utility)
Dealers, installers, owners, users, operators, rentors,
lessors, and lessees must comply with the appropriate
sections of the applicable ANSI standard.
The Appendix contains reference items to help maintain
the unit. A glossary of industry terms is provided for your
convenience. This glossary provides an understanding of
the industry terms and phrases used in Altec manuals.
Throughout the manual, the term unit is used to describe
the Altec device, subbase, outriggers, and the associated
interface with the vehicle.
Additional copies of this manual may be ordered through
your Altec representative. Supply the model and serial
number found on the serial number placard and the
manual part number from the front cover to assure that
the correct manual will be supplied.
This symbol is used throughout this manual to
indicate danger, warning and caution instruc-
tions. These instructions must be followed to
reduce the likelihood of personal injury and/or property
damage.
The terms danger, warning and caution represent varying
degrees of personal injury and/or property damage that
could result if the preventive instructions are not followed.
The following paragraphs from ANSI publications explain
each term.
Danger
Indicates an imminently hazardous situation
which, if not avoided, will result in death or
serious injury. This signal word is to be used in
the most extreme situations.
Warning
Indicates a potentially hazardous situation which,
if not avoided, could result in death or serious
injury.
Caution
Indicates a potentially hazardous situation which,
if not avoided, may result in minor or moderate
injury. It may also be used to alert against unsafe
practices.
The term attention is used to alert personnel of special
information to assist in the maintenance of the unit or
instructions that must be followed to prevent the possibil-
ity of damage to structures, components or other prop-
erty. Read and follow all danger, warning, caution and
attention instructions.
2 Section 1 Introduction
Section 2 Unit Specifications 3
Section 2 Unit Specifications
General Specifications
This unit has a fiberglass boom and an articulating arm.
The articulating arm is capable of movement from 0 to 95
degrees above horizontal. An additional 910 of upward
reach is gained when the articulating arm is fully raised.
The boom is capable of movement from approximately 54
degrees below horizontal to 63 degrees above horizontal.
Turntable and boom rotation is continuous. The platform
floor is automatically maintained in a position parallel with
the chassis during movement of the booms.
The basic structural components are the outriggers (if so
equipped), pedestal, turntable, articulating arm, and boom.
The steel structures are made in the form of a closed box.
This structural style resists torsional loading, as well as
tension, compression and bending loads. Careful consid-
eration has been given to the design and manufacturing
process to minimize the possibility of fatigue cracks.
The insulated boom structural components are made of
centrifugally cast fiberglass. The inner fiberglass surface
is impregnated with a wax compound providing a smooth
surface for moisture to bead. The outer surface has a
smooth gelcoat finish to protect the fiberglass.
The nonconductive components, when properly main-
tained, clean and dry, will meet the dielectric require-
ments of ANSI in effect at the time of unit manufacture.
The ratings of the unit must be known and understood by
its users.
This unit shall be used near energized conductors only by
qualified operators who are fully trained and proficient as
electrical linemen. Personnel using this equipment must
be familiar with the hazards of contact with energized
conductors, for the protection of themselves, their co-
workers and the public. The nature of electrical hazards
is described in the Operators Manual. Personnel using
this equipment on or near energized conductors must be
familiar with these hazards for their own protection.
4 Section 2 Unit Specifications
Component Identification
Pedestal
Lower Controls
Boom Tip
Lift Cylinder
Arm
Link
Articulating
Arm Cylinder
Platform
Turntable
Boom
Boom Pin
Riser
Articulating Arm
Upper
Controls
Platform
Pin
Section 3 Safety 5
Section 3 Safety
Safety Instructions
It is essential that all personnel involved in the use and/
or care of this unit read and understand the Operators
and Maintenance Manuals. Safety alerts throughout the
manuals highlight situations in which accidents can oc-
cur. Pay special attention to all safety alerts.
The safety information in this manual applies only to the
maintenance of this unit. Although procedures have been
written to protect the mechanic and other personnel,
there is no safety system to account for human error or
negligence.
Danger
This unit does not provide protection from contact
with or proximity to an electrically charged conduc-
tor when you are in contact with or in proximity to
another conductor or any grounded device, material
or equipment. Death or serious injury will result from
such contact or inadequate clearance from an ener-
gized conductor.
It is impossible to foresee all situations and combina-
tions for the set up and use of the unit while perform-
ing maintenance operations. The mechanic bears
ultimate responsibility for following all regulations
and safety rules of their employer and/or any state or
federal law.
Knowledge of the information in this manual, and proper
training, provide a basis for safely maintaining the unit.
Follow the procedures in this manual when maintaining
the unit.
Work practices may expose maintenance personnel to
hazardous materials. Before using any chemical, read
and understand the manufacturers label and the mate-
rial safety data sheet (MSDS). These sheets explain
emergency and first aid procedures, waste disposal
methods and spill or leak procedures. Report hazardous
conditions.
General Maintenance Information
Remove the pressure in a hydraulic circuit before
disconnecting its components.
Use lifting devices of suitable capacity to support and
handle components.
Use a test block to adjust the relief setting on coun-
terbalance holding valves.
Be aware of your surroundings.
Fully open all shutoff valves after servicing the unit.
Complete the required procedures before returning
the unit to operation.
Disclaimer of Liability
Altec Industries, Inc. will not be liable for unauthorized
alterations or modifications of the unit. Altec Industries,
Inc. will not be liable for improper or abusive operation of
the unit.
Do not alter or modify this unit in any way that might affect
its structural integrity, dielectric integrity, or operational
characteristics without specific written approval from
Altec Industries, Inc.
Unauthorized alterations or modifications will void the
warranty. However, of a greater concern is the possibility
that unauthorized changes could adversely affect the
units operation that could endanger personnel and/or
damage property. Altec will not be responsible for unau-
thorized alterations or modifications that cause death,
personal injury and/or property damage.
Altec Industries, Inc. assumes no liability for any person-
nel injury and/or property damage related to the use of
this manual when performing testing, operating, mainte-
nance and/or repair procedures on this Altec unit.
6 Section 3 Safety
Section 4 Preventive Maintenance and Inspection 7
Section 4 Preventive Maintenance and Inspection
Proper unit maintenance will reduce downtime, lower
operating and repair costs and extend equipment life.
Safety alone justifies a preventive maintenance program.
This type of program is less expensive than making
major repairs.
This section contains information on properly inspecting
the hydraulic system, structures, individual unit compo-
nents and lubrication. Use the Lubrication Chart and
Diagram in this section when lubricating the unit. A
Preventive Maintenance and Inspection Checklist is pro-
vided in the Appendix. Use this checklist when perform-
ing routine maintenance and inspections to insure no
areas are overlooked. Keep permanent, written and dated
records of all service performed on the unit.
More frequent maintenance may be necessary if the unit
is operated under severe conditions. In addition to the
Preventive Maintenance and Inspection Checklist recom-
mendations, follow these recommendations on new units.
Measure the turntable tilt before using a new unit.
Change the return line filter after the first 15 to 25 PTO
hours.
Gearbox manufacturers recommend an initial oil
change after the first 15 to 25 PTO hours.
Equipment Storage
Mobile hydraulic equipment needs maintenance when
stored, or not used, for extensive periods of time. De-
pending upon the climate, lack of use may begin to have
a negative effect in as little as two weeks. Storage for a
period of several months will almost certainly produce
some deterioration of the equipment.
Rust will form on unprotected ferrous metal surfaces very
quickly and water will collect inside unit structures. In dry
climates, gaskets will begin to shrink during long periods
of non-use, and lubricants will lose their ability to provide
lubrication. In cold climates, condensation may occur in
fluid reservoirs and other components.
Even when protective measures have been taken prior to
storage, some degradation of performance must be ex-
pected when the equipment is put back into use.
One of the most noticeable effects of prolonged periods
of non-use is seal deformation. By its nature, hydraulic
equipment generally has a number of heavy, cylindrical
actuators. As these components are allowed to rest in
one position for a period of time, the seals on the piston
will tend to flatten along the loaded side. Since the seal
material is synthetic, its elasticity is limited and it may not
resume its original shape completely. At best, there will
be some failure to seal well for a short period of time after
putting the equipment back into use. At worst, the seal
will never resume its original shape and will have to be
replaced.
Protective Measures
If it is known that equipment will be stored for a month or
more, some steps should be taken to preserve the
equipment.
1. The best preservative is to fully cycle (operate) the
equipment once weekly if even for a short time.
2. Coat exposed ferrous (iron or steel) bare metal
surfaces with a light grease or heavy oil compatible
with system hydraulic oil. This includes cylinder rods,
shafts, gears, linkages, and unpainted parts.
3. Top off fluid reservoirs to allow as little air space as
possible, to limit the effects of condensation. Re-
move excess oil before operating to limit the chance
of overflow when cylinders are cycled.
4. Cover or wrap exposed rubber or neoprene parts with
an ultraviolet resistant covering to shield the parts
from sun exposure.
5. Unplug electrical connectors and apply a dielectric
grease or an aerosol product designed for protecting
electrical connectors. Plug the connector back to-
gether.
6. Cover switch panels and control panels to prevent
direct intrusion of rain or moisture, while allowing air
to circulate over the panel.
7. Cover personnel platforms to prevent the accumula-
tion of water in the platform.
8. Shield fiberglass components from the sun and other
elements, if stored outside.
Hydraulic System
Maintaining the hydraulic system is critical to the proper
operation of the unit. Using the proper type of oil helps to
prevent many hydraulic system problems. Maintaining
the oil is also important. If the oil is dirty or contaminated,
components may be damaged.
Warning
It is extremely important that the hydraulic oil be
clean and moisture free. Moisture or impurities can
reduce the insulating capability of the hydraulic oil,
shorten the life of hydraulic components and cause
operational problems.
8 Section 4 Preventive Maintenance and Inspection
Check the oil level in the reservoir with the vehicle level,
articulating arm and boom in the rest, and all cylinders
retracted. Under these conditions, the proper oil level for
the seven gallon reservoir is approximately two inches
from the top of the reservoir. If the unit is equipped with a
16 gallon reservoir, use the Full and Add marks on the
filler breather cap dipstick to determine the oil level.
Cleanliness Precautions
Contamination will ruin any hydraulic system. It is very
important that no contamination enter the system.
The following precautions will help protect the cleanli-
ness of the hydraulic system.
Filter new oil with a 10 micron filter as it is added to
the reservoir.
Clean hydraulic connections before opening them.
Plug or cap ports and lines opened for service.
Keep replacement hoses, tubes and other
components plugged while stored.
Make sure components are clean before installation.
Clean the reservoir and return line filter covers before
opening them.
Clean the filler breather cap before opening it.
After servicing the reservoir, replace the cover.
Make sure quick disconnect couplers are clean
before connecting them.
Do not spray water on the reservoir filler breather
cap. This could force contaminants into the reservoir.
Filtration
The unit is equipped with a complete filtration system.
When properly maintained, this system will reduce con-
tamination of the hydraulic system. The filtration system
must be serviced regularly to be effective.
Filler Breather Cap and Strainer Basket
The filler breather cap is located on top of the fill hole of
the reservoir (refer to Figure 4.1).
Figure 4.1 Seven Gallon Hydraulic Oil Reservoir
The cap allows air to flow in and out of the reservoir as the
oil level changes. It contains a filter that cleans the air as
it enters the hydraulic system. The strainer basket keeps
large particles from entering the reservoir when oil is
poured into the reservoir.
Replace the filler breather cap annually. If the unit is
operated in an extremely dusty environment, it may be
necessary to replace the filler breather cap more often.
Remove and flush out (or replace) the strainer basket any
time it has collected dirt or other contaminants. Flush the
strainer basket when the hydraulic oil is changed.
Suction Filter/Strainer
Hydraulic oil leaving the reservoir through the suction
line, on its way to the pump, passes through a suction filter
or suction strainer depending on the reservoir on the unit.
The suction filter or strainer is located inside the reservoir
and contains a 100 micron wire mesh element. Although
the element may be cleaned, it is also available as a
service part.
It is important to clean the filter or strainer regularly.
Clean it whenever the hydraulic oil is changed (as
recommeneded in the Preventive Maintenance and In-
spection Checklist). Oil will not flow into the pump fast
enough if the filter becomes clogged. If the pump does not
receive sufficient oil flow, pump damage will result.
Warning
Solvents can be extremely hazardous. Follow the
manufacturers label for proper use and disposal.
Caution
Eye protection must be worn at all times to prevent
particles of dirt, metal or hydraulic oil from entering
the eyes.
Remove and clean the suction strainer of the seven
gallon reservoir by using the following the steps.
1. Wipe off the suction hose fittings.
2. Remove the suction hose and drain the reservoir.
3. Remove the fitting from the outside of the reservoir
and remove the suction strainer (refer to Figure 4.1).
Do not grip the wire mesh screen. This will crush the
screen.
4. Clean the filter screen by flushing it with solvent. Blow
it dry with an air hose from the inside of the screen to
the outside. Check for holes or other damage. Re-
place the filter screen if it is damaged.
Filler
Breather Cap Strainer Basket
Return
Line Filter
Suction Strainer
Section 4 Preventive Maintenance and Inspection 9
5. Install the filter and refill the reservoir. Clean the
screen no more than four times before replacing it.
Remove and clean the suction filter of the 16 gallon
reservoir by following the steps below.
1. Drain the reservoir and wipe off the top of the reser-
voir cover. Remove the cover.
2. Reach down into the reservoir with a crows foot
wrench or chain wrench. Unscrew the filter by turning
the three inch hex bottom counterclockwise (refer to
Figure 4.2). Do not grip the wire mesh screen with the
wrench. This will crush the screen.
Figure 4.2 16 Gallon Hydraulic Oil Reservoir
3. Clean the filter screen by flushing it with solvent. Blow
it dry with an air hose from the inside of the screen to
the outside. Check for holes or other damage. Re-
place the filter screen if it is damaged.
4. Inspect the inside of the reservoir and if necessary,
clean it.
5. Install the filter in the reservoir by turning the three
inch hex bottom clockwise. Clean the filter no more
than four times before replacing it.
Return Line Filter
The return line filter is a 10 micron filter that cleans the oil
as it enters the reservoir. This filter is mounted in the
return line connected to the reservoir.
The return line filter is equipped with a bypass valve. The
bypass valve opens when there is a pressure drop of 25
psi (or more) across the filter cartridge. When the valve is
open, oil flows directly into the reservoir. This prevents
the cartridge from collapsing during cold oil start-ups or if
it is clogged.
If the filter becomes clogged, oil will flow directly into the
reservoir through the bypass valve. The lack of oil filtra-
tion will eventually cause serious damage to hydraulic
components.
During the initial break-in period of a new unit, the
hydraulic components will deposit break-in wear par-
ticles in the return line filter cartridge. Change the return
line cartridge after the first 15 to 25 PTO hours and as
recommended in the Preventive Maintenance and In-
spection Checklist. If the unit is operated in very dusty
conditions, replace the return line filter more often. Also,
replace the cartridge after new oil has circulated through
the system for the first time.
Always replace the return line filter cartridge with a
genuine Altec replacement part. Other filters may screw
into the filter housing, but they may not have the same
micron rating. Also, other filters may allow oil to bypass at
a different rate.
Oil Specifications
Use high quality oil in the hydraulic system. The hydraulic
oil should contain rust, oxidation and corrosion inhibitors.
It should also contain antifoam and antiwear additives.
Hydraulic oils used in insulated equipment must possess
high demulsibility to allow the oil to separate from the
water in the reservoir. These oils must pass the ASTM
D877 test for dielectric breakdown voltage of insulating
oils at 25 kilovolts or higher for new oil.
Hydraulic oil is commonly classified by viscosity. The
viscosity of hydraulic oil changes with temperature. The
higher the viscosity index of an oil, the less the viscosity
of the oil will change as the temperature changes. A
multiviscosity oil contains additives which increase the
viscosity index.
The ability of hydraulic oil to provide adequate fluid at low
temperatures is measured by its pour point. If the pour
point is not low enough, oil will not flow into the pump at
a fast enough rate when the pump is operated at low
temperatures. This will cause cavitation, which can quickly
destroy the pump.
Warning
Only use hydraulic oil as recommended. Other fluids
added to the hydraulic system can increase compo-
nent wear, affect the lubricating characteristics of the
oil, or destroy the insulating capability of the unit.
Attention
Oils meeting the viscosity rating for military specifi-
cation MIL-5606 may be used in extremely cold cli-
Filler Breather Cap
Suction
Filter
Hex
Bottom
10 Section 4 Preventive Maintenance and Inspection
mates. Since these oils have fewer antiwear charac-
teristics, they are not recommended for full time use.
Figure 4.3 shows hydraulic oil recommendations for
different temperatures. Most companies can supply
equivalent oils. The oil selected for the hydraulic system
depends on the temperature during unit operation.
Oil Condition
An important part of hydraulic system preventive mainte-
nance includes checking the condition of the hydraulic oil.
Periodic laboratory analysis is the most accurate method
of determining the condition of the hydraulic oil and
determining when it should be changed. A visual inspec-
tion may also be useful to check oil condition.
A hydraulic oil supplier should be able to do this testing or
recommend a test laboratory. The laboratory should
provide the following information.
Particle count
Trace element analysis (component wear, outside
contaminants and oil additive concentrations)
Viscosity test
Water content test
Dielectric strength test
Before taking a sample of oil, operate the unit to circulate
the oil. Warm it to operating temperature. Take the
sample from the middle level of the reservoir by using a
clean hand pump, such as a disposable syringe and a
piece of plastic tubing. If this is not available, the sample
can be drained from the bottom of the reservoir. Allow
several quarts of oil to flow out before collecting the
sample. This will remove any dirt and water that has
collected in the reservoir.
If a sample container has not been provided by the
laboratory, use a wide mouth, screw top, clear glass
container. Clean it with hot water and detergent. Rinse it
thoroughly and let it air dry before putting oil into it.
Once the report is received, compare it to previous oil
analysis reports for the same unit. This information will
provide trends toward deterioration of the oil. It may give
early warnings of a problem developing within hydraulic
system components.
Attention
Change the oil if the sample has any of the character-
istics listed in Figure 4.4.
If making a visual inspection, compare the used sample
of oil to a sample of new oil of the same type. Also,
compare it to previous samples taken from the same unit.
Look for the signs of oil deterioration listed in Figure 4.4.
There are fluid contamination detector kits available
which allow for rapid, on-the-spot analysis of the hydrau-
lic systems condition.
Figure 4.4 Hydraulic Oil Conditions
Condition Possible Cause
Dark color Oxidation; contamination
Cloudiness or milky appearance Presence of water or wax
Rancid or burned odor Oxidation
Increase in viscosity Oxidation; addition of improper fluids; presence of water
Decrease in viscosity Addition of improper fluids; additive deterioration
Separation of water or other fluids from the oil Presence of water; addition of improper fluids
Foreign particles or other visible contamination Contamination; emulsion of water with oil additives
Specification Cold Weather Oil All Weather Oil Warm Weather Oil
Ambient temperature range -50 to 60F (-46 to 16C) -10 to 90F (-23 to 32C) 40F (4C) and above
Viscosity @ 100F (38C) 85 SSU (17 cSt) 90 SSU (20.2 cSt) 150 SSU (30 cSt)
Viscosity @ 210F (99C) 35 SSU (4.5 cSt) 43 SSU (5.0 cSt) 46 SSU (5.5 cSt)
Pour point -80F (-62C) -55F (-48C) -30F (-34C)
Maximum oil temperature 160F (71C)
Minimum pump start-up temperature -15F (-26C)
Figure 4.3 Hydraulic Oil Viscosity Recommendations
Section 4 Preventive Maintenance and Inspection 11
If laboratory analysis or visual inspection indicate that the
oil is deteriorating prematurely, determine the cause of
the problem and correct it.
Changing Oil and Flushing the System
Properly maintained, the filtration system greatly extends
the useful life of the hydraulic oil. However, the oil will
eventually need to be replaced due to contaminants that
form during normal operation of the unit.
It is impossible to recommend an exact time interval for
oil changes due to varying conditions of unit use. Use the
following guidelines to determine when the hydraulic oil
should be changed.
Change the oil as recommended in the Preventive
Maintenance and Inspection Checklist.
If a hydraulic component fails and contaminates the
system with metallic particles, change the compo-
nent and the oil immediately.
In climates where there is a wide variation in operat-
ing temperatures between summer and winter
months, change to the appropriate weight oil each
spring and fall.
Replace the return line filter cartridge and filler breather
cap every time the hydraulic oil is changed. Also, clean or
replace the suction filter.
A significant quantity of oil remains in the cylinders and
lines of the hydraulic system when the reservoir is drained.
Flush the system when the oil is changed. This is espe-
cially important if the system is heavily contaminated with
metal particles.
If the oil is heavily contaminated with water, it may not be
necessary to change the oil and flush the system. Follow
the instructions in this section under Water Removal.
The following equipment and supplies are necessary to
properly flush the hydraulic system.
Hydraulic oil of the proper grade
12 gallons for a 7 gallon reservoir
25 gallons for a 16 gallon reservoir
Three return line filter cartridges
Clean, lint-free rags
Reservoir cover O-ring
Filler breather cap and strainer basket (if component
has not been replaced within one year)
Caution
Keep the unit and work areas clean. Spilled hydraulic
oil creates slick surfaces and can cause personnel to
slip and/or fall.
Flush the hydraulic system by using the following steps.
1. If the oil is being changed because of contamination
from hydraulic component failure, go to step 2. Oth-
erwise, operate the unit to circulate the oil and warm
it to operating temperature. This will allow as much of
the impurities as possible to drain off in suspension.
2. Drain the oil reservoir completely.
3. Wipe off the top of the reservoir, reservoir cover and
filler breather cap.
4. Remove the strainer basket. If the filler breather cap
and strainer basket have not been replaced in one
year, or are damaged, replace them when reassem-
bling the reservoir in steps 7 and 8. If the filler
breather cap and strainer basket is less than one year
old and is not damaged, clean the basket.
5. Remove the reservoir cover and the suction filter.
Disassemble and clean it as described in this section
under Filtration.
Warning
Solvents can be extremely hazardous. Follow the
manufacturers label for proper use and disposal.
6. Inspect the inside of the reservoir. If sludge or other
contamination is found, clean it using solvent and lint-
free rags. Disconnect the pump suction line from the
bottom of the reservoir to prevent contamination
while cleaning. Reconnect the suction line immedi-
ately after cleaning.
7. Install the suction filter and strainer basket.
8. Install the filler breather cap. Check the reservoir
cover O-ring. If it is not in good condition, replace it.
Install the reservoir cover.
9. If hydraulic component failure has contaminated the
system, change the return line filter cartridge.
Warning
Only use hydraulic oil as recommended. Other fluids
added to the hydraulic system can increase compo-
nent wear, affect the lubricating characteristics of the
oil, or destroy the insulating capability of the unit.
12 Section 4 Preventive Maintenance and Inspection
10. For a 7 gallon reservoir, add 5 gallons of new hydrau-
lic oil of the proper grade to the reservoir. For a 16
gallon reservoir, add 10 gallons of new hydraulic oil
of the proper grade to the reservoir. Filter the oil
through a 10 micron filter as it is put into the reservoir.
Attention
After filter servicing, the shutoff valves in the suction
and return lines must be fully open before starting the
pump. Failure to do so will result in serious damage
to the pump or other components.
11. If the new oil was not filtered as it was put into the
reservoir, allow the new oil to circulate through the
tool circuit for about 15 minutes. Connect an open
center tool or service hose to the tool outlet.
12. Slowly cycle all the cylinders and the rotation motor
to flush the contaminated oil from the lines and
components of the hydraulic system.
13. Change the return line filter cartridge.
14. Drain the reservoir completely again.
15. For a seven gallon reservoir, fill the reservoir to
approximately two inches from the top of the reser-
voir. For a 16 gallon reservoir, fill the reservoir to the
Full mark on the dipstick with new hydraulic oil. Make
sure the oil is the proper grade. Filter the oil through
a 10 micron filter as it is put into the reservoir.
16. If the new oil was not filtered as it was put into the
reservoir, circulate the oil through the tool circuit as
described in step 11.
17. Change the return line filter cartridge after approxi-
mately 25 PTO hours.
Water Removal
If the hydraulic system was heavily contaminated with
water, special water removal filtration may be necessary.
An oil supplier or a qualified laboratory can determine
whether water has caused excessive oil oxidation or
additive deterioration.
If analysis shows oil deterioration beyond an acceptable
level, drain the reservoir and flush the system as de-
scribed earlier in this section. Use a water removal filter
cartridge during the flushing process to remove any
residual water from the system. When the flushing pro-
cess is complete, replace the water removal filter car-
tridge with a regular cartridge.
If the condition of the oil is acceptable except for the water
content, allow time for it to separate from the oil. Then
drain the water off the bottom of the reservoir. Circulate
the oil in the reservoir through a separate water removal
filter cartridge. This may require two or more water
removal filter cartridges, depending on the amount of
water content. The cartridges capacity is approximately
one cup of water. Once the cartridge has accumulated
this amount of water, it needs to be replaced. Change the
water removal cartridge a minimum of every other day.
Continue this process until the water content in the oil is
reduced to an acceptable level. The preferred method of
determining water content in the oil is laboratory testing.
Another method is a dielectric test. Once the water has
been reduced to an acceptable level, replace the car-
tridge with a new return line filter cartridge.
Lubrication
Proper lubrication will extend the life of the equipment and
help to avoid future maintenance problems. The fre-
quency of lubrication required will depend on the amount
of use and the conditions the unit is operated in. Opera-
tion in extremely dusty, sandy or rainy environments will
require more frequent lubrication.
The Lubrication Chart and Diagram identifies each com-
ponent, type of lubricant and method of application. Any
brand of lubricant that meets or exceeds the specifica-
tions of the products listed is acceptable. Select the
appropriate interval and lubricate those components iden-
tified by the symbol(s).
Always wipe grease fittings clean before and after greas-
ing to keep contaminants from entering the points of
lubrication. To avoid bearing damage, use manually
operated grease guns. Air-driven grease guns may have
enough force to cause bearing damage.
If the unit is not used, or is stored for any length of time,
apply fresh lubricant at all points shown on the Lubrica-
tion Chart and Diagram. This will help prevent corrosion
during the idle period.
Outriggers
Pin connections on the outriggers have been made with
zinc plated pins that have been coated with an anti-seize
compound to prevent corrosion. These connections do
not require additional lubrication unless they are disas-
sembled.
Lubricate the inner legs as recommended in the Preven-
tive Maintenance and Inspection Checklist.
1. Position the unit on a level surface, apply the parking
brake and chock the wheels. Engage the hydraulic
system and extend the outrigger legs. Disengage the
hydraulic system and turn off the engine.
Section 4 Preventive Maintenance and Inspection 13
2. Wipe the exposed inner leg surfaces to remove any
dirt, moisture, etc.
3. Wipe on a coating of moly grease.
4. Start the engine and engage the hydraulic system.
Retract and extend the outrigger legs several times
to work the grease evenly on the surface.
5. Extend the outrigger legs and wipe off the excess
grease to prevent buildup of dust and other particles.
6. Retract the outrigger legs.
Bearings
Spherical bearings are used in various locations on the
unit. All spherical bearings require regular lubrication
with a chassis lubricant.
It is very important to grease this type of bearing regularly.
If they are not greased properly, the normal usable life of
the bearing will be greatly reduced. These bearings can
produce enough twisting force on the mounting pins to
break the pin retainers and make removal very difficult if
they are not properly lubricated.
Self-lubricating bearings require no lubrication and are
used at various locations on the unit.
Rotation Bearing
The rotation bearing ball path is lubricated by a grease
fitting at the front of the turntable. Lubricate the bearing
race as recommended in the Preventive Maintenance
and Inspection Checklist.
Warning
Hands and fingers must be kept off the pinion and
rotation bearing gear teeth to avoid serious injury.
Do not attempt to lubricate the rotation bearing while
rotating the unit. It is possible to become trapped
between a moving component and a stationary com-
ponent.
Do not lubricate the bearing while operating the unit. Stop
turntable movement before lubricating. Rotate the turn-
table slowly through at least 2 complete 360 degree
revolutions, stopping periodically to lubricate. Operate
the manual grease gun at each stop until a small amount
of excess grease appears around the seal.
Rotation Gearbox
The top bearing on the rotation gearbox requires periodic
lubrication. Three to five pumps with a manually operated
grease gun will be enough to adequately grease the
gearbox bearing.
The need to add oil regularly to the rotation gearbox is a
sign of leakage. Determine the cause of the leakage and
correct it. If the leak is ignored, the internal components
of the gearbox could be damaged by the low oil level.
If the oil level appears to be increasing, this could be a
sign of an internal hydraulic leak from a defective motor
shaft seal.
The overall life expectancy of the rotation gearbox may be
extended by regularly draining and refilling the oil. The
best time to drain a gearbox is right after it has been
operating. At this time, the oil is warm and the wear
particles are suspended in the oil. Change the gearbox oil
after the first 15 to 25 PTO hours. Thereafter, change the
oil as recommended in the Preventive Maintenance and
Inspection Checklist. If a gearbox is overheated and the
oil smells burned, change the oil immediately. Change
the gearbox oil if the oil becomes diluted with hydraulic oil
from a leaking seal.
Wipe the gearbox clean before removing the plug from
the fill or check hole. Do not overfill the gearbox with oil.
Overfilling will cause the gearbox to leak. Tighten the
plugs securely after checking or filling. Wipe excess oil off
of the gearbox to prevent dirt buildup.
The gearbox has a vent plug that must be kept free of
paint and dirt. The vent prevents excessive pressure
buildup inside the gearbox as the oil expands during
operation.
Apply an open face gear lubricant to the rotation gear and
pinion teeth.
Warning
Hands and fingers must be kept off the pinion and
rotation bearing gear teeth to avoid serious injury.
Caution
Use extreme caution when access covers have been
removed to service the unit. Pinch points and shear
points may exist between moving parts. Replace the
access covers immediately after servicing.
Remove the pinion cover from the turntable to lubricate
the rotation gear teeth. Replace the cover after the
lubrication has been completed.
Single Handle Control
Use a small amount of general purpose spray lubricant on
the control linkage pivot points. Wipe off the isolating links
and any excess lubricant. Isolating links must be clean
and dry.
14 Section 4 Preventive Maintenance and Inspection
Letter Lubricant Application Method
A Anti-Seize Compound Extreme pressure lubricant that prevents seizure, Brush
corrosion, rust, and galvanic pitting.
C Chassis Grease Multipurpose lithium base grease with good water Grease gun
resistance, rust inhibition, oxidation stability, and extreme pressure properties.
D Dry Lubricant Spray
E EP 80W-90 Gear Oil API Service Designation GL-5. Pour
F ATF, Type F Pour
G Open Face Gear Lubricant Spray lubricant that penetrates and adheres with Spray
good water resistance, is unaffected by temperature extremes, and has extreme
pressure properties.
M Moly Grease Multipurpose lithium base grease with molybdenum disulfide Brush/grease gun
additive, good water resistance, rust inhibition, oxidation stability, and extreme
pressure properties.
O AGMA 7 Compounded Oil Pour
R Wire Rope Lubricant Penetrating, cleaning, nongumming protective spray; Spray
must minimize friction and eliminate rust.
S General Purpose Spray Lubricant Spray
W SAE 140 Worm Gear Oil AGMA Grade 7 compounded or 7EP, must be Pour
noncorrosive to bronze.
Lubrication Chart and Diagram
Service items identified by the symbol(s) at the appropriate level.
A
Input Shaft
Splines
Hydraulic Pump
85 hours/ 500 hours/ 1,000 hours/ 2,000 hours/
1 month 6 months 1 year 2 years If disassembled

S
S
Control Handle Linkage
Single handle control
All control handle linkages at
platform
Lower control valve
Outrigger control valve
Control Handle
Section 4 Preventive Maintenance and Inspection 15
Platform Shaft
C
A
Lift Cylinder
Base End
Spherical Bearing
C
Articulating
Arm Cylinder
Spherical Bearings
G
Rotation Bearing
Gear Teeth Rotation Bearing
Ball Race
C
G
Rotation Pinion Gear Teeth
Rotation Gearbox Eccentric Ring
M
A
Inner Leg
Outer Surface
Cylinder Pins
Outriggers
Rotation Gearbox
C
Output Shaft
Upper Bearing
W
Change Oil
(Drain plug
on bottom)
W Oil Level
A

16 Section 4 Preventive Maintenance and Inspection


Structures
The structural components of the unit are identified in the
Component Identification in Section 2. The unit has been
designed to meet or exceed the specifications for vehicle-
mounted rotating and elevating aerial devices.
Regular inspection of the welds and structures is re-
quired to insure that components maintain their strength.
Periodic cleaning of the structures is also recommended.
This will prevent damage that can occur from dirt accu-
mulation.
Caution
Use care when getting on or off the unit or entering or
exiting the platform to avoid slipping and/or falling.
Periodic inspection of the structures is recommended to
be certain there is no deformation, abnormal wear or
abrasion, interference between moving parts, or cracking
of the welds on structural members.
Inspect the structures and welds as recommended in the
Preventive Maintenance and Inspection Checklist.
Cleaning
Accumulated dirt can damage the unit and cause it to
malfunction. Dirt buildup also accelerates wear on the
components.
Caution
Keep the unit and work areas clean. Spilled hydraulic
oil creates slick surfaces and can cause personnel to
slip and/or fall.
Keep the platform clean of debris. The weight of the
operator and the debris may overload the platform.
If a pressure washer or steam cleaner is used to clean the
unit, be careful where the spray is directed. Do not direct
the spray where the cleaning liquid might get into electri-
cal components, such as electrical connections, switches
or lights. Even though all electrical components on the
unit are designed for all weather use, it is possible for
water pressure from the nozzle to push a seal out of
position. Do not direct the spray at the filler breather cap
of the reservoir. The high pressure can force water and
cleaning liquid into the reservoir and contaminate the
hydraulic oil.
Refer to Fiberglass Care in this section for information on
cleaning the fiberglass components.
Welds
All welds on the unit are originally applied in conform-
ance to American Welding Society (AWS) standards.
Every weld on the unit is important and should be periodi-
cally inspected.
Warning
Solvents can be extremely hazardous. Follow the
manufacturers label for proper use and disposal.
If paint has lifted off the weld, or if rust is found, a closer
inspection is required. Remove any loose paint or rust
with a wire brush. Clean the area with a solvent such as
acetone and closely inspect the area for cracks in the
welds. Dye penetration and magnetic particle testing are
relatively simple processes that may be used to verify or
disprove a suspected problem.
Visual inspections can be very effective if conducted
properly. The area to be inspected should be clean and
free of dirt and grease. Look for visible cracks in the weld
and at the weld to parent material joint. Use a bright light
to provide adequate visibility of the inspection area.
Pay close attention to welds that are located where
changes in cross section take place and near the attach-
ment points of highly loaded components. To assist in the
inspection of the welds on the unit, Figure 4.5 illustrates
these areas. If any cracks or unacceptable conditions are
discovered, report them to your Altec representative.
Any welds added in the field should be done by qualified
personnel and also conform to the AWS standards.
After doing repair work on the unit, such as weld repair,
some testing of the unit may be required. All safety
requirements must be observed when doing these tests.
Repairs
If the inspection locates a problem, such as a hydraulic
leak, loose fastener or a cracked weld, the problem must
be corrected before putting the unit back into service.
Both maintenance personnel and operators of this unit
should be familiar with and understand the safety infor-
mation in both the Operators and the Maintenance
Manuals and on all placards before using or repairing this
equipment.
The recommended repair method for a steel structure
may include welding. When welding on the unit, the
welding ground clamp must be attached to the same
structure on which the welding is being performed. This
is necessary to prevent electrical current from being sent
through components.
Section 4 Preventive Maintenance and Inspection 17
Figure 4.5 Weld Inspection Areas
Boom Tip
Cylinder
Attaching Structure
Pin
Bosses
Boom
Section Transitions
(Insulated Arm Only
Cylinder
Attaching Structure
Pin Bosses and
Stiffener Plates Arm
End Weldment End Weldment
Link
Vertical Plates
Tube and Fall
Protection Anchor
Platform Mounting Bracket
Pin
Bosses
Rectangular
Tube
Base Plate
Turntable
Vertical Plates
Riser
Pedestal
Gusset
Attaching Areas
Pedestal
Top Plate
Vertical
Plate
Pin Bosses and
Stiffener Plates
18 Section 4 Preventive Maintenance and Inspection
Components such as the rotation bearing, rotary joint,
wire braid hoses and hydraulic cylinders can be damaged
by electrical current. Electrical current flowing through a
component can be very intense, causing serious internal
damage to the component.
Follow this list of safety procedures when servicing the
unit.
1. Select a work site large enough to operate the re-
quired functions.
2. Position the unit on a level surface, apply the parking
brake and chock the wheels. Check the hydraulic oil
level. Engage the hydraulic system and properly set
the outriggers, if so equipped.
3. Use a hoist to safely support heavy components
before loosening the fasteners on that component.
Caution
Failure to remove pressure before disconnecting
hydraulic lines or fittings will cause oil to spray out
under pressure as the connection is loosened. Hy-
draulic oil escaping under pressure can have enough
force to inject oil into the flesh.
In case of injury by escaping hydraulic oil, seek
medical attention at once. Serious infection or reac-
tion can result if medical treatment is not given
immediately.
Keep the unit and work areas clean. Spilled hydraulic
oil creates slick surfaces and can cause personnel to
slip and/or fall.
4. Never loosen or remove a pressurized hose or fitting.
5. Perform a structural test as described in Section 9.
6. Perform a dielectric test after any component is
installed that could affect the dielectric integrity of
the unit.
Fasteners
A variety of fasteners are used on the unit. Different
fasteners have different inspection and installation re-
quirements depending on their use and design. This
section explains different fasteners used on the unit,
torque specifications, and use of thread locking and anti-
seize compounds.
The standard grade of fastener used on the unit is a zinc
plated, SAE Grade 5 steel cap screw. SAE Grade 8 cap
screws, or special high strength cap screws, are used in
highly loaded areas. A variety of other fasteners such as
socket head, flat countersunk head and button head cap
screws are also used on the unit.
Regularly check all fasteners for tightness. Check the
fasteners as recommended in the Preventive Mainte-
nance and Inspection Checklist.
Figure 4.6 represents general locations of fasteners to
inspect. When inspecting fasteners, pay particular atten-
tion to the following fasteners.
Rotation bearing mounting cap screws
Rotation gearbox mounting cap screws
All pin retainer cap screws
Arm insulator attachment cap screws
Link insulator attachment cap screws
Boom tip attachment cap screws
Platform mounting cap screws
Refer to Torque Values in the Appendix as a guide to
determine the proper cap screw torque value. The proper
value is necessary to overcome the friction of the threads
and develop the required clamping force. The torque
values on the chart are for dry (not lubricated) threads
unless otherwise noted.
A properly installed cap screw applies a clamping force
equal to or greater than the load applied to it. A cap screw
installed at less than the recommended torque value
does not provide enough clamping force. The cap screw
may fatigue, causing it to loosen or fail. If the cap screw
is torqued beyond the recommended torque value, the
elastic range of the cap screw may be exceeded. This will
result in premature failure of the cap screw.
When checking fastener torque value during inspections,
check the torque value at 90 percent of the original value.
This prevents breaking the locking bond of the thread
locking adhesive. For example, if the torque value for a
cap screw is 100 foot-pounds, check the cap screw for
tightness at 90 foot-pounds.
The following list of fasteners have special torque values
that do not follow the values on the torque chart.
Foot-Pounds
Rotation bearing cap screws and washers 150
Platform mounting cap screws 55
Arm insulator cap screws 70
Link insulator cap screws 70
Boom base end attachment cap screws 70
Rotation gearbox mounting cap screws 115
Section 4 Preventive Maintenance and Inspection 19
Thread Locking Adhesives
and Anti-Seize Compounds
Anaerobic thread locking adhesives work in the absence
of air. When a cap screw is removed, it must be cleaned
thoroughly and the adhesive must be reapplied before
reinserting. Properly torque the cap screw before the
adhesive cures, which occurs within 15 minutes of appli-
cation. When installing trunnion pins, apply thread lock-
ing adhesive only to the first two or three threads of the
female portion. Refer to Trunnion Pins in this section for
proper trunnion pin installation.
Apply medium strength anaerobic thread locking adhe-
sive on the threads of all pivot pin retainer cap screws.
Warning
Solvents can be extremely hazardous. Follow the
manufacturers label for proper use and disposal.
Caution
Eye protection must be worn at all times to prevent
particles of dirt, metal or hydraulic oil from entering
the eyes.
If the threads of the fasteners and the tapped holes are not
clean and free of grease and oil, the effectiveness of the
thread locking adhesive will be reduced. Clean the threads
of the fasteners and the tapped holes with solvent and
blow dry with compressed air before applying the thread
locking adhesive.
For optimum thread locking, follow the manufacturers
label for proper use and disposal.
Anti-seize compound may be used to prevent rust and
corrosion from forming on the metal-to-metal contact
areas between a connecting pin and its boss. It is also
recommended for certain fasteners to reduce friction
during torquing to increase clamping load. Apply anti-
seize compound to the following components.
Platform pin
Outrigger cylinder pins
Pump output shaft splines
Rotation gearbox mounting cap screws
Rotation drive adjustment eccentric ring
Rotation bearing cap screws and washers
The area on which the anti-seize is applied must be clean
and dry for the anti-seize to be effective. Proper applica-
tion of anti-seize will make future disassembly of the
component much easier.
Chrome pins used with self-lubricating bearings require
special attention. Apply anti-seize compound to the sur-
face of the pin only where the pin and steel pin bosses
make contact. This pin installation procedure is de-
scribed in this section under Pins and Pin Retainers.
Rotation Bearing Cap Screws
Special high strength
5
/8 cap screws are used to secure
the rotation bearing to the pedestal and the turntable.
These cap screws have a patch lock material perma-
Figure 4.6 Fasteners
Pedestal
Mounting
Cap Screws
Rotation Bearing
Mounting Cap Screws
Rotation Gearbox
Mounting Cap Screws
Link Insulator
Arm Insulator
Platform
Boom Tip
All Pin
Retainers
20 Section 4 Preventive Maintenance and Inspection
Figure 4.7 Cap Screw Torque Pattern
Check the selected cap screws to be sure they are
torqued to 135 foot-pounds, or 90 percent of the normal
installation torque of 150 foot-pounds. Use a regularly
calibrated, accurate torque wrench. If one or more of
these cap screws turns before the wrench clicks, it will be
necessary to check the torque on all the cap screws as
described in the Retorquing Procedure in this section. If
the rotation bearing is replaced or removed, the same
inspection intervals must be followed.
Retorquing Procedure
Perform this procedure on the entire bearing race (outer,
inner or both) if any cap screws were found loose at the
visual or annual inspections.
If all the cap screws have been removed from one or both
races of the rotation bearing, refer to Section 6 for the
installation and torquing procedure.
Some components may need to be removed to make the
rotation bearing cap screws accessible for retorquing.
1. Remove and discard the remaining protective plastic
caps from the cap screw heads on the outer race of
the rotation bearing.
2. If any cap screws are replaced, coat the new cap
screw with anti-seize compound on the threads,
shank and underside of the head before putting on
the washer. Notice the washer has a rounded edge
on one side. Install the washer with the rounded edge
toward the cap screw head. Coat the bottom of each
washer with the compound after installing it on the
cap screw. Reinstall the cap screw and washer into
the bearing and torque the cap screw to 150 foot-
pounds.
3. Retorquing should be done according to the alternat-
ing star pattern shown in Figure 4.7. Understand the
entire procedure before starting the torque inspection.
nently bonded to the threads. The threads and special
hardened washers are coated with an anti-seize com-
pound at the time of assembly. They are torqued to 150
foot-pounds. To help identify the fasteners, the cap screw
heads are painted red and plastic caps are installed over
the heads. Placards alerting personnel of the torque
value are attached to the pedestal by each access hole.
These cap screws require special inspection procedures.
Caution
Failure to keep the cap screws properly tightened can
lead to fatigue failure of the cap screws and conse-
quent damage to the unit. Insufficient or uneven cap
screw tightness can also contribute to reduced life of
the bearing.
Use extreme caution when access covers have been
removed to service the unit. Pinch points and shear
points may exist between moving parts. Replace the
access covers immediately after servicing.
Attention
Use a drive click-type manual torque wrench,
accurately calibrated, for the inspection of these cap
screws. Torque the cap screws by applying a smooth
pull on the torque wrench without jerking. Do not
overtighten the cap screws.
Only use Altec supplied cap screws and washers to
install the rotation bearing.
Visual Inspection Procedure
Perform this visual inspection procedure as recommended
in the Preventive Maintenance and Inspection Checklist.
Visually inspect all rotation bearing cap screws, looking
for any evidence that a cap screw is loose. Check for
loose washers under the heads of the cap screws by
trying to turn each washer by hand. If movement is
indicated, all the cap screws must be retorqued.
Annual Torque Inspection Procedure
Perform this inspection at the interval recommended in
the Preventive Maintenance and Inspection Checklist.
Randomly select four to five cap screws on both the outer
and inner race of the rotation bearing. On the inner race
select four to five cap screws including the two cap
screws marked with an asterisk (*) in Figure 4.7. Select
cap screws evenly spaced around the cap screw pattern
that are accessible with a torque wrench without the
removal of major components. Remove and discard the
protective caps from these cap screws.
Inner Race Outer Race
7* 2*
4 5
9 10
6 3
1 8
X
Rotation Gearbox
Grease
Fitting
1
6
4
7 2
5
3
8
Section 4 Preventive Maintenance and Inspection 21
Sharp
Edge
Section A-A
4. Begin with cap screw number 1 and torque it to 150
foot-pounds.
5. Continue around the pattern, torquing each cap screw
to 150 foot-pounds.
6. Retorque all cap screws to 150 foot-pounds again,
beginning at number 1. Go around in a circular
pattern instead of in the numbered order.
7. Repeat steps 1 through 6 on the inner race of the
rotation bearing.
Pin and Pin Retainers
A variety of pins and pin retainers have been used on the
unit. The type of pin or pin retainer used depends on the
particular application.
Chrome plated pins are used in critical areas, such as the
lower boom pivot pin. The chrome plating provides long
wear for pins used with self-lubricating bearings. It also
prevents rust.
Proper pin lubrication will protect pins from corrosion and
wear. However, do not lubricate pins used with self-
lubricating bearings (refer to Bearings in this section).
Use a dead blow hammer to remove or install pins.
Striking the pin with a steel hammer may distort the pin or
close the retaining ring groove. This may make pin
installation difficult or cause the retaining ring to come out
of its groove.
Warning
The pivot pins and mounting pins should be in-
spected daily to be sure they are properly retained.
Inspect all pivot and mounting pins regularly (refer to the
Preventive Maintenance and Inspection Checklist in the
Appendix).
Forged Pin Retainers
Forged pin retainers are used to retain the majority of the
pins on the unit. A forged pin retaining system is illus-
trated in Figure 4.8.
During inspection, look for bent or broken stems. A
broken or bent stem may indicate that the bearing within
the joint is worn out. Also, if the pin binds within the joint
and tries to turn, the stem could bend or break. This may
indicate a lack of lubrication. Make sure the cap screw
through the eye of the pin retainer is tight.
Figure 4.8 Forged Pin Retaining System
If a forged pin retainer is damaged, determine the cause
of damage. Relubricate or take the connection apart and
replace the necessary parts.
Retaining Rings
Retaining rings are used as a backup retaining system
for some pins and as the primary retaining system for
other pins.
When inspecting retaining rings, check to see that they
are properly installed and undamaged.
Figure 4.8 illustrates how retaining rings are used as a
backup retainer on the lift cylinder pivot pins. If the forged
pin retainer should fail or fall out, the retaining rings will
hold the pin in place. However, they will not prevent the
pin from rotating. Immediately determine the cause of the
problem and replace and/or repair the necessary parts.
Install retaining rings with the sharp edge out (refer to
Figure 4.9). This makes it more difficult for the retaining
ring to come off the pin if the pin is being forced out the
other side.
Figure 4.9 Retaining Ring
Flange and Cap Screws Pin Retainer
The platform tilt/mounting bracket pin has a flange
welded on one end secured by two cap screws (refer to
Figure 4.10).
Forged Pin
Retainer
Cylinder Eye
Retaining
Ring
22 Section 4 Preventive Maintenance and Inspection
Figure 4.10
Flange and Cap Screws Retaining System
When inspecting this pin, check for cracking of the
flange weld. Make sure the cap screws are properly
torqued. Any of these conditions are signs the bearings
are binding the pin. When inspecting the upper leveling
cylinder, make sure the retaining ring is properly installed
and undamaged.
Pin Installation
Into Self-Lubricating Bearings
When installing a pin into a self-lubricating bearing, only
lubricate the area where the pin and the boss make
contact (refer to Figure 4.11).
Figure 4.11
Pin Installation Into Self-Lubricating Bearings
Properly install the pin by using the following steps.
1. Slide the pin through the first boss and through the
bearing until it reaches the second boss.
2. Apply an anti-seize compound to the second pin boss
and pin surface that is still exposed.
3. Slide the pin completely into the second pin boss and
install the appropriate retaining system.
Bearings
The unit is equipped with a variety of bearings. The type
of bearing used depends on the particular application.
Spherical Bearings
Spherical bearings are used at both ends of the articulat-
ing arm cylinder. A spherical bearing is also used at the
base end of the lift cylinder. Self-aligning bearings such
as these are used in areas where perfect alignment is
difficult to maintain. This type of bearing allows the
component to follow the movements of the structure
without applying a side load to the internal components of
the cylinder.
Periodic lubrication of this bearing is required. Lubrica-
tion prevents the inner rim that maintains the alignment
from seizing to the outer rim of the bearing. Lubrication
in this section describes how to properly lubricate these
bearings.
Self-Lubricating Bearings
Self-lubricating bearings are used at the mounting points
of the following components.
Platform pin
Link pivot pins
Boom pin
Leveling cylinders
Lift cylinder rod end pin
Self-lubricating bearings are designed for long life. Under
normal use, this type of bearing will provide many years
of trouble free service with virtually no maintenance.
These bearings resist impact and shock loads, and
abrasive contaminants.
Self-lubricating bearings are made with a braided cord
liner containing Teflon fibers. The liner is bonded to the
outer shell of the bearing with epoxy resin. The epoxy
resin has a self-lubricating filler added to it. A chrome
plated pin is used with this bearing.
The inside diameter of a self-lubricating bearing is coated
with Teflon fibers. Once a pin is installed in the bearing,
some of the Teflon transfers to the pin surface and
provides lubrication. Applying anti-seize compound to
the entire surface of the pin will prevent the Teflon from
transferring. This may shorten bearing life.
Replace these bearings if the components are disas-
sembled for other purposes. Replacement of this type of
bearing due to wear is not a normal consideration.
If it is desirable to measure the bearing to determine when
it is worn, several factors must be considered. The only
Flange
Weld
Pin
Flange
Cap
Screws
First Boss Second Boss
Bearing
Anti-Seize Compound
Pin
Section 4 Preventive Maintenance and Inspection 23
accurate way to measure bearing wear is to keep a record
of the clearance between the chrome pin and the bearing.
Place the magnetic base of a dial indicator in a position
that allows the clearance between the pin and the bearing
to be measured while under load. Take an initial mea-
surement when the unit is new. This will provide a
reference point. Monitor the change in bearing clearance
with subsequent measurements.
For self-lubricating bearings, clearance wear on the
bearing of 0.005 may suggest that the bearing needs to
be replaced. This figure takes into account only the wear
of the bearing. Through the course of time, there may
also be pin and pin boss wear. An overall change in the
clearance between the pin and the bearing of 0.020 or
more indicates the pin and bearing both need to be
replaced.
Replacement
The following steps describe how to remove and install
self-lubricating bearings.
1. Drive out the old bearing. If this is not possible,
remove it with a die grinder, cut point chisel, or
hacksaw blade (refer to Figure 4.12). Be careful not
to damage the inside diameter of the bearing boss.
Figure 4.12 Removal and
Installation of Self-Lubricating Bearings
2. Use a screwdriver and needle nose pliers to collapse
the bearing and pull it out of the bearing boss.
3. Clean the bearing boss. Do not remove any metal
from the boss surface. If metal is removed, the new
bearing may not fit properly in the boss.
4. Place the new bearing on a bearing driver. Line it up
with the bearing boss and drive the bearing into place
using a dead blow hammer. An old pin may be used
as a driver (refer to Figure 4.12).
5. Inspect the pin before installing it into the bearing. If
the chrome is flaked, cracked or galled, a new pin
must be used.
6. Slide the pin through the first pin boss and through the
bearing until it reaches the second boss.
7. Apply an anti-seize compound to the second pin
boss and pin surface that is still exposed (refer to
Figure 4.11).
8. Slide the pin completely into the second pin boss and
install the appropriate retaining system.
Tapered Roller Bearings
Tapered roller bearings are often used in gearboxes.
This bearing type may be used at high speeds and will
support radial and axial loading. Depending on the appli-
cation, the tapered roller bearing may be installed with
several thousandths inch end clearance, no clearance, or
with a preload.
A preload is 0.000 clearance minus a few thousandths.
Preload is sometimes checked with a torque wrench (stall
torque) or with a line and scale (rolling torque). Shaft load
and speed of the particular application will determine the
method of installation. Light loads and high speeds will
call for a specific amount of end clearance. Heavy loads
and low speeds will call for a specific amount of preload
on the bearing. Proper installation and lubrication of the
tapered roller bearing are very important in determining
the useful life of the bearing.
Rotation Bearing
The turntable rotates on a shear ball bearing called the
rotation bearing. The inner race is mounted to the turn-
table. The outer race is mounted to the pedestal. The
outer race has gear teeth that mesh with the rotation
pinion. The bearing provides for very low torque rotation.
Turntable Tilt Measurement
The rotation bearing is designed with a tightly controlled
internal clearance. The bearing clearance will increase
slightly during the initial break-in period. It should then
remain essentially constant for many years providing the
bearing is properly lubricated and not overloaded. As the
bearing raceway begins to wear out, the clearance will
increase. It should increase steadily at first and acceler-
ate toward the end of bearing life. At this point, operators
may notice an increase in the tilting or rocking of the
turntable. Be aware of other factors that cause loose-
ness, such as loose or broken cap screws and other
mechanical causes.
Turntable tilt may be measured under load reversal using
a magnetic base dial indicator. This is a good way of
determining the condition of the rotation bearing.
Take an initial measurement when the unit is delivered.
Perform this turntable tilt measurement procedure as
recommended in the Preventive Maintenance and In-
Removal
Bearing
Installation
Driver
Removal Tool
24 Section 4 Preventive Maintenance and Inspection
spection Checklist. More frequent inspections are re-
quired when the total increase in turntable tilt measure-
ment reaches 0.050.
1. Position the unit on a level surface, apply the parking
brake and chock the wheels. Engage the hydraulic
system and properly set the outriggers, if so equipped.
2. From the lower controls, raise the boom slightly out
of the boom rest. Rotate the turntable 360 degrees
looking and listening for roughness. Repeat this
procedure from the upper controls, where roughness
of the bearing may also be felt.
3. Fully raise the articulating arm and raise the boom
horizontal.
4. Attach the magnetic base of the dial indicator to the
side of the pedestal near the top plate underneath the
rotation gearbox. Position the stem of the dial indica-
tor at the corner of the turntable base plate, as close
to the rotation bearing pinion cover as possible (refer
to Figure 4.13). Set the dial indicator at zero.
Figure 4.13 Dial Indicator Position
It may be difficult to position the dial indicator and stem in
some areas without interference of the turntable or ped-
estal. In this case, position the dial indicator and stem in
the area as close as possible to the recommended
position. For consistency of measurement, use the same
position each time the turntable tilt is measured.
5. Use a sling and hoist to support the boom tip. Slowly
raise the hoist until the needle on the dial indicator
stops moving. Record the dial indicator reading.
Slowly lower the hoist to release the load of the
boom. Record the dial indicator reading. Repeat this
boom raise and lower procedure with the hoist two
more times to make sure accurate readings have
been taken.
6. Disengage the hydraulic system and turn off the
engine. Remove the dial indicator to prevent acci-
dental damage.
The measurement obtained from this procedure includes
the effect of deflection of the structures along with the
clearance in the bearing. It is best if the turntable tilt is
measured initially when the rotation bearing is new. By
taking the difference between the initial reading and
subsequent readings, the constant effect of deflection is
removed. This gives a good indication of the increase in
bearing clearance. An increase in turntable tilt of 0.065
above the initial tilt measurement indicates the bearing is
nearing the end of its useful life. However, in making a
decision whether to replace the bearing, consider the feel
of the unit during load reversals. Also, consider any
presence of roughness or noise during rotation.
If the turntable tilt is measured on a unit suspected of
having a worn out bearing without an initial new bearing
reading for comparison, it is difficult to know how much is
due to deflection. However, the factors of feel, roughness,
noise and experience play a large part in the decision to
replace the bearing.
Rotation Gearbox Mounting Cap Screws
Special
1
/2 cap screws are used to secure the rotation
gearbox to the turntable. The torque value for the cap
screws is 115 foot-pounds. The cap screws require
special inspection procedures.
Insufficient or uneven cap screw tightness can contribute
to reduced life of the gearbox.
Caution
Injury can result from being pinched or trapped
between moving components. Keep hands clear.
Use caution when access covers have been removed to
service the unit. Pinch points and shear points may exist
between moving parts. Replace the access covers imme-
diately after servicing.
Attention
Only use Altec supplied cap screws and washers to
install the rotation gearbox.
Use an accurate
1
/2 drive click-type manual torque
wrench for the inspection of these cap screws. Torque
the cap screws by a smooth pull on the torque
wrench without jerking. Do not overtighten the cap
screws.
Turntable
Dial
Indicator
Turntable
Base Plate
Pedestal
Section 4 Preventive Maintenance and Inspection 25
Visual Inspection Procedure
Perform this visual inspection procedure as recommended
in the Preventive Maintenance and Inspection Checklist.
Visually inspect all rotation gearbox cap screws, looking
for any evidence that a cap screw is loose. Check for
loose washers under the heads of the cap screws by
trying to turn each washer by hand. If movement is
indicated, all the cap screws must be retorqued.
Annual Torque Inspection Procedure
Check the cap screws to be sure they are torqued to 103
foot-pounds or 90 percent of the normal installation
torque of 115 foot-pounds. Use a regularly calibrated,
accurate torque wrench. If one or more of these cap
screws turns before the wrench clicks, retorque all the
cap screws to 115 foot-pounds. If the rotation gearbox is
replaced or removed, the same inspection intervals must
be followed.
Cylinders
Inspect all cylinders as recommended in the Preventive
Maintenance and Inspection Checklist.
Warning
Do not operate a cylinder that has a dented barrel or
a damaged rod. Operation of a cylinder with such
defects could lead to cylinder failure. Cylinder failure
can result in serious injury and/or property damage.
Visually inspect the cylinders for leaks, loose or missing
pin retainers, broken bearings, bent rods and dents in the
rod or barrel.
Check for proper operation of the cylinder holding valves
by positioning the boom or outrigger so a load is applied
to the cylinder to put pressure against the holding valves.
Disengage the hydraulic system. If the cylinder does not
move, the retract holding valve is operating properly. If
the cylinder retracts slowly, the holding valve may be
leaking. Determine the cause of the problem and correct
it before operating the unit.
Hydraulic Lines
Hydraulic hoses and tubes are used to transmit hydraulic
oil throughout the hydraulic system. Inspect all hoses and
tubes as recommended in the Preventive Maintenance
and Inspection Checklist for wear and physical damage.
Make sure the hoses are properly routed to avoid sharp
edges, kinking and scuffing. Inspect the tubes for dents or
other damage that may restrict oil flow. Make sure all
hoses and tubes are held firmly in their support brackets.
Single Handle Control
and Control Handle Covers
Inspect and dielectric test the insulated single handle
control, if so equipped, as recommended by the Preven-
tive Maintenance and Inspection Checklist.
Keep the green insulated single handle control clean, dry,
in good condition, and periodically tested to maintain its
limited dielectric properties. Wipe any contaminants or
moisture from the surface of the control handle assembly
and the insulating linkages with a clean dry cloth. Isopro-
pyl alcohol may be used to clean these components.
Replace any damaged components with replacement
parts from your Altec representative and perform a di-
electric test on the control.
Inspect the rubber control valve handle covers as recom-
mended by the Preventive Maintenance and Inspection
Checklist. Keep the rubber control valve handle covers in
place and in good condition. Replace damaged covers
with replacement parts from your Altec representative.
Fiberglass and Plastic Components
The fiberglass components are covered with gelcoat to
protect the fiberglass and resin composite. The gelcoat
contains ultraviolet inhibitors to retard the effect of ultra-
violet light on the fiberglass. With minimal care, the
sealing and ultraviolet properties of the fiberglass can be
maintained for many years. The following sections in-
clude information on the cleaning and repair of fiberglass
and plastic components.
Inspect fiberglass components for cleanliness and any
visible damage such as scratched, cracked or chipped
gelcoat. Surface irregularities may trap dirt and contami-
nants, which over time may reduce the dielectric proper-
ties of the fiberglass. Of particular concern are irregularities
running lengthwise on the boom. Trapped contaminants,
such as dust particles and water, can cause tracking,
providing a path to ground or possible dielectric failure.
Search for signs of looseness or movement at the bond
areas (fiberglass-to-fiberglass and fiberglass-to-steel
connections) at the ends of the boom, arm insulator and
link insulator. If the fasteners are properly tightened and
the chemical bonds are good, it is unlikely damage will be
found. If a chemical bond has failed and the unit is
operated using the mechanical backup fasteners only,
cracks or elongation of the holes may develop in the
fiberglass around the fasteners. The fasteners will then
begin to show frictional wear. Other fiberglass and plastic
components have a variety of mechanical fasteners that
require inspection.
26 Section 4 Preventive Maintenance and Inspection
Cleaning
Keep the fiberglass and plastic components clean and in
good condition to preserve the dielectric properties and
appearance. Clean all components passing through the
boom fiberglass section.
Attention
Cylinders and other hydraulic components should
not have high pressure water pointed directly at them
as water could be forced into the hydraulic system.
The boom interior may be cleaned (as necessary) using
a pressure washer and directing the stream of soapy
water inside the boom. Rinsing with clean water will
remove any detergent residue. Elevate the booms to a
vertical position for draining and drying. Allow the booms
to dry thoroughly before operating the unit.
Caution
Solvents can be extremely hazardous. Follow the
manufacturers label for proper use and disposal.
In some situations, pressure washing may not remove all
of the contaminants from the boom interior. A solvent may
be used to clean this type of contamination with some
type of swab device. Suitable solvents, such as acetone
or MEK (Methyl Ethyl Ketone), may be used to get at
these stubborn areas. Refer to the precautions and
instructions on the solvent selected for this cleaning
procedure. This may require removal of some interior
boom components. After the contaminated area is
swabbed, use the pressure washer and follow up with a
thorough rinsing with clean water.
The exterior of the boom, link and arm insulators, and the
balance of the fiberglass components previously listed,
may be washed with a mild detergent. When washing
these components, take care not to create any surface
scratches. Do not use petroleum-based products to clean
the fiberglass components. Petroleum-based products
will leave an oily residue that attracts dust.
Caution
Do not coat a fiberglass surface with any product that
will reduce its dielectric characteristics or cause
surface flashover.
Attention
Exercise caution when using a power buffer to polish
fiberglass. Overuse of the buffer can overheat and
damage the gelcoat fiberglass surface.
After the exterior surfaces are clean and dry, polish with
Formula Five Clean N Glaze. For best results, polish
fiberglass surfaces by hand.
Surface flashover occurs when a substance causes an
arcing of electricity between two points on the boom. If
this occurs, the dielectric integrity of the boom may be
permanently damaged.
Determining the Degree of Boom Damage
Minor damage (scratches on the boom, the boom tip and
the control covers) is repairable. If no fiberglass cloth
fibers are cut or damaged, determine if the scratch or nick
affects only the gelcoat or if it is through to the resin. To
do this, look at the color at the bottom of the scratch. If the
color is white, the damage is on the surface. This damage
is minor and can be sanded out as described in this
section under Surface Damage.
Warning
If the fiberglass is damaged past the gelcoat and
shows up as black, and/or the fiberglass cloth fibers
are damaged, contact Altec before any repairs are
started. Use this procedure any time there is doubt
regarding damage to the fiberglass.
If the color at the bottom of the scratch or nick is dark, and
there is no visible damage to the layers of fiberglass cloth,
the damage is through the gelcoat and just into the resin.
This requires a more thorough repair of the gelcoat and
is described in this section under Gelcoat.
Any time there is doubt regarding damage to the boom
or the articulating arm or link insulator, use the following
steps to accurately describe the damage before calling
Altec.
1. Identify the quadrant with the damage (refer to Figure
4.14). If the damaged area is on a line between
quadrants, switch to the clock method (example
the damage is at the three oclock position).
2. Identify the exact area along the booms length (or the
articulating arm or link insulator) where the damage
is. To do this, measure from the base end of the boom
to the damage site (example 310 from the base
end of the boom).
3. Define the type, size and the cause of the damage
(example 2 long x 1 wide x 1
1
/8 deep; gouge
caused by a chain saw).
4. When calling Altec to describe the damage in ques-
tion, be sure to explain where you are in relation to the
unit (example curb side of the unit, facing the base
end of the boom in the rest position).
Section 4 Preventive Maintenance and Inspection 27
Figure 4.14 Boom Damage Location
If the boom has several damaged or cut inner fiberglass
cloth layers, it may not be repairable. At this point, the
booms strength may have been reduced and repairs will
not regain the boom strength. If such damage is discov-
ered, do not attempt any repairs until an Altec Engineer-
ing representative has been contacted. They can evaluate
the affect of the damage on the structural integrity of the
boom and determine if the damage is repairable or if the
boom must be replaced.
If it is determined that the extent and location of the
damage will not reduce the safety factor of the boom, it
may be acceptable to repair the damaged area with
gelcoat to seal it and place the unit back into service.
If the top rim, mounting flange or bottom of the platform is
damaged, repair should not be attempted. For informa-
tion on repairable platform damage, refer to Platform in
this section.
Repair
Repair procedures for all of the fiberglass components on
the unit are described in the following text.
Surface Damage
Minor scratches in the surface of the gelcoat may be
easily repaired. If the bottom of the scratch is the same
color as the gelcoat pigment, repair according to the
following instructions.
Caution
Wear safety glasses and a dust mask while sanding.
Small dust particles can get into your eyes and lungs.
These particles may be hazardous to your health.
1. Use a dual acting sander with 320 grit sandpaper to
sand the scratched area. Move the sander to sand
around the circumference of the boom. Do not sand
lengthwise on the boom.
2. When the scratch has almost disappeared, sand by
hand with a 600 grit wet or dry sandpaper until the
scratch is no longer visible.
3. Use Formula Five Clean N Glaze to polish the area.
Gelcoat
Use an Altec gelcoat repair kit (refer to Service Tools and
Supplies in the Appendix) to complete the following
procedure. Any scratch that is dark at the bottom is
through the gelcoat and into the resin below.
In order for gelcoat repairs to cure properly, the following
special temperature considerations must be understood.
The temperature must be 70 degrees Fahrenheit or
above. The highest quality gelcoat repairs are ac-
complished indoors in a heated and well ventilated
area.
Attention
Take care not to burn the gelcoat. Continually move
the heat gun and/or the paint stripper gun during this
warming process.
If the unit has been outside and the temperature is
less than 70 degrees Fahrenheit, or if this is a field
repair, the boom area must be warmed before pro-
ceeding. Warm the fiberglass using a heat gun until
it is warm to the touch. It will take approximately 40
minutes to do this. A paint stripper gun will provide a
faster method. Do not concentrate the heat of the gun
in one specific area for any length of time.
If the temperature is below 60 degrees Fahrenheit, a
field gelcoat repair is not suggested. Makeshift tents
over the repair area will not hold sufficient heat,
preventing proper curing.
Caution
Wear safety glasses and a dust mask while sanding.
Small dust particles can get into your eyes and lungs.
These particles may be hazardous to your health.
The following steps describe how to repair the gelcoat.
1. Use a die grinder to widen the scratch to
1
/8. Do not
grind into the fiberglass cloth.
2. Inspect the scratch. Make sure that no fiberglass
cloth is cut. If the fiberglass cloth is cut, contact your
Altec representative. If no fiberglass cloth is dam-
aged, bevel the edges of the
1
/8 cut to about 45
degrees.
Quadrant 2
Quadrant 3
Quadrant 4
Quadrant 1
28 Section 4 Preventive Maintenance and Inspection
3. Lightly sand the damaged area by hand to rough it up.
This will help the resin bond to the surface.
Warning
Solvents can be extremely hazardous. Follow the
manufacturers label for proper use and disposal.
4. Use a solvent such as acetone to clean the area and
remove any dust.
5. The Altec gelcoat repair kit contains a can of resin, a
can of fumed silica powder and a bottle of hardener.
Refer to the material safety data sheet included with
the kit for the special precautions and recommenda-
tions for use with this product. Mix the resin, powder
and hardener according to the kit instructions.
6. Apply the mixture to the damaged area with a plastic
spatula. Work the spatula back and forth to remove
any air bubbles. Build up the area so it is slightly
above the boom surface. The mixture will shrink
slightly as it cures.
7. When the area has cured, sand the area by hand with
600 grit wet or dry sandpaper. Sand until the patch is
no longer visible.
8. Use Formula Five Clean N Glaze to polish the area.
Platform
The first step in successful platform repair is to analyze
the damage and determine the cause. Cracks in the
gelcoat or outer surface of the platform are easily re-
paired. Damage to the fiberglass structure can be more
serious and should be carefully evaluated before at-
tempting to repair the platform.
Structural components of the platform include the rim,
mounting ribs, platform sides and the bottom (refer to
Figure 4.15). The platform is constructed similar to a
basketball hoop and net. The rim supports the sides in the
same way a basketball hoop supports a net. The struc-
tural integrity of the platform rim is critical in determining
whether or not the platform can be successfully repaired.
The platform bottom and the side with the mounting ribs
are substantially thicker than the other three sides. The
mounting ribs are the area where the platform mounting
bracket fastens to the platform. Consider these factors
when determining whether a successful repair can be
made on the platform bottom or mounting rib side.
Altec cannot determine if the platform is repairable in the
field. Evaluate the platform and determine whether or not
it can be repaired and safely used for future service. Altec
does not recommend that repairs be made to platforms
which have the following damage.
Cracks through the fiberglass of the mounting ribs
Cracks through the fiberglass of the rim
A hole through the floor or mounting rib side of the
platform
Figure 4.15 Platform
Altec only assumes responsibility for platform repair
performed by Altec personnel.
Warning
Holes in the platform or liner should never be permit-
ted. Platforms and/or liners with holes in them have
no dielectric integrity.
The following items are required to perform field repair of
the platform or fiberglass boom tip covers.
Circular grinder with 24 grit sandpaper
Dual acting sander with 320 grit sandpaper
Cleaning solvent (acetone)
Fiberglass cloth or mat
Gelcoat repair kit
Good quality rubber gloves
Dust mask
Safety glasses
Nonmetallic spray paint (white to match the platform)
The following steps may be used as a guide in making a
quality field repair.
1. Outline the damage with a box that is one inch wider
on all sides of the damaged area. Example If the
damage is 1 x 3, the box would be 3 x 5.
Caution
Injury can result from airborne particles entering the
eyes and lungs. Wear appropriate safety equipment.
2. While wearing safety glasses and a dust mask for
breathing protection, grind the area within the box to
a depth of approximately
1
/8.
3. Cut strips of fiberglass cloth to fit the box area.
Rim
Sides
Mounting
Ribs
Section 4 Preventive Maintenance and Inspection 29
Caution
Solvents can be extremely hazardous. Follow the
manufacturers label for proper use and disposal.
4. Clean the area thoroughly with solvent.
5. While wearing rubber gloves, mix the approximate
amount of polyester resin and catalyst according to
the directions in the gelcoat repair kit.
6. While wearing rubber gloves, saturate the fiberglass
cloth with the mixed resin and apply it to the damaged
area. Work the area to squeeze out any air bubbles.
7. After the resin has set up completely, grind off any
rough areas or high spots.
8. Mix an additional cup of resin and catalyst according
to the directions in the gelcoat repair kit and apply
smoothly to completely cover the affected area.
9. Sand the area with a dual acting sander and 320 grit
sandpaper.
Danger
Do not apply metallic paint to the platform. Metallic
paint conducts electricity. Occupying a platform that
conducts electricity in proximity to electrical con-
ductors can result in death or serious injury.
10. Paint the area to match the platform.
Damage to the gelcoat layer may be repaired using the
instructions that accompany the gelcoat repair kit. This kit
may be ordered from your Altec representative. The
gelcoat provides a protective layer of ultraviolet inhibi-
tors. The gelcoat layer has no inherent strength.
Before making any repair, the structural integrity of the
platform and operator safety must be kept in mind. More
specific repair information for a particular situation should
be requested from your Altec representative.
Covers
The procedures described for platform repairs may also
be used for repairs on the various fiberglass boom tip
covers and platform control covers.
Plastic
Plastic covers on the unit are covered with an acrylic
surface to protect the plastic from damage from ultraviolet
damage. Use a pressure washer and mild detergent to
clean plastic covers. Rinse with clean water to remove
any detergent residue.
Attention
Using solvents (such as acetone, MEK, or lacquer
thinner) can damage plastic covers. Use only isopro-
pyl alcohol (rubbing alcohol) to clean plastic covers.
In some situations, pressure washing may not remove all
of the contaminants from plastic covers. Use isopropyl
(rubbing) alcohol to clean this type of contamination.
After the covers are clean and dry, hand polish using an
automotive type wax.
Accident Prevention Signs
This unit was equipped with accident prevention signs at
the time of manufacture. If for any reason any of these are
lost or become illegible, replacements may be obtained
from your Altec representative.
The location, part numbers and descriptions of all plac-
ards are listed in the Parts Manual.
Accident Prevention Signs Diagram
1
11
1
8
9
30 Section 4 Preventive Maintenance and Inspection
7
Opposite
Side
13
11
4
8
4 7
1 3
10 5
1
2
4
3
DANGER

Section 4 Preventive Maintenance and Inspection 31


7
6
8
5
32 Section 4 Preventive Maintenance and Inspection
11
9
12
13
10
Section 5 Hydraulic System 33
Section 5 Hydraulic System
Full Flow
This unit uses a full-flow, open-center hydraulic system.
Hydraulic oil flow is provided by a fixed displacement
pump. Hydraulic oil flows continually from the pump,
through the valves and back to the reservoir whenever
the pump is turning. When the pump is engaged and all
valves are in neutral, the only pressure in the system is
that required to overcome the resistance to oil flow
through the hoses and valves.
Oil Reservoir
The reservoir for the unit is either 7 or 16 gallon. The
seven gallon reservoir is shown in Figure 5.1.
Figure 5.1 Seven Gallon Reservoir
A 150 micron suction strainer is located at the outlet of the
reservoir. A filler breather cap is located on top of the fill
hole of the reservoir. The cap contains a filter that cleans
the air as it enters the hydraulic system. A strainer basket
in the fill hole keeps large particles from entering the
reservoir when oil is poured into it. Refer to Filtration in
Section 4 for information on filters.
Pump
The hydraulic pump may be driven by the vehicle engine
or an auxiliary engine. The hydraulic system has been
designed for a pump delivery of 3.5 gpm at 2,350 psi.
Regardless of how the pump is driven, the pump func-
tions the same to deliver the proper flow and pressure to
the hydraulic system.
In case of catastrophic pump failure, the hydraulic system
must be flushed. This procedure is described in Section
4 under Changing Oil and Flushing the System. Flushing
the system will remove most of the metallic contamina-
tion from the system.
Attention
The shutoff valve must be completely opened before
engaging the hydraulic system. Failure to do so will
cause serious damage to the pump.
Before servicing the pump, close the shutoff valve in the
suction line between the reservoir and the pump. Closing
the shutoff valve allows the pump to be serviced or
removed without draining the reservoir. When service is
completed, open the shutoff valve.
Figure 5.2 Pump
Secondary Stowage System DC Pump
The DC pump and motor assembly has two hydraulic
connections: inlet and outlet. This assembly has an
internal check valve and an internal 2,500 psi pressure
relief valve. The pump is a fixed displacement pump with
output less than 2.5 gpm. The motor receives its power
from the vehicle battery or an auxiliary battery.
Filler Breather
Cap
Strainer Basket
Return
Line Filter
Suction Strainer
34 Section 5 Hydraulic System
two-position blocking valve has two operating positions,
open and closed.
The word way identifies the number of ports in a valve
section. A four-way control valve has four ports. One port
is for a pressure connection, one is for a return line
connection, and the other two ports are the working ports.
Outrigger Control Valve
The outrigger control valves are three-position, four-way
valves. The three positions of the valve spools are ex-
tend, neutral and retract. The four connections are pres-
sure, return and work ports A and B. The valve spools
are spring centered and are operated by a manual
control handle.
Figure 5.5 Outrigger Control Valve
Outrigger Interlock Valve
The outrigger interlock valve is a normally open, two-
position, two-way, solenoid operated, poppet-type valve.
This valve allows the hydraulic oil in the pressure line to
bleed back to the reservoir instead of reaching the
above rotation control valves until the outriggers have
been lowered.
Electrical switches are located on each outrigger leg and
are connected to the outrigger interlock control module.
Lowering the outriggers activates the electrical switches,
sending voltage to the solenoid on the outrigger interlock
valve. The interlock valve spool then shifts, blocking flow
Figure 5.3 DC Pump
Rotary Joint
The rotary joint permits continuous rotation of the turn-
table without twisting the hydraulic hoses in the pedestal
and turntable (refer to Figure 5.4). The rotary joint assem-
bly consists of a housing, core, seals and wear rings. The
housing contains ports for above rotation pressure (P)
and tank (T).
Figure 5.4 Rotary Joint
The inner core of the rotary joint is secured to a rotary joint
bracket that is secured to a plate in the pedestal. The
outer housing is held stationary by a drive pin positioned
in a bracket secured to the base of the turntable. As the
turntable is rotated, the housing of the rotary joint rotates
with the turntable. Hydraulic fittings on the rotary joint are
the SAE straight thread type.
Valves
When describing hydraulic valves, position identifies
the number of operating positions of the valve spool. A
Pump
Motor
Section 5 Hydraulic System 35
to the reservoir. Hydraulic oil is then directed to the lower
and upper control valves to operate the unit.
Figure 5.6 Outrigger Interlock Valve
Lower Control Valve
The lower control valve assembly is made up of several
components. These include the system pressure relief
valve and four spool valves. One spool valve is for the
control selector and the other three are for boom func-
tions. Control handles are used to shift the spool valves.
The control selector spool valve is a two-position, four-
way valve. One position supplies hydraulic oil to the lower
control valve only and the other position supplies oil to the
upper control valve and tool circuit. This selector valve
has two detent positions, upper controls and lower con-
trols. The spool valves for the boom, arm, and rotation
functions are open center, three-position, four-way valves.
These valves are spring centered to neutral.
The control valve assembly contains an adjustable sys-
tem pressure relief valve. It limits the maximum pressure
in the hydraulic system to 2,350 psi (refer to Figure 5.7).
Figure 5.7 Lower Control Valve
Upper Control Valve
(Single Handle Control)
The upper control valve assembly includes the mechani-
cal linkage and the upper control valve. When the inter-
lock trigger is engaged, the blocking section of the upper
control valve is opened by a mechanical connection to the
trigger. The single handle control may then be used to
position the aerial device.
The upper control valve is mounted directly under the
single handle control. As the single handle control is
moved, the mechanical linkage is used to shift the valve
spools to operate the desired function.
The upper control valve (refer to Figure 5.8) is used for
the interlock, tools, articulating arm, rotation, and boom
functions.
Figure 5.8
Upper Control Valve (Single Handle Control)
Upper Control Valve (Multi-Lever Control)
The multi-lever control valve assembly includes the me-
chanical linkage and the upper control valve. When the
interlock is engaged, the control levers may then be used
to position the aerial device.
The upper control valve is mounted directly under the
control levers. As the control levers are moved, the
linkage is used to shift the valve spools to operate the
desired function.
The upper control valve (refer to Figure 5.9) is used for
the articulating arm, rotation, boom functions, and plat-
form tilt.
36 Section 5 Hydraulic System
Figure 5.9
Upper Control Valve (Multi-Lever Control)
Tool Control Valve
The tool control valve is a three-position, four-way valve.
The three positions of the valve spools are on, neutral and
off. The four connections are pressure, return and work
ports A and B. The valve spool has a detent in the On
position and is operated by a manual control handle.
Figure 5.10 Tool Control Valve
System Relief Valve
The system relief valve is located in the lower control
valve (refer to Figure 5.11). It limits the maximum pres-
sure in the unit hydraulic system to 2,350 psi.
Figure 5.11 System Relief Valve
Outrigger/Lower Tools Relief Valve
The outrigger and/or tools relief valve is located in the
pressure line between the pump and the rotary joint on
units equipped with one or both of these options. The
relief valve limits the maximum pressure in the outrigger
and/or tools system to 2,350 psi.
Figure 5.12 Relief Valve
Hydraulic Stop Valve
The hydraulic stop is a two-position, three-way, manually
operated spool valve. It is located at the platform and is
used to shut off hydraulic flow to all controls at the
platform. Activating the stop valve blocks hydraulic oil
flow to the controls at the platform and directs oil to tank.
Holding Valves
The unit uses holding valves to insure that various
actuators maintain their position under load or if there is
hydraulic line failure. These holding valves block the
hydraulic oil in the actuators to prevent movement. The
types of holding valves used are pilot operated check
valves and counterbalance valves.
Testing of holding valves is described in Section 8 under
Hydraulic System.
Pilot Operated Check Valves
Pilot operated check valves are used to block flow out of
the following actuators.
Outrigger cylinders
Upper platform leveling cylinder
A pilot operated check valve allows free flow into the
actuator and blocks the return flow. The valve has an
internal pilot piston that allows it to be hydraulically
opened, allowing flow out of the actuator.
The cross-ported pilot operated check valves are in-
stalled in pairs. Oil sent to one work port of the actuator
is used to pilot open the check valve for the other work
port of the actuator.
Section 5 Hydraulic System 37
Figure 5.13
Cross-Ported Pilot Operated Check Valve
Counterbalance Valves
Counterbalance valves are used to block flow out of the
following actuators.
Lift cylinder
Articulating arm cylinder
Platform tilt cylinder
A counterbalance valve is a combination of a check valve
and a relief valve. The check valve allows free flow into
the cylinder and blocks the flow from coming back out.
The relief valve function can be pilot operated to allow
flow out of the function. It also allows the valve to relieve
excess pressure and prevents damage from thermal
expansion of the oil.
The counterbalance valves are installed in pairs and are
cross-ported. Oil sent to one side of the actuator is used
to pilot open the counterbalance valve for the other side
of the actuator.
Figure 5.14 Counterbalance Valve
Cavitation and Aeration
Cavitation and aeration are two problems that can cause
pump damage. Pump cavitation occurs when inlet oil
does not entirely fill the cavities that open during the
intake part of the pumping cycle and the pump tries to
draw a vacuum. The characteristic sound of cavitation is
a high pitched scream. This sound increases with the
degree of cavitation and increased flow. The following
items are possible causes of cavitation.
Excessive pump operating speed
Clogged suction filter
Excessive oil viscosity (thickness)
Restrictions or sharp bends in hose
Excessive inlet hose length
Pump inlet too high above reservoir level
Shutoff valve in suction line not fully open
Attention
Cavitation can very quickly destroy the pump. If
signs of pump cavitation are noticed, determine the
cause and promptly repair the problem.
If pump cavitation is due to excessive oil viscosity caused
by cold temperatures, allow the oil to warm up at a slow
pump speed before operating the unit.
Aeration occurs when air bubbles are introduced into the
hydraulic oil and carried along as the oil flows through
the pump. Aeration can be caused by the following
conditions.
Low oil level in the reservoir. This can cause a
whirlpool at the suction line opening, which sucks air
into the system along with the oil.
Leaking connections in the suction line between the
reservoir and the pump.
Return line outlet is located above the oil level in the
reservoir. This causes turbulence as the return oil
stream discharges above the surface of the oil.
Attention
Repair conditions that allow air to enter the suction
side of the pump. Serious pump damage is likely if
the pump continues to run with air circulating through
it.
An air leak in the suction line can occur even if there is no
oil leakage when the system is shut down. A leak in the
suction line can often be located by slowly squirting clean
hydraulic oil around each connection in the suction line.
Do this with the pump running at normal operating speed.
A suction leak will suck oil in, and the pump may tempo-
rarily run quietly as the air leak is sealed by the oil. The
leak can then be eliminated.
When aeration occurs, the oil in the reservoir is likely to
become foamy. The pump may also become noisy.
Air Bleeding
The presence of air in the hydraulic system will cause
abnormal operation, noise and damage to the pump. The
presence of air in the hydraulic system can usually be
traced to one of the following.
38 Section 5 Hydraulic System
If the oil level in the reservoir gets too low, the pump
suction can cause a whirlpool to form in the reservoir
which will allow air to be sucked into the system.
A leak in the plumbing between the reservoir and the
pump can suck air in and not leak out when the
system is shut down. These leaks may be found by
filling a pump type oil can with clean hydraulic oil and
squirting oil slowly at each connection in the suction
line with the pump operating at normal operating
speed. A suction leak will suck the oil in. To avoid
contamination, make sure the oil can and the suction
line connections are clean before using this method.
Be sure to check the connection at the attachment to
the pump.
Loose connections in the pressure system normally
will leak externally during unit operation, but can suck
air into the system after the unit is shut down as the
oil tries to find its way to the low points of the system.
Hydraulic lines which have been taken loose during
maintenance operations will contain air until it is
purged from the system.
Attention
Repair conditions that allow air to enter the suction
side of the pump. Serious pump damage is likely if
the pump continues to run with air circulating through
it.
Air entering the system, due to low oil levels or leaks in the
suction line, will cause the most problems and should be
corrected immediately.
Leakage
If components and connections are installed properly,
leakage can be kept to a minimum. Small external leaks
are usually easy to find because dust will collect on the
hydraulic oil film.
External leakage is the escape of hydraulic oil outside the
hydraulic system. Improperly tightened fittings are a
primary cause of external leakage. Follow the torque and
tightening specifications explained under Fittings and
Valve Cartridges to properly tighten hydraulic fittings.
Caution
Hydraulic oil escaping under pressure from a faulty
connection, hose, pinhole, cracked tube, etc., may
not be visible, but can have enough force to inject oil
into the flesh. Never use your hands, or any other
body parts, to check hydraulic lines and fittings for
leaks under pressure that are not visually obvious.
In case of injury by escaping hydraulic oil, seek
medical attention at once. Serious infection or reac-
tion can result if medical treatment is not given
immediately.
Keep the unit and work areas clean. Spilled hydraulic
oil creates slick surfaces and can cause personnel to
slip and/or fall.
If a connection is properly tightened but continues to leak,
disassemble the connection. Seal the necessary parts
and/or replace the part that is the source of the leakage.
Worn or damaged parts can also cause leakage. For
example, scratched cylinder rods can cause leakage. A
worn or scratched output shaft on a hydraulic motor can
also cause leakage. Such conditions must be repaired or
replaced. A new seal should also be installed.
Internal leakage allows pressurized hydraulic oil to es-
cape to tank or another hydraulic circuit. Most hydraulic
components have a small amount of internal leakage due
to machining tolerances.
Internal leakage can cause a variety of problems in a
hydraulic system. Internal leakage in a cylinder can
cause drifting or malfunction of a cylinder. Internal leak-
age in a rotary joint will cause functions to slow down and/
or fail to build pressure. Replacing the seals in the leaking
component will usually stop internal leakage.
Leakage past a holding valve in a cylinder can cause
drifting or malfunction of the cylinder. It may be stopped
by replacing the holding valves in the component. How-
ever, some types of damage, such as scoring of the inside
of a cylinder barrel, require more extensive repair.
Warning
If the internal size tolerance of the cylinder barrel is
exceeded, the piston seal could be pushed out when
the cylinder is put under a load. This will cause
cylinder failure. Cylinder failure can result in serious
injury and/or property damage.
The component drawings in the Parts Manual give the
Altec part number for the seal kits. Altec does not recom-
mend disassembly and/or repair of cylinders in the field.
Repair and disassembly should be done in a clean,
properly equipped shop.
Warning
If a self-locking piston nut or retention device is
removed from a cylinder, it must be replaced with a
new one. A faulty self-locking piston nut or retention
Section 5 Hydraulic System 39
device can cause cylinder failure. Cylinder failure can
result in serious injury and/or property damage.
Improperly torquing or installing a piston nut or end
gland retention device can cause cylinder failure.
Cylinder failure can result in serious injury and/or
property damage.
Hydraulic cylinder piston nuts and end glands must be
torqued to the proper values at assembly. Torque speci-
fications for cylinder end glands and piston nuts are given
on the component drawings in the Parts Manual. Many
piston nuts and end glands have retention devices, such
as cotter pins and set screws. These retention devices
must be installed properly.
Heat Generation
Heat is the result of pressurized fluid escaping to the
reservoir. Most hydraulic components have a small inter-
nal leak due to machining tolerances. This type of leak
generates a small amount of heat that is taken into
account when the component is designed.
Large internal leaks in the system may be caused by
internal housing cracks, bad relief valves or leaking
seals. This type of leak allows a large volume of pressur-
ized oil to return to the reservoir creating excessive heat
in the hydraulic system. Continuous operation with ex-
cessive heat will damage the hydraulic oil, seals and O-
rings throughout the system.
The following conditions cause heat generation.
Excessive pump speed
Worn or faulty pump
Defective relief valve cartridges
Contaminated spool in a control valve
Low hydraulic oil level
Improper hydraulic oil
Internal component leakage
Hydraulic Lines
Hoses and tubes are used to connect various compo-
nents of the hydraulic system. Most hoses have a lay line
on them. The lay line contains the following information
about the hose.
Manufacturers name
Manufacturers part number
SAE rating
Working pressure
Burst pressure (sometimes)
Nonconductive appears on nonconductive hoses
The hose bundle transports hydraulic oil through the
boom to the boom tip. The hoses run through a three inch
PVC pipe in the boom. At the base end of the boom, the
hoses in the bundle are connected to another bundle that
passes through the articulating arm to the turntable. At
the boom tip, the hoses are connected to the control
bundle at the platform (refer to Figure 5.15).
Warning
Never replace a nonconductive hose with a conduc-
tive hose. Nonconductive hoses must be non-pin
perforated. A conductive hose can bridge the insula-
tion gap, causing death or serious injury.
The hoses in the hose bundle in the boom and at the
platform are non-pin perforated, nonconductive, thermo-
plastic hoses. Replace the hoses with hoses of the
same type.
Before replacing a hose or tube with a different diameter
part, consider the affect it will have on the hydraulic
system. If hose size is doubled, four times the amount of
oil will flow at the same pressure. If hose size is de-
creased, the flow in the circuit will decrease and back
pressure will increase. The increase in back pressure will
cause heat to build up in the system. When replacing a
hose, it is best to use a hose of the same size, length and
pressure rating.
Warning
Never grasp a pressurized hose or tube. Make sure all
pressure is removed from a hydraulic circuit before
disconnecting a line or fitting.
Caution
Eye protection must be worn at all times to prevent
particles of dirt, metal or hydraulic oil from entering
the eyes.
Failure to remove pressure from a hydraulic circuit
will cause oil to spray out under pressure as the
connection is loosened. Hydraulic oil escaping un-
der pressure can have enough force to inject oil into
the flesh.
In case of injury by escaping hydraulic oil, seek
medical attention at once. Serious infection or reac-
tion can result if medical treatment is not given
immediately.
Keep the unit and work areas clean. Spilled hydraulic
oil creates slick surfaces and can cause personnel to
slip and/or fall.
40 Section 5 Hydraulic System
Use extreme caution when access covers have been
removed to service the unit. Pinch points and shear
points may exist between moving parts. Replace the
access covers immediately after servicing.
Remove all pressure from a hydraulic circuit before
disconnecting lines or fittings.
Mark all hydraulic hose fittings before disconnecting
them to ease installation later. Place a liquid container
under hoses to catch the hydraulic oil. Plug or cap open
ports and lines to prevent contamination. Warranty will
be denied if ports are not plugged and cylinder rods are
not retracted.
Removal
An individual hose or the entire bundle may be removed.
1. Position the unit on a level surface, apply the parking
brake and chock the wheels. Engage the hydraulic
system and properly set the outriggers, if so equipped.
2. Support the platform by positioning it on the ground
or wrapping a sling under it and lifting up slightly with
a hoist. Disengage the hydraulic system and turn off
the engine.
3. Remove the access cover from the base end of the
boom (refer to Figure 5.15).
4. Bleed the oil from each circuit in the hydraulic system
by shifting the lower control handle for each boom
function in both directions several times. Also, shift
the control handles at the platform for the upper tool
circuit functions in both directions several times.
Caution
There is no practical way to remove all the hydraulic
pressure from the leveling system hoses. The plat-
form must be supported to relieve some of the hy-
draulic pressure in the leveling system hydraulic
hoses. Unscrew the leveling system hoses very slowly
to release the pressure in the hydraulic leveling
system.
In case of injury by escaping hydraulic oil, seek
medical attention at once. Serious infection or reac-
tion can result if medical treatment is not given
immediately.
Keep the unit and work areas clean. Spilled hydraulic
oil creates slick surfaces and can cause personnel to
slip and/or fall.
5. From the base end of the boom pull the hose bundle
out far enough to access the hose connections.
Figure 5.15 Hose Routing
Hose
Bundles
Access
Cover Boom
Turntable
Section 5 Hydraulic System 41
6. Disconnect the hose bundle from the articulating arm
hydraulic hoses at the end of the boom (refer to
Figure 5.15). When disconnecting the leveling sys-
tem hoses, unscrew the hoses very slowly to release
the hydraulic pressure. Place a liquid container un-
derneath the hoses to catch the hydraulic oil. Discon-
nect all hoses.
7. Before pulling the hoses out of the boom, note how
they are routed in the boom to ensure proper instal-
lation. The hose bundle must be oriented the same
way during installation as it was before removal. The
new hoses, a wire, or rope may be attached to the old
hoses to assist in the installation of the new hoses.
8. Pull the hoses out of the boom.
Installation
1. Connect the hose bundle to the hydraulic hoses at the
base end of the boom (refer to Figure 5.15).
2. Route the hoses in the boom. The hoses must be
oriented the same way during installation as they
were when they were removed.
3. Connect the hoses to the hydraulic hoses at the
boom tip.
4. From the boom tip, pull the hoses so the couplings at
the base end of the boom are inside the PVC pipe.
5. Test operate the units functions from the lower
controls. If the functions operate properly, test the
functions from the upper controls. Check for leaks at
the extension cylinder counterbalance valve block
and at both ends of the hose bundle.
6. Install the boom access cover. Perform a structural
test as described in Section 9.
Fittings and Valve Cartridges
Most hydraulic ports and fittings are SAE straight thread
O-ring or 37 degree flared JIC straight thread. These
types of fittings provide a good seal and resist vibration.
Use the proper torque and tightening specifications when
installing a hydraulic fitting to reduce the likelihood of
leaks in the system. Use caps and plugs during the
handling and storage of hydraulic components to prevent
damage to sealing surfaces and fitting threads.
When installing a valve cartridge into a valve body,
properly torque the cartridge. Tightening the cartridge
less than the specified torque value may lead to leakage.
Tightening the cartridge more than the specified torque
value can damage the valve, valve body or bind internal
parts. A damaged valve may not function properly.
Torque and Tightening Procedures
Overtorquing a component can distort the part and cause
leakage. When a leaking fitting is found, check to see if it
is tight. If it is not tight, torque it to the proper value. If the
fitting will not stay tight, replace it.
If the fitting is tight, stop the unit, determine the cause of
the leak and take corrective action. When making a
connection that uses a swivel nut, use one wrench to hold
the hose, tube, or fitting and another wrench to turn the
nut. This is necessary to prevent damage to the sealing
surface of the JIC connections.
The following instructions describe proper torque and
tightening procedures for various types of hydraulic fit-
tings. Refer to Torque Values in the Appendix for the
appropriate torque chart.
Warning
Solvents can be extremely hazardous. Follow the
manufacturers label for proper use and disposal.
Tapered Pipe Thread Fittings
1. Clean the male threads of the fitting with a cleaning
solvent.
2. Apply pipe sealant to the male threads of the fitting,
being careful not to get sealant on the first two male
threads. Apply enough sealant to form a ring of
sealant on the outside of the connection when the
threads are tightened into the mating body.
3. Screw the fitting into the mating part and finger
tighten.
4. Turn the fitting with a wrench the appropriate turns
from finger tight (T.F.F.T.), taking the final position of
the tube end into consideration.
5. Follow the sealant manufacturers directions for cure
time. The ring of sealant described in step 2 will not
completely harden due to its exposure to air.
SAE O-Ring Fittings With Locknuts
1. Lubricate the O-ring and threads with hydraulic oil or
light grease, such as petroleum jelly.
2. Screw the fitting into the SAE straight thread boss
until the backup washer bottoms out on the boss face
with the O-ring squeezed into the boss cavity.
3. Unscrew the fitting (maximum of one full turn) to align
the fitting with the mating part.
42 Section 5 Hydraulic System
4. Tighten the locknut with a wrench and torque to the
proper value for the size and material (stainless
steel or steel) so the backup washer contacts the
boss face.
SAE O-Ring Fittings Without Locknuts
1. Lubricate the O-ring and threads with hydraulic oil or
light grease, such as petroleum jelly.
2. Turn the fitting in full length until finger tight.
3. Tighten the fitting with a wrench to the proper value.
Tube and JIC Fittings
1. Clean the male threads of the fitting with a cleaning
solvent.
2. Tighten the nut finger tight until it bottoms out on the
flare seat.
3. Using a felt tip pen or marker, mark a line lengthwise
on the nut and extend it onto the adapter body (refer
to Torque Values in the Appendix).
4. Determine the proper number of hex flats the nut
must be turned with a wrench. Using a wrench to hold
the adapter body, rotate the nut with another wrench
the proper number of hex flats.
5. Use the marks to count the proper number of hex flats
to turn the nut. The marks also serve as a visual
indicator that the fitting has been properly tightened.
Compression Fittings
1. Cut the tubing to length, allowing for bend, equipment
movement, etc.
2. Fit the brass insert into the nylon pilot tubing with the
flanged end out. The insert should fit snug in the pilot
tubing. The color coded
5
/16 outside diameter tubing
requires the use of an insert.
3. With the threaded end of the compression nut facing
the fitting body, slide the nut onto the nylon tubing,
followed by the compression sleeve.
Attention
Do not overtighten compression fittings. Damage to
the nut and threads may occur. To ensure a proper
seal, do not reuse the fitting body or compression nut
if overtightening has occurred.
4. Insert the tubing into the fitting body. Making sure the
tubing rests firmly on the shoulder of the fitting, hand
tighten the compression nut. Tighten the compres-
sion nut the proper number of turns.
Four-Bolt Split Flange Assembly
SAE Code 61 (3,000 psi)
1. Clean the sealing surface of any burrs, scratches or
foreign particles.
2. Lubricate the O-ring with hydraulic oil.
3. Position the flange and clamp halves. Put the bolts
with the lock washers in place (refer to Figure 5.16)
and hand tighten the bolts.
Figure 5.16 Four-Bolt Flange Assembly
4. Follow the pattern in Figure 5.17 to torque the bolts
in place.
Figure 5.17 Four-Bolt Flange Torque Pattern
5. Use small increments to torque the bolts.
Valve Cartridges
1. Clean the male threads of the cartridge with a clean-
ing solvent.
2. Lubricate the threads and O-ring with hydraulic oil.
3. Turn the cartridge in until it is finger tight.
4. Tighten the cartridge with a wrench to the proper
value.
O-Ring
Flange Clamping Bolt
Split
Clamp
Half
Lock
Washer
Section 5 Hydraulic System 43
Cylinders
Hydraulic cylinders operate the articulating arm, boom,
leveling system and outriggers. All cylinders used on the
unit are double-acting cylinders.
Cylinders use holding valves to maintain their position if
there is hydraulic line failure. The articulating arm, lift and
the hydraulic platform tilt function of the leveling system
use counterbalance holding valves. The upper platform
leveling cylinder and outrigger cylinders use pilot oper-
ated check valves.
The holding valves may be installed in cavities machined
directly into the cylinders. They may also be installed in
a valve block in the hydraulic lines connected to the
cylinder or mounted directly on the cylinder.
All cylinder rods are chrome plated to prevent rust and
corrosion. The chrome plating also provides a smooth
surface for the end gland bearing and seal.
Warning
Air in an actuator can cause uncontrolled movement,
resulting in death or serious injury. Do not operate
the unit until all air is purged from the actuator.
Do not operate a cylinder that has a dented barrel or
a damaged rod. Operation of a cylinder with such
defects could lead to cylinder failure. Cylinder failure
can result in serious injury and/or property damage.
Pinch points exist at both ends of the cylinder. Be
extremely careful when removing or installing cylin-
ders.
The cylinder hydraulic hoses must be securely con-
nected to the cylinder before engaging the lower
controls. Failure to properly cap or connect the lines
could result in hydraulic oil spraying out of the open
hoses. Serious injury could result.
Caution
Eye protection must be worn at all times to prevent
particles of dirt, metal or hydraulic oil from entering
the eyes.
Failure to remove pressure before disconnecting
hydraulic lines or fittings will cause oil to spray out
under pressure as the connection is loosened. Hy-
draulic oil escaping under pressure can have enough
force to inject oil into the flesh.
In case of injury by escaping hydraulic oil, seek
medical attention at once. Serious infection or reac-
tion can result if medical treatment is not given
immediately.
Keep the unit and work areas clean. Spilled hydraulic
oil creates slick surfaces and can cause personnel to
slip and/or fall.
Use extreme caution when access covers have been
removed to service the unit. Pinch points and shear
points may exist between moving parts. Replace the
access covers immediately after servicing.
Never install a cylinder with side pressure on the rod. Do
not operate a cylinder if the cylinder barrel is dented or if
the rod is damaged.
Altec does not recommend repairing cylinders in the field.
Most repairs require disassembly of the cylinder. Disas-
sembly and repair of cylinders must be performed by
mechanics who are trained in these procedures. It should
be done in a clean, properly equipped shop.
The Parts Manual contains a drawing of each hydraulic
cylinder. The drawing lists the Altec part numbers for the
seal kits and provides torque specifications for piston
nuts and end glands.
After reconnecting a hydraulic line to any cylinder, extend
and retract the cylinder five to six times to purge any air
from the cylinder and to check for hydraulic leaks.
Mark all hydraulic hose fittings before disconnecting
them to ease installation later. Place a container under
the hoses to catch the hydraulic oil. Cap or plug all open
ports immediately. Warranty will be denied if ports are not
plugged and rods are not retracted.
Vertical Outrigger Leg Cylinder
Removal
The outrigger cylinders may be removed from the top of
the outrigger. A hoist or suitable lifting device will be
required to remove the cylinder from the outrigger.
1. Position the unit on a level surface, apply the parking
brake and chock the wheels. Engage the hydraulic
system and lower the outriggers near the ground.
2. Remove the pin retainers and the pin from the inner
leg to cylinder connection at the cylinder rod end
(refer to Figure 5.18). Retract the cylinder com-
pletely. Disengage the hydraulic system, turn off the
engine, and move the outrigger control valve handle
44 Section 5 Hydraulic System
in both directions several times to release any pres-
sure trapped in the cylinder.
Figure 5.18
Vertical Outrigger Cylinder Fasteners
3. Remove the hydraulic hoses from the cylinder.
4. Place a sling around the cylinder and connect it to a
hoist. Remove the pin retainers and pin from the
outrigger outer leg and cylinder base end. Lift the
cylinder out of the housing.
Installation
1. Move the hydraulic fittings from the old cylinder to
the new one. Plug the openings in the old cylinder.
Install the sling on the new cylinder and connect it to
the hoist.
2. Apply anti-seize compound to the cylinder pin bore,
pin boss, and the pin that make the connection at the
top of the outrigger.
3. Using the hoist, position the cylinder in the outrigger
and install the pin and pin retainers.
4. Connect the hydraulic lines. Start the engine and
engage the hydraulic system. Extend the cylinder
until the rod boss can be aligned with the pin boss of
the inner leg and shoe. Apply anti-seize compound
freely to the pin bosses, pin and cylinder pin bore.
5. Install the pin and pin retainers.
6. Raise and lower the leg several times while check-
ing for hydraulic oil leaks. This purges any air from
the cylinder.
7. Perform a structural test as described in Section 9.
Articulating Arm Cylinder
Removal
Two slings and hoists will be required to remove the
cylinder.
1. Position the unit on a level surface, apply the parking
brake and chock the wheels. Engage the hydraulic
system and properly set the outriggers, if so equipped.
2. Raise the boom so it is out of the way for this
procedure. Raise the articulating arm approximately
30 to 40 degrees above horizontal. Disengage the
hydraulic system and turn off the engine.
3. Place a sling around the riser end of the arm. Use a
hoist to lift upward, supporting the arm, to take the
load off the articulating arm cylinder.
4. Move the articulating arm lower control handle in both
directions several times to release any pressure.
5. Remove the hydraulic hoses from the base end of
the cylinder.
6. Use a sling and hoist to support the rod end of the
cylinder barrel (refer to Figure 5.19). Remove the cap
screw, lock washers, forged pin retainer and retain-
ing rings from the pin at the rod end of the cylinder.
Remove the cylinder pin.
Figure 5.19 Articulating Arm
7. Adjust the position of the sling and hoist to support
the entire cylinder. Remove the pin retainers from the
pin at the base end of the cylinder. Remove the
cylinder pin.
8. Immediately lower the cylinder to the ground. Be
careful not to scratch the cylinder rod.
Installation
1. Position the cylinder to align the holes in the base end
of the cylinder with the pin bosses on the turntable.
2. Install the pin through the bosses and the cylinder
eye. Install the pin retainers, lock washer, and the cap
screw. Torque the cap screw to the proper value.
3. Reconnect the hydraulic hoses to the cylinder.
Rod End
Articulating
Arm Cylinder
Pin Retainers
Cylinder Rod End
Section 5 Hydraulic System 45
4. Start the engine and engage the hydraulic system.
From the lower controls, extend the articulating arm
cylinder until the cylinder rod end is aligned with the
mounting holes in the articulating arm. Disengage
the hydraulic system and turn off the engine.
5. Install the cylinder rod pin through the pin boss, rod
end of the cylinder, and the second pin boss in the
turntable weldment. Install the retaining rings, forged
pin retainer and cap screw. Torque the cap screw to
the proper value.
6. Start the engine and engage the hydraulic system.
Use the lower controls to raise and lower the articu-
lating arm five to six cycles while checking the
articulating arm cylinder for leaks and proper opera-
tion. This purges any air from the cylinder.
7. Perform a structural test as described in Section 9.
Lift Cylinder
Removal
Two slings and hoists are necessary for this procedure.
1. Position the unit on a level surface, apply the parking
brake and chock the wheels. Engage the hydraulic
system. Properly set the outriggers, if so equipped.
Position the lower boom horizontal. Keep the articu-
lating arm in the rest position.
2. Use a sling and hoist to support the rod end of the
cylinder barrel. Use another sling and hoist to support
the boom.
3. Disengage the hydraulic system and turn off the
engine. Release any pressure in the hoses con-
nected to the lift cylinder. Move the lower boom
control handle on the lower control valve in both
directions several times to release any pressure.
4. Remove the two hoses connected to the base end of
the lift cylinder.
5. Figure 5.20 illustrates the fasteners securing the
pins at each end of the cylinder. At the rod end,
remove the forged pin retainer. Remove the pin
retainers and the pin.
Figure 5.20 Cylinder Mounting Fasteners
6. Adjust the position of the sling and hoist to support the
entire cylinder.
7. Remove the pin retainers and the pin from the base
end of the cylinder.
8. Immediately lower the cylinder to the ground.
Installation
1. With the new cylinder on the ground, secure the sling
around the cylinder housing.
2. Lift the cylinder with the hoist and align the base end
of the cylinder with the cylinder attachment bracket
on the riser. Install the cylinder pin through the pin
boss of the attachment bracket, the base end of the
cylinder and the second pin boss in the cylinder
attachment bracket.
3. Install the two retaining rings, lock washers, forged
pin retainer, and cap screw to secure the cylinder pin.
Torque the cap screw to the proper value.
4. Connect the two hydraulic hoses to the cylinder.
5. Reposition the sling and hoist in the center of the
cylinder housing. Start the engine and engage the
hydraulic system. From the lower controls, use the
hydraulic system to align the rod end of the cylinder
with the mounting holes in the boom. Reconnect the
rod end of the cylinder to the boom.
6. Install the pin retainers, lock washers and cap screw
to secure the rod end cylinder pin. Torque the cap
screw to the proper value.
Lower Platform
Leveling Cylinder
Boom
Lift Cylinder
Rod End
Forged
Pin Retainer
46 Section 5 Hydraulic System
7. Use the lower controls to raise and lower the boom
five to six cycles while checking the lift cylinder for
leaks and proper operation. This purges any air from
cylinder.
8. Perform a structural test as described in Section 9.
Lower Platform Leveling Cylinder
Removal
1. Position the unit on a level surface, apply the parking
brake and chock the wheels. Engage the hydraulic
system and properly set the outriggers, if so equipped.
2. Raise the boom approximately 20 to 30 degrees
above horizontal to gain clearance between the ar-
ticulating arm and the boom.
3. Use a sling and hoist to support the platform. Wrap
the sling under the platform and raise the hoist slightly
to take the load off of the leveling system cylinders.
4. Disengage the hydraulic system and turn off the
engine.
Caution
There is no practical way to remove all the hydraulic
pressure from the leveling system hoses. The plat-
form must be supported to relieve some of the hy-
draulic pressure in the leveling system hydraulic
hoses. Unscrew the leveling system hoses very slowly
to release the pressure in the hydraulic leveling
system.
In case of injury by escaping hydraulic oil, seek
medical attention at once. Serious infection or reac-
tion can result if medical treatment is not given
immediately.
Keep the unit and work areas clean. Spilled hydraulic
oil creates slick surfaces and can cause personnel to
slip and/or fall.
5. When disconnecting the lower platform leveling cyl-
inder hoses, unscrew the connections very slowly to
release the hydraulic pressure in the hoses. Place a
liquid container underneath the leveling system cyl-
inder to catch the hydraulic oil.
6. At the base end of the cylinder, remove the pin
retainers that secure the pin (refer to Figure 5.20).
Remove the pin.
7. At the rod end of the cylinder, remove the retaining
rings that secure the pin. Remove the pin.
Installation
1. Align the base end of the cylinder with the cylinder
attachment bracket on the boom.
2. Install the cylinder base end pin. Install the pin
retainers to secure the pin.
3. Align the rod end of the cylinder with the cylinder
holes in the riser. Install the rod end pin.
4. Install the retaining rings to secure the pin.
5. Connect the hydraulic hoses to the cylinder.
6. Start the engine and engage the hydraulic system.
Position the platform as close to the ground as
possible.
7. Engage the interlock trigger on the single handle
control and operate the platform tilt handle several
times to purge any air from the cylinder. From the
lower controls, raise and lower the boom several
times while checking the leveling cylinder for leaks
and proper operation. This also purges any from the
system.
8. Perform a structural test as described in Section 9.
Upper Platform Leveling Cylinder
Removal
1. Position the unit on a level surface, apply the parking
brake and chock the wheels. Engage the hydraulic
system and properly set the outriggers, if so equipped.
2. Position the platform as close to the ground as
possible. Use a sling and hoist to support the platform
to take the hydraulic load off of the leveling system
cylinders.
3. Disengage the hydraulic system and turn off the
engine.
4. Remove the upper boom tip fiberglass covers to gain
access to the upper platform leveling cylinder.
Caution
There is no practical way to remove all the hydraulic
pressure from the leveling system hoses. The plat-
form must be supported to relieve some of the hy-
draulic pressure in the leveling system hydraulic
hoses. Unscrew the leveling system hoses very slowly
to release the pressure in the hydraulic leveling
system.
Section 5 Hydraulic System 47
Figure 5.21 Upper Leveling Cylinder
2. With a dead blow hammer and brass drift, drive the
base end pin through the base end cylinder.
3. Install the retaining rings on the base end pin.
4. Align the rod end of the cylinder with the platform tilt/
mounting bracket.
5. Install the rod end pin. Install the two retaining rings.
6. Connect the hydraulic hoses to the upper leveling
cylinder.
7. Start the engine and engage the hydraulic system.
Engage the interlock trigger on the single handle
control and operate the platform tilt handle several
times while checking the leveling cylinder for leaks
and proper operation. This also purges any air from
the cylinder.
8. Perform a structural test as described in Section 9.
In case of injury by escaping hydraulic oil, seek
medical attention at once. Serious infection or reac-
tion can result if medical treatment is not given
immediately.
Keep the unit and work areas clean. Spilled hydraulic
oil creates slick surfaces and can cause personnel to
slip and/or fall.
5. Place a liquid container underneath the upper level-
ing system cylinder to catch the hydraulic oil. Un-
screw the leveling cylinder hose connections very
slowly from the pilot operated check valve block to
release the hydraulic pressure in the hoses.
6. At the base end of the cylinder, remove the retaining
rings from the pin ends.
7. Use a dead blow hammer and brass drift to drive the
pin out of the base end of the cylinder and the cylinder
mounting bracket.
8. Allow the cylinder to hang from the rod end.
9. At the rod end of the cylinder, remove the retaining
rings from the pin. Remove the pin from the rod end
of the cylinder and platform tilt/mounting bracket.
Remove the cylinder and holding valve and rest it on
a stable work surface, such as a workbench.
Installation
1. Install the cylinder base end first. Position the cylin-
der so the holding valve in the base end of the cylinder
is positioned toward the boom (refer to Figure 5.21).
Align the base end of the cylinder with the cylinder
base end mounting bracket at the boom tip.
Base End
Upper Platform
Leveling Cylinder
48 Section 5 Hydraulic System
Section 6 Mechanical Systems 49
Section 6 Mechanical Systems
Rotary Joint/Slip Ring Assembly
The rotary joint permits continuous rotation of the turn-
table without twisting the hydraulic hoses in the pedestal
and turntable.
The outer housing of the rotary joint is held stationary by
a drive pin positioned in a bracket secured to the base of
the turntable. The inner core of the rotary joint is secured
to rotary joint mounting bracket that is secured to a plate
in the pedestal.
The hydraulic lines connected through the rotary joint
include the pressure line and the return line. The rotary
joint uses SAE straight thread type fittings. Pipe fittings
do not fit in these ports. Do not attempt to install pipe
fittings in the rotary joint ports.
If the unit is equipped with a DC pump and/or remote
engine start/stop, electrical wires for these circuits will
pass through the center line of rotation by way of the slip
ring.
The slip ring is mounted to the top lip of the rotary joint by
four cap screws and nuts. The cap screws are inserted
through metal spacer tubes for support.
Do not allow debris to accumulate around the rotary joint
and slip ring. Debris could damage the hoses connected
to the rotary joint.
Removal
Two slings and hoists are necessary for this procedure.
1. Position the unit on a level surface, apply the park-
ing brake and chock the wheels. Engage the hydrau-
lic system and properly set the outriggers, if so
equipped. Using the lower controls, raise the articu-
lating arm and boom until the inside of the turntable
is accessible. Use a sling and hoist to support the
articulating arm. Use another sling and hoist to
support the boom.
Caution
Failure to remove pressure from a hydraulic circuit
will cause oil to spray out under pressure as the
connection is loosened. Hydraulic oil escaping un-
der pressure can have enough force to inject oil into
the flesh.
In case of injury by escaping hydraulic oil, seek
medical attention at once. Serious infection or reac-
tion can result if medical treatment is not given
immediately.
Keep the unit and work areas clean. Spilled hydraulic
oil creates slick surfaces and can cause personnel to
slip and/or fall.
2. Disengage the hydraulic system and turn off the
engine. Place the control selector in the Lower posi-
tion. Release any pressure in the hoses by moving all
the control handles at the lower controls in both
directions several times.
3. Close the two shutoff valves at the reservoir.
4. In the turntable, disconnect the electrical wires con-
nected to the slip ring. Label the wires to assist in
connecting them during installation.
5. Remove the pedestal access cover to access the
wires from the bottom of the slip ring.
6. Label the wires to assist in connecting them during
installation. Cut the wires.
7. Remove the four cap screws and spacer tubes that
connect the slip ring to the rotary joint (refer to Figure
6.1).
8. Remove the slip ring.
9. Disconnect the four hydraulic hoses that are con-
nected to the rotary joint. The turntable hoses are
disconnected at the top of the rotary joint. The pedes-
tal hoses are disconnected at the bulkhead fittings at
the base of the pedestal. Mark the connections to
ease installation later. Cap or plug all open ports and
hoses.
10. Remove the cotter pin securing the drive pin and
remove the drive pin.
11. Remove the three cap screws that secure the rotary
joint mounting bracket to the plate in the pedestal.
12. Raise the rotary joint and mounting bracket enough
to remove the hoses from the bottom of the rotary
joint.
13. Remove the three cap screws that secure the inner
core of the rotary joint to the rotary joint mounting
bracket.
14. Remove the rotary joint from the turntable.
Installation
1. Remove the hydraulic fittings from the old rotary joint
and install them on the new rotary joint.
50 Section 6 Mechanical Systems
Drive Pin
Bracket
Drive Pin
2. Position the rotary joint in the turntable so the pin
boss will line up with the drive pin bracket. Secure the
rotary joint to the rotary joint mounting bracket.
3. Connect the hoses to the bottom of the rotary joint.
4. Connect the rotary joint mounting bracket to the plate
in the pedestal.
5. Place the drive pin through the bracket and into the
boss on the outer housing of the rotary joint and install
the cotter pin through the boss and the pin.
6. Route the wires through the rotary joint. Position the
slip ring on top of the rotary joint.
7. Insert a slip ring mounting cap screw through the slip
ring, the spacer tube, and into the top lip of the rotary
joint. Secure the cap screw with a nut. Repeat this
step for the other cap screws and spacer tubes (refer
to Figure 6.1).
8. Connect the appropriate wires in the turntable to the
slip ring.
9. Connect the appropriate wires in the pedestal to the
wires from the bottom of the slip ring.
10. Reconnect the hydraulic hoses to the rotary joint and
pedestal bulkhead fittings.
Attention
Serious pump or return line filter damage may result
if you attempt to operate the unit with either or both
of the shutoff valves closed.
11. Open the two shutoff valves at the reservoir.
12. Remove the slings and hoists supporting the articu-
lating arm and boom. Start the engine and engage
the hydraulic system. Operate the unit while check-
ing for leaks at the rotary joint.
13. Replace the pedestal access hole cover.
Rotation System
The turntable rotates on a shear ball bearing, referred to
as the rotation bearing. The inner race of the bearing is
fastened to the turntable. The outer race of the bearing is
fastened to the pedestal. It has gear teeth cut on the
outside surface of the outer race.
Rotation is accomplished by a worm gearbox mounted on
the turntable (refer to Figure 6.2). The gearbox is driven
by a hydraulic motor. The rotation gearbox pinion meshes
with the teeth on the rotation bearing.
Figure 6.2 Rotation System
Figure 6.1 Rotary Joint/Slip Ring Assembly
Turntable
Rotation Pinion
Meshing with
Rotation Bearing
Gearbox
Motor
Spacer
Tubes
Rotary
Joint
Slip Ring
Section 6 Mechanical Systems 51
When the rotation function is operated, hydraulic oil flows
to the rotation motor for the direction of operation (clock-
wise or counterclockwise). The motor powers the worm,
which in turn drives the worm gear. The worm gear is
attached to the rotation pinion. As the rotation pinion
drives the rotation bearing, the turntable rotates.
The worm gear is self-locking, assuring that the turntable
will remain in position when hydraulic pressure is not
being applied to the hydraulic motor.
Rotation Bearing
The rotation bearing provides for very low torque rotation.
The bearing should provide many years of satisfactory
service if properly maintained.
A grease tube is connected to the inner race of the
rotation bearing and to a grease fitting on the turntable.
Lubricate the bearing race, the gear teeth on the outer
race and the rotation pinion as recommended in the
Preventive Maintenance and Inspection Checklist. Refer
to Section 4 under Lubrication for information.
Procedures for measuring turntable tilt and inspecting the
rotation bearing cap screws are found in Section 4 under
Rotation Bearing.
Removal
Components need to be removed to access the rotation
bearing cap screws. This procedure must be performed
by mechanics who are trained in this procedure.
Caution
A hoist or other lifting device of suitable capacity will
be required to support the turntable, articulating arm
and boom during this procedure.
1. Position the unit on a level surface, apply the parking
brake and chock the wheels. Engage the hydraulic
system and properly set the outriggers, if so equipped.
Disengage the hydraulic system and turn off the
engine.
Caution
Failure to remove pressure from a hydraulic circuit
will cause oil to spray out under pressure as the
connection is loosened. Hydraulic oil escaping un-
der pressure can have enough force to inject oil into
the flesh.
In case of injury by escaping hydraulic oil, seek
medical attention at once. Serious infection or reac-
tion can result if medical treatment is not given
immediately.
Keep the unit and work areas clean. Spilled hydraulic
oil creates slick surfaces and can cause personnel to
slip and/or fall.
2. Remove the pressure in the system by moving all the
handles at the lower controls in each direction sev-
eral times.
Warning
Secure the boom before removing the rotation gear-
box. Uncontrolled movement can result in death,
serious injury and/or property damage.
3. Remove the eccentric ring lock on top of the turntable
base plate next to the rotation pinion. Remove the
rotation gearbox cap screws. Remove the gearbox.
4. Disconnect the grease tube from the turntable. Dis-
connect the hydraulic lines and the electrical wires
connected to the rotary joint and slip ring.
5. Support the turntable and articulating arm (and boom,
if still attached) to prevent them from accidentally
coming off of the pedestal after the cap screws are
removed. Remove the inner race cap screws and
washers. The cap screws are accessible from the
turntable side of the rotation bearing.
6. Remove the rotary joint/slip ring using the procedure
at the beginning of this section.
7. Use a sling and hoist to lift the turntable from the
rotation bearing.
8. Remove the cap screws and washers from the outer
race of the rotation bearing. These cap screws are
accessible from the pedestal side of the rotation
bearing.
9. Using a sling and hoist, lift the bearing off of the
pedestal weldment.
Installation
Warning
Solvents can be extremely hazardous. Follow the
manufacturers label for proper use and disposal.
1. Clean the weldments with a cloth and solvent to
remove any dirt or grease.
2. Remove the grease tube from the old rotation bearing
and install it in the new bearing.
3. Position the new rotation bearing on the pedestal with
the high tooth (marked by yellow or blue paint) in the
52 Section 6 Mechanical Systems
proper position (refer to Figure 6.3). Align the mount-
ing holes with the mating holes in the bearing.
Figure 6.3 Rotation Bearing High Tooth Location
Attention
Only use Altec supplied cap screws and washers to
install the rotation bearing.
4. Apply a thin coat of anti-seize compound to the entire
cap screw (threads, shank and underside of the
head) for those cap screws that will be used in the
outer race of the bearing. Look at the hole in the
washer. Notice that it has a more rounded edge on
one side of the washer. Install the washer with the
rounded edge toward the cap screw head. Coat the
bottom of each washer with anti-seize compound
after installing it on the cap screw.
5. Start a cap screw by hand through the weldment and
into the bearing. Install the remainder of the cap
screws on the outer race of the bearing. Do not torque
the cap screws until all of them have been installed on
the outer race.
Caution
Failure to keep the cap screws properly tightened can
lead to fatigue failure of the cap screws and conse-
quent damage to the unit. Insufficient or uneven cap
screw tightness can also contribute to reduced life of
the bearing.
Attention
Use a drive click-type manual torque wrench,
accurately calibrated, for the installation of these cap
screws. Torque the cap screws by applying a smooth
pull on the torque wrench without jerking. Do not
overtighten the cap screws.
6. Torque the cap screws in three phases. First, torque
the cap screws to 75 foot-pounds using the alternat-
ing star pattern shown in Figure 6.4. For the second
phase, set the torque wrench to 150 foot-pounds.
Follow the same alternating star pattern. For the last
phase, keep the torque wrench set for 150 foot-
pounds. Torque each cap screw using a circular
pattern starting with cap screw number one.
Figure 6.4 Outer Race Cap Screw Torque Pattern
7. Rotate the inner race to position the grease fitting as
shown in Figure 6.5.
Figure 6.5 Inner Race Cap Screw Torque Pattern
8. Use a sling and hoist to position the turntable on top
of the rotation bearing. Align the turntable mounting
holes with the mating cap screw holes in the bearing.
9. Install the cap screws in the inner race of the bearing
in the same manner as the outer race. Apply anti-
seize compound to the cap screws and washers as
in step 4. Install the washers and cap screws.
10. Torque the cap screws in three phases with the same
procedure used on the outer race in step 6. Follow the
alternating star pattern shown in Figure 6.5.
11. Install the protective plastic caps (provided in the
rotation bearing replacement kit) over the cap screw
heads. The caps serve as a reminder to check the
torque of the cap screws as described in Section 4
under Rotation Bearing.
12. Install the rotary joint using the procedure at the
beginning of this section.
X
X
Rotation Bearing
High Tooth Location
Rotation
Gearbox Location
1
6
4
7 2
5
3
8
7* 2*
4 5
9 10
6 3
1 8
X
Rotation Gearbox
Grease
Fitting
Section 6 Mechanical Systems 53
13. Install the slip ring. Reconnect the grease tube, all
hydraulic lines and electrical wires.
14. Install the rotation gearbox by installing the four cap
screws, washers, nuts, and spacers. Torque the cap
screws to 115 foot-pounds.
15. From the lower controls, operate each function through
five or six cycles to purge any air from the system.
16. Perform a structural test as described in Section 9.
17. Lubricate the rotation bearing raceway and gear
teeth.
18. Adjust the backlash between the rotation pinion and
rotation bearing gear teeth as described in Section 8
under Rotation Drive Gearbox.
19. The rotation bearing cap screws must be inspected
as recommended in the Preventive Maintenance and
Inspection Checklist. Use the initial torque inspec-
tion procedure as described in Section 4 under
Rotation Bearing.
Rotation Gearbox
Only qualified service personnel should service or re-
place the rotation gearbox. Read and understand the
complete procedure before starting.
Removal
1. Position the unit on a level surface, apply the parking
brake and chock the wheels. Engage the hydraulic
system and properly set the outriggers, if so equipped.
Disengage the hydraulic system and turn off the
engine.
Warning
Secure the boom before removing the rotation gear-
box. Uncontrolled movement can result in death,
serious injury and/or property damage.
2. Secure the boom so the turntable cannot rotate when
the gearbox is removed.
Warning
Hands and fingers must be kept off the pinion and
rotation bearing gear teeth to avoid serious injury.
Caution
Eye protection must be worn while adjusting the
eccentric ring to prevent particles of metal or dirt
from entering the eyes.
Use extreme caution when access covers have been
removed to service the unit. Pinch points and shear
points may exist between moving parts. Replace the
access covers immediately after servicing.
3. Remove the pinion cover and loosen the eccentric
ring lock and the four cap screws securing the gear-
box. Engage a suitable bar or drift pin, preferably of
a soft material such as brass, in a drive slot of the
eccentric ring. Rotate the eccentric ring using light
blows from a hammer against a bar or drift pin. Rotate
the eccentric ring to position the gearbox the maxi-
mum distance from the rotation bearing gear teeth.
Caution
Failure to remove pressure before disconnecting
hydraulic lines or fittings will cause oil to spray out
under pressure as the connection is loosened. Hy-
draulic oil escaping under pressure can have enough
force to inject oil into the flesh.
In case of injury by escaping hydraulic oil, seek
medical attention at once. Serious infection or reac-
tion can result if medical treatment is not given
immediately.
Keep the unit and work areas clean. Spilled hydraulic
oil creates slick surfaces and can cause personnel to
slip and/or fall.
Move the rotation control handle in both directions sev-
eral times release pressure from the rotation function
lines. Close the shutoff valve at the hydraulic reservoir.
Tag the ignition key or hydraulic systems switch with a
warning note alerting the operator to open the shutoff
valve before engaging the hydraulic system.
4. Remove the rotation motor hydraulic hoses. Plug or
cap the openings.
5. Place a nylon sling around the gearbox. The sling
may be tied together to make a basket under the
gearbox.
6. Connect the sling to a hoist. Remove the eccentric
ring lock and the four gearbox mounting cap screws.
Lift the gearbox out of the turntable and lower it to the
ground.
If a replacement gearbox is not readily available, secure
the booms so they do not swing freely.
Installation
1. Position the boom and hoist as instructed during the
removal procedure.
54 Section 6 Mechanical Systems
2. Clean the mounting surface and eccentric ring. Apply
anti-seize compound to the inside and outside sur-
face of the eccentric ring and boss. Install the eccen-
tric ring in a position so that adjusting
1
/4 turn one way
will produce full adjustment and
1
/4 turn the other way
will completely loosen the gearbox.
3. Position the nylon sling on the gearbox as before
and connect it to the hoist. Position the gearbox
inside the turntable. Install the gearbox mounting cap
screws loosely.
4. Adjust the rotation pinion to the rotation bearing
following the procedure in Section 8 under Rotation
Gearbox.
5. Reconnect the rotation motor hoses. Reconnect any
other hoses, tubes and control lines that may have
been removed for this procedure. Remove the strap(s)
used to secure the boom. Fully open the shutoff
valve on the reservoir and remove the ignition warn-
ing note.
6. Position the unit on a level surface with sufficient
clearance for full boom movement. Apply the parking
brake and chock the wheels. Engage the hydraulic
system and properly set the outriggers, if so equipped.
7. Operate the unit through all boom angles and rotation
from the lower controls while checking for leaks and
proper operation.
8. Operate the unit through all boom angles and rotation
from the upper controls. Fully extend the articulating
arm cylinder and the lift cylinder while checking for
smoothness of operation.
Boom
For normal maintenance practices, the boom will not
need to be removed. If it does become damaged and
needs to be replaced, use the following procedure.
Two slings and hoists are necessary for removal and
installation of the boom.
Removal
Warning
Pinch points exist at both the rod end and the base
end of the cylinder. Be extremely careful when re-
moving or installing the lift cylinder.
Caution
Use extreme caution when access covers have been
removed to service the unit. Pinch points and shear
points may exist between moving parts. Replace the
access covers immediately after servicing.
1. Position the unit on a level surface, apply the parking
brake and chock the wheels. Engage the hydraulic
system and properly set the outriggers, if so equipped.
Position the boom horizontal. Keep the articulating
arm in the rest. Disengage the hydraulic system and
turn off the engine.
2. Use a sling and hoist to support the boom. Use
another sling and hoist to support the rod end of the
lift cylinder barrel (refer to Figure 6.6).
Figure 6.6 Boom
Caution
Failure to remove pressure before disconnecting
hydraulic lines or fittings will cause oil to spray out
under pressure as the connection is loosened. Hy-
draulic oil escaping under pressure can have enough
force to inject oil into the flesh.
In case of injury by escaping hydraulic oil, seek
medical attention at once. Serious infection or reac-
tion can result if medical treatment is not given
immediately.
Keep the unit and work areas clean. Spilled hydraulic
oil creates slick surfaces and can cause personnel to
slip and/or fall.
3. Move the lower control handle for each boom func-
tion in both directions several times to release any
trapped pressure. Also, move the control handle at
the platform for the upper tool circuit functions in both
directions several times.
4. At the rod end of the lift cylinder, remove the cap
screw, forged pin retainer and lock washers. Re-
move the two retaining rings from the pin. Making
sure the cylinder is supported, remove the rod end
Lower Platform
Leveling Cylinder
Boom
Lift Cylinder
Rod End
Forged Pin Retainer
Section 6 Mechanical Systems 55
pin from the cylinder eye and cylinder attachment on
the boom.
5. At the base end of the lower platform leveling cylin-
der, remove the retaining rings from the pin. Remove
the pin. Support the leveling cylinder.
Caution
Eye protection must be worn at all times to prevent
particles of dirt, metal or hydraulic oil from entering
the eyes.
There is no practical way to remove all the hydraulic
pressure from the leveling system hoses. The plat-
form must be supported to relieve some of the hy-
draulic pressure in the leveling system hydraulic
hoses. Unscrew the leveling system hoses very slowly
to release the pressure in the hydraulic leveling
system.
In case of injury by escaping hydraulic oil, seek
medical attention at once. Serious infection or reac-
tion can result if medical treatment is not given
immediately.
Keep the unit and work areas clean. Spilled hydraulic
oil creates slick surfaces and can cause personnel to
slip and/or fall.
6. Follow the procedure in Section 5 under Hydraulic
Lines to disconnect the hoses at the base end of the
boom.
7. While continuing to support the boom assembly,
remove the cap screw, lock washers, and forged pin
retainer that secures the boom pin to the riser.
Remove the pin.
8. Use a sling and hoist to carefully lift the boom from the
unit.
Installation
1. Use the sling and hoist to position the boom assem-
bly at the riser attachment point. Install the boom pin.
Install a retaining ring on each end of the pin. Install
the lock washers, forged pin retainer and cap screw.
Torque the cap screw to the proper value.
2. Reconnect the hoses in the boom to the turntable
hoses.
3. Remove the support from the lower platform leveling
cylinder. Align the base end of the lower platform
leveling cylinder with the cylinder holes in the boom.
Install the pin. Install the two retaining rings.
4. Position the lift cylinder to align the rod end of the lift
cylinder with the cylinder attachment bracket on the
boom. Install the cylinder pin through the first hole of
the attachment bracket, the rod end of the cylinder
and the second pin hole in the cylinder attachment
bracket.
5. Install the retaining rings, lock washers, forged pin
retainer, and cap screws to secure the lift cylinder rod
end pin. Torque the cap screws to the proper value.
Warning
After removing a hydraulic line from a cylinder, do
not operate the unit from the upper controls until all
air is purged from the cylinder after the hydraulic
lines are reinstalled. The presence of air in the cylin-
der may cause inadvertent retraction or extension of
the cylinder, resulting in death or serious injury.
6. Start the engine and engage the hydraulic system.
Test operate each function from the lower controls
while checking for leaks and proper operation. This
also purges any air from the cylinder. Test operate
each function from the upper controls.
7. Replace all covers.
8. Perform a structural test as described in Section 9.
Upper Controls
The upper controls consists of a single handle control to
operate the boom functions from the platform.
The single handle control (refer to Figure 6.7) uses an
interlock linkage to prevent unexpected platform move-
ment resulting from accidental bumping of the control.
When the interlock trigger on the bottom of the control
handle is engaged, the single handle control may be
operated. Squeezing the trigger causes a linkage inside
the single handle control assembly to manually shift the
blocking section of the upper control valve. When the
blocking section is shifted, it allows hydraulic oil flow to
the boom function spools of the upper control valve.
56 Section 6 Mechanical Systems
When the control is not operated, the blocking section of
the upper control valve is spring offset to the closed
position.
Link Arm
Ball Joint
Assembly
Separator
Figure 6.7 Single Handle Control Assembly
Section 7 Electrical System 57
Section 7 Electrical System
Electrical power is supplied from the vehicle battery.
Figure 7.1 shows a comparison between electrical and
hydraulic components.
Caution
Even with low voltage vehicle electrical systems,
severe arcing can occur. Use caution when working
with any electrical device.
Voltage levels of this system are based on a constant
vehicle power source. Voltage may vary from 10 to 15.5
volts and still be considered normal in a 12 VDC system.
The major electrical components and their operation are
described in this section. Wiring Line Diagrams in the
Appendix illustrate the component wiring. Refer to Sec-
tion 8 for troubleshooting information.
On/Off Circuit
The on/off circuit supplies low voltage constant power to
a solenoid or other component when a switch or relay is
closed. When the circuit is opened, the power is removed.
All of the circuits on this unit are on/off electrical circuits.
This unit uses electrical power to operate the remote
engine start/stop system, DC pump and outrigger inter-
lock system.
Function Performed
Source of energy or power
Creates a potential energy difference between two points in
a system
Allows potential energy to become kinetic and do useful
work
Transmits power from place to place
Protects system from overload
Allows power to flow in one direction but not the other
Blocks power or allows it to flow
Varies the amount of power which passes through it depend-
ing upon the distance the control handle is moved
Restricts the flow of power
Allows power to flow through upon receiving a signal from
another source
Causes axial movement of its central element when power
is applied to it
Transmits power through a continuously rotating connection
Hydraulic Component
Pump
Pressure
Oil flow
Hose or tube
Relief valve
Check valve
Shutoff valve
Control valve
Orifice
Pilot operated
check valve
Cylinder
Rotary joint
Electrical Component
Battery
Voltage
Current
Wire
Fuse or circuit breaker
Diode
Switch
Controller
Resistor
Relay
Solenoid
Slip ring assembly
Figure 7.1 Electrical/Hydraulic Comparison
Truck/Machine Selector Switch
The truck/machine selector switch is located in the cab of
the vehicle. The center terminals of the truck/machine
selector switch are connected to an ignition switch. If the
switch is placed in the Truck position, the center and
lower terminals are connected, which sends power to
terminal 9 in the remote start/stop control box. If the
switch is placed in the Machine position, the center and
top terminals are connected, which sends power to
terminal 7 in the remote start/stop control box.
Remote Start/Stop Control Box
The remote start/stop control box is the central connec-
tion point between the remote start/stop system and the
vehicle electrical system. With suitable electrical controls
for the engine and starter, the engine may be stopped or
started at the platform with an air operated cylinder. If both
the start/stop system and the DC pump options are
ordered, they may be operated by a toggle switch at the
turntable and tailshelf.
The control box wiring information is shown in the wiring
line diagrams. Troubleshooting information for the re-
mote start/stop control box can be found in Section 8
under Remote Start/Stop Control Box.
58 Section 7 Electrical System
Caution
To prevent electrical shock, turn the vehicle ignition
switch off to remove the power supply to the control
box before servicing.
The control box uses low voltage components. This
makes problems easy to troubleshoot with a voltmeter or
a test light.
Throttle Control
The normal hydraulic oil flow for this unit is 3.5 gpm. When
the throttle control is operated, the flow rate is increased
to approximately five gpm.
Attention
Do not operate the articulating arm or boom func-
tions with the electrical throttle control engaged. The
increased flow rate will generate heat that will dam-
age the hydraulic hoses for those functions.
The components for the electrical throttle control are the
air cylinder at the platform, an air activated switch in the
turntable, a bistable relay, a power relay and the throttle
control solenoid mounted on the engine. The remote
engine start/stop control box is used to supply current to
the bistable relay assembly. Refer to the Wiring Line
Diagrams in the Appendix.
The throttle solenoid is controlled by the air cylinder at the
platform. When the cylinder is engaged, the air switch in
the pedestal is grounded, completing the circuit that
supplies power to the bistable relay coil. As the coil on the
bistable relay is activated, the microswitch is positioned
to either the normally closed (NC) or the normally open
(NO) position. In the normally open position, power is
supplied to the power relay.
The power relay then activates the throttle control sole-
noid. With terminal 85 of the power relay energized, the
relay switch (terminal 30) makes contact with terminal 87.
Current flow is then directed from the power relay to the
throttle control solenoid. It will take a few seconds for the
vehicle engine speed to increase.
When the air cylinder at the platform is engaged again,
the microswitch is in the normally closed (NC) position. In
this position, current flow is removed from the power relay
and the throttle control solenoid returns to its normal
operating position. The vehicle engine speed is returned
to normal after a few seconds.
Outrigger Interlock System
The outrigger interlock system is a combination of elec-
trical and hydraulic components.
There is one outrigger interlock electrical switch (refer to
Figure 7.2) for each outrigger leg. They are mounted on
the outrigger outer legs. When the outriggers are ex-
tended, the switches close. Electrical power is then sent
to the solenoid of the interlock valve. The solenoid ener-
gizes and shifts the valve closed. This allows the pres-
sure port for the lower control valve to receive hydraulic
oil from the pump.
Figure 7.2 Outrigger Interlock Switch
When the outriggers are raised, the outrigger interlock
switches are open. Therefore, the solenoid for the outrigger
interlock valve is not energized. In this position, hydrau-
lic oil flows through the path of least resistance back to
the reservoir.
Troubleshooting information can be found in Section 8
under Outrigger Interlock System.
Removal
Caution
To prevent electrical shock, place the truck/machine
switch in the Truck position. This will remove the
electrical current from the vehicle to the unit while
working on the electrical switch.
Remove the fasteners that secure the switch assembly to
the outrigger frame. Remove the two fasteners that
secure the switch to the cover. At the end of the switch
wiring, disconnect the connector. Remove the switch and
wiring.
Section 7 Electrical System 59
Installation
Connect the electrical connector of the new switch.
Secure the switch to the cover with the fasteners. Secure
the switch assembly to the outrigger frame.
Slip Ring
If the unit is equipped with continuous rotation and a DC
pump and/or engine start/stop, electrical circuits will pass
through the centerline of rotation by way of the slip ring.
The slip ring is mounted to the top lip of the rotary joint by
four cap screws. The cap screws are inserted through
metal spacer tubes for support.
The brushes inside the slip ring may be removed and
cleaned if necessary. No other maintenance is required.
Removal
1. In the turntable, disconnect the electrical wires con-
nected to the slip ring. Label the wires to assist in
connecting them during installation.
2. Remove the pedestal cover to access the wires from
the bottom of the slip ring.
3. Label the wires to assist in connecting them during
installation. Cut the wires.
4. Remove the four cap screws and spacer tubes that
connect the slip ring to the rotary joint (refer to Figure
7.3).
5. Remove the slip ring.
Figure 7.3 Slip Ring
Installation
1. Route the wires through the rotary joint. Position the
slip ring on top of the rotary joint.
2. Insert a slip ring mounting cap screw through the slip
ring, the spacer tube, and into the top lip of the rotary
joint. Secure the cap screw with a nut. Repeat this
step for the other cap screws and spacer tubes (refer
to Figure 7.3).
3. Connect the appropriate wires in the turntable to the
slip ring.
4. Connect the appropriate wires in the pedestal to the
wires from the bottom of the slip ring.
5. Replace the pedestal cover.
Spacer
Tubes
Rotary Joint
Slip Ring
60 Section 7 Electrical System
Section 8 Troubleshooting, Testing, and Adjustments 61
Section 8 Troubleshooting, Testing, and Adjustments
Troubleshooting Procedure
Establish a troubleshooting procedure to be followed any
time there is a malfunction. This procedure will provide a
starting point for determining the root cause of the mal-
function and increase troubleshooting accuracy. Con-
sider using the following procedure.
1. Position the unit on a level surface. Apply the park-
ing brake and chock the wheels. Check the oil level
in the reservoir.
2. Engage the hydraulic system, warm the hydraulic oil
to operating temperature, and properly set the out-
riggers.
3. Before testing each function through its full travel
capabilities, try small movements to be certain the
function is operating properly. Test each function for
full travel capabilities.
Warning
OSHA requires all occupants of the platform use an
appropriate OSHA approved fall protection system.
4. Operate the unit from the lower controls and then the
upper controls to identify the malfunction.
5. Use the Hydraulic System Schematics and Wiring
Line Diagrams in the Appendix to determine the flow
path required to operate the failed function. Make a
list of the components used to operate the failed
function. Cross off components used to operate other
functions that are operating properly. This should
leave only three or four items to check.
6. Check the easiest component first. Verify the correct
operation of each component remaining on the list
until you find the bad component.
7. Use accurate test equipment to verify flow, pressure,
voltage and current.
Once the symptom has been positively identified, use the
Troubleshooting Chart in the Appendix for suggested
causes and corrective actions.
Hydraulic System
The successful way to troubleshoot any hydraulic sys-
tem is to find the cause of the problem before making any
changes.
Hydraulic pressure is force. If the function does not
operate, it is caused by inadequate pressure at the
actuator.
Hydraulic oil flow is speed. Both flow and pressure are
required to operate a function. If a function is slow, it is
caused by inadequate oil flow.
Cycle Times
Figure 8.1 shows average cycle times.
Function Seconds
Boom raise 28 to 38
Boom lower 24 to 34
Articulating arm raise 24 to 30
Articulating arm lower 22 to 28
Rotate left or right (360) 50 to 60
Figure 8.1 Average Cycle Times
The Hydraulic System Schematics (refer to the Appen-
dix) identify the paths of oil flow in the system. It also
identifies the operation of every hydraulic component. A
thorough understanding of JIC symbols and their mean-
ings is helpful in troubleshooting (refer to Basic JIC
Symbols in the Appendix).
Use an accurately calibrated gauge to test the pressure
of a particular circuit. A calibrated gauge will provide an
accurate reading, which is essential for proper hydraulic
adjustments.
System Pressure
The system pressure is controlled by an adjustable
pressure relief valve in the lower control valve (refer to
Figure 8.2). The purpose of the relief valve is to limit the
maximum pressure in the hydraulic system to 2,350 psi.
Figure 8.2 System Pressure Relief Valve
Testing
To test the system pressure, a quick disconnect fitting
will need to be teed into the pressure line at the lower
control valve.
1. Position the unit on a level surface, apply the parking
brake and chock the wheels. Engage the hydraulic
system and properly set the outriggers, if so equipped.
Lower
Control Valve System
Pressure
Relief Valve
62 Section 8 Troubleshooting, Testing, and Adjustments
2. Disengage the hydraulic system and turn off the
engine. Install a pressure gauge (3,000 psi minimum)
on the quick disconnect.
3. Start the engine and engage the hydraulic system.
4. Using the lower controls, fully retract the articulating
arm cylinder. Hold the control handle in the arm
Lower position while reading the pressure gauge.
The pressure gauge should indicate 2,350 psi. If the
pressure reading is above or below this value, adjust
the system pressure.
Adjustment
1. Disengage the hydraulic system and turn off the
engine.
2. Remove the cap from the pressure relief valve (refer
to Figure 8.2). The adjusting screw may now be
turned. Clockwise rotation of the screw will increase
the system pressure and counterclockwise rotation
will decrease the system pressure. Replace the cap.
3. Check the pressure again and adjust if necessary.
Relief Valve
The outrigger and/or tool system pressure is controlled by
an adjustable pressure relief valve in the pressure line
between the pump and the rotary joint. The purpose of the
relief valve is to limit the maximum pressure in this
system to 2,350 psi.
Testing
To test the pressure in this system, a quick disconnect
fitting will need to be teed into the pressure line between
the pump and the relief valve.
1. Position the unit on a level surface, apply the parking
brake and chock the wheels.
2. Disengage the hydraulic system and turn off the
engine. Install a pressure gauge (3,000 psi minimum)
on the quick disconnect.
3. Start the engine and engage the hydraulic system.
4. Using the outrigger controls, fully retract an outrigger
cylinder. Hold the control handle in the retract posi-
tion while reading the pressure gauge. The pressure
gauge should indicate 2,350 psi. If the pressure is
above or below this value, adjust the pressure.
Adjustment
1. Disengage the hydraulic system and turn off the
engine.
2. Loosen the jam nut on the relief valve. Turn the
adjusting screw clockwise to increase the pressure
or counterclockwise to decrease the pressure. Make
the necessary adjustment. Tighten the jam nut.
Figure 8.3 Relief Valve
3. Check the pressure again and adjust if necessary.
4. Disengage the hydraulic system and turn off the
engine. Disconnect the pressure gauge.
Pump Flow
A slow down in unit movement may indicate a worn or
defective pump. Test the pump to determine the full flow.
Testing
1. Connect a flowmeter in the pressure line of the pump
(refer to Figure 8.4).
Figure 8.4 Pump Flow Test Connections
2. Start the engine and engage the hydraulic system.
3. If the unit is equipped with an electrical throttle
control, be sure the vehicle engine is not throttled up.
Adjusting
Screw
Jam Nut
Flowmeter
Pressure
Line
Section 8 Troubleshooting, Testing, and Adjustments 63
The flowmeter should indicate approximately 3.5
gpm at 2,200 psi. If pump flow is less than this, the
pump may be defective or worn out. Determine the
cause of the problem. Repair or replace the pump.
Outriggers
Outrigger cylinders and holding valves must operate
properly to assure unit stability. Any leakage must be
corrected before placing the unit in service.
Caution
Failure to remove pressure from a hydraulic circuit
will cause oil to spray out under pressure as the
connection is loosened. Hydraulic oil escaping un-
der pressure can have enough force to inject oil into
the flesh.
In case of injury by escaping hydraulic oil, seek
medical attention at once. Serious infection or reac-
tion can result if medical treatment is not given
immediately.
Keep the unit and work areas clean. Spilled hydraulic
oil creates slick surfaces and can cause personnel to
slip and/or fall.
Use the appropriate test to determine the cause of
outrigger drift.
Drift Up
If an outrigger drifts up several inches when it is loaded,
the pilot operated check valve in the extend circuit may be
leaking. If the outrigger drifts up a little and stops, there is
an internal leak in the piston seal.
Testing Internal Cylinder Leakage
A liquid container is required to perform this test.
1. Position the unit on a level surface, apply the parking
brake, chock the wheels. Engage the hydraulic sys-
tem.
2. Retract the cylinder completely. Disengage the hy-
draulic system and turn off the engine. Shift the
outrigger control handle in both directions several
times to release any pressure.
3. Disconnect the outrigger cylinder hose from the
extend port of the outrigger control valve. Cap the
fitting at the valve. Allow the oil remaining in the hose
to drain into a container.
4. Hold the open end of the hose over a container and
start the hydraulic system. Shift the outrigger control
handle to the Raise position. There may be an initial
surge of oil out of the open end of the hose as
pressure is first applied to the cylinder.
5. If a heavy stream of oil continues to drain from the
hose, with the control handle in the Raise position,
the cylinder is leaking internally. Reconnect the
hose to the outrigger control valve. Repair or replace
the cylinder.
Testing Piston Seal and Check Valve
A vehicle jack, a liquid container, and the ability to let the
unit set overnight is required to perform this test.
1. Position the unit on a level surface, apply the parking
brake and chock the wheels. Engage the hydraulic
system.
2. Extend the outrigger cylinder completely. Disengage
the hydraulic system and turn off the engine. Raise
the unit with a jack so the outrigger does not carry any
weight. Shift the outrigger control handle in both
directions several times to release any pressure.
3. Disconnect the retract hose from the control valve
and place the hose in a liquid container. Disconnect
the extend hose from the valve and place the hose in
another liquid container.
4. Let the jack down so the outrigger will have a load
applied to it. Let the unit set overnight.
a. If the retract hose container has oil in it, the pilot
operated check valve is defective.
b. If the cylinder moved a few inches and stopped,
the cylinder piston seal is leaking.
c. If the cylinder retracts all the way in and there is oil
in the extend hose container, the cylinder piston
seal is leaking and the pilot operated check valve
is defective.
5. The pilot operated check valve port marked V1
controls cylinder extension and the port marked V2
controls cylinder retraction. Both ports are located in
the valve housing. This housing is mounted on the
base end of the outrigger cylinder (refer to Figure
8.5). Replace the appropriate valve cartridge as
described in this section under Holding Valves and
repeat the test.
64 Section 8 Troubleshooting, Testing, and Adjustments
Figure 8.5 Outriggers
Drift Down
If the outrigger drifts down from the raised position
overnight or over the weekend, the cylinder may be
leaking internally or the pilot operated check valve in the
retract circuit may be leaking.
Testing
Internal Cylinder Leakage and Check Valve
A vehicle jack, a liquid container, and the ability to let the
unit set overnight is required to perform this test.
1. Place a jack under the outrigger shoe to support the
outrigger. Disengaged the hydraulic system and turn
off the engine. Shift the outrigger control handle in
both directions several times to release any pressure
in the hoses connected to the outrigger cylinder.
2. Carefully remove the retract hose from the control
valve and place the hose in a liquid container. Re-
move the jack and let the unit set in this position
overnight.
a. If the outrigger extended and there is liquid in the
container, the retract pilot operated check valve is
leaking. Place the jack under the outrigger shoe
again to take the weight off of the outrigger cylin-
der. Replace the pilot operated check valve in the
port marked V2 of the pilot operated check valve
housing as described in this section under Hold-
ing Valves.
b. If the outrigger is extended but there is no liquid in
the container, the cylinder is leaking internally.
Replace or repair the cylinder.
Rotary Joint
A leaking seal in the rotary joint can cause oil flowing to
any hydraulic circuit above rotation to be diverted directly
to the return line. This will cause functions to slow down
and/or fail to build pressure. To properly test the rotary
joint, a few simple hydraulic connections must be made.
Testing
1. Disengage the hydraulic system and turn off the
engine. Shift a boom function control handle in both
directions several times to release any pressure in
the pressure hose.
Caution
Failure to remove pressure before disconnecting
hydraulic lines or fittings will cause oil to spray out
under pressure as the connection is loosened. Hy-
draulic oil escaping under pressure can have enough
force to inject oil into the flesh.
In case of injury by escaping hydraulic oil, seek
medical attention at once. Serious infection or reac-
tion can result if medical treatment is not given
immediately.
Keep the unit and work areas clean. Spilled hydraulic
oil creates slick surfaces and can cause personnel to
slip and/or fall.
2. Remove the tank lines (T) from the top and the bottom
of the rotary joint and connect them together as
illustrated in Figure 8.6. Leave the tank ports on the
rotary joint uncapped.
Figure 8.6 Rotary Joint Testing
3. Start the engine, engage the hydraulic system, posi-
tion the articulating arm and the boom away from the
rest so the articulating arm cylinder may be fully
retracted. Hold the articulating arm control handle in
the Lower position. The pressure relief valve in the
lower control valve will limit the pump pressure to
2,350 psi. The pressure line (P) and the rotary joint
will be pressurized to 2,350 psi.
4. If there is no oil outside the open ports of the rotary
joint, disengage the hydraulic system and turn off the
engine. Return the hydraulic connections back to
normal.
Tank Line
Bypassing Rotary Joint
Section 8 Troubleshooting, Testing, and Adjustments 65
If there is oil outside the open ports of the rotary joint,
disengage the hydraulic system and turn off the
engine. Reseal or replace the rotary joint.
Articulating Arm Cylinder
If the articulating arm drifts down under load or its own
weight, first rule out external causes such as a control
valve malfunction.
If the components controlling the cylinder are working
properly, the problem may be caused by leakage past the
counterbalance valve. It may also be caused by internal
leakage in the cylinder.
Use the following test procedure to troubleshoot the
problem.
Testing
1. Position the unit on a level surface, apply the parking
brake and chock the wheels. Engage the hydraulic
system and properly set the outriggers, if so equipped.
2. Place the rated load in the platform.
3. Position the articulating arm with the cylinder rod
extended approximately half way.
4. Rotate the turntable to a position that allows the boom
to be lowered as far as possible.
5. Disengage the hydraulic system and turn off the
engine. If the arm drifts down, move the lower control
handle for that function.
a. If the movement increases, the counterbalance
holding valve is leaking.
b. If the arm drifts down slightly and stops, there is an
internal cylinder leak.
Lift Cylinder
If the boom drifts down under load or under its own
weight, first rule out external causes such as a control
valve malfunction.
If the components controlling the cylinder are working
properly, the problem may be caused by leakage past the
counterbalance valve. It may also be caused by internal
leakage in the cylinder.
Use the following test procedure to troubleshoot the
problem.
Testing
1. Position the unit on a level surface, apply the parking
brake and chock the wheels. Engage the hydraulic
system and properly set the outriggers, if so equipped.
2. Place the rated load in the platform.
3. Fully extend the lift cylinder
4. Rotate the turntable to a position that allows the boom
to be lowered as far as possible.
5. Disengage the hydraulic system and turn off the
engine. If the boom drifts down, move the lower
control handle for that function.
a. If the movement increases, the counterbalance
holding valve is leaking.
b. If the boom drifts down slightly and stops, there is
an internal cylinder leak.
Leveling Cylinders
To test the upper platform leveling cylinder, disengage
the hydraulic system and push down on the platform lip to
place force on the cylinder. If the cylinder moves, the
seals in the cylinder or the pilot operated check valve may
be leaking. Determine the cause of the leakage and
correct it before operating the unit.
Holding Valves
The unit uses holding valves to insure that various
actuators maintain their position under load or if there is
hydraulic line failure. These holding valves block the
hydraulic oil in the actuators to prevent movement. The
types of holding valves used are pilot operated check
valves and counterbalance valves.
If the valve stops holding the load, or malfunctions in
some other way, it is most likely contaminated. Do not
disassemble a holding valve in the field. Holding valves
should only be disassembled by the manufacturer.
When removing a holding valve cartridge, do not allow
dirt, water or other contaminants to enter the holding
valve cavity when the cartridge is removed.
Warning
Failure to fully unload the actuator, or position it so
it cannot move, before removing a holding valve can
result in sudden, uncontrolled movement of the ac-
tuator. This can result in serious injury and/or prop-
erty damage.
Caution
Failure to remove pressure before loosening a valve
cartridge from its housing will cause oil to spray out
under pressure as the connection is loosened. Hy-
draulic oil escaping under pressure can have enough
force to inject oil into the flesh.
66 Section 8 Troubleshooting, Testing, and Adjustments
There is no practical way to remove all the hydraulic
pressure from the leveling system hoses. The plat-
form must be supported to relieve some of the hy-
draulic pressure in the leveling system hydraulic
hoses. Unscrew the leveling system hoses very slowly
to release the pressure in the hydraulic leveling
system.
In case of injury by escaping hydraulic oil, seek
medical attention at once. Serious infection or reac-
tion can result if medical treatment is not given
immediately.
Keep the unit and work areas clean. Spilled hydraulic
oil creates slick surfaces and can cause personnel to
slip and/or fall.
Eye protection must be worn at all times to prevent
particles of dirt, metal or hydraulic oil from entering
the eyes.
Pilot Operated Check Valves
A pilot operated check valve provides a positive lock
against hydraulic flow or leakage until it is opened by
pressure from a control valve. The following actuators
use pilot operated check valves.
Outrigger cylinders
Upper platform leveling cylinder
Warning
Pilot operated check valves are not adjustable and
must be replaced if defective.
Testing
There are three methods for testing pilot operated check
valves. The preferred method requires a test block.
With a Test Block
A test block and instruction sheet for 1
1
/8 and
7
/8 hex
cartridges is available from your Altec representative
(refer to Service Tools and Supplies in the Appendix).
Switching Valve Cartridges
If a test block is not available, pilot operated check valves
may be tested by the following method.
1. Position the unit on a level surface, apply the parking
brake and chock the wheels. Engage the hydraulic
system and properly set the outriggers, if so equipped.
Securely stow the boom and articulating arm.
2. Extend the outriggers one inch from the ground,
disengage the hydraulic system and turn off the
engine.
3. Remove the hydraulic pressure from the pilot oper-
ated check valve by moving the control handle for
that function in both directions several times. If the
check valve is used with a cylinder, move the control
handle until the cylinder can be rocked by hand.
4. Support the structure (such as the outrigger leg) the
pilot operated check valve supports. Switch the posi-
tion of the two valve cartridges.
5. If the problem moves to the other location, replace
the valve cartridge. If the problem does not move, the
pilot operated check valve is not the cause of the
malfunction.
Loading the Function
1. Position the unit on a level surface, apply the parking
brake and chock the wheels. Engage the hydraulic
system and properly set the outriggers, if so equipped.
Load the function protected by the pilot operated
check valve.
2. Disengage the hydraulic system and turn off the
engine.
3. Place the control selector handle in the Lower posi-
tion.
4. Move the lower control handle for the function to
connect the function to tank. If the function moves,
the pilot operated check valve is leaking and must be
replaced.
Counterbalance Valves
A counterbalance valve provides a positive lock against
hydraulic flow or leakage until it is opened by pressure
from a control valve.
Counterbalance holding valves are used with the follow-
ing cylinders.
Lift cylinder
Articulating arm cylinder
Platform tilt cylinder
Counterbalance valves assure the actuator will maintain
its position if there is hydraulic line failure.
Removal
Before removing a counterbalance valve, the actuator
must be unloaded. The following steps describe how to
remove a counterbalance valve.
1. Position the unit on a level surface, apply the parking
brake and chock the wheels. Engage the hydraulic
system and properly set the outriggers, if so equipped.
Securely stow the boom and articulating arm.
Section 8 Troubleshooting, Testing, and Adjustments 67
2. Disengage the hydraulic system and turn off the
engine. Shift the lower control handle for the function
until the cylinder can be rocked by hand. For the
leveling system counterbalance valves, shift the plat-
form tilt control handle in both directions several
times.
3. Locate the plugs in the extend and retract test ports
at the base end of the cylinder or counterbalance
valve block. Use an Allen wrench to slowly unscrew
the test plugs. If the cylinder is under pressure and
the plugs are unscrewed quickly, hydraulic oil may
spray out of the test ports.
4. Slowly unscrew the cartridge from its housing to
allow the pressure to bleed off before the cartridge is
fully unscrewed from the cavity.
Testing
There are three methods for testing counterbalance valves.
The preferred method requires a test block.
With a Test Block
A test block and instruction sheet for 1
1
/8 and
7
/8 hex
cartridges is available from Altec (refer to Service Tools
and Supplies in the Appendix).
Place the counterbalance valve in the appropriate test
block. Connect a port-a-power or other hydraulic pres-
sure source to the valve. Apply pressure to test the check
valve, relief valve and pilot operation of the valve.
Figure 8.7 Counterbalance Valve Test Block
Switching Valve Cartridges
If a test block is not available, the counterbalance valves
used with the lift and articulating arm cylinders may be
tested for malfunction using the method described below.
1. Position the unit on a level surface, apply the parking
brake and chock the wheels. Engage the hydraulic
system and properly set the outriggers, if so equipped.
Securely stow the boom and articulating arm.
2. Disengage the hydraulic system and turn off the
engine. Position the control selector in the Lower
position. Remove the hydraulic load from the valves.
This can be done by shifting the lower control handle
in both directions until the cylinder can be rocked by
hand.
3. Locate the plugs in the extend and retract test ports
at the base end of the cylinder. Use an Allen wrench
to slowly unscrew the test plugs. Do not unscrew the
plugs quickly. If the cylinder is under pressure and
the plugs are unscrewed quickly, hydraulic oil may
spray out of the test ports.
4. Switch the position of the two valve cartridges.
5. If the problem moves to the other location, replace the
valve. If the problem does not move, the counterbal-
ance valve is not the cause of the malfunction.
Loading the Function
1. Position the unit on a level surface, apply the parking
brake and chock the wheels. Engage the hydraulic
system and properly set the outriggers, if so equipped.
Load the function protected by the counterbalance
valve.
2. Disengage the hydraulic system and turn off the
engine.
3. Place the control selector handle in the Lower posi-
tion.
4. Move the lower control handle for the function to
connect the function to tank. If the function moves,
the counterbalance valve is leaking and must be
replaced.
Adjustment
Counterbalance valves are set to relieve pressure at
different settings. The counterbalance valves used in the
lift cylinder are set to relieve pressure at 3,000 psi. The
leveling system cylinders are set to relieve pressure at
2,000 psi. Counterbalance valves should not be adjusted
in the field. The only exception is adjusting the counter-
balance valves for emergency boom lowering as de-
scribed in the Operators Manual. If the setting on a
counterbalance valve has been changed, the cartridge
must be removed and adjusted with a test block or
replaced.
Danger
All counterbalance valves that have had the relief
setting changed must be replaced or reset to the
proper setting using an Altec test block before the
unit is operated.
Test Block
Counterbalance
Valve Cartridge
Lock Nut
Adjusting
Screw
68 Section 8 Troubleshooting, Testing, and Adjustments
Caution
Do not attempt to adjust a counterbalance valve
without a test block. Using a test block and pressure
gauge is the only accurate way to determine that the
proper setting has been obtained.
Adjust the relief function by loosening the jam nut. Turn
the adjusting screw counterclockwise to increase the
setting and clockwise to decrease the setting.
Mechanical System
Rotation Gearbox
The rotation pinion can be adjusted to mesh properly with
the rotation bearing. Proper adjustment minimizes back-
lash between the pinion and rotation bearing gear teeth.
Adjustment is accomplished with the eccentric ring and
eccentric ring lock.
Excessive backlash will appear as excessive side-to-
side boom movement when the rotation function is
stopped. Adjustment of the backlash may be necessary
to compensate for wear after extended operation. It is
also necessary if a new rotation gearbox and/or rotation
bearing is installed.
Use the following procedure to check and adjust the mesh
between the rotation pinion and the rotation bearing.
Adjustment
1. Position the unit on a level surface, apply the parking
brake and chock the wheels. Engage the hydraulic
system and properly set the outriggers, if so equipped.
Warning
Hands and fingers must be kept off the pinion and
rotation bearing gear teeth to avoid serious injury.
Caution
Use extreme caution when access covers have been
removed to service the unit. Pinch points and shear
points may exist between moving parts. Replace the
access covers immediately after servicing.
2. Remove the pinion cover under the turntable base
plate.
3. If necessary, rotate the turntable to the position that
has the least amount of movement between the
rotation pinion and the rotation bearing. This position
is normally the high tooth location (refer to Figure
8.8). On a new rotation bearing, it is painted blue or
yellow. Disengage the hydraulic system and turn off
the engine.
Figure 8.8 Rotation Bearing High Tooth Location
4. With another person rocking the boom tip back and
forth, observe the movement of the pinion. If side-to-
side movement between the pinion and rotation gear
teeth occurs at the point of gear mesh, the mesh
between the pinion and rotation bearing is not prop-
erly adjusted. Do not confuse backlash with slight
lost motion within the rotation gearbox. Internal gear-
box backlash will cause the pinion to rotate back and
forth slightly. This cannot be reduced externally. If
adjustment is necessary to bring the pinion into
closer mesh with the rotation bearing, continue with
this procedure.
Caution
Eye protection must be worn at all times to prevent
particles of dirt, metal or hydraulic oil from entering
the eyes.
5. Start the engine, engage the hydraulic system and
rotate the turntable to a position where the eccentric
ring lock can be easily removed. The ring lock (refer
to Figure 8.9) is located on top of the turntable base
plate next to the rotation pinion. Disengage the hy-
draulic system and turn off the engine. Remove the
nut, cap screw and lock washer retaining the eccen-
tric ring lock. Remove the eccentric ring lock.
Figure 8.9 Eccentric Ring
Eccentric
Ring Lock Eccentric
Ring
X
X Rotation Bearing
High Tooth Location
Rotation
Gearbox Location
Section 8 Troubleshooting, Testing, and Adjustments 69
6. Start the engine, engage the hydraulic system and
rotate the turntable back to the high tooth location.
Disengage the hydraulic system and turn off the
engine.
7. Loosen, but do not remove, the four cap screws that
mount the rotation gearbox to the turntable base
plate. If installing a new gearbox, install the washer
with the rounded edge of the washer hole toward the
cap screw head. Start the cap screws and washers in
the gearbox mounting holes.
8. The eccentric ring is located on top of the turntable
base plate, under the gearbox. Since the bore of the
eccentric ring is
1
/16 off center from the outside
diameter of the ring, rotating the ring will move the
gearbox and pinion toward or away from the rotation
bearing. The gearbox mounting holes are
1
/8 over-
size to accommodate this movement.
Engage a suitable bar or drift pin, preferably of a soft
material such as brass, in a drive slot of the eccentric
ring. Rotate the eccentric ring using light blows from
a hammer against the bar or drift pin. Should the gear
mesh become looser, the ring must be turned in the
opposite direction. Rotate the eccentric ring until the
pinion bottoms out in the rotation gear teeth. At this
point, the ring will stop rotating. Do not use excessive
force to drive the eccentric ring past this point.
9. Start the engine, engage the hydraulic system and
rotate the turntable back to the position where the
eccentric ring lock was removed. Disengage the
hydraulic system and turn off the engine. Align the
lock to the eccentric ring so one of the holes lines up
with the hole in the turntable plate. It may be neces-
sary to rotate the eccentric ring slightly to loosen the
adjustment to install the lock. Install the cap screw
through the eccentric ring lock, lock washer and
turntable plate. Install the nut and torque it to the
proper value.
10. Tighten the gearbox mounting cap screws firmly.
Rotate the turntable slowly through at least two
revolutions. If it rotates smoothly, go to step 11. If
rotation binds or hesitates in any position, the back-
lash may have been set too tight. Loosen the gearbox
mounting cap screws. Rotate the eccentric ring to
loosen the adjustment one locking increment (refer to
step 8). Repeat step 9.
11. Torque each gearbox mounting cap screw to 115
foot-pounds.
12. If a new gearbox was installed, or if the rotation teeth
are dry, apply an open face gear lubricant as recom-
mended in the Lubrication Chart and Diagram in
Section 4.
13. Install the pinion cover.
Upper Controls Interlock Trigger
The single handle control uses an interlock linkage to
prevent unintentional boom movement resulting from
accidental contact with the control.
When the interlock trigger on the bottom of the control
handle is engaged, the single handle control can be
operated. Squeezing the trigger causes a linkage inside
the single handle control assembly to manually shift the
blocking section of the upper control valve. When the
blocking section is shifted, it allows hydraulic oil flow to
the boom function spools of the upper control valve.
When the control is not operated, the blocking section of
the upper control valve is in the closed position.
The trigger on the single handle control should show
slightly when it is fully engaged into the handle. The
trigger should not bottom out or completely disappear into
the handle, rather the spool should bottom out, stopping
trigger movement.
Adjust the interlock connecting linkage to insure that the
interlock spool fully shifts when the trigger is actuated. If
the spool is not being fully shifted, or if the spool is not
completely released when the trigger is released, adjust
the interlock linkage using the following procedure.
Adjustment
1. Remove the boot cover and the cap.
2. To lengthen or shorten the linkage, complete the
following steps.
a. If the linkage needs to be lengthened, remove the
self-locking nut holding the ball joint assembly
(refer to Figure 8.10) to the link arm. Pull the
assembly out of the link arm. Loosen the jam nut
that holds the ball joint assembly in place. Turn the
assembly counterclockwise to lengthen the link-
age. Tighten the jam nut.
b. If the linkage needs to be shortened, remove the
self-locking nut holding the ball joint assembly
(refer to Figure 8.10) to the link arm. Pull the
assembly out of the link arm. Loosen one of the
jam nuts on one end of the separator. Turn the
threaded rod into the separator. Tighten the jam
nut against the separator.
70 Section 8 Troubleshooting, Testing, and Adjustments
Figure 8.10 Upper Control Assembly
3. Connect the ball joint assembly to the link arm and
replace the self-locking nut.
4. Check the linkage length for proper adjustment while
engaging the interlock trigger.
5. Repeat steps 2 through 4 if necessary.
6. After the adjustment is made, move the single handle
control without engaging the interlock trigger to check
that movement of the handle does not open the
interlock valve. Readjust if necessary.
7. Remove the self-locking nut and apply anaerobic
retaining compound. Replace the self-locking nut.
8. Replace the boot cover and the cap.
Electrical System
A basic understanding of electrical components and
system failures will aid in troubleshooting the units elec-
trical system.
Failure Identification
A short circuit, open circuit, or component failure can
cause the electrical system to operate improperly.
Caution
Even with low voltage vehicle electrical systems,
severe arcing can occur. Use caution when working
with any electrical device.
Short Circuit
High current flow through a short circuit will usually
interrupt one or more circuit breakers or fuses.
Short circuits can be caused by pinched wires, worn
insulation, a loose connection touching a ground, or a
defective component.
To find the location of a short circuit, first analyze the
location of the circuit breaker or fuse that is opening and
what is operated when it opens.
It may be necessary to progressively isolate the location
of a short by disconnecting circuits until the short disap-
pears. A short can also be detected by turning off power
to the unit and using an ohmmeter to check the resistance
to ground at connections and terminals that would have
a voltage applied to them during normal operation. If a
zero resistance is found between ground and one of
these locations, it indicates a short circuit. This checking
procedure should begin closest to the power source.
Open Circuit
An open circuit prevents normal current flow through
components of the electrical system. Characteristics of
open circuits are infinitely high resistance, resulting in
zero current. An open circuit may be caused by a wire
being pulled from a connection, a broken wire, corrosion,
or poor contact where an electrical component is grounded
to the unit.
Begin the search for an open circuit at the point closest to
the component that is not operating. Trace the wiring from
the component and look for a broken connection, corro-
sion or other visible damage to the cable or wires. If the
component is grounded to the unit structure, make sure
the ground connection is good. If the wiring looks good
and the ground contact is good, disconnect the leads to
the component and check the resistance reading through
the component with an ohmmeter. A very high or infinite
resistance indicates an open circuit.
Component Failure
A component malfunction is sometimes the most difficult
problem to locate. It may appear as an open or a short
circuit, or the component may not perform to its design
capacity. Determine what functions are affected and what
components in the system could be the cause of the
problem. If no open or short circuits can be located, and
the proper voltage is being applied to the components
electrical connections, the problem may be hydraulic or
mechanical.
Make every effort to locate the problem component
before installing new parts. Trial and error component
replacement to isolate the problem can be very costly.
Link Arm
Ball Joint
Assembly
Separator
Section 8 Troubleshooting, Testing, and Adjustments 71
Circuit Protection
Self-resetting thermal circuit breakers are used in the
electrical system to protect wiring and components from
electrical overload in the case of a short circuit or other
electrical fault. These circuit breakers normally reset
within a few minutes if the electrical overload condition
is removed.
Attention
If a circuit breaker trips repeatedly, determine the
cause of the problem and correct it. If the problem is
not corrected, serious damage to the electrical sys-
tem could result.
A 20 amp thermal circuit breaker is used to protect the
ignition splice in the remote start/stop circuit. The wire
from the ignition switch to the truck/machine selector has
a five amp thermal circuit breaker in it.
Remote Start/Stop Control Box
The remote start/stop box (refer to Figure 8.11) serves as
the central connection point between the remote start/
stop system and the vehicles electrical system. With
suitable electrical controls for the engine and starter, the
engine may be stopped or started from the platform. If the
unit is equipped with the start/stop system and the DC
pump, the same controls will operate the DC pump.
Caution
To prevent electrical shock, place the ignition switch
off to remove power from the control box before
servicing.
The control box is equipped with three light emitting
diodes (LEDs) to indicate its operational status. They are
located on the side of the box between the chassis wiring
connections. A diagnostics placard is located next to the
connectors to indicate the function of the LEDs.
When the Start/Stop In and Throttle In activity LEDs are
illuminated, they indicate that voltage is present at their
respective control box terminals. The diagnostics LED
only illuminates when an error has been detected. This
LED also indicates the type of error detected using a
series of coded blinks separated by longer pauses.
Refer to Figure 8.11 for a description of the four different
error codes displayed. Use the Wiring Diagrams in the
Appendix to isolate the problem or identify the defective
component.
Engine Throttle Control
To troubleshoot the throttle circuit, a jumper wire and a
voltmeter will be needed. Refer to Figure 8.12 for bistable
and power relay wiring and pin identification.
Figure 8.11 Remote Start/Stop Control Box
Number of Blinks Faulty Circuit
1 Cold side of vehicle ignition
2 Vehicles start relay
3 Two-speed throttle
4 DC pump
LED Indications
72 Section 8 Troubleshooting, Testing, and Adjustments
Caution
Even with low voltage vehicle electrical systems,
severe arcing can occur. Use caution when working
with any electrical device.
Testing
The truck/machine selector must be in the Machine
position to troubleshoot the bistable relay. Use a voltme-
ter to test terminals 2 and 4 to be sure the appropriate
vehicle voltage is present at the bistable relay. If there is
no voltage reading at terminals 2 and 4, the problem may
be in the remote engine start/stop control box, its wiring,
or other components that supply electrical power to it.
Use a voltmeter to test the power relay terminal 30 to be
sure the appropriate vehicle current flow is present. The
vehicle voltage must be at the appropriate bistable and
power relay terminals and all ground contacts must be
making good contact to effectively troubleshoot the throttle
control.
Bistable Relay
If there is a voltage reading at the bistable relay terminals
2 and 4, use a jumper wire to momentarily connect a good
ground source and terminal 1. This will bypass the air
switch in the pedestal. If the engine then throttles up or
down, the relay is operating properly. The problem is
most likely the air switch or the wires that normally ground
terminal 1.
If grounding terminal 1 does not cause the throttle to
operate, the problem is most likely the bistable relay
microswitch, the power relay or the throttle control sole-
noid. To further test the bistable relay, use a voltmeter to
test the voltage out of terminal 3. While watching the
voltmeter, have a partner momentarily ground terminal 1
as previously explained. If the voltmeter reading is the
same as the vehicle voltage, the problem is not the
bistable relay.
Power Relay
The power relay is an automatic switch with contacts that
can be closed or opened by low amp current in the relay
coil. The power relay supplies a higher amperage current
than that from the start/stop module, to activate the
throttle control solenoid.
Caution
Even with low voltage vehicle electrical systems,
severe arcing can occur. Use caution when working
with any electrical device.
To test the relay switch, place a jumper wire between the
relay terminals 30 and 87. This will bypass the switch and
should cause the throttle control solenoid to operate. If it
does not, the throttle solenoid is most likely defective.
Throttle Control Solenoid
The throttle control solenoid can be tested by removing
the wires and connecting the (-) terminal to ground and
the (+) terminal to a power source comparable to that of
the vehicle. When the wires are momentarily connected
to ground and the comparable power source, the engine
should either throttle up or down. If the engine throttle
does not then operate, the throttle control solenoid is the
defective component.
Outrigger Interlock System
If the outrigger interlock system is defective, the outrigger
interlock valve will not close when the outriggers are
lowered. This will cause the functions above rotation to be
inoperable. If this problem occurs, check the adjustment
of the outrigger interlock switches. If this does not correct
the problem, perform the following test procedure.
Figure 8.12 Engine Throttle Relay Wiring Identification
Section 8 Troubleshooting, Testing, and Adjustments 73
Testing
The following procedure will determine if the defective
component is in the electrical system or if it is the outrigger
interlock valve.
1. Locate the outrigger interlock valve in the pressure
line between the pump and the rotary joint. There are
two wires connected to the outrigger interlock valve.
One is the ground wire. The other wire provides
electrical power. Locate the electrical wire providing
the power to the solenoid. Use a jumper wire to
connect this wire to the vehicle electrical system.
2. Start the engine and engage the hydraulic system.
Attempt to operate a boom function. If the function
operates, go to step 3. If the function does not
operate, follow steps 4 through 8.
3. Disengage the hydraulic system and turn off the
engine. Remove the jumper wire. If the boom function
was operational in step 2, the defective component is
in the electrical system. Troubleshoot the portion of
the electrical system from the electrical wire con-
nected to the solenoid to the wires connected to the
remote start/stop control box located in the vehicle
cab. Also check the outrigger interlock electrical
switches and the wiring connected to these switches.
4. Remove the jumper wire. If all the functions above
rotation are not operational in step 2, the source of
the problem is most likely a defective outrigger inter-
lock valve cartridge. It could also be a defective
solenoid coil or ground connection. Follow steps 5
through 7 to determine if the cartridge is the source of
the problem.
5. Disengage the hydraulic system and turn off the
engine. Move the outrigger control handles in each
direction several times.
Caution
Failure to remove pressure from a hydraulic circuit
will cause oil to spray out under pressure as the
connection is loosened. Hydraulic oil escaping un-
der pressure can have enough force to inject oil into
the flesh.
In case of injury by escaping hydraulic oil, seek
medical attention at once. Serious infection or reac-
tion can result if medical treatment is not given
immediately.
Keep the unit and work areas clean. Spilled hydraulic
oil creates slick surfaces and can cause personnel to
slip and/or fall.
6. The outrigger interlock valve must be hydraulically
bypassed. To do this, disconnect the hydraulic lines
connected to the outrigger interlock valve. Use an
appropriate fitting to connect the hydraulic lines.
7. Start the engine and engage the hydraulic system.
Attempt to operate a function above rotation. If the
function operates, the outrigger interlock valve car-
tridge, ground wire or solenoid coil is the source of the
problem. If the function does not operate, the outrigger
interlock valve is not the problem.
8. Disengage the hydraulic system and turn off the
engine. Release the pressure from the outrigger
circuit by moving the outrigger control handles in
both directions several times. Disconnect the hy-
draulic hoses and connect them to the outrigger
interlock valve.
Electrical Switch Adjustment
The interlock switches are not adjustable. The proximity
switches are equipped with two LED lights. The green
light indicates there is power to the switch and the yellow
light indicates the leg is extended. Depending upon the
unit, the lights may be visible through the hole in the cover
or the cover and switch may have to be removed to
access the lights. If the assembly is removed to access
the lights, the yellow light will be out. Move the assembly
to within 0.75 inches of a flat metal object. If the yellow
light comes on, the switch is working properly.
74 Section 8 Troubleshooting, Testing, and Adjustments
Section 9 Dielectric, Structural, and Stability Testing 75
Section 9 Dielectric, Structural, and Stability Testing
This unit has been factory tested and, at the time of
delivery, all applicable ANSI requirements were met or
exceeded. Any time an alteration is made that may affect
the units stability or dielectric insulation, testing must be
performed to confirm that the unit operates safely and in
compliance with all governing organizations.
Dielectric
This unit is fully tested to a rating listed on the serial
number placard at the time of delivery. The platform
liner, if furnished, will carry the certification test of the
liner manufacturer.
Dielectric tests that can be performed only after installa-
tion are the responsibility of the installer, whether the
installer is a dealer, owner or user. After the completed
unit is in the possession of the owner or user, subsequent
testing becomes the responsibility of the owner or user.
Dielectric testing procedures are covered in ANSI publi-
cations. Personnel responsible for dielectric testing of
insulated units are referred to these publications and
should be thoroughly familiar with them in their entirety.
The importance of dielectric testing cannot be overem-
phasized. Provide for periodic inspection and dielectric
testing as recommended in the Preventive Maintenance
and Inspection Checklist. This recommendation is not
intended to alter or change more frequent inspection or
testing of other components as defined in ANSI publica-
tions.
In addition to regular tests, conduct tests any time the
dielectric strength of the insulating components may be
in doubt.
If it is necessary to change or replace any component
which is part of the units insulation, including booms, tool
lines, control lines, etc., a dielectric test must be per-
formed. If there is any doubt about the dielectric strength
of the hydraulic oil, perform a dielectric test.
A dielectric test form can be found in the Appendix. Use
the test form for the rating listed on the serial number
placard. Thoroughly document all tests and maintain
records in a permanent file.
Insulated Single Handle Control
This unit may be equipped with an insulated single handle
control(s). This control, which is green in color, may offer
limited secondary dielectric protection. To maintain this
limited secondary protection it must be kept clean, dry,
and in good condition with periodic tests of its dielectric
properties. Never rely on the insulating feature of the
single handle control as a substitute for your primary
protection from electrical contact.
In addition to regular tests, conduct a test any time any
component which is part of the controls insulation has
been replaced. A dielectric test form can be found in the
Appendix. Complete the test, document the results, and
maintain the test in a permanent file.
Structural
After replacing any major component, perform a 1
1
/2 to 1
structural test to verify structural soundness before put-
ting the unit back into service.
Warning
Proper procedures must be followed to assure that
stability of the unit is maintained while performing a
structural test. This test will load the unit to the ANSI
requirement for normal stability. Serious injury and/
or property damage could result if proper procedures
are not followed. Use extreme caution when perform-
ing a structural test.
Use the following procedure to perform a structural test.
1. The area where the test is performed should be level
and free from any overhead obstructions. Position
the unit in the test area so that the platform may be
accessed by a forklift to place the test weight.
2. Apply the parking brake and chock the wheels.
Engage the hydraulic system and properly set the
outriggers, if so equipped.
3. The position of the booms for the test is dependent
upon the component(s) that have been replaced. If
the lift cylinder is replaced, position the unit so the
boom is lowered below horizontal. If a component of
the articulating arm and/or turntable is replaced,
perform a test with the articulating arm fully raised
and a test with the articulating arm fully lowered.
During both of these tests, position the boom horizon-
tal. If any other components have been replaced,
position the unit so the boom is horizontal.
4. Calculate the test weight by multiplying 1.5 by the
platform capacity shown on the serial number plac-
ard.
Attention
Take care to apply a suitable material for the weight
to prevent damaging the platform or liner during the
test. Concrete blocks or bags of sand are some easily
obtained materials that can be handled and accu-
rately weighed.
5. Place a sling around the platform to suspend a weight
directly under its center line. Use a forklift to slowly
76 Section 9 Dielectric, Structural, and Stability Testing
apply the weight. If the test is being performed with
the boom below horizontal, the test weight may be
placed in the platform without the use of a lifting
device.
If the unit is equipped with a platform liner, the weight
of the liner must be deducted from the test weight
figure.
6. Apply the test weight for five minutes. During that
time, do not operate any function of the unit. This is
a static test only.
7. Remove the weight from the platform. Inspect the unit
for structural soundness if any cracking or popping
was heard during the test.
8. Operate the unit through its full range of movement
before returning it to service.
Stability
Although stability testing is not required on a frequent or
periodic basis, a typical stability test form can be found in
the Appendix.
Due to the possible affect on stability, this unit and/or
vehicle should never be altered or modified without the
specific written approval from Altec Industries, Inc. Com-
ponent replacement with original equipment parts will not
affect the stability of this unit.
Appendix
1 Appendix Glossary
Glossary
2nd stage boom see intermediate boom.
3rd stage boom see upper boom.
A-frame outrigger an extendible outrigger having two diagonal
members which are connected at the top and joined near the midsec-
tion by a horizontal cross piece. Resembles a broad based A.
above rotation in reference to a position on or about a unit that is
vertically above the rotation bearing.
absolute a measure having as its zero point or base the complete
absence of the item being measured.
absolute pressure a pressure scale with the zero point at a perfect
vacuum.
accumulator a container used to store fluid under pressure as a
source of hydraulic power or as a means of dampening pressure
surges.
actuator a device for converting hydraulic energy into mechanical
energy, such as a motor or cylinder.
adapter a device used to connect two parts of different type or
diameter.
adjusting stud a component of a cable drive system that is threaded
on both ends and has a hex adjusting flat in the center. It secures the
drive cable to the cylinder rod and can be used to adjust the tension of
the drive cable.
aeration the entrapment of air in hydraulic fluid. Excessive aeration
may cause the fluid to appear milky and components to operate
erratically because of the compressibility of the air trapped in the fluid.
aerial control valve the control valve on the turntable of an elevator
unit which operates the movement functions of the aerial device.
aerial device a vehicle-mounted device with a boom assembly
which is extendible, articulating, or both, which is designed and used to
position personnel. The device may also be used to handle material, if
designed and equipped for that purpose.
Allen wrench a six-sided wrench that fits into the hex socket of a cap
screw or set screw.
American National Standards Institute (ANSI) a self-governing
body of professionals whose primary objective is to prevent accidents
by establishing requirements for design, manufacture, maintenance,
performance, use and training for manufactured goods including aerial
devices and digger derricks.
anaerobic adhesive a bonding agent or adhesive that cures in the
absence of air.
analog signal an electrical signal that communicates information by
the continuous variation of voltage or current level within a defined
range, in proportion to an input parameter such as pressure or control
lever position.
annular area a ring shaped area. Usually refers to the piston area
minus the cross-sectional area of the rod of a hydraulic cylinder.
ANSI see American National Standards Institute.
antirotation fork a two-pronged retainer which is fastened to the
inside of the turntable and used to prevent movement of the rotary joint
outer housing.
antifoam additive an agent added to hydraulic fluid to inhibit air
bubbles from forming and collecting together on the surface of the fluid.
antiwear additive an agent added to hydraulic fluid to improve the
ability of the fluid to prevent wear on internal moving parts in the
hydraulic system.
arbor bar the shaft or spindle that is used to support a cable reel.
arbor bar collar a cylindrical device that is used to secure a cable
reel on an arbor bar.
arm 1: the primary load-carrying structure of an articulating arm. 2:
the primary load-carrying structure of a single elevator. 3: the articulat-
ing structure which supports the arbor bar for reel lifting.
arm cylinder the hydraulic cylinder that moves the arm of a single
elevator up and down.
articulating arm a system located between the turntable and lower
boom of an aerial device which is used for lifting the boom assembly to
increase the platform working height. This system includes the arm,
link(s), riser and articulating arm cylinder.
articulating arm cylinder the hydraulic cylinder that moves an
articulating arm up and down.
articulating-boom aerial device an aerial device with two or more
boom sections that are connected at joint(s) which allow one boom to
pivot with respect to the adjacent boom.
ASTM American Society for Testing and Materials.
atmosphere (one) a pressure measure equal to 14.7 psi.
atmospheric pressure pressure on all objects in the atmosphere
because of the weight of the surrounding air. At sea level, about 14.7
psi absolute.
atmospheric vents a vacuum prevention device designed to allow
air to enter a hydraulic line that has encountered an internal pressure
below that of the atmosphere (vacuum).
attention information that must be followed to reduce the likelihood
of property damage. Property damage could include structural damage
to the unit, component failure, or damage to nearby property.
auger the hole boring tool of the digger, consisting of a hollow tube
with hardened teeth attached at one end to dig into and break up soil
and/or rock as the auger is rotated. Several turns of flighting are welded
to the tube to carry the loose material away from the teeth.
auger extension shaft a shaft which fits into the auger tube to
connect the digger output shaft to the auger.
auger rotation hydraulic system the hydrostatic system on a
pressure digger which operates the auger transmission gearbox.
auger stow bracket the bracket on a digger derrick lower boom
which stores the digger and auger assembly when it is not in use.
auger stow switch a limit switch which is actuated by the auger to
shut off digger operation in the stowing direction when the auger
reaches its fully stowed position in the auger stow bracket.
auger transmission gearbox the gearbox mounted on the mast
weldment of a pressure digger that is used to rotate the kelly bar.
auger tube the hollow tube at the centerline of an auger to which the
auger flighting is welded.
auger windup sling the cable or strap attached to the auger stow
bracket which is used to store the digger and auger.
auxiliary engine a separately mounted engine that is used to
provide power for the units hydraulic system.
auxiliary hydraulic system the secondary hydraulic system of a
pressure digger that operates all the hydraulic functions except auger
rotation.
AWS American Welding Society.
back pressure pressure existing in the discharge flow from an
actuator or hydraulic system. It adds to the pressure required to operate
an actuator under a given load.
backlash the clearance at the tooth contact point between the
adjacent gear teeth of two or more meshing gears.
baffle a device, usually a plate, installed in a reservoir to separate
the return line inlet from the suction line outlet.
band of arrows decals used on extendible and articulating upper
booms to define the boom tip area and the insulated portions of the
upper boom and lower boom insert.
bare-hand work a technique of performing live line maintenance on
energized conductors and equipment whereby one or more authorized
persons work directly on an energized part after having been raised and
bonded to the energized conductors or equipment.
barrel the hollow body of a hydraulic cylinder into which the piston
and rod are assembled.
base boom see lower boom.
base end 1: the closed end of a hydraulic cylinder, opposite from the
end that the rod extends from. 2: the end of an extendible boom that is
closest to the turntable. 3: the end of an articulating boom that remains
positioned closest to the turntable when the boom is fully unfolded.
basket see platform.
battery charger a device used to restore the electrical charge in a
battery.
bearing a machine part that is installed between two adjacent
machine parts to allow those parts to rotate or slide with respect to each
other. Commonly used to decrease friction or wear on components.
behind cab mount a pedestal mounting position located immedi-
ately behind the vehicle cab on the longitudinal centerline of the
chassis.
3-05
2 Appendix Glossary
below rotation in reference to a position on or about a unit that is
vertically below the rotation bearing.
below rotation controls controls that are located on the chassis,
used for operating some or all of the functions of the unit.
bleed-off to reduce the trapped pressure in a hydraulic system, line,
or component, to a zero state by allowing fluid to escape under
controlled conditions through a valve or outlet.
blocking valve a two-position, two-way valve that blocks pump flow
to a hydraulic circuit or system when it is not actuated, and opens to
allow fluid when actuated.
body a structure containing compartments for storage of tools,
materials, and/or other payload which is installed on a vehicle frame or
subbase.
body belt a component in a personal fall protection system consist-
ing of a strap which is secured about the waist of a person, with a means
for attaching it to a lanyard. (As of January 1, 1998, the use of a body
belt for personal fall protection is prohibited by OSHA.)
body harness a component in a personal fall protection system
consisting of an assembly of straps which are secured about the waist,
chest, shoulders, and legs of a person, with a means for attaching the
assembly to a lanyard.
bolt a cylindrical fastener with external screw threads at one end and
a head configuration such hexagonal, square, or round at the other end,
which conforms to the dimensional and material specifications pub-
lished for bolts. (These specifications are different from those for cap
screws.)
boom a movable, mechanical structure that is used to support a
platform, material handling components and/or other attachments on a
unit.
boom angle indicator a device which indicates the angle between
the boom centerline and a horizontal plane.
boom flares steel structures mounted on the boom tip of a digger
derrick which are used to protect the boom tip from loads and support
poles carried on the winch line.
boom functions valve the control valve on a digger derrick that
directs hydraulic pressure and flow to the boom functions (boom,
rotation, intermediate boom, upper boom) hydraulic circuits.
boom pin the horizontal pin that connects the lower boom to the
turntable or riser.
boom rest the structural member attached to the chassis or body to
support the lower boom in the travel or rest position.
boom stow switch a limit switch which is actuated to shut off the
boom lower function when the boom reaches its stowed position in the
boom rest.
boom stow valve a mechanically actuated hydraulic valve that limits
the downward pressure of a boom as it is placed in its rest.
boom tip the area at the end of an extendible or articulating upper
boom that is farthest from the turntable when the boom assembly is
extended or unfolded. This area includes all components at the end of
the boom above the band of arrows.
boom tip idler sheave the upper sheave in a digger derrick upper
boom tip containing two sheaves, which carries the winch line as it
travels from the winch to the lower sheave (boom tip sheave).
boom tip pin a horizontal pin at the upper boom tip. Platform
mounting bracket(s) and material handling devices are fastened to this
pin.
boom tip sheave 1: the sheave in a digger derrick upper boom tip
containing only one sheave, which carries the winch line as it travels
from the winch to the load. 2: the lower sheave in a digger derrick upper
boom tip containing two sheaves, which carries the winch line as it
travels from the upper sheave (boom tip idler sheave) to the load.
boom tip tools see upper tool circuit.
boom tip winch a winch located at the tip of a boom.
bore the inside diameter of a pipe, tube, cylinder barrel, or cylindrical
hole in any of various other components.
boss protruding material on a part which adds strength, facilitates
assembly, provides for fastenings, etc.
brake a device used to slow or stop the rotation or movement of a
component such as a rotation gearbox, winch, gravity leveled platform,
or arbor bar.
breather a device that permits air to move in and out of a container
or component to maintain atmospheric pressure.
bridge mount a unit mounting configuration in which the turntable
is mounted on a pedestal structure which forms a bridge over the cargo
area.
broadband a high speed telecommunication system utilizing fiber
optic and/or coaxial cable.
bucket see platform.
buckeye see forged pin retainer.
bullwheel assembly an assembly of steel rollers used as a portion
of a cable stringing system.
burst pressure the minimum internal pressure that will cause a
hose, tube, cylinder, or other hydraulic or pneumatic component to
rupture or split open.
button head a type of cap screw with a rounded head containing a
socket into which a tool can be inserted to turn the cap screw.
bypass a secondary passage for fluid flow.
bypass valve a hydraulic valve that allows for an alternate passage
for fluid flow.
cable 1: a wire or wire rope by which force is exerted to control or
operate a mechanism. 2: an assembly of two or more electrical
conductors or optical fibers laid up together, usually by being twisted
around a central axis and/or by being enclosed within an outer covering.
cable chute a device used to guide cable into strand for lashing the
cable to the strand when placing cable. A trolley allows the device to ride
on the strand as cable is fed through the chute.
cable drive system an upper boom drive mechanism which utilizes
cables to produce upper boom movement.
cable guide a bracket which is mounted on a boom to guide the
winch line.
cable keeper 1: a mechanical device attached to a cable that is used
to maintain the position of the cable on a sheave. 2: a component used
to prevent a cable or winch line from coming off a sheave.
cable lasher a mechanical device which wraps lashing wire in a
spiral configuration around a length of suspension strand and adjacent
communication cable.
cable lug a mechanical device attached to a cable that is used to
maintain the position of the cable on a sheave.
cable placer a type of aerial device which contains a cable stringing
system and associated components for use in erecting overhead
communication cable.
cable slug the steel end fitting at each end of the drive cable in an
upper boom drive system. One end is attached to the cylinder rod and
the other is secured in a pocket on the elbow sheave.
cable stringing system the group of steel rollers, bullwheel assem-
blies, strand sheave assemblies and fairlead which directs communi-
cation cable or suspension strand from the reel it is stored on to the
working position of the operator.
calibrate to check, adjust, or determine by measurement in compari-
son with a standard, the proper value of each scale reading or setting
on a meter or other device.
caliper a measuring instrument with two legs or jaws that can be
adjusted to determine the distance between two surfaces.
cam a rotating or sliding piece that imparts motion to a roller moving
against its edge or to a pin free to move in a groove on its face or that
receives motion from such a roller or pin.
candling a method of inspecting filament wound fiberglass booms
by slowly passing a light through the inside of the boom in a darkened
area. Cracks, crazing, and other damage show up as dark spots or
shadows.
cap a device located on the hand of a reel lifter that is used to retain
the arbor bar.
cap end see base end.
cap screw a cylindrical fastener with external screw threads at one
end and a head configuration such as hexagonal, hex socket, flat
countersunk, round, or slotted at the other end, which conforms to the
dimensional and material specifications published for cap screws.
capacitive coupling the transfer of electrical energy from one circuit
to another through a dielectric gap.
3-05
3 Appendix Glossary
capacity chart a table or graph showing the load capacity, rated
capacity, or rated load capacity figures for a unit or accessory.
captive air system a closed circuit, low pressure pneumatic system
used to actuate a pressure switch by means of a manually operated air
plunger.
cartridge 1: the replaceable element of a fluid filter. 2: the
replaceable pumping unit of a vane pump, composed of the rotor, ring,
vanes and side plates. 3: A removeable hydraulic valve that is screwed
into place in a cavity in a hydraulic manifold or cylinder.
catrac see hose carrier.
caution information that indicates a potentially hazardous situation
which, if not avoided, may result in minor or moderate injury. It may also
be used to alert against unsafe practices.
cavitation the formation of gaseous voids in hydraulic fluid caused
by a low pressure condition which typically occurs when inlet starvation
prevents the pump from filling completely with fluid. The characteristic
sound of cavitation is a high pitched scream.
center mount see behind cab mount.
center of gravity the point in a component or assembly around
which its weight is evenly balanced.
centerline of rotation the vertical axis about which the turntable of
a unit rotates.
centrifugal pump a pump in which motion and force are applied to
fluid by a rotating impeller within a housing.
chain a series of identical rigid segments connected to each other
at joints which allow each segment to pivot with respect to adjacent
segments, used to transmit mechanical force.
chain extension system a mechanical system consisting of a
motor, gearbox, chains, and sprockets that is used to extend and retract
an extendible upper boom.
chain sling an inverted Y-shaped length of chain used for lifting a
strand reel with an aerial device and placing it in a strand carrier.
chamber a compartment within a hydraulic component that may
contain elements to aid in operation or control, such as a spring
chamber or drain chamber.
channel a fluid passage that has a large length dimension compared
to the dimension of the cross-section.
charge to fill an accumulator with fluid under pressure.
charge pressure the pressure, above atmospheric pressure, at
which replenishing fluid is forced into the hydraulic system.
charge pump the hydrostatic hydraulic system pump that provides
fluid at low pressure to make up for internal leakage, provides cooling
fluid flow, and tilts the hydrostatic pump swash plate.
chassis a vehicle on which a unit is mounted, such as a truck, trailer,
or all-terrain vehicle.
check valve a valve that permits flow of fluid in one direction, but not
in the reverse direction.
circuit the complete path of flow in a hydraulic or electrical system.
circuit breaker a form of electrical switch which opens (trips) to
interrupt a circuit when it senses excessive current flow that may be
caused by a short circuit, to protect wiring and components from
damage. Some types of circuit breakers reset automatically when the
excessive current discontinues and others must be reset manually.
clevis a U-shaped fastening device secured by a pin or bolt through
holes in the ends of two arms.
closed center a directional valve design in which pump output is
blocked by the valve spool(s) when the valve spool(s) is in the center
or neutral operating condition.
clutch the device on a reel lifter which allows the connection and
disconnection of the arbor bar and the driver.
coaxial cable a type of shielded cable used for conducting telecom-
munication signals, in which the signal carrier is a single wire at the core,
surrounded by a layer of insulating material, which is in turn surrounded
by a metallic, conductive layer which serves as a shield, with an overall
outer layer of insulation.
combined digger derrick and platform use the stability criteria for
a digger derrick mobile unit which indicates that the load capacity chart
and stability requirements apply to the use of the derrick for lifting of
loads with the winch line at the upper boom tip or material handling jib
tip, with the platform occupied.
come-along a device for gripping and putting tension into a length
of cable, wire, rope, or chain by means of two jaws or attaching devices
which move closer together when the operator pulls on a lever.
communication cable a copper wire, coaxial, or fiber optic cable
used for conducting telecommunication signals.
compensating link a mechanical linkage that serves as a connector
between the turntable and the upper boom drive mechanism. As the
lower boom is raised or lowered, this linkage causes the upper boom to
maintain its relative angle in relationship to the ground.
compensator a valve spool that is used to maintain a constant
pressure drop regardless of supply or load pressure.
compensator control a control for a variable displacement pump
that alters displacement in response to pressure changes in the system
as related to its adjusted pressure setting.
component a single part or self-contained assembly.
compressibility the change in volume of a unit volume of a fluid
when it is subjected to a unit change in pressure.
conductive having the ability to act as a transmitter of electricity.
Electricity will flow through metal, therefore metal is conductive.
conductive shield a device used to shield the lower test electrode
system from capacitive coupling.
conductor a wire, cable, or other body or medium that is suitable for
carrying electric current.
constant resistivity monitor device used to continuously measure
the electrical resistance of the wash water in the tank of an insulator
washer.
contaminate to render unfit or to soil by introduction of foreign or
unwanted material.
continuous rotation a rotation system in which the turntable is able
to rotate an unlimited number of revolutions about the centerline of
rotation without restriction.
control a device, such as a lever or handle, which is actuated by the
operator to regulate the direction and speed of one or more functions
of a unit.
control station a position where controls for unit operation are
located. These positions may include the platform, upper boom tip,
turntable, pedestal or vehicle tailshelf.
control valve a directional valve controlled by an operator, used to
control the motion or function of an actuator or system.
cooler a heat exchanger used to remove heat from the hydraulic
fluid.
corner mount a pedestal mounting position located behind the rear
axle(s) with the centerline of rotation located to one side of the chassis.
corona ring see gradient control device.
counterbalance valve a load holding valve that can be opened to
allow flow in the normally blocked direction by applying hydraulic
pressure to a pilot port, and which contains a relief capability to allow
flow from the blocked direction if the blocked pressure exceeds a
certain value.
cracking pressure the pressure at which a pressure actuated valve,
such as a relief valve, begins to pass fluid.
crazing a network of fine cracks on or below the fiberglass surface.
Crazing often occurs when the fiberglass is struck with a blunt object,
sometimes causing deformation and breakdown of the fiberglass resin.
crosstalk a form of interference in which one circuit or channel
receives some unintentional signal from another.
cross-ported a hydraulic path connected between the two opposite
flow paths of a hydraulic circuit that allows a route for flow between the
two paths in lieu of flow thru an actuator. To allow sensing of the
pressure in one path by a component installed in the other path.
cSt (centistoke) a metric unit of kinematic viscosity. In customary
use, equal to the kinematic viscosity of a fluid having dynamic viscosity
of one centipose and a density of one gram per cubic centimeter.
curb side the side of a vehicle which is opposite from oncoming
traffic when the vehicle is traveling forward in the normal direction in a
lane of traffic.
cushion a device built into a hydraulic cylinder that restricts the flow
of fluid at the outlet port to slow the motion of the rod as it reaches the
end of its stroke.
3-05
4 Appendix Glossary
custom option an option which is not shown on a standard order
form and which requires additional engineering work to supply.
cylinder a device that converts fluid power into linear mechanical
force and motion. It usually consists of a moveable piston and rod, or
plunger, operating within a cylindrical bore.
danger information that indicates an imminently hazardous situation
which, if not avoided, will result in death or serious injury. This signal
word is to be used in the most extreme situations.
DC pump a pump which is powered by a direct current electric motor.
dead band the area or range near the center rest position of a hand
control where the function does not respond to movement of the lever
or handle.
decal a thin sheet of flexible material which is attached to another
surface by adhesive, and is used to convey instructions, information
and warnings.
deenergize to remove electrical power from a device, as from the coil
of a solenoid valve.
delivery the volume of fluid discharged by a pump in a given time,
usually expressed in gallons per minute (gpm).
demulsibility the ability of a liquid to expel another type of liquid.
Commonly used to describe a fluids ability to cause water to separate
out rather than being held in suspension.
design voltage the maximum rated line voltage for which an aerial
device has been designed, and for which it can be qualified.
detent a device for positioning and holding one mechanical part in
relation to another so that the device can be released by force applied
to one of the parts.
diagnostic relating to the practice of investigation or analysis of the
cause or nature of a condition, situation, or problem.
diagonal brace the structural member attached near the top of a
corner mount pedestal and extending downward and forward to a point
of attachment on the subbase or vehicle frame between the pedestal
and the vehicle cab.
dial indicator a meter or gauge with a calibrated circular face and
a spring-loaded plunger, used as a measuring device.
diegrinder a small, hand held, rotary grinding tool.
dielectric nonconductive to electrical current.
differential cylinder any cylinder that has two opposed piston areas
that are not equal.
digger the mechanism which drives the auger.
digger bail a tubular housing attached to the gearbox portion of a
digger, which surrounds the motor and provides an attachment point to
the digger link.
digger derrick a multipurpose, vehicle-mounted device with an
extendible boom which may accommodate components that dig cylin-
drical holes, set utility poles, and position materials, apparatus, and/or
personnel.
digger derrick use the stability criteria for a digger derrick mobile
unit which indicates that the load capacity chart and stability require-
ments apply to the use of the derrick for lifting of loads with the winch
line at the upper boom tip or material handling jib tip, with the platform
stowed or removed, if so equipped.
digger hanger bracket the structural member on a digger derrick
which supports the digger link on the extendible boom.
digger latch mechanism a mechanism which secures the digger to
the lower boom when it is stowed and to the extendible boom when it
is unstowed.
digger link the structural member which attaches the digger to the
digger hanger bracket.
digger/winch valve the control valve on a digger derrick that directs
hydraulic pressure and flow to the digger and winch hydraulic circuits.
digital signal an electrical signal that communicates information by
the use of two distinct levels of voltage or current, a high on level and
a low off level, which are sent in a series of pulses. The timing of the
pulses is used to indicate the level of an input parameter such as control
lever position, or information such as the address setting of a radio
control transmitter linking it to its receiver.
diode an electrical component that allows current flow in one
direction but not in the reverse direction.
directional valve a valve that selectively directs or prevents fluid
flow through desired passages.
displacement the quantity of fluid that can pass through a pump,
motor or cylinder in a single revolution or stroke.
docking station a device used to mount a remote control transmitter
on a platform.
dog clutch see drum clutch.
double-acting cylinder a cylinder in which fluid pressure can be
applied to either side of the piston to move the rod in either direction.
double elevator an elevator lift with two load carrying arms. The
double elevator system includes a lower pedestal, lower arm, lower arm
cylinder(s), riser, upper arm, upper arm cylinder(s), and upper pedestal,
plus parallel links in both the lower and upper sections.
double-pole, double-throw (DPDT) switch a six-terminal electrical
switch or relay that connects, at the same time, one pair of terminals to
either of two other pairs of terminals.
double-pole, single-throw (DPST) switch a four-terminal electrical
switch or relay that, at the same time, opens or closes two separate
circuits or both sides of the same circuit.
down load the downward force created when an external force is
exerted on the boom, such as a winch pulling cable on a cable placer.
drain a passage or a line from a hydraulic component that returns
leakage fluid to the reservoir.
drift 1: a gradual, uncontrolled change from a set position of an
actuator or component. 2: a tool for ramming or driving something.
driver the gearbox and motor assembly on a reel lifter which is
connected to and disconnected from the arbor bar through the clutch
assembly.
drop pocket an open top tool storage area on the chassis of a unit.
drum clutch a clutch consisting of two or more drive lugs that engage
similar driven lugs to transmit torque. Commonly used between the
gearbox and cable drum on front or bed mounted winches.
dump valve a normally open, two-position, two-way valve that sends
pump flow through a path going directly to the reservoir or bypassing
hydraulic circuit when it is not actuated, preventing operation of the
hydraulic system or circuit. When it is actuated, it closes off this path,
redirecting flow to the hydraulic system or circuit to allow operation.
dynamometer an instrument for measuring mechanical force or
power.
earth anchor see screw anchor.
eccentric ring a ring with the center hole located in a position off the
geometric center, commonly used to adjust the position of the rotation
pinion with respect to the rotation bearing gear teeth.
eccentric ring lock a device which engages a hole or notch in an
eccentric ring to prevent the ring from rotating.
efficiency the ratio of output to input. Volumetric efficiency of a pump
is the actual output in gpm divided by the theoretical or design output.
The overall efficiency of a hydraulic system is the output power divided
by the input power. Efficiency is usually expressed as a percent.
elbow the structure on an articulating-boom aerial device that
connects the upper boom to the lower boom. The elbow allows the
upper boom to pivot relative to the lower boom.
elbow bearing the rotating member that allows the upper boom to
rotate around the end of the lower boom. Used on aerial devices with
the upper and lower booms mounted side by side.
elbow pin the horizontal pin that attaches the upper boom to the
lower boom on an articulating-boom aerial device. Used on aerial
devices with the upper boom mounted over the lower boom.
electrical harness an assembly of electrical wires that is used to
deliver electrical current between components.
electrocution receiving an electrical shock resulting in death.
electrohydraulic a combination of electric and hydraulic control
mechanisms in which an electrically controlled actuator is used to shift
the spool in a hydraulic control valve.
electrohydraulic control system a control system in which the
function control handles are connected to electric controls. The electric
controls actuate electrohydraulic valves to operate the functions of the
unit.
3-05
5 Appendix Glossary
flange on a flange and lug pin retaining system, an end plate that is
welded to one end of the pin. The purpose of the flange is to position the
pin in the connection.
flange and lug pin retaining system a connecting pin retention
system in which an end plate is welded to one end of the pin and a
retaining plate is attached with cap screws to the other end to hold the
pin in position.
flashover a disruptive electrical discharge at the surface of electrical
insulation or in the surrounding medium, which may or may not cause
permanent damage to the insulation.
flats from finger tight (F.F.F.T.) a method of counting the number
of wrench flats when tightening a hydraulic adapter to establish a torque
value.
flat-shoe outrigger an outrigger which has a shoe that is fixed in a
horizontal position.
flighting a curved plate or series of curved plates welded together,
spiraling along the axis of an auger tube or screw anchor rod.
flow the movement of fluid generated by pressure differences.
flow control valve a valve that regulates the rate of fluid flow.
flow rate the volume, mass or weight of a fluid passing through any
conductor per unit of time.
flow straightener a component part of a nozzle used to straighten
or remove any swirling motion of fluid going through the nozzle.
flowmeter an instrument used to measure the flow rate of fluid in a
hydraulic tube or hose.
fluid a liquid that is specially compounded for use as a power
transmitting medium in a hydraulic system.
fold to move a pivoting structure such an articulating upper boom
toward its stowed position.
fold-up shoe outrigger an outrigger which has a shoe that pivots
into a vertical position when the outrigger is fully retracted.
force any push or pull measured in units of weight.
forged pin retainer a pin retainer made from forged steel, consisting
of a slender, cylindrical body with a flattened, circular head at one end,
with a mounting hole through the head perpendicular to the body. The
body is inserted through a hole in the pin to be retained, and the head
is fastened to the adjacent structure with a cap screw.
four-way valve a valve having four ports for direction of fluid flow.
FPS Fluid Power Society.
frequency the number of times an action occurs in a unit of time.
gasket a packing made of a deformable material, usually in the form
of a sheet or ring, used to make a pressure tight fit between stationary
parts.
gate valve see shutoff valve.
gauge pressure a pressure scale that ignores atmospheric pres-
sure by establishing atmospheric pressure as its zero point. Its zero
point is 14.7 psi absolute.
gauge snubber see snubber valve.
gearbox an assembly with internal speed changing gears; a trans-
mission. Gearboxes are commonly used to transmit power from a
hydraulic motor to operate a function through an output shaft.
gelcoat a protective coating used on fiberglass components to
prevent the wicking of moisture into the fiberglass strands and to retard
the degrading effect of ultraviolet light on the fiberglass.
GFI ground fault interrupter.
gin pole a vertical phase-holding apparatus which is attached to a
platform or upper boom tip.
gpm gallons per minute.
gradient control device a device at the upper end of an insulating
boom that reduces electrical stress level(s) below that considered to be
disruptive.
gravity leveling system a system which uses the force of gravity to
keep the bottom of a platform parallel to level ground as the boom is
raised or lowered. One means of accomplishing this is by allowing the
platform to pivot freely about a horizontal shaft attached above the
platforms center of gravity.
grease fitting a small fitting that acts as the connection between a
grease gun and the component to be lubricated.
electrohydraulic valve a directional valve that receives a variable
or controlled electrical signal which is used to control or meter hydraulic
flow.
elevator lift a system located between the turntable and subbase of
an aerial device which is used for lifting the aerial device to increase the
platform working height. This system may be configured as a single
elevator or a double elevator.
elevator unit the overall device including the subbase, elevator lift
and the aerial device.
emergency operating DC pump see secondary stowage DC pump.
emergency operating system see secondary stowage system.
end gland a hollow, cylindrical part that screws into or is retained in
the open end of a hydraulic cylinder barrel, through which the rod
protrudes.
end-mounted platform a platform which is attached to a mounting
bracket that extends beyond the boom tip, positioning the platform (and
platform rotation pivot, if so equipped) beyond the end of the upper
boom.
energize to send electrical power to a device, as to the coil of a
solenoid valve.
energized conductor an apparatus that is transmitting electric
current.
energy the ability or capacity to do work, measured in units of work.
engine protection system a system which detects when the
auxiliary engine oil pressure or temperature is out of the proper range
and shuts the engine off.
extendible capable of linear movement of one or more portions of
an assembly to increase the overall length or reach of the assembly.
extendible-boom aerial device an aerial device with a telescopic
or extendible boom assembly.
extension cylinder a hydraulic cylinder which extends and retracts
an extendible boom(s).
fairlead the group of steel rollers at the platform of a cable placer
which guide the cable or suspension strand during the placing process.
fall protection system a system consisting of a body harness or
body belt, a decelerating lanyard, connectors, and an anchor point at
the boom tip, used to catch and hold a person who falls from a platform.
(As of January 1, 1998, the use of a body belt for personal fall protection
is prohibited by OSHA.)
feedback (feedback signal) the return of part of an output signal to
the input for the purpose of modification and control of the output.
feeder tube a telescopic hydraulic tube assembly mounted on an
extendible boom which carries pump flow to a device mounted on the
extendible portion of the boom such as a digger or boom tip winch.
fiber optic cable a type of cable used for conducting control or
telecommunication signals, in which the signal carrier(s) is one or more
optical fibers, enclosed within an outer covering.
fiber optics the use of transparent fibers of glass or plastic which
transmit light signals throughout the length of the fiber. Commonly used
to transmit signals from a remote control.
fiberglass glass in fibrous form added as a reinforcement to a plastic
for use in making various products.
filler breather cap the component on the top of a reservoir that
allows air to enter and exit the reservoir as the fluid level changes, and
which can be removed to access a fill hole when adding hydraulic fluid
to the reservoir.
filter a device through which fluid is passed to remove and retain
insoluble contaminants from a fluid.
filter cart a portable device which can be connected to a units
hydraulic system to filter water and/or other contaminants out of the
hydraulic system fluid.
filter cartridge a component containing filtration material which is
installed within a filter housing or attached to a filter receptacle for use,
and can be removed and replaced as a self-contained unit.
firm footing outrigger placement and extension in accordance with
the instructions in a units operators manual to ensure proper leveling
of the vehicle and adequate stability when operating the unit.
fixed displacement pump a pump in which displacement is con-
stant, so that the output flow can be changed only by varying the drive
speed.
3-05
6 Appendix Glossary
hydraulically extendible jib a jib boom that may be extended or
retracted by hydraulic power.
hydraulics an engineering science pertaining to liquid pressure and
flow.
hydrostatic hydraulic system any hydraulic drive in which a
positive displacement pump and motor transfer rotary power by means
of fluid under pressure.
individual address setting the code that identifies a specific
transmitter as the one emitting the signal corresponding to a specific
receivers reception address.
in-line the installation of a component in series between two portions
of a hydraulic line or electrical conductor so that flow in the line or
conductor toward the component passes through the component and
continues on in the line or conductor on the other side.
instability a condition of a mobile unit where the sum of the moments
tending to overturn the mobile unit is equal to or exceeds the sum of the
moments tending to resist overturning.
insulated aerial device an aerial device with dielectric components
designed and tested to meet the specific electrical insulating rating
consistent with the manufacturers name plate.
insulated digger derrick a digger derrick designed for and manu-
factured with a fiberglass boom(s) for use around energized conductors
at a maximum of 46 kV phase to phase.
insulated liner see platform liner.
insulated portions those sections which are designed, maintained,
and tested in accordance with the electrical requirements of ANSI
A92.2.
insulator a device that isolates the energized conductor of a power
line from the support structure.
intercom system a transmitter and receiver system that allows two-
way verbal communication between a platform operator and a person
at ground level.
interference any energy that inhibits the transmission or reception
of electrical or radio signals.
intermediate boom (INT BOOM) an extendible boom section which
is located between the upper boom and the lower boom in an extendible
boom assembly.
ISO International Standards Organization.
jam nut a nut that is screwed down firmly against another nut to
prevent loosening.
jaw clutch see drum clutch.
jib an auxiliary boom which attaches to the upper boom tip to extend
the reach of the boom.
JIC Joint Industry Conference.
joystick a two or three axis control lever which allows the operator
to simultaneously control multiple functions.
junction box an enclosed central connecting point for electrical
wiring.
kelly bar 1: for derricks see auger extension shaft. 2: the auger drive
shaft of a pressure digger which is extendible from the ram cylinder.
key a parallel-sided piece that fits into grooves in two adjacent parts
to prevent movement between the parts. Often used as the driving
member between a shaft and a sheave or winch drum.
keyway a groove that is cut in a shaft or bore for a key to fit into.
kilovolts (kV) a unit of potential difference equal to 1,000 volts.
knuckle see elbow.
L-bracket an L-shaped weldment that is used to connect a splicer
platform to the upper boom tip.
lanyard a component in a personal fall protection system consisting
of a flexible, nonmetallic strap or rope with a connector at each end for
connecting a body harness or body belt to a specified anchor point
provided at the boom tip, used to catch and decelerate a person in a fall
from the platform. (As of January 1, 1998, the use of a body belt for
personal fall protection is prohibited by OSHA.)
lashing wire a thin, solid wire which is wrapped in a helix configu-
ration around a length of suspension strand and adjacent communica-
tion cable so that the suspension strand carries the weight of the cable.
lay the length of wire rope in which one strand makes one complete
spiral around the rope.
gripper tool a component used for grasping an object or electrical
lines through the use of an articulated mechanism.
ground 1: a large conducting body with a potential of zero volts used
as a common current return for an electric circuit. 2: an object that
makes an electrical connection with a ground or with the earth.
ground fault interrupter (GFI) a fast acting form of circuit breaker
that opens to interrupt an electrical circuit if it senses a very small
current leakage to ground, to protect personnel against a potential
shock hazard from defective electrical tools or wiring. It does this by
monitoring for any difference in current flow between the hot and neutral
wires in the circuit. An imbalance exceeding a very small preset value
indicates that current is finding an improper path to ground, and causes
the breaker to trip.
guard ring see conductive shield.
hand an extension of the reel lifter arm that allows for loading the
arbor bar.
hand control a hand operated control lever or handle located at a
control station used to regulate a function of a unit, where the speed of
the function is proportional to the distance the control is moved.
heat the form of energy that has the capacity to create warmth or to
increase the temperature of a substance. Any energy that is wasted or
used to overcome friction is converted to heat. Heat is measured in
calories or British thermal units (Btu). One Btu is the amount of heat
required to raise the temperature of one pound of water one degree
Fahrenheit.
heat exchanger a device that transfers heat through a conducting
wall from one fluid to another or into the atmosphere.
hertz (Hz) a unit of frequency equal to one cycle per second.
high tooth the individual tooth out of all the gear teeth on a rotation
bearing at which the minimum backlash occurs with the rotation pinion.
This is because of a slight difference between the actual and theoretical
tooth pitch lines due to manufacturing tolerances.
HLIW hot line insulator washer.
holding valve see load holding valve.
HOP see hydraulic overload protection system.
horsepower (HP) the power required to lift 550 pounds one foot in
one second or 33,000 pounds 1 foot in one minute. One horsepower is
equal to 746 watts or to 42.4 British thermal units per minute.
hose carrier a flexible component which contains hydraulic, electri-
cal, and/or air lines, usually mounted inside or along the side of an
extendible boom. As the boom is extended, the hose carrier unfolds in
a rolling motion to allow the lines to extend with the boom.
hose carrier tube a rigid, enclosed tube which contains hydraulic,
electrical, and/or air lines, and may contain components for upper
controls. It is usually attached to a hose carrier on the side of an
extendible boom.
hot line insulator washer (HLIW) a vehicle-mounted device which
is designed and used for cleaning pole and structure mounted transmis-
sion and distribution insulators.
HTMA Hydraulic Tool Manufacturers Association.
Huck bolt a bolt-like fastener that is placed in position and then
stretched while an end fitting is swaged on. Commonly used to attach
a pedestal, subbase, and/or outriggers to a vehicle frame.
hydrant a discharge pipe with a valve and spout at which water may
be drawn from a water main.
hydraulic control a control that is actuated by hydraulically induced
forces.
hydraulic leveling system an automatic hydraulic control system
which keeps the bottom of a platform parallel to or at a fixed angle to the
turntable base plate as the boom is raised or lowered. One means of
accomplishing this is by transferring hydraulic fluid between a master
cylinder actuated by movement of the lower boom and a slave cylinder
mounted between the platform and the upper boom.
hydraulic overload protection (HOP) system the system on a
digger derrick that shuts off certain functions to help prevent damage
to the digger derrick structure when an overload is applied to the boom
in the downward direction.
hydraulic schematic a drawing that uses common hydraulic
symbols to represent the hydraulic system of the unit.
hydraulic swivel a fluid conducting fitting having two joined parts
that are capable of pivoting freely about each other to accommodate
motion of an attached hydraulic line.
3-05
7 Appendix Glossary
layer all wraps of winch line on a winch drum which are on the same
level between drum flanges.
leakage monitor system a means by which current leakage is
measured through the insulated section(s) of a boom to confirm of
dielectric integrity.
leveling cable the wire rope portion of a mechanical leveling system
that passes over the sheaves.
leveling chain the chain portion of a mechanical leveling system that
passes over the sprockets.
leveling cylinder 1: a cylinder that is used in a master/slave
arrangement in a hydraulic leveling system to hydraulically level the
platform. 2: the hydraulic cylinder that is used to tilt the pivot and mast
weldments of a pressure digger to either side of the vertical position.
leveling rod a slender, round, fiberglass rod used in a mechanical
leveling system that passes through a units boom to connect the
leveling chains or cables at each end of the boom.
leveling system see platform leveling system.
leverage a gain in output force over input force; mechanical
advantage or force multiplication.
lift cylinder the hydraulic cylinder that moves the lower boom up and
down on a digger derrick or extendible-boom aerial device.
lifter cylinder the hydraulic cylinder that moves the reel lifter arms.
lifting eye a shackle or weldment used for attaching chain, cable,
rope, etc. to a boom for material handling.
light emitting diode (LED) a semiconductor diode that emits light
when subjected to an applied voltage. LEDs are used for electronic
display.
line a tube, pipe or hose used as a passageway to move hydraulic
fluid.
linear in a straight line.
linear actuator a device for converting hydraulic energy into linear
motion such as a cylinder or ram.
linear position transducer an extendible length measuring device
which produces a variable electrical signal that is proportional to the
length to which the device is extended.
liner see platform liner.
link the secondary load-carrying structure of an articulating arm.
load capacity (as defined by ANSI for digger derricks) the maximum
load, specified by the manufacturer, that can be lifted by the mobile unit
at regular intervals of load radius or boom angle, through the specified
ranges of boom elevation, extension and rotation, with options installed
and inclusive of stability requirements.
load holding valve a hydraulic valve which blocks fluid flow from a
hydraulic actuator, such as a cylinder or motor, to prevent motion when
the control valve is not being operated or in case of a hydraulic line
failure.
load radius the horizontal distance from the centerline of rotation to
the winch line load attachment point.
lock washer a solid or split washer that is placed underneath a nut
or cap screw to help prevent loosening by exerting pressure against the
fastener.
locknut see self-locking nut.
lockwire a wire that is installed to prevent loosening of fasteners or
components.
lower arm the primary load-carrying structure of a double elevator
which is located between the lower pedestal and the riser.
lower arm cylinder the hydraulic cylinder that moves the lower arm
of a double elevator up and down.
lower boom (LWR BOOM) the boom section in a boom assembly
which is attached to the turntable or riser, and which supports the upper
boom or intermediate boom.
lower boom cylinder the hydraulic cylinder that moves the lower
boom about its pivot point on an articulating-boom aerial device.
lower boom insulator the part of the lower boom made of high
dielectric strength material (usually fiberglass reinforced plastic or
equivalent) to interrupt the conductive path for electricity through the
lower boom.
lower boom winch a winch that is located on the lower boom.
lower control valve the hydraulic valve on the vehicle, turntable, or
pedestal of an aerial device used for operating some or all of the
functions of the aerial device.
lower controls the controls on the vehicle, turntable, or pedestal,
used for operating some or all of the functions of the unit.
lower pedestal the structure within an elevator lift that connects the
elevator lift to the subbase.
lower test electrode system a system on an insulated aerial device
utilizing conductive bands installed permanently on the inside and
outside surfaces of the insulated portion of the upper boom and
conductive connections to components inside that portion of the boom
such as leveling rods and hydraulic lines. All the bands and component
connections are connected to a common pickup point for use in
measuring current leakage to confirm of dielectric integrity.
lower tool circuit a hydraulic tool circuit with quick disconnect
couplings located on the pedestal or on the vehicle.
lug a metal part which serves as a cap, handle, support, or fitting
connection.
magnetic suction separator filter see magnetic suction strainer.
magnetic suction strainer a suction filter consisting of a strainer
which contains one or more magnets to trap ferrous metallic contami-
nants that are small enough to pass through the strainer.
mainframe see pedestal.
man-and-a-half platform an oversized one-man platform.
manifold a fluid conductor that provides multiple connection ports.
manual lowering valve a manually operated hydraulic valve used
to lower the boom in the event of power failure.
manual override a means of manually actuating an automatically or
remotely controlled device.
manually extendible jib a jib that is capable of being extended and
retracted by human force.
mast the structure on a pressure digger which supports the auger
transmission gearbox, ram cylinder, kelly bar, and pole setter.
master control panel the primary derrick lower control panel which
contains the electrical connections between the derrick control system
and components such as the power module and the dump or blocking
valve. The master control panel is used in conjunction with a slave panel
to provide dual station lower controls.
master cylinder a cylinder in which motion of the piston under an
external force transfers hydraulic fluid to a slave cylinder to produce
corresponding motion.
material handling having the ability to use the boom or attachments
on the boom to lift and position materials.
material handling system the system on an aerial device that
consists of a jib and winch used to lift material to the upper boom tip.
mechanical leveling system a mechanical system which keeps the
bottom of a platform parallel to or at a fixed angle to the turntable base
plate as the boom is raised or lowered. One means of accomplishing
this is by utilizing a parallelogram arrangement of leveling rods attached
to cables or chains operating around sheaves or sprockets at boom
pivot points.
mercury switch a switch that is closed or opened when an internal
globule of mercury moves to or away from the contacts when the switch
is tilted.
meter to regulate the amount of fluid flow.
meter-in to regulate the amount of fluid flow into an actuator or
system.
meter-out to regulate the flow of the discharge fluid from an actuator
or system.
micron (micrometer) one-millionth of a meter or about 0.00004.
micron rating the minimum size of the particles that a filter is
designed to remove.
microswitch a small electrical device that is used to turn an electrical
current on or off, or to change the connections in a circuit.
minimum approach distance the three dimensional area surround-
ing a conductor into which a person may not enter nor bring any
conductive object unless they are: qualified electrical workers, wearing
insulating gloves (and sleeves when required), protected against
contact with any other objects at a different electrical potential.
3-05
8 Appendix Glossary
NPT National Pipe Thread.
NPTF National Pipe Thread Fluid, a pipe thread form which is
modified from the NPT form to improve the resistance to fluid leakage
through the threads in a connection.
O-ring a ring of material with a circular cross section that is used as
a gasket, usually made of synthetic rubber.
ohmmeter an instrument used to measure the resistance in ohms
between two points in an electrical component or circuit.
on/off circuit circuit that supplies constant electrical power to a
solenoid or other component when a relay or switch is closed and
removes the power when the relay or switch is opened.
one-man platform a platform designed to carry one person. It is
usually 24 wide x 30 wide or 24 wide x 24 wide.
open center a directional valve design in which pump output returns
freely to the reservoir when the valve spool(s) is in the center or neutral
position.
open circuit an electric circuit that has infinitely high resistance,
resulting in no current flow. An open circuit may be caused by a loose
connection, broken wire, corrosion or poor contact where an electrical
component is grounded to the unit structure.
operator a person trained, authorized and engaged in the operation
of the unit.
optical fiber a thin strand of transparent glass or plastic used to
transmit signals using light throughout the length of the strand.
orifice a restriction in a hydraulic or pneumatic circuit, the length of
which is small in respect to its diameter.
OSHA Occupational Safety and Health Administration.
out and down outrigger an outrigger that has independently-
controlled horizontal and vertical extendible outrigger legs.
outboard bearing a bearing which supports the end of a gearbox
output shaft farthest from the gearbox.
output signal a radio wave intended to pass communication from a
source to a destination.
outrigger a structural member, which when properly extended or
deployed on firm ground or outrigger pads, assists in stabilizing the
mobile unit.
outrigger controls the controls for operating the outriggers.
outrigger cylinder the hydraulic cylinder which extends and retracts
or unfolds and folds an outrigger leg.
outrigger interlock system a system which requires all outriggers
to be extended to a specified position before other unit functions are
allowed to operate.
outrigger interlock valve a valve which prevents above rotation
sense line signals from reaching the pump until the outriggers have
been lowered.
outrigger leg 1: the moveable structural component of an outrigger
which extends or unfolds to position the outrigger shoe on the ground,
and which retracts or folds to return the outrigger shoe to the stored
position. 2: the stationary structural component of an extendible outrig-
ger from which the moveable outrigger leg extends.
outrigger motion alarm an audible warning system to alert person-
nel that outriggers are being lowered or moved.
outrigger pad a portable piece of rigid material which is placed
under an outrigger shoe to increase the contact area with the ground
surface when the ground surface is not firm enough to support direct
contact from the outrigger shoe.
outrigger shoe the component of an outrigger that is attached to the
moveable leg and that contacts the ground or outrigger pad to stabilize
the mobile unit.
outrigger signal valve a valve used to provide a signal to the pump
when the outriggers are being operated and to allow a separate signal
system to control the aerial device operation.
outrigger spread the distance between the outer edges on fixed
shoes, or between pin centerlines on pivoting shoes, of opposite
outriggers which have been extended or deployed to a given position.
over travel movement of a mechanism beyond its normal stopping
point.
overcenter aerial device a type of articulating-boom aerial device
on which the upper boom can unfold from the stored position to beyond
a vertical position.
mobile operation the use of the aerial device or digger derrick while
the mobile unit is traveling.
mobile unit the combination of a unit, its chassis and related
permanently attached equipment.
modified A-frame outrigger an extendible outrigger that is config-
ured like a large broad based A with an open top.
modulation ratio the on time vs. the off time of a pulse width
modulated digital signal. This ratio is determined by dividing the on time
during one cycle by the total cycle time.
moly see molybdenum disulfide.
molybdenum disulfide a black inorganic chemical that is used as
a dry lubricant and as an additive for grease and oils. Molybdenum
disulfide has a very high melting point and is insoluble in water.
molydisulfide see molybdenum disulfide.
moment a force multiplied by the perpendicular distance from the
line of action of the force to an axis or point. The force may be the weight
of an item, with the vertical line of action located at the items center of
gravity. Moment is measured in units of force times distance; for
example, pound-feet or foot-pounds.
monitor head remotely controlled articulated assembly with a
nozzle, mounted at the upper end of an HLIW.
motor a device that converts hydraulic or electrical energy into
continuous rotary motion and torque.
multiple-part line the arrangement of the winch line on a digger
derrick in which the winch line is routed between the boom tip and the
load two or more times. A snatch block is used at the load and a snatch
block or additional boom tip sheave(s) is used on the boom to reverse
the direction of the winch line. The end of the winch line is connected
to a stationary attachment point on the boom or lower snatch block. A
multiple-part line is used to reduce the tension in the winch line to a
value below the winch line rated working load when a lifting load that
exceeds the winch line rated working load.
multiplexing a process by which signals from multiple inputs are
combined and transmitted simultaneously over a single channel.
multiviscosity the viscosity characteristic of a fluid which contains
additives that increase the viscosity index. The fluid does not become
as thin at high temperatures or as thick at low temperatures as a fluid
without these additives. This allows the fluid to be used over a wider
temperature range.
nonconductive the characteristic of a substance that allows it to
transmit electricity only in a very small degree when it is clean, dry and
properly maintained.
noncontinuous rotation a rotation system in which the turntable is
prevented from rotating more than approximately one revolution about
the centerline of rotation.
non-insulated aerial device or digger derrick an aerial device or
digger derrick which is not designed, manufactured, or tested to meet
any dielectric rating.
nonmetallic formed of materials which are not any type of metal.
non-overcenter aerial device a type of articulating-boom aerial
device on which the upper boom will not unfold from the stored position
to beyond a vertical position regardless of the position of the lower
boom.
nontransferable boom flares boom flares that are permanently
attached to the boom tip of a digger derrick.
nontransferable upper controls an upper control panel on a digger
derrick that is permanently attached to the upper boom tip.
normally closed switch a switch which is closed to allow current to
flow through it when it is not actuated, and opens to interrupt current flow
when actuated.
normally closed valve a two-way valve which is closed to block fluid
from flowing through it when it is not actuated, and opens to allow flow
when actuated.
normally open switch a switch which is open to prevent current from
flowing through it when it is not actuated, and closes to allow current
flow when actuated.
normally open valve a two-way valve which is open to allow fluid to
flow through it when it is not actuated, and closes to block flow when
actuated.
nozzle a tube-like device for accelerating and directing the dis-
charge flow of fluid.
3-05
9 Appendix Glossary
overframe an outrigger weldment mounting position located above
the vehicle chassis frame.
overload the condition existing when a load greater than the rated
capacity or design lead is applied to a unit or component.
override the takeover of boom movement control functions from the
platform controls by the activation of the lower control station controls.
overtighten to torque a threaded fastener beyond the recom-
mended torque value.
oxidation the reaction of a substance with oxygen.
parallel link the secondary load-carrying structure of an elevator lift.
particle count a visual count of the numbers of particulate contami-
nants in a quantity of a hydraulic fluid.
passage a machined or cored fluid conducting path that lies within
or passes through a component.
payload any tools, materials, fuel and occupants carried by the
mobile unit that are not permanently attached.
pedestal the stationary base of a unit that supports the turntable and
is attached to the subbase or vehicle frame.
pedestal mount a mounting configuration for an aerial device in
which the turntable is mounted on a pedestal consisting of a box-like
structure.
penetration the distance the vehicle frame is lifted after the outrig-
gers contact the ground surface.
phase a conductive wire or cable used for transmitting high voltage
electrical current. The phrase phase to phase can be referenced as
any two conductors of a three-phase electrical power line system.
pilot operated condition in which a valve is actuated by hydraulic
fluid pressure.
pilot operated check valve a check valve that can be opened to
allow flow in the normally blocked direction by applying hydraulic
pressure to a pilot port.
pilot pressure auxiliary pressure used to actuate or control hydrau-
lic components.
pilot valve an auxiliary valve used to control the operation of another
valve.
pin a cylindrical structural device used to allow a pivoting joint or to
connect mating parts.
pin retainer a device which is used to hold a pin in place in an
assembly.
pinch point a particular location in which a human body or a part of
the body may become pinched or pinned between moving mechanical
parts.
pinion a gear with a small number of teeth that has been designed
to mesh with a larger gear.
piston a cylindrically shaped part that fits within a cylinder or
cylindrical bore and transmits or receives linear motion by means of a
connecting rod or other component.
piston pump a pump in which motion and force are applied to fluid
by a reciprocating piston(s) in cylindrical bore(s).
pivot weldment the structure located above the slide frame on a
pressure digger which supports the mast.
placard 1: a thin sheet of rigid material which is attached to another
surface by adhesive and/or mechanical fasteners, and is used to
convey instructions, information and warnings. 2: May also refer to a
decal.
planetary gear set an assembly of meshed gears consisting of a
central gear (sun gear), a coaxial internal tooth ring gear and several
intermediate pinions (planet gears) supported on a revolving carrier.
planetary gearbox a gearbox containing one or more planetary gear
sets.
platform the personnel-carrying component of a unit, mounted at the
upper boom tip.
platform heater an electrically powered device mounted in a splicer
platform which is used to warm the occupant.
platform leveling system a system which keeps the bottom of a
platform parallel to or at a fixed angle to the base plate of the turntable,
or parallel to level ground, as the boom is raised or lowered. The system
may be mechanically, hydraulically, or gravity operated.
platform liner a component made of material having a high dielectric
strength which is designed to be inserted into a platform to cover the
walls and bottom of the platform.
platform pin the horizontal pin that is used to fasten a platform
mounting bracket to the upper boom tip. The mounting bracket pivots
about this pin for platform leveling or positioning.
platform rest the structural member attached to the chassis or body
to support and cushion the platform in the travel or rest position.
platform ring a metal band around the lip of a splicer platform which
supports and guides the platform as it is rotated about its vertical
centerline.
platform rotation override system a system which allows the zone
of platform rotation to extend beyond a predetermined limit when
actuated by the operator.
platform rotator a system which allows the operator to rotate the
platform about a vertical axis. This permits the position of the platform
to be changed with respect to the boom tip.
platform tilt system a system which allows the operator to adjust the
orientation of the platform about a horizontal axis. Some systems allow
the operator to adjust the working position of the platform floor and tilt
the platform for cleaning. Other systems allow tilting of the platform for
cleaning but do not provide for operator adjustment of the working
position.
platform use the stability criteria for a digger derrick mobile unit
which indicates that the load capacity chart and stability requirements
apply to the use of the derrick with the platform occupied, with no lifting
of loads with the winch line.
plunger a cylindrically shaped part that is used to transmit thrust; a
ram.
pole a long cylindrical piece of material such as wood, metal, or
concrete which is installed in a vertical position for use as a support
structure for power and communication lines.
pole guide a mechanism at the tip of a boom used for guiding and
stabilizing a utility pole while using the winch line to raise or lower the
pole.
pole guide tilt cylinder the hydraulic cylinder which is used to tilt
(raise or lower) the pole guide.
pole guide tong cylinder the hydraulic cylinder which opens and
closes the pole guide tongs.
pole guide tongs moveable arms on a pole guide used to stabilize
and guide a utility pole as it is being raised or lowered with the winch line.
pole puller an apparatus consisting of a hydraulic cylinder, chain
and other components used to loosen a utility pole from the ground.
pole setter an assembly attached to the mast of a pressure digger
that is used to pick up, position, and set a pole.
polyethylene a moisture proof plastic.
poppet that part of certain valves that prevents flow when it closes
against a seat and allows flow when it moves away from the seat.
port an internal or external opening for intake or exhaust of fluid in
a component.
portable resistivity tester a device used for testing the electrical
resistance of water. Commonly used for testing the wash water for
insulator washers.
position a term which describes the number of possible positions a
valve spool or mechanism can be shifted to.
post mount a mounting configuration for an aerial device in which
the turntable is mounted on a pedestal which utilizes a round vertical
tube as its primary load-carrying structure.
potentiometer a variable resistor that is connected to act as an
electrical voltage divider.
pour point the lowest temperature at which a fluid will flow or pour
under specific conditions.
power work per unit of time, measured in horsepower (HP) or watts.
power module the central connection point between the chassis
and unit electrical systems. This device is used to provide battery power
to the unit when the truck/machine selector is in the machine position.
power take-off (PTO) a supplementary mechanism enabling ve-
hicle engine power to be used to operate non-automotive apparatus
such as a pump.
3-05
10 Appendix Glossary
ram cylinder the hydraulic cylinder that is used to retract and extend
the kelly bar on a pressure digger.
range diagram a diagram which shows the load radius and sheave
height of a digger derrick at all the configurations of boom extension and
boom angle covered by the corresponding load capacity chart
.
rated capacity (as defined by ANSI for digger derricks) the maxi-
mum load, specified by the manufacturer, that can be lifted by the digger
derrick at regular intervals of load radius or boom angle, through the
specified ranges of boom elevation and extension, with specified
options installed, and exclusive of stability requirements.
rated line voltage the nominal voltage, phase to phase, at which
electrical systems are rated.
rated load capacity (as defined by ANSI for aerial devices) the
maximum loads, specified by the manufacturer, which can be lifted by
the aerial device through the specified range of boom elevation and
extension with specified options installed and in consideration of
stability requirements.
reach diagram a drawing that shows the horizontal and vertical
limits of travel of the platform, upper boom tip, and/or jib tip throughout
all possible configurations of lower boom angle, boom extension, upper
boom angle, articulating arm travel, and/or elevator lift travel.
rear mount a pedestal mounting position located over or near the
rear axle(s) on the longitudinal centerline of the chassis.
receiver a device that converts radio waves into electrical signals for
communication and/or control purposes.
reel brake a component of the reel driver which prevents the
overrunning of cable reels carried by a strand carrier and reel lifter. The
brake is used to maintain tension in the cable or suspension strand
when used with the reel driver.
reel driver a component of a strand carrier and reel lifter used for
paying in or paying out cable or suspension strand.
reel lifter a device used to support and move cable reels from the
ground to the vehicle.
reel lifter arms the structure on a reel lifter used to lift and store reels
of cable or suspension strand on the chassis.
reengage to repeat the activation of a function after it has been
momentarily halted.
relay an automatic switch with contacts that can be closed or opened
by electrical current in a coil.
relief valve a pressure operated valve that bypasses pump delivery
to the reservoir to limit system pressure to a predetermined maximum
value.
remote arm a remotely operated jib used to handle equipment or
electrical lines.
remote assist a vehicle-mounted device with a boom assembly
which is extendible, articulating, or both, which is designed and used to
accommodate attachments for performing operations such as support-
ing or cutting electrical conductors, lifting or holding objects, or cutting
tree branches. It is operated by remote control from the ground or from
the platform of an adjacent personnel lifting device. It may be mounted
on the vehicle by itself or in addition to a personnel lifting device.
remote control system a system used for operating some or all of
the functions of a unit from a portable control station. The control station
may be a transmitter which sends signals by radio waves to a receiver
on the unit, or a control module which sends signals through a fiber optic
or electrical cable to the unit.
remote operated auxiliary control system (ROACS) a radio
controlled system for starting and stopping certain functions of the
mobile unit.
remote start/stop system the components used to actuate a
function of the unit from a location other than for normal operation. The
most common functions controlled are engine start/stop and the sec-
ondary stowage DC pump.
reservoir a container for storage of liquid in a fluid power system.
resistance the opposition to the flow of electricity or hydraulic fluid.
restriction a reduced cross-sectional area in a line or passage that
produces a pressure drop.
retaining ring a hardened, washer-like ring that may be spread apart
or compressed and installed into a groove or recess to serve as a
retaining device.
precharge pressure the pressure of compressed gas in an accumu-
lator before any fluid is added.
pressure the force applied in a given area. It can be expressed in
pounds per square inch (psi).
pressure compensator a device on a variable displacement pump
that adjusts pump output flow to develop and maintain a preset
maximum pressure.
pressure differential the difference in pressure between two points
in a system or component.
pressure drop the reduction in pressure between two points in a line
or passage due to the energy required to maintain flow.
pressure gauge an instrument which displays the hydraulic or
pneumatic pressure sensed at a port on the device.
pressure line the line carrying fluid from a pump outlet to the
pressurized port of a valve or actuator.
pressure override the difference between the cracking pressure of
a valve and the pressure reached when the valve is passing full flow.
pressure reducing valve a pressure control valve whose primary
function is to limit its outlet pressure.
pressure switch an electric switch which is actuated when the
hydraulic or pneumatic pressure applied to a port on the switch reaches
a specified value.
pressure transducer a pressure measuring device which produces
a variable electrical signal that is proportional to the hydraulic pressure
applied to a port on the device.
proportional circuit a circuit that supplies a varying voltage to a coil
in a pilot valve as electrical current applied to the circuit is varied by a
hand control.
proximity alarm a system which measures the distance from a
detector to another object, and sounds an alarm when this distance is
less than a specified value. Commonly used to inform the operator of
an HLIW of the distance between the boom tip nozzle and a power line
insulator or support structure.
psi pounds per square inch.
PTO see power take-off.
pullout upper controls an upper control panel on a digger derrick
which is mounted on a housing that can be extended from inside an
outer housing when additional length is needed, such as to attach the
control panel to a personnel jib with the outer housing attached to the
upper boom tip, or to attach the upper control panel to the upper boom
tip with the outer housing attached to the transferable boom flares.
pulse width modulation (PWM) a means of transmitting a digital
signal in continuous cycles of pulses where the total length of time for
a cycle of one on pulse and the following off period is constant, and
the length of time (width) of the on pulse within each cycle is varied
(modulated) in proportion to the level of an input parameter such as
control lever position.
pump a device that converts mechanical force and motion into
hydraulic flow and pressure.
purge system a system of check valves that allows hydraulic fluid
flow in a reverse manner through the hydraulic system, usually from the
lower control valve to the upper controls. This actions frees or purges
the control system of any trapped air and restores a solid column of fluid
for precise control. The purge system may also be used to warm up the
control system in cold weather conditions if the fluid in the reservoir is
warm.
purge/upper/lower controls selector valve a valve which is used
to direct hydraulic fluid to the purge system, the upper control valve, or
the lower control valve.
PWM pulse width modulation.
quick disconnect couplings hydraulic fittings designed for fast and
easy attachment and separation.
radial ball bearing an antifriction bearing with rolling ball contact in
which the direction of action of the load transmitted is perpendicular to
the axial centerline of the bearing.
radial outrigger an outrigger in which the moveable outrigger leg
pivots in an arc around a pin connection between the leg and a
supporting structure as the leg is lowered and raised.
radio communication communication by means of radio waves.
ram 1: a single-acting cylinder with a single diameter plunger rather
than a piston and rod. 2: the plunger in a ram-type cylinder.
3-05
11 Appendix Glossary
return line a hydraulic line used to carry discharge flow from a
hydraulic system or actuator back to the reservoir at low pressure.
return line filter a filter located in a hydraulic system return line or
at the inlet of a hydraulic reservoir which cleans fluid flowing from the
hydraulic system to the reservoir.
reversing valve a four-way directional valve used to change the
direction of movement of a double-acting cylinder or reversible motor.
ribbon hose a group of hoses that are attached side by side to
produce a flat bundle. Commonly used to carry hydraulic fluid, air and/
or electrical cable(s) to the boom tip or upper controls.
riding seat an operators control station attached to the side of the
turntable, with a seat on which the operator rides with the rotation of the
unit.
riser 1: the structure on a double elevator that connects the lower
elevator arm to the upper elevator arm. 2: the structure within an
articulating arm to which the lower boom is connected.
ROACS see remote operated auxiliary control system.
rod the cylindrically shaped part of a cylinder which extends and
retracts from the barrel to actuate or move a component.
rod end the end of a cylinder that the extending component or rod
is on.
roller a cylindrical device which spins freely about a pin or shaft, used
to guide the motion of another component.
rollpin a pin that has been formed by rolling up a thin, flat strip of
metal to form a cylinder. Commonly used by being driven into a hole to
serve as a retaining device.
rope a stout, flexible cord, which consists of many strands of wire
or fibers that are twisted or braided together.
rotary actuator a device for converting hydraulic energy into rotary
motion and torque in which the rotary motion is restricted to within
certain angular limits.
rotary joint a multiple port manifold that has a rotating portion and
a stationary portion, used to provide a continuous hydraulic connection
between rotating and stationary hydraulic lines. Commonly used at the
centerline of rotation of units equipped with continuous rotation.
rotate frame the structure located above the stationary frame on a
pressure digger that is used to support and rotate the slide frame.
rotating platform a platform which can be rotated about a vertical
axis to change its position in relationship to the boom tip.
rotation bearing the rotating member, usually a shear ball bearing,
located between the pedestal and the turntable which allows the
turntable to rotate and which contains gear teeth that mesh with the
rotation pinion.
rotation chain a chain attached to the stationary frame of a pressure
digger that is used by the rotation gearbox to rotate the rotate frame.
rotation gearbox the gearbox which drives the rotational motion of
the turntable.
rotation pinion the gear on the output shaft of the rotation gearbox
which meshes with the rotation bearing gear teeth and drives the
turntable rotational motion.
rotation resistant wire rope wire rope which is constructed to resist
the tendency to untwist or rotate when carrying a suspended load. This
is accomplished by laying the outer strands in the opposite direction to
the lay of the inner strands or core.
rotation system the system which drives the rotation of the turntable
about the centerline of rotation. It typically consists of a rotation bearing,
rotation gearbox, hydraulic motor, and load holding valve.
rpm revolutions per minute.
running torque the torque produced by a rotating device such as a
motor or gearbox at a specified rotational speed.
SAE Society of Automotive Engineers.
safety belt see body belt.
saybolt universal viscosity A measure of viscosity equal to the time
it takes in seconds for 60 milliliters of fluid to flow through a capillary tube
in a Saybolt universal viscosimeter at a given temperature.
scissor link the mechanical linkage on a reel lifter used to connect
the lifter cylinder to the arm.
screw anchor a rod with an eye on one end and auger flighting on
the opposite end. It is designed to screw into the ground and serve as
an anchor to hold an attached cable such as a guy wire.
seating in an initial microscopic surface deformation of components
that are clamped together with threaded fasteners. This causes a slight
reduction in the dimension of the components, reducing the clamping
force applied by the fasteners.
secondary stowage DC pump a low flow hydraulic pump driven by
a direct current electric motor. This pump is used to provide hydraulic
flow to stow the unit when the system for normal operation has failed.
secondary stowage system those components used to stow the
unit when the system for normal operation has failed.
selector switch a switch which is used to direct electrical current to
one of two or more electrical circuits.
selector valve a valve which is used to direct hydraulic fluid to one
of two or more hydraulic circuits.
self-locking nut a nut which contains a built-in device or shape to
increase thread friction so as to resist loosening due to vibration or
repeated loading.
self-lubricating bearing an antifriction bearing in which lubricating
material is incorporated in the bearing.
sense line a line that carries a hydraulic pressure signal from a valve
or actuator to the compensator control on a variable displacement
pump.
sense selector valve a valve which prevents hydraulic fluid in the
sense line from reaching the pump until a certain function(s) is oper-
ated.
sequence 1: the order of a series of operations or movements. 2: to
divert flow to accomplish a subsequent operation or movement.
sequence valve a pressure operated valve that diverts flow to a
secondary actuator while holding pressure on the primary actuator at a
predetermined minimum value after the primary actuator completes its
travel.
sequential extension the operation by which one boom section in
an extendible boom assembly reaches full extension or retraction
before the next boom section begins movement.
set screw a short screw, typically with an Allen type head, that is
used as a clamp to bind parts together.
shackle see clevis.
shear an action or stress resulting from opposing applied forces that
attempt to separate a part into two pieces that would then slide along
each other in opposite directions along the plane of separation.
shear ball bearing an antifriction bearing with rolling ball contact in
which the direction of load transmitted through the balls is parallel to the
axial centerline of the bearing, producing shear loading on the balls.
The bearing can support axial, radial, and tilt loading. Commonly used
as a rotation bearing.
shear pin a replaceable pin which prevents motion between two
adjacent parts by the production of shear loading in the pin, and which
may be designed to fail under overload to protect other parts.
shear stability resistance of a hydraulic fluid viscosity index im-
prover additive to shearing.
shearing molecular damage or breakdown of the viscosity index
improver additive in hydraulic fluid. Shearing can occur when the fluid
flows through fine clearances at high velocity. Shearing can cause
permanent loss in fluid viscosity.
sheave a grooved wheel used to support and guide a winch line or
leveling cable at a point of change in the direction of motion of the line
or cable.
sheave height the vertical distance from ground level to the
centerline of the boom tip sheave in a digger derrick upper boom tip.
short circuit an inadvertent path of low resistance established
between two points of an electrical circuit. A short circuit will result in
excessive current flow.
shutoff valve a device which is used to stop hydraulic fluid flow.
shuttle valve a three-port valve that accepts hydraulic fluid pressure
from two inlets and allows only the highest pressure fluid to pass
through it to a single outlet while keeping the inlet fluid pressure isolated
from one another.
side gun a hand held water nozzle and hose that can be used from
the ground for washing or fire fighting.
3-05
12 Appendix Glossary
side load an external horizontal load placed on a boom from one
side.
side load protection system the system on a digger derrick that
helps prevent damage to the digger derrick structure when excessive
side loads are applied to the booms.
side-mounted platform a platform which is attached to a mounting
bracket that extends from one side of the boom tip, positioning the
platform (and platform rotation pivot, if so equipped) beside the boom
tip.
sideslip sideways motion of a component caused by an externally
applied sideways force which overcomes resistive forces from hydrau-
lics, friction, etc. Commonly used to describe rotation of a digger derrick
boom caused by side loading which exceeds the side load protection
setting.
signal a command or indication of a desired position, velocity, flow
or pressure.
signal line see sense line.
single-acting cylinder a cylinder in which fluid pressure can be
applied to move the rod in only one direction. Return motion is produced
by an external force such as a spring or gravity.
single elevator an elevator lift with one load carrying arm. The
single elevator system includes a lower pedestal, arm, arm cylinder(s),
parallel links, and upper pedestal.
single handle control a control, with an interlock trigger incorpo-
rated in the handle, which allows the operator to simultaneously control
multiple functions of the booms and turntable from the platform.
single-pole, double-throw (SPDT) switch a three-terminal electri-
cal switch or relay that connects one terminal to either of two other
terminals.
single-pole, single-throw (SPST) switch a two-terminal electrical
switch or relay that opens or closes one circuit.
slave control panel a secondary derrick lower control panel that is
configured as a remote terminal of the master panel. The slave panel
is used in conjunction with a master panel to provide dual station lower
controls.
slave cylinder a cylinder in which motion of the piston is produced
by the transfer of hydraulic fluid from a master cylinder, resulting in
corresponding motion.
slide frame the structure on a pressure digger used to support the
auxiliary engine, hydraulic reservoir, control station, and pivot weld-
ment. The slide frame can be extended horizontally from its stowed
position to adjust the distance of the kelly bar from the rotate frame.
slide pad a rectangular block used as a bearing between extendible
boom or outrigger sections, usually composed of a non-metallic mate-
rial.
slip ring an assembly of one or more conductive, rotating rings and
stationary brushes used to provide a continuous electrical connection
between rotating and stationary conductors. Commonly used at the
centerline of rotation of units equipped with continuous rotation.
slug face the extreme end of the cable slug which is secured to the
cylinder rod or adjusting stud.
snatch block a device which has a means of attachment to connect
it to a boom or load, and which can be opened to receive a winch line
around an internal sheave.
snubber valve a two-port valve with a manually adjustable orifice
that restricts the flow of fluid through the valve.
socket head a cylindrical cap screw head design containing a
hexagonal (six-sided) female socket into which an Allen wrench can be
inserted to turn the cap screw.
solenoid a coil of insulated wire that produces a magnetic field within
the coil when electrically energized. When attached to a hydraulic
valve, the magnetic field acts upon the valve to move internal valve
parts.
solenoid valve a valve which is actuated by a solenoid to controlling
the flow of hydraulic fluid.
speed reducer see gearbox.
spherical bearing a bearing with a spherically shaped inner race
that is allowed to move freely inside a stationary outer race to accom-
modate misalignment.
splicer platform a fiberglass platform equipped with a door and
latch.
spline one of a number of equally spaced, load carrying teeth that
have been cut on the outside diameter of a shaft or inside diameter of
a bore, parallel to the shaft or bore centerline.
spool a moving, cylindrically shaped part of a hydraulic valve that
moves to direct flow through the valve.
spring lockouts a mechanical system which is engaged to keep a
vehicles suspension system from flexing during operation of the unit.
sprocket a wheel with teeth along the circumference which are
shaped so as to engage with a chain, used to support and guide the
chain at a point of change in the direction of motion of the chain.
SSU (Saybolt Second Universal) the unit of measure for Saybolt
universal viscosity.
stability a condition of a mobile unit in which the sum of the moments
which tend to overturn the mobile unit is less than the sum of the
moments tending to resist overturning; the mobile units ability to resist
tipping.
stabilize to provide adequate stability for a mobile unit to allow
operation of the vehicle-mounted device(s).
stabilizer a device used to assist in stabilizing a mobile unit, such as
an outrigger, torsion bar or spring lockout.
stake to slightly deform the threads of a fastener or material at the
joint between two components by placing the blade of punch or chisel
on the threads or joint and tapping on the handle with a hammer. The
deformed material serves to prevent loosening of the components.
stall torque the torque produced by a rotating device such as a motor
or gearbox at zero rotational speed.
standard option an option which can be ordered from a standard
order form and can be supplied without additional engineering work.
start/stop control module an electrical device that relays signals
from the units remote start/stop system to the component(s) or system(s)
being controlled, such as the secondary stowage DC pump and/or
vehicle ignition system.
stationary frame the structure attached to the subbase of a pressure
digger that supports the outriggers and rotate frame.
stationary platform a platform which can not be rotated about a
vertical axis to change its position in relationship to the boom tip.
stow to place a component such as a boom or digger derrick auger
in its rest position.
strainer a coarse filter.
strainer basket a coarse, basket shaped filter which is mounted in
the fill hole of a reservoir and projects into the reservoir.
strand 1: one of the groups of individual fibers or wires within a
synthetic winch line or wire rope. 2: see suspension strand.
strand carrier a device used to support and transport strand reels
on a vehicle.
strand reel a reel or spool used for carrying suspension stand.
street side the side of a vehicle toward oncoming traffic when the
vehicle is traveling forward in the normal direction in a lane of traffic.
stroke 1: total linear movement in either direction of a piston or
plunger. 2: to change the displacement of a variable displacement
pump or motor.
subbase a structural mounting interface between the pedestal and
the vehicle frame. It provides torsional stiffness and strength in addition
to that which would be provided from the vehicle frame alone.
subweldment a smaller welded subassembly used within a more
complex welded structure.
suction filter a filter located in a hydraulic system suction line or at
the outlet of a hydraulic reservoir which cleans fluid flowing from the
reservoir to the pump inlet.
suction line the hydraulic line connecting the pump inlet port to the
reservoir outlet.
surge a momentary rise of pressure in a circuit.
suspension strand a type of wire rope which is used to support the
weight of an attached communication cable suspended between poles
or other overhead support structures.
swage to taper or reduce the diameter of a rod, tube or fastener by
forging, squeezing or hammering.
synthetic winch line a winch line made from nonmetallic synthetic
fibers which are formed into strands that are then braided together to
make a complete rope.
3-05
13 Appendix Glossary
T-stand a T shaped weldment for mounting lower controls to the
vehicle.
tachometer an instrument used for displaying the speed of rotation
of an engine output shaft.
tailshelf the rear portion of the mobile unit above and behind the rear
axle.
tailshelf tools see lower tool circuit.
tank the hydraulic reservoir.
telescopic having sections that slide within or over one another to
change overall length.
terminal block an insulating mounting used for making electrical
terminal connections.
test block a manifold with ports for connecting a hydraulic pressure
source, pressure gauge and a cartridge valve such as a counterbalance
valve or relief valve used for testing and adjusting the relief setting of the
valve.
thimble a metal ring around which a rope is passed and spliced to
make a loop or eye.
thread locking adhesive an anaerobic adhesive that is applied to
fastener threads to prevent loosening due to vibration or repeated
loading.
three-phase a system for transmitting high voltage, alternating
current, electrical power along three separate conductors, with 120
degrees between the voltage waveform cycles of any two conductors.
three-position valve a valve having three positions for direction of
fluid flow, such as neutral, flow in one direction, and flow in the opposite
direction.
three-way valve a valve having three ports for direction of fluid flow.
throttle control a manual, hydraulic, or electrical device used to
regulate vehicle or auxiliary engine speed.
toggle switch an electrical switch operated by a short projecting
lever combined with a spring to quickly open or close a circuit when the
lever is pushed through a small arc.
topping cylinder see lift cylinder.
torque 1: a rotational twisting force. 2: to preload a threaded fastener
by application of a rotational twisting force.
torque converter a rotary device for transmitting and amplifying
torque, especially by hydraulic means.
torsion bar a rod-like spring which is flexed by being twisted about
its axis, used to assist in stabilizing a mobile unit.
tow line winch a winch located on a cable placer which is used for
tensioning suspension strand or self-supporting cable or towing a cable
lasher.
trace element analysis analysis of a small sample of hydraulic fluid
to determine contamination level and condition of additives.
tracking a current leakage path created across the surface of
insulating material when a high-voltage current forms a carbonized
path within a foreign material on the surface.
transducer a device that converts input energy of one form into
output energy of another, such as hydraulic pressure into an electrical
signal.
transferable boom flares boom flares, on which a pole guide may
be mounted, that can be pinned to either the intermediate boom tip or
the upper boom tip of a digger derrick.
transferable upper controls an upper control panel on a digger
derrick that can be attached to either the upper boom tip or the
transferable boom flares by the use of a detent pin.
transmitter a device used to generate and emit a radio frequency
carrier signal. The signal is sent to a receiver which translates the signal
into usable information.
trim pot a potentiometer which is used to make fine adjustments in
a circuit during manufacture or calibration, typically by turning a slotted
adjusting screw.
troubleshoot to locate and diagnose problems in a system or a
component.
trunnion a mounting device consisting of a pair of opposite,
projecting cylindrical pivots on which something can be rotated or tilted.
trunnion bearing a bearing that a trunnion pin pivots in.
trunnion pin a cylindrical pivot pin that is a part of a trunnion.
turnbuckle a link with screw threads at both ends that is turned to
bring the ends closer together for tightening purposes.
turns from finger tight (T.F.F.T.) a method of counting the number
of turns of a hydraulic adapter to establish a torque value.
turntable the structure located above the rotation bearing which
supports the lower boom or articulating arm, and rotates about the
centerline of rotation.
turntable winch a winch located on the turntable.
turret see turntable.
two-man platform a platform designed to carry two people. It is
usually 24 wide x 48 wide.
two-part line a multiple-part line on a digger derrick in which the
winch line is routed from the boom tip sheave down to a snatch block
at the load and then back up to a stationary attachment point on the
boom.
two-position valve a valve having two positions for direction of fluid
flow, such as open and closed.
two-speed motor a motor which has two operating speed and
torque modes (a low-speed, high-torque mode, and a high-speed, low-
torque mode) that can be selected by the operator.
two-way valve a valve having two ports for direction of fluid flow, with
one internal flow path which can be open or blocked.
UNC Unified National Coarse, a thread description.
underframe an outrigger weldment mounting position located
beneath the unit subbase or vehicle chassis frame.
undertighten to torque a threaded fastener below the recom-
mended value.
UNF Unified National Fine, a thread description.
unfold to move a pivoting structure such as an articulating upper
boom away from its stowed position.
unit the Altec device(s), subbase, outriggers, body and associated
interface items mounted on a chassis, but not including the chassis
itself.
unload to release hydraulic flow, usually directly to the reservoir, to
prevent pressure buildup.
unloaded vehicle weight the total weight of the completed mobile
unit without payload.
unloading valve a valve that bypasses flow to the reservoir when a
set pressure is maintained on its pilot port.
upper arm the primary load-carrying structure of a double elevator
which is located between the riser and the upper pedestal.
upper arm cylinder the hydraulic cylinder that moves the upper arm
of a double elevator up and down.
upper boom (UPR BOOM) the boom section in a boom assembly
which is farthest from the turntable when the boom assembly is fully
extended or unfolded, and which supports the boom tip sheave and/or
platform(s).
upper boom cylinder the hydraulic cylinder that moves the upper
boom about its pivot point on an articulating-boom aerial device.
upper boom drive mechanism the components used to produce
upper boom movement on an articulating boom-aerial device, such as
linkage, cables, sheaves and/or gears.
upper boom rest the structural member that supports the upper
boom in the rest or travel position.
upper boom tip the boom tip of an upper boom.
upper control valve the hydraulic valve on or beside the platform
of an aerial device used for operating some or all of the functions of the
aerial device.
upper controls the controls located on or beside the platform used
for operating some or all of the functions of the unit.
upper pedestal the structure within an elevator lift that connects the
elevator lift to the aerial device rotation bearing.
upper tool circuit a tool hydraulic circuit with quick disconnect
couplings located at the upper boom tip.
vacuum the absence of pressure. A perfect vacuum is the total
absence of pressure; a partial vacuum is some condition less than
atmospheric pressure. Vacuum is measured in inches of mercury (in.
Hg.).
3-05
14 Appendix Glossary
valve a device that controls fluid flow direction, pressure or flow rate.
vane pump a type of pump with a rotor and several sliding vanes in
an elliptical chamber. Hydraulic fluid enters the expanding area and is
forced out as the fluid is moved to the decreasing chamber area.
variable displacement pump a pump in which the size of the
pumping chamber(s) can be changed, so that the output flow can be
changed by moving the displacement control or varying the drive speed
or both.
vehicle a carrier for a unit.
velocity the speed of linear motion in a given direction.
velocity fuse a hydraulic valve that is used to stop fluid flow through
it when the flow rate reaches a predetermined cut-off value.
vent an air breathing device on a fluid reservoir or hydraulic line.
VI see viscosity index.
viscosity a measure of the internal friction or resistance to flow of a
fluid.
viscosity index (VI) a measure of the resistance to change in
viscosity of a fluid with change in temperature. The higher the number,
the less the viscosity will change as the temperature changes.
voltmeter an instrument used to measure the potential difference in
volts between two points in an electrical circuit.
volume 1: the size of a space or chamber in cubic units. 2: loosely
applied to the output flow of a pump in gallons per minute (gpm).
vortex a whirlpool of liquid.
waist harness a belt device worn by the operator of a radio remote
control system to which the transmitter is attached.
walking beam outrigger an extendible outrigger which has a pivot
point at the top of the nonextending leg and a linkage attached to the
extending leg, so that the leg assembly rotates about the pivot point to
increase the outrigger spread as it is extended.
warning an instruction that indicates a potentially hazardous situa-
tion which, if not avoided, could result in death or serious injury.
water monitor an articulating mechanism that is used to direct the
flow of a high pressure water stream.
water removal filter cartridge a special filter cartridge designed to
absorb and remove water from hydraulic fluid. It is not intended for use
during normal operation, but is for use when water removal is required.
way a term which describes how many ports are in a valve or valve
section.
weldment a structural unit formed by welding together an assembly
of pieces.
wheel chock a wedge or block placed on the ground in front of or
behind the wheel of a vehicle to block the movement of the wheel.
winch a mechanism consisting of a gearbox with a cylindrical
rotating drum on which to coil a line for load hoisting or line tensioning.
winch capacity the maximum load, specified by the manufacturer,
that can be pulled on the first layer of line on the winch drum at rated
system pressure.
winch line a load hoisting line consisting of a synthetic or wire rope.
winch line rated working load the average breaking strength of a
winch line (as specified by the line manufacturer) divided by the
appropriate design factor as specified by ANSI.
wire rope a rope made from steel wires which are formed into
strands that are then twisted about each other in a spiral configuration.
work the exertion of a force moving through a definite distance. Work
is measured in units of force multiplied by distance; for example, pound-
feet.
worm gearbox a gearbox that utilizes a gear which has a continuous
helix tooth or teeth similar to a large screw thread along shaft (worm),
that drives a gear which has teeth cut at an angle along a its outside
diameter (worm gear). The rotational axis of the worm is perpendicular
to the rotational axis of the worm gear.
wrap a single coil of winch line on a winch drum.
Y-cable an electrical cable assembly which contains three branches
joined at a common point, similar to a Y.
zerk see grease fitting.
3-05
Service Tools and Supplies
Appendix Service Tools and Supplies
Most routine maintenance and service of the unit can be
performed with common hand tools and shop supplies
available from a tool supply company. Some special tools
and supplies are available from your Altec representative
that may be useful or required to perform certain mainte-
nance procedures. These items are categorized with
their corresponding Altec part number. The list contains
items for both aerial devices and derricks. An Accessory
and Replacement Parts Catalog is also available for
ordering other items that may not be shown in the Parts
Manual. This catalog can be obtained through your Altec
representative.
Part Number
041-90001
041-90002
099-00062
703-50039
099-00008
099-00017
099-00018
099-00025
099-00033
099-00050
099-00019
099-00020
099-00037
099-00069
099-00021
099-00039
099-00040
099-00041
099-60007
Product
Fiberglass Care
Gelcoat kit
Formula Five Clean N Glaze
Plastic Kleen #2 Polish
Bonding kit
White paint
Lubrication
Gear Shield
Chain and Cable Fluid
Moly grease
Anti-seize compound (16 oz can)
Anti-seize compound (
1
/4 lb tube)
Fasteners
Thread locking adhesive
(Purple 50 ml)
Thread locking adhesive
(Blue 50 ml)
Thread locking adhesive
(Red 50 ml)
Thread locking adhesive
(Red 50 ml)
Stainless steel safety wire
(5 lb roll)
Cleaning solvent (12 oz)
Primer (Grade N 6 oz)
Primer (Grade T 6 oz)
Wire twisting pliers
Purpose/Use
Repair fiberglass platforms and booms.
Cleaning and polishing fiberglass.
Nontoxic plastic cleaner.
Rebond fiberglass booms.
Nonmetallic spray paint.
Lubricate rotation gears and pinions.
Lubricate cables such as wire rope winch line, auger windup
sling, and leveling cables.
Component lubrication.
Component lubrication.
Component lubrication.
Low strength thread locking and sealing agent for small
diameter screws.
Medium strength thread locking and sealing agent for bolts
and nuts.
High strength thread locking and sealing agent for large
diameter bolts and cap screws.
Medium/high strength thread locking agent.
Lockwiring fasteners.
Quick drying, nonflammable solvent used for cleaning parts
prior to bonding. Leaves no residue.
Anaerobic solvent reduces cure time on thread locking
adhesive.
Anaerobic solvent reduces cure time on thread locking
adhesive.
Lockwiring fasteners.
Part Number
099-00038
099-00034
352-79006
352-79008
353-30007
353-30016
356-90002
750-40039
099-00051
099-00042
099-00061
Product
Hydraulic System Care
Pipe sealant (50 ml)
Flowmeter
Test block small bore (
7
/8 hex)
Test block large bore (1
1
/8)
Return line filter cartridge
Water removal filter cartridge
Diagnostic test kit
Oil warming kit
Corrosion suppressant
Electrical System Care
Conformal coating (14 oz)
Lectra-Motive Electric
Parts Cleaner (19 oz)
Purpose/Use
General purpose pipe sealant for use on pipes to two inches.
Testing hydraulic system.
Testing counterbalance valve.
Testing counterbalance valve.
Filters hydraulic oil before it is returned to the reservoir.
Removes water from the hydraulic system.
Testing hydraulic systems.
Warm hydraulic oil to operating temperature in cold weather.
Chrome cylinder rod protection.
Silicon based electrical component protection.
Clean and degrease electrical systems.
Appendix Service Tools and Supplies
Vehicle No. __________________________ Location ___________________________ Date ________________
Model Number _________________________________ Serial Number _________________________________
Odometer _________________ Hours Meter _________________ Inspector _____________________________
Perform all inspections, adjustments, repairs, and lubrication according to Altec specifications in the Maintenance
Manual. Refer to any MABs, CSNs, or other applicable documents provided by Altec for servicing the unit.
If you are tracking PTO hours utilizing an approved method or device, follow the recommended hourly maintenance
intervals, or if you are performing maintenance based upon a calendar-based schedule, follow the recommended
monthly intervals. The required items apply to both interval-tracking systems.
Intervals
Prior to placing unit in service 85 PTO hours/1 month 500 PTO hours/6 months
1,000 PTO hours/1 year 2,000 PTO hours/2 years Required maintenance
Symbols
= Okay or completed C = Corrected by inspector R = Repair or replacement required
U = Unsafe to operate N/A = Not applicable
Preventive Maintenance and Inspection Checklist
500 PTO Hours/6 Months
Prior to Placing Unit in Service
85 PTO Hours/1 Month
Perform the Daily Preoperational Inspection
(refer to the Operators Manual)
Hydraulic Reservoir and System
Check oil and collect oil sample for analysis
1
Perform the Daily Preoperational Inspection
(refer to the Operators Manual)
General Condition
Clean debris from turntable, cylinders, boom tip
Hydraulic Reservoir
Oil level
Hydraulic System
Pedestal (no leaks)
Turntable (no leaks)
Boom tip (no leaks)
Rotation Bearing
Turntable tilt measurement
2
: ___________
Appendix Preventive Maintenance and Inspection Checklist
4-bolt flange cap screws secure
Drive line
Noise level
No leaks
Unit Mounting
Subbase mounting (fasteners secure, welds intact,
no cracks)
Subbase structure (welds intact, no cracks)
Pedestal mounting (fasteners secure, welds intact,
no cracks)
Boom rest (welds intact, no deformation or cracks)
Perform the 85 hour/1 month inspection
PTO
Operation, noise level, no leaks
Mounting cap screws secure
Supplemental Brake Lock
Operation (holding, no bleed-off)
Chassis Underside
Hoses (routing, condition)
Exhaust shields
Pump
Mounting cap screws secure
Fiberglass Boom(s)
Boom (condition, clean)
Arm and link (condition, clean)
Lubrication
Rotation bearing ball race
Lift cylinder spherical bearings
Arm cylinder spherical bearing
Rotation pinion and bearing gear teeth
Outrigger inner leg outer surfaces
Appendix Preventive Maintenance and Inspection Checklist
Utility body mounting (cap screws secure, welds intact,
no cracks)
Hydraulic Reservoir
Mounting (cap screws secure, welds intact, no cracks)
No leaks
Shutoff valves fully open
Drain water from bottom
Filters
Change return line filter
Outriggers
Mounting (welds intact, no deformation or cracks)
Interlock system operation
Operation (holding without drift, no leaks)
Structures (welds intact, no deformation or cracks)
Pins and retainers secure, retaining cap screws secure
Motion alarm
Hoses and tubes (routing, condition)
Placards (condition, readable)
Control valves (operation, leaks)
Lower Tools Circuit
Operation, no leaks
Hoses (routing, condition)
Quick disconnect couplers (condition, operation, dust
caps)
Hydraulic System Pressure
Main system pressure (_______ psi)
Tool system pressure (_______psi)
Lower Controls
Placards (condition, readable)
Engine start/stop switch (operation)
Secondary stowage DC pump switch (operation)
Lower/emergency stop/upper control switch (operation)
Station selector valve (operation, no leaks)
Operation, no leaks
Lower control valve (operation, no leaks)
Pedestal
Structure (welds intact, no deformation or cracks)
Hoses and tubes (routing, condition)
No leaks
Placards (condition, readable)
Turntable
Structure (welds intact, no deformation or cracks)
Boom pin and retainers secure
Lift cylinder pivot pin and retainers secure
Hoses and tubes (routing, condition)
No leaks
Articulating arm pivot pin retaining system (condition,
in place, secure)
Articulating arm cylinder retaining system (condition,
in place, secure)
Placards (condition, readable)
Rotary joint mounting cap screws secure
Slip ring mounting cap screws secure
Rotation Bearing and Gearbox
Gearbox mounting cap screw visual inspection
Gearbox oil level
Motor mounting cap screws secure
Eccentric ring lock (in place, secure)
No leaks
Pinion gear teeth
Rotation bearing gear teeth condition
Pinion to rotation bearing gear backlash
Gearbox internal lost motion
Operation (smoothness, noise level)
Rotation bearing cap screw visual inspection
Rotation gearbox brake adjustment
Rotation bearing inspection and measurement (after
0.050 increased wear from initial measurement)
2
Articulating Arm Cylinder
Pivot bearings secure within cylinder eyes
Pin retainers secure
Operation, no leaks
Holding valves (operation, no leaks)
Chromed rod condition
Articulating Arm
Structure (welds intact, no deformation or cracks)
Lift cylinder pivot pin and retainers secure
Fasteners secure
Insulator fasteners secure
Insulator (condition, clean, undamaged)
Remove any debris from inside lower boom
Boom slide blocks (cap screws secure, blocks not
excessively worn)
Boom
Structure (welds intact, no deformation or cracks)
Fiberglass fasteners secure
Fiberglass (condition, clean)
Hose assembly (no leaks, securely attached to
tension rod)
No leaks
Clean inside of reservoir
Clean magnetic suction separator filter
Change hydraulic oil
Dielectric test insulated single handle control(s),
if so equipped
Required Maintenance (Regardless of Hours)
1,000 PTO Hours/1 Year
Annual Testing
Dielectric test unit
Dielectric test platform liner(s)
Appendix Preventive Maintenance and Inspection Checklist
Covers in place
Upper boom restraint (condition, operation)
Boom tip weldment (welds intact, no deformation or
cracks)
Boom tip fasteners secure
Remove any debris from inside upper boom
Platform leveling cylinder mounting pins (condition,
cap screws secure and lockwired)
Lift Cylinder
Cylinder attachment pins (condition, cap screws
secure and lockwired, retaining rings in place)
Pivot bearings secure within cylinder eyes
Operation, no leaks
Holding valves (operation, no leaks)
Chromed rod condition
Boom Tip
Structure (welds intact, no deformation or cracks)
Mounting to upper boom secure
Platform
Mounting secure (bracket, pins and fasteners)
Platform mounting cap screws secure
Platform (condition, clean)
Liner (condition, clean, fasteners secure)
Placards (condition, readable)
Hoses (routing, not pinched or pulled, no leaks)
Lanyard attachment secure
Covers in place
Upper Controls
Operation (metering, proper direction, no leaks)
2,000 PTO Hours/2 Years
Placards (condition, readable)
Emergency stop operation
Mechanical linkage (operation, adjustment)
Rubber boot (condition, in place)
Single handle control isolating links (condition, clean)
Interlock linkage (condition, adjustment)
Blocking section of upper control valve (operation,
no leaks)
No operation in upper controls Off position
Engine start/stop control
Placards (condition, readable)
Tools at Platform
Quick disconnects (condition, operation, no leaks)
Quick disconnect dust caps (condition, in place)
Hoses (routing, condition, no leaks)
Platform Tilt System
Tilt valve (condition, no leaks)
Operation
Platform tilt cylinder (operation, fasteners secure,
no leaks)
Lubrication
Interlock linkage
Upper control mechanical linkage
Outrigger valve handle linkage
Rotation gearbox output shaft upper bearing
Rotation gearbox oil level
Perform the 500 hour/6 month inspection
Hydraulic Reservoir and System
Clean suction filter
Change filler breather cap
Clean or change filler hole strainer
Collect oil sample for analysis
1
Rotation Bearing and Rotation Gearbox
Annual torque inspection
Lubrication
Pump input shaft splines
Perform the 1,000 hour/1 year inspection
Hydraulic Reservoir and System
Flush hydraulic system
1
Periodic laboratory analysis is the most accurate method of determining the condition of the hydraulic oil and when it should be changed.
If laboratory analysis is used, take baseline sample. Compare future lab tests on subsequent samples to the original to establish a trend.
2
Initially measure turntable tilt as a baseline. Check rotation bearing wear every 2 years until it measures 0.050 increased wear from initial
measurements. After reaching 0.050 increased wear, measure every 6 months. Refer to the Maintenance Manual for the proper procedure.
Appendix Preventive Maintenance and Inspection Checklist
Rotation Bearing
Rotation bearing inspection and measurement (before
0.050 increased wear from initial measurement)
2
Lubrication
Change rotation gearbox oil
Appendix Accessory Checklist
Accessory Checklist
Vehicle No. __________________________ Location ___________________________ Date ________________
Model Number ___________________ Serial Number ___________________ Inspector ___________________
Symbols
= Okay or completed C = Corrected by inspector R = Repair or replacement required
U = Unsafe to operate N/A = Not applicable
1,000 PTO Hours or as Recommended by the Manufacturer
* DOT items
Unit Accessories
Platform liners
Platform covers
Tool holders (mounting and condition)
Scabbard (mounting and condition)
Spare augers
Screw anchor wrench
Lifting slings and chains
Hydraulic cooler (mounting, condition and fan operation)
Hydraulic oil heater (operation and condition)
ROACS system (operation)
Radio controls
Auxiliary power unit (mounting, pump to bellhousing
bolts, exhaust system, cooling system, fuel system)
Body Accessories
Body (structure, mounting)
Outrigger pads and holders
Pole rack mounting
Access steps (condition and mounting)
Cargo area retention (mounting and condition)
Dump bed operation (dump hoist and body prop)
Spotlights and work lights
Beacons
Wheel chocks and holders
Mud flaps
Cones and holders
Inverters (operation and mounting)
Generators (operation and mounting)
Platform rest (condition and mounting)
Fire extinguishers*
First aid kit
Flare kit/warning triangles (3)*
Grounding reel
Power cord reel
Hotstick tube or box
Ladder rack
Spare fuse pack*
Chassis Accessories
Front winch (mounting and operation)
PTO and driveline
Bed winch
Capstan
Collapsible reel
Secondary brake system
Pintle hitch (condition and mounting)
Safety chain eyebolts
Trailer plug
Tow hooks
Cab guard
Brake controller (mounting and operation)
Back up alarm (mounting and operation)
Torsion bar
Hydraulic Tools and Hoses
Hose reel and hoses
Pole puller, chain and base
Impact
Chain saw
Tamp
Quick disconnects
Appendix Accessory Checklist
Torque Values
Appendix Torque Values
Fitting Size T.F.F.T. Fitting Size T.F.F.T.
1
/8 2 to 2
1
/2
3
/4 1
1
/2 to 2
3
/16 2 to 2
1
/2
7
/8 1
1
/2 to 2
1
/4 2 to 2
1
/2 1 1
1
/2 to 2
5
/16 2 to 2
1
/2 1
1
/8 1
1
/2 to 2
3
/8 1
1
/2 to 2 1
1
/2 1
1
/2 to 2
1
/2 2 to 2
1
/2 2 1
1
/2 to 2
5
/8 2 to 2
1
/2
Pipe Thread T.F.F.T. Valve Cartridges
Wrench Size Fitting Size Torque ft-lbs (Nm)
7
/8 -8 20 (27)
1 -10 25 (34)
1
1
/8 -10 25 (34)
1
1
/4 -12 35 (48)
1
1
/2 -16 50 (68)
2 -20 65 (88)
Compression Fittings
Tube Size Fitting Size T.F.F.T.
1
/8 thru
1
/4 2 thru 4 1
1
/4
5
/16 5 1
3
/4
3
/8 thru 1 6 thru 16 2
1
/4
Split Flanges
Flange Size Thread Torque in-lbs (Nm)
3
/4
3
/8-16 250 to 350 (28 to 40)
1
3
/8-16 325 to 425 (37 to 48)
1
1
/4
7
/16-14 425 to 550 (48 to 62)
1
1
/2
1
/2-13 550 to 700 (62 to 79)
2
1
/2-13 650 to 800 (73 to 90)
Size
SAE Grade 5
ft-lbs (Nm)
SAE Grade 8
Hex and Socket Head
ft-lbs (Nm)
Button and Flat Head
ft-lbs (Nm)
1
/4 0.2500 8 (11) 6 (8) 11 (15) 9 (12) 9 (12) 8 (11)
5
/16 0.3125 16 (22) 13 (18) 22 (30) 18 (24) 19 (26) 15 (20)
3
/8 0.3750 28 (38) 23 (31) 39 (53) 33 (45) 33 (45) 28 (38)
7
/16 0.4375 44 (60) 37 (50) 63 (85) 52 (71) 54 (73) 45 (61)
1
/2 0.5000 68 (92) 57 (77) 96 (130) 80 (108) 82 (111) 68 (92)
9
/16 0.5625 98 (133) 82 (111) 138 (187) 115 (156) 118 (160) 98 (133)
5
/8 0.6250 135 (183) 113 (153) 191 (259) 159 (216) 164 (222) 136 (184)
3
/4 0.7500 240 (325) 200 (271) 339 (460) 282 (382) 290 (393) 241 (327)
7
/8 0.8750 386 (523) 322 (437) 545 (739) 455 (617) 467 (633) 390 (529)
1 1.0000 579 (785) 483 (655) 818 (1,109) 681 (923) 701 (951) 583 (791)
Cap Screws
Torque values shown are for turning the nut while holding the head of the bolt with a wrench. If the application demands tightening by the bolt head,
increase the torque slightly (by 5-20 percent depending on the bolt length) to allow for the normal twist of the bolt shank.
Dry Lubed Dry Lubed Dry Lubed
Appendix Torque Values
Torque With Self-Locking Nuts Torque Without Self-Locking Nuts
Fitting Size in-lbs (Nm) in-lbs (Nm)
-2 60 to 70 (7 to 8) 85 to 95 (10 to 11)
-3 120 to 140 (14 to 16) 160 to 180 (18 to 20)
-4 180 to 200 (20 to 23) 205 to 235 (23 to 27)
-5 245 to 275 (28 to 31) 245 to 275 (28 to 31)
-6 300 to 340 (34 to 38) 300 to 340 (34 to 38)
-8 545 to 595 (62 to 67) 545 to 595 (62 to 67)
-10 690 to 750 (78 to 85) 1,010 to 1,110 (114 to 125)
-12 910 to 1,010 (103 to 114) 1,250 to 1,350 (141 to 153)
-14 1,675 to 1,825 (189 to 206) 1,675 to 1,825 (189 to 206)
-16 1,845 to 1,995 (208 to 225) 1,895 to 1,945 (214 to 220)
-20 2,550 to 2,850 (288 to 322) 2,550 to 2,850 (288 to 322)
-24 2,850 to 3,150 (322 to 356) 2,850 to 3,150 (322 to 356)
-32 3,700 to 4,100 (418 to 463) 3,700 to 4,100 (418 to 463)
Upper values are for stainless steel.
SAE O-Ring Fittings
Misalignment
of marks show
how much nut
was tightened
Tube and JIC Fittings
Rotate Number
Tube Size Fitting Size of Hex Flats
1
/4 -4 2
5
/16 -5 2
3
/8 -6 1
1
/2
1
/2 -8 1
1
/2
5
/8 -10 1
1
/2
3
/4 -12 1
1
/4
1 -16 1
1
1
/4 -20 1
1
1
/2 -24 1
Basic JIC Symbols
Appendix Basic JIC Symbols
Methods of Operation
Spring
Manual
Manual, rotary
Push button
Push/pull lever
Pedal or treadle
Mechanical
Detent
Pressure compensated
Solenoid, single winding
Servo motor
Pilot pressure
Lines
Remote supply
Internal supply
Line, pressure or tank
Line, sense (for control)
Component enclosure
Flow, direction of
Lines crossing
Lines joining
Line with fixed restriction
Flow control adjustable, non-compensated
Flow control adjustable
(temperature and pressure compensated)
Station, testing, measurement,
power take-off or plugged port
or
)
Hydraulic
Pneumatic
Appendix Basic JIC Symbols
Double-acting
Single-acting, internal spring
Single-acting, external spring
Check
Counterbalance
On - off (manual shut-off)
Pressure relief
Pressure reducing
Two-position, two connection
Two-position, three connection
Two-position, four connection
Three-position, four connection
Two-position, in transition
Valves capable of infinite
positioning (horizontal bars
indicate infinite positioning ability)
Shuttle valve
Typical closed center spool
Typical open center spool
Cylinders Valves
Reservoir
Line, to reservoir
Vented manifold
Vented
Pressurized
Above fluid level
Below fluid level
Fluid Storage
Hydraulic oscillator
Hydraulic motor
Fixed displacement
Variable displacement
Bidirectional
Motors
Pumps
Hydraulic pump
Fixed displacement
Variable displacement
)
Appendix Basic JIC Symbols
Variable component
(run arrow through symbol at 45 degrees)
Pressure compensated units
(arrow parallel to short side of symbol)
Direction of shaft rotation
(assume arrow on near side of shaft)
Flowmeter
Pressure switch
Pressure gauge
Pressure sensor
Temperature gauge
Quick disconnect
Internal combustion engine
Accumulator, spring loaded
Accumulator, gas charged
Weighted
Filter, strainer
Filter with adjustable bypass
Heater
Cooler
Temperature controller
Temperature cause or effect
Miscellaneous
(
(
Appendix Basic JIC Symbols
Hydraulic System Schematics
Appendix Hydraulic System Schematics
Single Handle Control
Appendix Hydraulic System Schematics
Multi-Lever Control
Appendix Hydraulic System Schematics
OUTLET
1 6 3 7 - B US T . C H A R L E S , IL
d u k e s f lu id p o w e r
C
2
V
2
C
1
V
1
INLET
ARM ROT BOOM
UP CW UP
DN CCW DN
O
U
T
B
I
N
A
OUTLET
INLET
UP
ARM
DN CW UP
DN CCW
BOOM ROT LEV
DN
UP
358-00224
1-00
AL32
FILTER
RETURN LINE
R E
OPERATED
VALVE
CHECK
PILOT
VALVE
W/RELIEF
VALVE
OUTRIGGER
OUTRIGGER
R
P
P
R
R
E
EMERGENCY STOP
CONTROL VALVE
TOOL
OUTLETS
UPPER
CONTROL
VALVE
PLATFORM
LEVELING
COUNTERBALANCE
VALVE
UPPER
LEVELING
CYLINDER
BOOM
CYLINDER
FLOW
CONTROL
VALVES
TOOL
CONTROL
VALVE
ORIFICE
LOWER
LEVELING
CYLINDER
ORIFICE LOWER
CONTROL
VALVE
ARTICULATING
ARM CYLINDER
FLOW
CONTROL
VALVE
ROTARY
JOINT
PILOT
OPERATED
CHECK
VALVE
ROTATION
MOTOR
PILOT
OPERATED
CHECK
VALVE
ABOVE ROTATION
BELOW ROTATION
TOOL
OUTLETS
OUTRIGGER
CYLINDER
OUTRIGGER
CYLINDER
OPERATED
CHECK
VALVE
PILOT
OUTRIGGER
INTERLOCK
VALVE
RESERVOIR
SUCTION
STRAINER
DC
PUMP
PUMP
CHECK
VALVE
SUCTION LINE
SYSTEM PRESSURE LINE
RETURN LINE
FUNCTION SUPPLY LINE
358-00224
1-00
AL32
Single Handle Control
Appendix Hydraulic System Schematics
Appendix Hydraulic System Schematics
358-00225
1-00
AL32
MULTI-LEVER CONTROL
OUTLET
1 6 3 7 - B US T . C H A R L E S , ILd u k e s f lu i d p o w e r
C
2
V
2
C
1
V
1
INLET
ARM ROT BOOM
UP CW UP
DN CCW DN
O
U
T
B
I
N
A
ARM ROT BOOM
OUTLET
INLET
DN CW UP
UP CCW DN
LEV
DN
UP
FILTER
RETURN LINE
R E
OPERATED
VALVE
CHECK
PILOT
VALVE
W/RELIEF
VALVE
OUTRIGGER
OUTRIGGER
R
P
P
R
R
E
EMERGENCY STOP
CONTROL VALVE
TOOL
OUTLETS
UPPER
CONTROL
VALVE
PLATFORM
LEVELING
COUNTERBALANCE
VALVE
UPPER
LEVELING
CYLINDER
BOOM
CYLINDER
FLOW
CONTROL
VALVES
TOOL
CONTROL
VALVE
ORIFICE
LOWER
LEVELING
CYLINDER
ORIFICE
LOWER
CONTROL
VALVE
ARTICULATING
ARM CYLINDER
FLOW
CONTROL
VALVE
ROTARY
JOINT
PILOT
OPERATED
CHECK
VALVE
ROTATION
MOTOR
PILOT
OPERATED
CHECK
VALVE
ABOVE ROTATION
BELOW ROTATION
TOOL
OUTLETS
OUTRIGGER
CYLINDER
OUTRIGGER
CYLINDER
OPERATED
CHECK
VALVE
PILOT
OUTRIGGER
INTERLOCK
VALVE
RESERVOIR
SUCTION
STRAINER
DC
PUMP
PUMP
CHECK
VALVE
FUNCTION SUPPLY LINE
SYSTEM PRESSURE LINE
RETURN LINE
SUCTION LINE
358-00225
1-00
AL32
Multi-Lever Control
Appendix Hydraulic System Schematics
Appendix Basic Electrical Symbols
Basic Electrical Symbols
Relays
Switches
Transistors
Motor
Circuit breaker
Fuse
Capacitor
Coil
Connection
No connection
Battery
Ground
Diodes
Resistors
Chassis or common return connected
to one side of voltage source
Chassis or common return not
connected to voltage source
Fixed
Variable
Rectifier
Photoemissive diode (LED)
Simple
Bistable
Latching
Logic
Single-pole, single-throw (SPST)
Single-pole, double-throw (SPDT)
Double-pole, single throw (DPST)
Double-pole, double-throw (DPDT)
NPN
PNP
Air-core
Iron-core
K A
K A
M
B
C
E
B
C
E
Appendix Basic Electrical Symbols
Wiring Line Diagrams
Appendix Wiring Line Diagrams
670-00086 A
DC PUMP
Secondary Stowage System, Captive Air
670-00086 A
DC PUMP
Engine Start/Stop With Secondary Stowage System, Captive Air
Appendix Wiring Line Diagrams
Throttle Control, Captive Air
Engine Start/Stop, Captive Air
Troubleshooting Chart
Appendix Troubleshooting Chart
Symptom
Nothing operates.
Cylinder drifts.
Functions
operate too
slow from
upper controls.
No function above rota-
tion operates.
Test Procedure/Corrective Action
Place truck/machine selector switch in the Machine position.
Check oil reservoir. If oil is low, add hydraulic oil to the proper level.
Check hydraulic system. If it is not engaged, properly engage it.
If there is no pressure at the lower control valve, check for loss of prime
to pump, which may be caused by a leak in the suction line to the pump.
Check for proper plumbing.
Connect a flowmeter to the pump and check pump flow. It should indicate
approximately 3.5 gpm at 2,350 psi. If pump flow is less than this,
determine the cause of malfunction. Repair or replace the pump.
Check shutoff valve. If shutoff valve is closed, open it. On belt-driven
pumps, check for belt damage. On PTO driven pumps, check for hydraulic
system component damage.
Test the cylinder for internal leakage. If internal leakage is determined,
replace the seals in the cylinder or replace the cylinder.
Replace holding valve O-ring seal.
Make certain that the boom is not being overloaded, causing counterbal-
ance valves to open.
Test the cylinder to determine if the holding valve is the source of the
leakage. If the holding valve is a counterbalance valve, test and adjust the
valve by using an Altec test block or replace the valve cartridge. If the
holding valve is a pilot operated check valve, replace the check valve
cartridge.
Check for hot spots in the pressure line to the upper control valve.
Restricted area will feel warmer than the rest of the hydraulic system. If a
restriction is found, remove it.
Check the interlock trigger for proper placement. If necessary, adjust the
interlock trigger to fully open the return/tools section of the upper controls.
Remove the spool for the return/tools section of the upper control valve.
Inspect the spool for contamination. If contamination is found, clean and/
or replace the spool.
Check the position of the lower control handle on the turntable. If station
selector is in the Lower Controls position, position the handle in the Upper
Controls position.
Check operation of valve. Clean and/or replace as necessary.
Adjust system pressure relief valve.
Properly set outriggers. All outrigger interlock switches must be activated
for machine functions to operate.
Possible Cause
Truck/machine selector
switch in the cab is in
the Truck position.
Hydraulic oil not reach-
ing pump.
Hydraulic system not
engaged.
No system pressure.
Pump not operating
properly.
Shutoff valve between
pump and reservoir
closed.
Internal leakage in cyl-
inder.
Leakage past holding
valve.
Restriction in the pres-
sure line connected to
the upper control valve.
Interlock trigger on the
single handle control is
not properly adjusted.
Return/tools section of
the upper control valve
not fully shifted.
Lower control selector
valve not fully shifted to
the upper controls po-
sition.
Lower control valve
section in lower control
valve not shifting.
System pressure relief
valve is set too low.
Outriggers not properly
set.
Test Procedure/Corrective Action
Troubleshoot the outrigger interlock system. Determine if the problem is in
the electrical portion or hydraulic portion of the system. Replace faulty
component.
Check outrigger interlock electrical switches. Replace if necessary.
Isolate and repair the problem.
Check the station selector. Place in the Upper Controls position.
Check the operation of the lower controls selector valve. If faulty, replace
the station selector valve.
Check for damaged mechanical linkage between interlock trigger and
upper control valve.
Clean pilot port of check valve or replace pilot operated check valve
(located in turntable near lower control valve).
Check for hot spots in the pressure line. Restricted area will feel warmer
than the rest of the hydraulic system. If a restriction is found, remove it.
Check for damaged control valve handle linkage or for contamination in
spool end cap.
Check pump with flowmeter. Replace pump if defective.
Adjust engine throttle to achieve 3.5 gpm pump flow.
Replace counterbalance valve.
Remove counterbalance valve and adjust using a test block.
Replace counterbalance valve with a new factory adjusted valve.
Replace seals in cylinder or replace cylinder.
Adjust system pressure relief valve.
Turn boom tip tools valve on.
Refer to Throttle Control.
Lubricate or replace as necessary.
Remove restriction or replace line.
Fill reservoir to the correct level.
Appendix Troubleshooting Chart
Symptom
(continued)
No function above rota-
tion operates.
Excessive heat buildup.
Unit operates from the
lower controls, but no
boom functions operate
from the upper controls.
All functions operate
slow from the lower and
upper controls.
Boom or arm cylinder
doesnt hold under load.
Cannot achieve full sys-
tem pressure.
All functions operate
except power tools.
Engine throttle control
not functioning properly.
All functions operate
except outriggers.
Pump is noisy.
Possible Cause
Outri gger i nterl ock
valve is not opening.
Many possibilities.
Station selector in the
Lower Controls posi-
tion.
Lower controls valve is
not fully shifted.
Return/tools section of
the upper control valve
not fully shifted.
Upper controls return
l i ne pi l ot operated
check valve contamina-
tion.
Restriction in pressure
line.
Control valve spools do
not fully shift.
Low pump flow.
Throttle not set prop-
erly.
Counterbalance valve
contamination.
Counterbalance valve
malfunction, out of ad-
justment.
Internal cylinder leak-
age.
System pressure relief
valve is set too low.
Tools turned off.
Component malfunc-
tion.
Sticky outrigger valve
spools.
Blocked or plugged hy-
draulic line.
Reservoir oil level too
low.
Test Procedure/Corrective Action
Suction line shutoff valve not fully open.
Suction hose is kinked or plugged.
Suction hose too small (1
1
/4 minimum).
Low oil level (fill reservoir to correct level).
Loose hydraulic fitting (tighten or replace if necessary).
Correct misalignment.
Restriction in suction line (remove kink or replace hose).
Improper hydraulic oil viscosity (replace oil with that of proper viscosity).
Air entering hydraulic lines (fix faulty hydraulic fittings).
Excessive pump speed.
Replace faulty component.
Symptom
(continued)
Pump is noisy.
Severe hydraulic leak.
Possible Cause
Restriction in pump suc-
tion line.
Air entering suction line.
PTO/pump connection
misaligned.
Cavitation.
Hose, tube, fitting, seal
failure, etc.
Appendix Troubleshooting Chart
Appendix Troubleshooting Chart
27 27 Hold for one minute, record leakage.
54 54 Record leakage when voltage is reached.
54 after 1 min. 54 Hold for one minute, leakage may not increase more than 10%.
80 80 Hold for 10 seconds. No flashover may occur.
50 3,000 Hold for three minutes. No flashover may occur.
General Information
Model number ____________________________ Serial number __________________________________________
Test device number _____________________
Conclusion
Date ____________________________ Tests performed by______________________________________________
Pass _______ Fail (reason) ________________________________________________________________________
Comments: ____________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________________________
Dielectric Test Form, Category B, 46 kV and Below
Appendix Dielectric Test Forms
Polyethylene Pad Ground
Controls
Ground
High Voltage
Transformer
Articulating Arm
Meter
Receptacle
Bonding
Jumper
Test Band
Test
Lead
Ground
Return Lead
Bonding
Jumper
Procedure
1. Read and understand Section 9 in the Maintenance Manual and ANSI requirements.
2. Insulate the vehicle from ground by placing polyethylene pads beneath each tire and outrigger leg.
3. Electrically bond all metal at the boom tip and the booms as illustrated.
4. Attach ground return lead to the vehicle as illustrated.
5. Attach the high voltage test lead (insulated from ground) to the unit as illustrated.
6. Do not use cancel (null) circuit if the tester is so equipped.
7. To reduce height for indoor testing, the dielectric test may be conducted with the articulating arm lowered to no
less than 30 degrees above horizontal.
8. Using voltages in the table below, test articulating arm and boom. Record leakage.
Voltage kV
60 Hz. Reading ANSI Maximum
Boom Test
Leakage (Microamps)
Voltage kV
60 Hz. Reading ANSI Maximum
Insulated Articulating Arm Test
Leakage (Microamps)
Upper Boom Test
Lower Boom Test

Appendix Dielectric Test Forms
Dielectric Test Form, Category C
Procedure
1. Read and understand Section 9 in the Maintenance Manual and ANSI requirements.
2. Insulate the vehicle from ground by placing polyethylene pads beneath each tire and outrigger leg.
3. Electrically bond all metal at the boom tip and the booms as illustrated.
4. Attach the ground return lead to the vehicle as illustrated.
5. Attach the high voltage test lead (insulated from ground) to the unit as illustrated.
6. Do no use cancel (null) circuit if the tester is so equipped.
7. To test the upper boom, gradually increase the voltage to 100 kV. Hold at 100kV (60) hertz) for 3 minutes
continuously. If flashover occurs or the leakage rate exceeds 1,000 microamps, the unit has failed the test. Record
leakage reading below.
8. To test the lower boom, gradually increase the voltage to 50 kV. Hold at 50 kV (60 hertz) for 3 minutes continuously.
If flashover occurs or the leakage rate exceeds 3,000 microamps, the unit has failed the test. Record leakage
reading.
General Information
Model number _________________________ Serial number _________________________________________
Test device number ____________________
Conclusion
Date _________________________ Test performed by __________________________________________________
Upper boom leakage reading (mA) _______________ Insulated articulating arm reading (mA) ____________________
Pass _____ Fail (reason) __________________________________________________________________________
Comments _____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________________
Ground
High Voltage
Transformer
Controls
Polyethylene Pad
Ground
Return Lead
Test Lead
Bonding
Jumper
Articulating
Arm
Bonding
Jumper
Upper Boom Test
Lower Boom Test

Appendix Dielectric Test Forms
Procedure
1. Read and understand the dielectric test information in the Maintenance Manual and ANSI requirements.
2. Insulate the vehicle from ground by placing polyethylene pads beneath each tire and outrigger leg.
3. Wrap a 0.375 to 1.000 inch diameter spring around the control handle as shown. Conductive aluminum foil
may be used in lieu of a spring.
4. Attach the ground/return leads to the spring on the control handle as shown.
5. Attach the high voltage test lead (insulated from ground) to the control base or platform mounting bracket. This
lead must contact a bare metal surface. (The bellows must be in place for this test.)
6. Use the lower controls to raise or extend the upper boom the minimum distance as required on the unit
dielectric test form.
7. Do not use cancel (null) circuit if the tester is so equipped.
8. To test the control, gradually increase the voltage (refer to the chart). Hold at the appropriate voltage for 3
minutes continuously. If flashover occurs or the leakage rate exceeds the appropriate microamps from the
chart, the control has failed the test. Record leakage reading.
General Information
Model number ______________________________ Serial number __________________________________
Test device number ___________________________________________________________________________
Conclusion
Test conducted AC ___________________________________ DC ___________________________________
Curb side control leakage reading (microamp) _______ Street side control leakage reading (microamp) _______
Pass _____ Fail (reason) _______________________________________________________________________
Comments ___________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________________
Signature of Technician ______________________________________ Date of Test ________________________
Dielectric Test Form for Insulated Single Handle Control
Ground/Return Lead Attached to
Spring Wrapped Around Handle
High Voltage Lead
Control Lead
Tester
Test Voltage Leakage
AC 40 kV 400
DC 56 kV 28
Maximum
Test Microamp
Bellows
Appendix Dielectric Test Forms
Either method may be used.
Wet Method Setup
1. Connect a ground lead to the steel tank.
2. Immerse the liner in the tank and fill with conductive fluid until
the level around both the inner and outer surfaces of the liner
is within six inches of the top of the liner.
3. Suspend the high voltage lead in the fluid within the liner.
Dry Method Setup
1. Refer to TRS-0001 to apply conductive foil to the liner and
conduct the test.
2. Connect a ground to the outer conductive foil.
3. Connect the high voltage lead to the inner conductive foil.
Testing (Wet or Dry)
1. Apply the test voltage to the conductive fluid or foil. Voltage may be either 35 kV (60 hertz) for 1 minute or 100
kV DC for 3 minutes.
2. If flashover occurs, or the liner wall punctures, the liner has failed the test.
3. Turn off the test voltage (be sure the voltage meter indicates zero voltage). Remove the high voltage lead.
Remove the liner from the tank or remove the foil covering.
4. The test for more than one liner may be recorded on the same form providing the same setup is used to
eliminate external variables.
Conclusion
Unit Serial No. Liner Part No. Liner Serial No. Pass (Initials) Fail (Reason)
_____________ _____________ _____________ ___________ _____________________________________
_____________ _____________ _____________ ___________ _____________________________________
_____________ _____________ _____________ ___________ _____________________________________
_____________ _____________ _____________ ___________ _____________________________________
_____________ _____________ _____________ ___________ _____________________________________
_____________ _____________ _____________ ___________ _____________________________________
_____________ _____________ _____________ ___________ _____________________________________
Wet/dry ___________ Test voltage __________ Test device number ______________________________________
Date _________________________ Test performed by __________________________________________________
Comments _______________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________________________
Periodic Dielectric Test Form for Platform Liners
Appendix Dielectric Test Forms
Ground
Liner
Ground
Liner
Tank
Conductive
Foil
High Voltage Lead
Conductive
Fluid
High Voltage Lead
Six Inch Maximum
Six Inch Maximum
11-06
Appendix Dielectric Test Forms
Stability Test Form
Appendix Stability Test Form
Capacity=300 lbs
Test Weight:
450 lbs level
400 lbs on 5 slope
Procedure
1. Perform the stability test on a level surface and on a five degree slope in accordance with applicable ANSI
requirements.
2. Fill out all information on this form as a record of a completed stability test.
3. With the upper boom horizontal, raise the articulating arm.
4. Weight of liners, tools, etc., must be subtracted from test weight. Calculate the platform test weight by multiply-
ing 1.5 (level surface) and 1.33 (five degree slope) times the platform capacity shown on the serial number
placard.
5. After the test has been completed, torque all accessible rotation bearing cap screws to 150 foot-pounds using
a circular pattern (only required at time of initial installation of unit on chassis).
6. After the test has been completed, torque the rotation gear box cap screws to 115 foot-pounds (only required
at time of initial installation of unit on chassis).
General Information
Model number ___________________________ Serial number __________________________________________
Platform capacity (lbs) ______________ Amount of permanent counterweight added to unit (lbs) _________________
Location of counterweight relative to rear axle _________________________________________________________
Level Surface Test
Platform test weight (lbs) _________________ Thickness of outrigger pads (0 if not used) _________________ in
Five Degree Slope Test
Platform test weight (lbs) _________________ Thickness of outrigger pads (0 if not used) _________________ in
Side of vehicle on low side of slope __________________________________________________________________
Appendix Stability Test Form
Conclusion
Date _________________________ Test performed by __________________________________________________
Rotation bearing cap screws torqued _______________ Rotation gearbox cap screws torqued ____________________
Pass _____ Fail (reason) __________________________________________________________________________
Comments _____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________