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On the topic of
Job satisfaction of employees
S!bmitte" fo# the pa#tial f!lfilment of the #e$!i#ement fo#
The %a#" of
Om0a#anan"a Instit!te of &ana1ement 2 Technolo1y3 Rishi0esh

S!pe#4ise" by5 S!bmitte" by5
&iss6 +ani0a Sha#ma Seema
.sst6 P#of6 OI&T/ HR .&(/
Rishi0esh Rishi0esh
I hereby certify that the work which is being presented in this project
report entitled JO( STIS'CTIO) O' E&PLO-EES of the requirement
for the awarded of degree of MBA in HM submitted to O&+R))*
I)STITUTE O' &)7E&E)T 2 TECH)OLO7- ishikesh! "ttrakhand!
is all mine # carried out for a period of $weeks at CELLO HOUSEWRE6%!
Haridwar under the super&ision of Human esource Manager &#s6 &a"h4i
Sha#ma .HR E8ec!ti4e/ and also the guidance of my faculty guide &iss6
+ani0a Sha#ma .sst6 P#of6/
*ate"5 Seema
'his is to certify that the abo&e statement made by the (andidate is correct to
the best of our knowledge% 'his is her original work% )orks of other Intellectuals
ha&e been duly acknowledged%
*#6 "itya 7a!tam &iss6 +ani0a
.*i#ecto#3 OI&T/ .sst6 P#of6 OI&T/
Rishi0esh Rishi0esh
'he satisfaction and euphoria that accompany a successful completion of
any task would be incomplete without mentioning the people who made it possible
whose consistent guidance and encouragement crowned the effort with success%
I would like to thanks for the internal guide &s6 +ani0a Sha#ma3
O&+R))* I)STITUTE O' &)7E&E)T )* TECH)OLO7-3
.Rishi0esh/! for her guidance and moti&ation! which is pi&otal in completion of my
dissertation report%
I cannot forget the contribution of my project guide for her able guidance and
support throughout the tenure of the report%
I would e*press my thanks to CELL HOUSE WRE as I troubled them through
my queries at e&ery stage of their work% I e*press my sincere thanks to all of them%
+ast but not least! I feel indebted to all those persons who ha&e pro&ided help
directly or indirectly in successful completion of this study%

,irst and foremost! I would like to thanks Cello Ho!se Wa#e Limite" for
gi&ing me an opportunity to undertake the project JO( STIS'CTIO) O'
As a management trainee my work was also to note down the problems of
the employees% My main work was to communicate with workers and point out their
thinking about working conditions as well as management%
'he most interesting part in any summer internship! for a learner is! the
application of concepts! he has learned% Apart from being interesting things! it is also
the key phenomena around which summer internship resol&es% It also gi&es a taste
of pressure% 'hus it can be &ery well said that! summer internship could be &ery
good topic for -ummer Internship of a student%

As an integral part of the curriculum! I student of MBA! needed to get
e*posed to the actual human resource en&ironment to get a better
understanding of Human esource Management by way of undergoing
practical training%
I consider myself fortunate enough that I had an opportunity to get
practical training at the Human esource .ept%! (ell Industries +td%! for
gaining substantial knowledge of JO( STIS'CTIO) O' E&PLO-EES6
A progressi&e # forward/looking organisation stri&es for the
impro&ement of the system and procedures so as to impro&e the
organisational effecti&eness% CELLO HOUSE WRE Lt"6 has ambitious
capacity and due to which it get the +andmark achie&ement in the history of
ri&er &alley%
Human esource is the major assets of any organisation% (ello House
)are ltd% $00 employees% Management of such a &ast number requires a
proper mi* of human! technical and conceptual skills to be effecti&e and meet
the organisational goals%

:6 Company p#ofile
1roducts of cello house ware ltd%
(odes and conducts of members and senior officials
;6 Job satisfaction of employees
.etermination of 2ob satisfaction of employees
Ad&antage of 2ob satisfaction of employees
.isad&antage of 2ob satisfaction of employees
3bjecti&e of job satisfaction of employees
Models of job satisfaction of employees
,actors influencing of job satisfaction of employees
Measuring of job satisfaction of employees
<6 Job satisfaction of employees in Cello Ho!se %a#e Lt"6
'echniques through satisfying the job of employees
=6 Resea#ch metho"olo1y
esearch design
esearch approach
-ample si4e
-ample area
.ata collection
esearch instrument
Analysis of data
esearch period
>6 Scope of the st!"y
?6 Limitation of the st!"y
@6 *ata analysis an" inte#p#etation
-uggestion and recommendation
A6 nne8!#e
(ello )implast +imited is one of the group companies of BcelloC group% (ello
Industries +imited incorporated on 5
3ctober! 6788! and listed in the year 6779 at
the Bombay -tock :*change +td% ;B-:< and 'he Ahmadabad -tock :*change +td%
In the year 6779 company setup manufacturing unit of plastic moulded
furniture at .aman in which company got grand success in the business% In the
process of di&ersification in =00$ company has setup plants at Baddi! Himachal
1radesh for processing of bubble guard e*trusion sheets and also moulded furniture
which a new inno&ation in India in the field of e*trusion technology%
1resently the company has manufacturing units at .aman! Baddi and
(hennai also ha&e .epots in >ujarat! ajasthan! Andhra 1radesh! Haryana and
1unjab and ha&e strong consumer base throughout the country%


)ith a tiny factory for making plastic household goods! Mr% >% .% athod
makes a small beginning in manufacturing% Behind this step the founder has a
&ision of uncompromising quality and total consumer satisfaction% -et up on this
deep foundation! cello begins its journey to become a leader%


A new factory for cello 'hermo ware is set up in >oregaon! Mumbai! capable
of manufacturing the finest range of hot spots and casseroles! insulated water
bottles! attracti&e range of insulated jugs and flasks%


(ello >roup &entures into manufacturing moulded furniture% :legant! &ersatile
and durable! cello furniture brings con&enience and style to consumers at surprising
economical price! made from special grade plastic and state/of/the/art moulds from
Italy% (ello ,urniture becomes a household name in short span of time for its range
of products and quality%


(ello )riting Instruments! a part of cello >roup entered the plastic moulded ball
pen market% In 677$! cello e*ploded on the scene with cello (lear 1ens with -wiss
tips and >erman ink and changed fore&er the way pen ran on paper% 'he
re&olutionary new smear free! smooth flowing pen not just took the market by storm
but marked a new era in writing instruments in India% ?ot too long after! the
company un&eiled two more models 1rism and (rystal and with that started as a
mere @/machine company! took wings%
6% In&estment of more than "-. $0 million in ultra modem plastics
processing machines from BA'':?,I:+. A >ermany! )IM1+A-' and
-"MMI'3M3 A 2apan%
=% -trong in house #. base! ha&ing de&eloped the "nique Breakthrough
Insulation 'echnology A 'H:MI/>"A.%
@% Many product design 1atented in :urope%
9% Ha&ing )arehouse and sale offices in different locations in India! ?epal!
-ri +anka! "%A%:%! Benya and "%-%A%
6% Insulated thermo ware / more than $ million pcsCyear
=% Household products / more than 6= million pcsCyear
@% Moulded furniture / more than = million pcsCyear
9% )riting instrument / =6D million pcsCyea
$% 'ooth brushes / 65 million pcsCyear
6% 1lastics Household and 'hermo ware s 690$ Millions
=% 1lastics ,urniture s 5=D Millions
@% )riting instruments s 680D Millions
9% 'ooth Brush s $0 Millions
a< >roup 'urno&er E F%: March! =00= s 90=0 Million
+%F%:% March! =006 s @990 Million

b< ,actory AreaE 5!00!000 sq% ft at .aman
c< )ork forceE
Managerial post @$ nos%
i% ,actory -taff @000nos%
ii% 3ffice -taff @00 nos%
iii% -ales -taff 600 nos%
d< .istribution -trengthE .istributors =00 nos%
i% (lass retail outlets 5000nos%
ii% (lass retail outlets 8000nos%
PRO*UCTS O' CELLO Ho!se Wa#e Lt"6
:6 Company p#ofile E
(ello House )are ltd% has &ision of enhancing stakeholders &alues with higher
consumers &alues through honest and ethical conduct of the business% 'he
companyGs philosophy on corporate go&ernance re&ol&es around for and
go&ernance and disclosure policies with the honest and ethical code of conduct%
;6 pplicabilityE
'his code of conduct is applicable to the Board Member and -enior 3fficials as
defined by the Management of the company% All the Board Members and senior
3fficials shall confirm with the compliance of code of conduct on annual basis%
@% Stan"a#" of con"!ct E
a/ Honest an" ethical con"!ct
'he entire senior official is e*pected to comply with the applicable rules and
regulations and company policies with the highest standard of professional are
integrity as per company policy%
b/ Confi"ential Info#mation
'he senior official shall secure! preser&e all the confidential information of the
company and should communicate the same to any of the person i%e%! 'hird party or
e&en any other department of the company only upon receipt of proper authorisation
as per company policy%
c/ Conflict of Inte#est
-enior officials should a&oid the transactions which bear conflict of interest with
companyGs business in significant manner also in case of necessity such
transactions can be done with the intimation to the Board and in accordance with
the code of conduct%
"/ 7#at!ity an" 7ifts
'he companyGs policy prohibits the receipt of gifts and gratuities from the
business associated of the company
e/ Insi"e# T#a"in1
-enior officials should abide the insider regulations in compliance with -:BI
;prohibition of insider trading< egulations 677= as amended from time to time%
=6 *isclos!#esE
-enior officials should make the required disclosure of information in the
documentation as per company policy%
Also the &iolations of any of the conditions of the code of conduct or company
policies! if noticed then it should be reported to the appropriate head of the
department by the senior officials%
OF employeES
n o4e#4ie%:-
2ob satisfaction is not the same as moti&ation% It is more if an attitude! an
internal state of the person concerned% It could! for e*ample! be associated with a
personal feeling of achie&ement% 2ob satisfaction is an indi&idualGs emotional
reaction to the job itself% It is his attitude towards his job%
2ob satisfaction does not seem to reduce absence! turno&er and
perhaps accident rates%/Robe#t L6 +ahn
2ob satisfaction is the amount of pleasure or contentment associated with a job%
If you like your job intensely! you will e*perience high job satisfaction% If you dislike
your job intensely! you will e*perience job dissatisfaction%
2ob satisfaction is one part of life satisfaction% 'he en&ironment influences the
job% -imilarly! since a job is important part of life! job satisfaction influences oneGs
general life satisfaction% Manager may need to monitor not only the job and
immediate work en&ironment but their employeesG attitude toward other part of life%
'he term job satisfaction refers to the attitude and feelings people ha&e about
their work% 1ositi&e and ,a&ourable attitudes towards the job indicate job
satisfaction% ?egati&e and unfa&ourable attitudes towards the job indicate job
dissatisfaction%/ #mst#on1
2ob satisfaction is the collection of feeling and beliefs that people ha&e about
their current job% 1eopleGs le&els of degrees of job satisfaction can range from
e*treme satisfaction to e*treme dissatisfaction% In addition to ha&ing attitudes about
their jobs as a whole% 1eople also can ha&e attitudes about &arious aspects of their
jobs such as the kind of work they do! their co/workers! super&isors or subordinates
and their pay%
*ete#minants of Fob satisfaction
)hile analysing the &arious determinants of job satisfaction! we ha&e to keep
in mind that all indi&iduals do no deri&e the same degree of satisfaction through they
perform same job in the same job en&ironment and at the same time% 'herefore it
appears that besides the nature of affect job satisfaction% 'hus! all those factors
which pro&ide a fit among indi&idual &ariables! nature of job! and situational &ariable
determine the degree of job satisfaction%
'hese factors are followingE/
In"i4i"!al facto#sE
Indi&iduals ha&e certain e*pectations from their jobs% If their e*pectations are
met from the jobs! they feel satisfied% 'hese e*pectations are based on an
indi&idualGs le&el of education! age and other factors%
Le4els of e"!cationE
+e&el of education of an indi&idual is a factor which determines the degree of job
,or e*ampleH studies ha&e found negati&e correlation between the le&el of
education! particularly higher le&el of education! and job satisfaction% 'he possible
reason for this phenomenon may be that highly educated persons ha&e &ery high
e*pectations from their jobs which remain unsatisfied% In their case! peterGs
principles which suggests that e&ery indi&idual tries to reach his le&el of
incompetence! applies more quickly%
Indi&iduals e*perience different degree of job satisfaction at different stages of
their life% 2ob satisfaction is high at the initial stages! gets gradually reduced! starts
rising up to certain stage! and finally dips to a low degree% 'he possible reasons for
this phenomenon are like this% )hen indi&iduals join an organisation! they may ha&e
some unrealistic assumptions about what they are going to dri&e from their work%
'hese assumptions make more satisfied%
Howe&er! when these assumptions fall short of reality! job satisfaction goes
down% It starts rising again as the people start to assess the jobs in right perspecti&e
and correct their assumptions% At the last! particularly at the far end of the career!
job satisfaction goes down because of fear of retirement and future outcome%
Othe# facto#s
Besides the abo&e two factors! there are other indi&idual factors which affect job
satisfaction% If an indi&idual does not ha&e fa&ourable social and family life! he may
not feel happy at the workplace% -imilarly! other personal problems associated with
him may affect his le&el of job satisfaction% 1ersonal problems associated with him
may affect his le&el of job satisfaction%
)at!#e of Fob
?ature of job determines job satisfaction which is in the for occupation le&el
and job content%

Occ!pation le4el
Higher le&el jobs pro&i de more satisfaction as compared to
lower le&els% 'hi s happens because hi gh le&el jobs carry presti ge and
status in the society whi ch i tself becomes source of satisfaction for the job
holders% ,or e*ample! professional s deri &e more satisfaction as compared
to salaried peopleE factory workers are least satisfied%

Job content
2ob content refers to the intrinsic &alue of the job which depends
on the requi rement of skill s for performing i t! and the degree of
responsibi lity and growth it offers% A higher content of these factors pro&ides
higher satisfaction% ,or e*ample! a routine and repetiti&e lesser satisfactionH the
degree of satisfaction progressi&ely increases in job rotation! job enlargement! and
job enrichment%
Sit!ation 4a#iables
-ituational &ariables related to job satisfaction lie in organi4ational conte*t A
formal and informal% ,ormal organisation emerges out of the interaction of
indi&iduals in the organisation% -ome of the important factors which affect job
important factors which affect job satisfaction are gi&en bellow/
a/ Wo#0in1 con"ition
)orking condition! particularly physical work en&ironment! like conditions of
workplace and associated facilities for performing the job determine job
sati sfaction% 'hese work in two ways% ,irst! these pro&ide means job performance%
-econd! pro&ision of these condi tions affects the indi &i dualGs perception
about the organi4ation% If these factors are fa&ourable! indi&iduals e*perience
higher le&el of job satisfaction%
b/ S!pe#4ision
'he type of super&ision affects job satisfaction as in each type of
super&isionH the degree of importance attached to indi &i duals
&ari es% In employee/oriented super&i si on! there is more concern for people
which is percei&ed fa&ourably by them and pro&ides them more sati sfaction%
In job oriented super&ision! there i s more emphasi s on the
performance of the job and people become secondary% 'his situation decreases
job satisfaction%
c/ E$!itable #e%a#"s
'he type of linkage that is pro&ided between job performance and rewards
determines the degree of job satisfaction% If the reward is percei&ed to be based on
the job performance and equitable! it offers higher satisfaction% If the reward is
percei&ed to be based on considerations other than the job performance! it affects
job satisfaction ad&ersely%
"/ Oppo#t!nity
It is true that indi&iduals seek satisfaction in their jobs in the conte*t of job nature and work
en&ironment by they also attach importance to opportunities for promotion that these job offer% It
the present job offers opportunities of promotion is lacking! it reduces satisfaction
e/ %o#0 1#o!p
Indi&idualsG works in group either created formally of they de&elop on their
own to seek emotional satisfaction at the workplace% 'o the e*tent such groups
are cohesi&eH the degree of satisfaction is low% In a cohesi&e group! people deri&e
satisfaction out of their interpersonal interaction and workplace becomes
satisfying leading to job satisfaction%
f/ Effect of Job Satisfaction
2ob satisfaction has a &ariety of effects% 'hese effects may be seen in
the conte*t of an indi&idualGs physical and mental health! producti&ity!
absenteeism! and turno&er%
1/ Physical an" &ental Health
'he degree of job satisfaction affects an indi&idualGs physical and mental
heal th% -ince job satisfaction is a type of mental feeling! its
fa&ourablenessor unfa&ourablesness affects the indi&idual psychologi call y
which ul timatel y affects hi s physical health%
,or e*ample! +awler has pointed out that drug abuse! alcoholism and mental and
physical health result from psychologically harmful jobs% ,urther! since a job is an
important part of life! job satisfaction infl uences general li fe%
"4anta1e of Fob satisfaction of employees
Iuality of work impro&es and producti&ity increases because employees are
in an en&ironment where they feel comfortable and e*perience job
3ffice space o&erhead and costs are reduced because companies do not
ha&e to maintain an office to support all of their employees%
:mployee absentee a&erage and sick lea&e is lower because they can work
from home with monthly! weekly! or daily deadlines%
:mployee turno&er is decreased reducing recruiting and training costs%
Management staff does not ha&e to worry about scheduling fluctuations they
can focus on work and specific projects%
Management is released from all concern from personal emergencies of
*isa"4anta1e of Fob satisfaction of employees
6< :mployers ha&e little to no super&ision of employees% 'his makes the
employers feel they ha&e no control o&er the employees and their
=< )ith the employees working on a network attached to the company ser&er!
there is a security concern because files! documents! and possibly pri&ate
company information can be accessed outside the office%
@< -tart up and maintenance costs incurred by the company for supplies used
in home offices! maintenance of computers and network systems! and
installation of intranets can be quite costly%
9< Health and safety issues while working in the home office% 'here has been
a lot of contro&ersy o&er the liability issues of telecommuting%
'he objecti&es of the study as followE
6% 'o access the satisfaction le&el of employees%
=% 'o identify the factor this influences the job satisfaction of employees%
@% 'o identify the factor which impro&e the satisfaction le&el of employees%
9% 'o know the employee satisfaction towards the facilities%
$% 'o offer &aluable suggestion to impro&e the satisfaction le&el of employees%
:dwin A% +ockeGs ange of Affect 'heory ;675D< is arguably the most
famous job satisfaction model% 'he main premise of this theory is that satisfaction
is determined by a discrepancy between what one wants in a job and what one has
in a job%
,urther! the theory states that how much one &alues a gi&en facet of work ;e%g% the
degree of autonomy in a position< moderates how satisfiedCdissatisfied one
becomes when e*pectations areCarenGt met% )hen a person &alues a particular
facet of a job! his satisfaction is more greatly impacted both positi&ely ;when
e*pectations are met< and negati&ely ;when e*pectations are not met<! compared
to one who doesnGt &alue that facet%
'o illustrate! if :mployee A &alues autonomy in the workplace and :mployee B is
indifferent about autonomy! then :mployee A would be more satisfied in a position
that offers a high degree of autonomy and less satisfied in a position with little or
no autonomy compared to :mployee B% 'his theory also states that too much of a
particular facet will produce stronger feelings of dissatisfaction the more a worker
&alues that facet%
;6 *ispositional theo#y
Another well/known job satisfaction theory is the .ispositional 'heory% It is a
&ery general theory that suggests that people ha&e innate dispositions that cause
them to ha&e tendencies toward a certain le&el of satisfaction! regardless of oneGs
job% 'his approach became a notable e*planation of job satisfaction in light of
e&idence that job satisfaction tends to be stable o&er time and across careers and
jobs% esearch also indicates that identical twins ha&e similar le&els of job
argued that there are four (ore -elf/e&aluations that determine oneGs
disposition towards job satisfactionE self/esteem! general self/efficacy! locus of
control! and neuroticism% 'his model states that higher le&els of self/esteem ;the
&alue one places on hisCher self< and general self/efficacy ;the belief in oneGs own
competence< lead to higher work satisfaction% Ha&ing an internal locus of control
;belie&ing one has control o&er herJhis own life! as opposed to outside forces
ha&ing control< leads to higher job satisfaction% ,inally! lower le&els of neuroticism
lead to higher job satisfaction%
<6 Opponent p#ocess theo#y
According to opponent process theory!
:motional e&ents! such as criticisms or rewards! elicit two sets of processes%
1rimary processes gi&e way to emotions that are steady with the e&ent in question%
:&ents that seem negati&e in manner will gi&e rise to the feelings of stress or
an*iety% :&ents that are positi&e gi&e rise to the feeling of content or rela*ation%
'he other process is the opponent process! which induces feelings that
contradict the feelings in the primary processes% :&ents that are negati&e gi&e rise
to feelings of rela*ation while e&ents that are positi&e gi&e rise to feelings of
an*iety% A &ariety of e*planations ha&e been suggested to e*plain the uniformity of
mood or satisfaction%
'his theory shows that if you try to enhance the mood of indi&idual it will more
likely fail in doing so% 'he opponent process theory was formulated to e*plain these
patterns of obser&ations%
=6 E$!ity theo#y
:quity 'heory shows how a person &iews fairness in regard to social
relationships% .uring a social e*change! a person identifies the amount of input
gained from a relationship compared to the output! as well as how much effort
another personGs puts forth% :quity 'heory suggests that if an indi&idual thinks
there is an inequality between two social groups or indi&iduals! the person is likely
to be distressed because the ratio between the input and the output are not equal%
,or e*ample! consider two employees who work the same job and recei&e the
same benefits% If one indi&idual gets a pay raise for doing the same or less work
than the other! then the less benefited indi&idual will become distressed in his
workplace% If! on the other hand! one indi&idual gets a pay raise and new
responsibilities! then the feeling of inequality is reduced%
>6 *isc#epancy theo#y
'he concept of discrepancy theory e*plains the ultimate source of an*iety
and dejection% An indi&idual! who has not fulfilled his responsibility feels the sense
of an*iety and regret for not performing well! they will also feel dejection due to not
being able to achie&e their hopes and aspirations%
According to this theory! all indi&iduals will learn what their obligations and
responsibilities for a particular function! o&er a time period! and if they fail to fulfil
those obligations then they are punished% 3&er time! these duties and obligations
consolidate to form an abstracted set of principles! designated as a self/guide%
Agitation and an*iety are the main responses when an indi&idual fails to achie&e
the obligation or responsibility%
'his theory also e*plains that if achie&ement of the obligations is obtained
then the reward can be praise! appro&al! or lo&e% 'hese achie&ements and
aspirations also form an abstracted set of principles! referred to as the ideal self
guide% )hen the indi&idual fails to obtain these rewards! they begin to ha&e
feelings of dejection! disappointment! or e&en depression%
?6 T%oEfacto# theo#y .moti4ato#Ehy1iene theo#y/
,rederick Her4bergGs 'wo/factor theory ;also known as Moti&ator Hygiene
'heory< attempts to e*plain satisfaction and moti&ation in the workplace%
'his theory states that satisfaction and dissatisfaction are dri&en by different
factors A moti&ation and hygiene factors! respecti&ely% An employeeGs moti&ation to
work is continually related to job satisfaction of a subordinate% Moti&ation can be
seen as an inner force that dri&es indi&iduals to attain personal and organi4ational
Moti&ating factors are those aspects of the job that make people want to
perform! and pro&ide people with satisfaction! for e*ample achie&ement in work!
recognition! promotion opportunities% 'hese moti&ating factors are considered to be
intrinsic to the job! or the work carried out%
Hygiene factors include aspects of the working en&ironment such as pay!
company policies! super&isory practices! and other working conditions%
)hile Hert4bergKs model has stimulated much research! researchers ha&e
been unable to reliably empirically pro&e the model! with Hackman # 3ldham
suggesting that Hert4bergKs original formulation of the model may ha&e been a
methodological artefact%

,urthermore! the theory does not consider indi&idual differences! con&ersely
predicting all employees will react in an identical manner to changes in
moti&atingChygiene factors%
,inally! the model has been criticised in that it does not specify how
moti&atingChygiene factors are to be measured%
@6 Job cha#acte#istics mo"el
Hackman # 3ldham proposed the 2ob (haracteristics Model! which is widely
used as a framework to study how particular job characteristics impact on job
outcomes! including job satisfaction%
'he model states that there are fi&e core job characteristics ;skill &ariety! task
identity! task significance! autonomy! and feedback< which impact three critical
psychological states ;e*perienced meaningfulness! e*perienced responsibility for
outcomes! and knowledge of the actual results<! in turn influencing work outcomes
;job satisfaction! absenteeism! work moti&ation! etc%<%
'he fi&e core job characteristics can be combined to form a moti&ating
potential score ;M1-< for a job! which can be used as an inde* of how likely a job
is to affect an employeeKs attitudes and beha&iours% A meta/analysis of studies that
assess the framework of the model pro&ides some support for the &alidity of the
A6 &oti4atin1 Potential Sco#e
'he moti&ating potential score ;M1-< can be calculated! using the core dimensions
discussed abo&e! as followsH
2obs that are high in moti&ating potential must be high on at least one of
the three factors that lead to e*perienced meaningfulness! and also must be
high on both Autonomy and ,eedback%
If a job has a high M1-! the job characteristics model predicts that
moti&ation! performance and job satisfaction will be positi&ely affected and the
likelihood of negati&e outcomes! such as absenteeism and turno&er! will be
'acto#s infl!encin1 Fob satisfaction
:6 En4i#onmental facto#s
a6 Comm!nication o4e#loa" an" comm!nication !n"e# loa"
3ne of the most important aspects of an indi&idualGs work in a modern
organi4ation concerns the management of communication demands that he or
she encounters on the job%
.emands can be characteri4ed as a communication load! which refers to
the rate and comple*ity of communication inputs an indi&idual must process in
a particular time frame%Indi&iduals in an organi4ation can e*perience
communication o&er/load and communication under/ load which can affect their
le&el of job satisfaction%
(ommunication o&erload can occur when an indi&idual recei&es too many
messages in a short period of time which can result in unprocessed information
or when an indi&idual faces more comple* messages that are more difficult to
.ue to this process! gi&en an indi&idualGs style of work and moti&ation to
complete a task! when more inputs e*ist than outputs! the indi&idual percei&es
a condition of o&erload which can be positi&ely or negati&ely related to job
In comparison! communication under load can occur when messages or
inputs are sent below the indi&idualGs ability to process them%
According to the ideas of communication o&er/load and under/load! if an
indi&idual does not recei&e enough input on the job or is unsuccessful in
processing these inputs! the indi&idual is more likely to become dissatisfied!
aggra&ated! and unhappy with their work which leads to a low le&el of job
b6 S!pe#io#Es!bo#"inate comm!nication
-uperior/subordinate communication is an important influence on job
satisfaction in the workplace% 'he way in which subordinates percei&e a
super&isorKs beha&iour can positi&ely or negati&ely influence job satisfaction%
(ommunication beha&iour such as facial e*pression! eye contact! &ocal
e*pression! and body mo&ement is crucial to the superior/subordinate
?on&erbal messages play a central role in interpersonal interactions with
respect to impression formation! deception! attraction! social influence! and
emotional% ?on&erbal immediacy from the super&isor helps to increase
interpersonal in&ol&ement with their subordinates impacting job satisfaction%
'he manner in which super&isors communicate with their subordinates non/
&erbally may be more important than the &erbal content% Indi&iduals who dislike
and think negati&ely about their super&isor are less willing to communicate or
ha&e moti&ation to work whereas indi&iduals who like and think positi&ely of
their super&isor are more likely to communicate and are satisfied with their job
and work en&ironment%
A super&isor who uses non&erbal immediacy! friendliness! and open
communication lines is more likely to recei&e positi&e feedback and high job
satisfaction from a subordinate% (on&ersely! a super&isor who is antisocial!
unfriendly! and unwilling to communicate will naturally recei&e negati&e
feedback and create low job satisfaction in their subordinates in the workplace%
c6 Effecti4e h!man #eso!#ces p#actices lea" to positi4e
financial o!tcomes
A )atson )yatt )orldwide study identified a positi&e outcome between
a collegial and fle*ible work en&ironment and an increase in shareholder &alue%
-uggesting that employee satisfaction is directly related to financial gain% 3&er
90 percent of the companies listed in the top 600 of ,ortune maga4ines!
AmericaGs Best (ompanies to )ork ,or also appear on the ,ortune $00% It is
possible that successful workers enjoy working at successful companies!
howe&er! the )atson )yatt )orldwide Human (apital Inde* study claims that
effecti&e human resources practices lead to positi&e financial outcomes more
often than positi&e financial outcomes lead to good practices%
;6 In"i4i"!al facto#s
a6 Emotion
Mood and emotions form the affecti&e element of job satisfaction%
Moods tend to be longer lasting but often weaker states of uncertain origin!
while emotions are often more intense! short/li&ed and ha&e a clear object
or cause% -ome research suggests moods are related to o&erall job
satisfaction% 1ositi&e and negati&e emotions were also found to be
significantly related to o&erall job satisfaction%
,requency of e*periencing net positi&e emotion will be a better predictor of
o&erall job satisfaction than will intensity of positi&e emotion when it is
:motion work ;or emotion management< refers to &arious types of efforts
to manage emotional states and displays% :motion management includes all of
the conscious and unconscious efforts to increase! maintain! or decrease one
or more components of an emotion% Although early studies of the
consequences of emotional work emphasi4ed its harmful effects on workers!
studies of workers in a &ariety of occupations suggest that the consequences of
emotional work are not uniformly negati&e%
It was found that suppression of unpleasant emotions decreases job
satisfaction and the amplification of pleasant emotions increases job
'he understanding of how emotion regulation relates to job satisfaction
concerns two modelsE
Emotional "issonance %
:motional dissonance is a state of discrepancy between public
displays of emotions and internal e*periences of emotions that often follows
the process of emotion regulation% :motional dissonance is associated with
high emotional e*haustion! low organi4ational commitment! and low job
Social inte#action mo"el %
'aking the social interaction perspecti&e! workersG emotion regulation
might beget responses from others during interpersonal encounters that
subsequently impact their own job satisfaction%
,or e*ampleE 'he accumulation of fa&ourable responses to displays of
pleasant emotions might positi&ely affect job satisfaction%
b6 7enetics
It has been well documented that genetics influence a &ariety of indi&idual
differences% -ome research suggests genetics also play a role in the intrinsic!
direct e*periences of job satisfaction like challenge or achie&ement ;as
opposed to e*trinsic! en&ironmental factors like working conditions<%
3ne e*periment used sets of mono4ygotic twins! reared apart! to test for the
e*istence of genetic influence on job satisfaction% )hile the results indicate the
majority of the &ariance in job satisfaction was due to en&ironmental factors
;50L<! genetic influence is still a minor factor%
>enetic heritability was also suggested for se&eral of the job characteristics
measured in the e*periment! such as comple*ity le&el! motor skill requirements!
and physical demands%
c6 Pe#sonality
-ome research suggests an association between personality and job
satisfaction% -pecifically! this research describes the role of negati&e
affecti&ity and positi&e affecti&ity%
)e1ati4e affecti&ity is related strongly to the personality trait of neuroticism%
Indi&iduals high in negati&e affecti&ity are more prone to e*perience less job
Positi4e affecti&ity is related strongly to the personality trait
of e*tra&ersion% 'hose high in positi&e affecti&ity are more prone to be satisfied
in most dimensions of their life! including their job%
.ifferences in affecti&ity likely impact how indi&iduals will percei&e objecti&e
job circumstances like pay and working conditions! thus affecting their
satisfaction in that job%
&eas!#in1 Fob satisfaction
How job satisfaction is measured depends on whether affecti&e or
cogniti&e job satisfaction is of interest% 'he majority of job satisfaction
measures are self/reports and based on multi/item scales%
-e&eral measures ha&e been de&eloped o&er the years! although they &ary
in terms of how carefully -e&eral measures ha&e been de&eloped o&er the
years! although they &ary in terms of how carefully and distincti&ely they are
conceptuali4ed with respect to affecti&e or cogniti&e job satisfaction% 'hey also
&ary in terms of the e*tent and rigour of their psychometric &alidation%
'he (#ief In"e8 of ffecti4e Job Satisfaction ;BIA2-< is a 9/item!
o&ertly affecti&e as opposed to cogniti&e! measure of o&erall affecti&e
2ob satisfaction%
'he BIA2- differs from other job satisfaction measures in being
comprehensi&ely &alidated not just for internal consistency reliability! temporal
stability! con&ergent and criterion/related &alidities! but also for cross/
population in&ariance by nationality! job le&el! and job type%
'he Job *esc#ipti4e In"e8 ;2.I< is a specifically cogniti&e job satisfaction
measure% It measures oneGs satisfaction in fi&e facetsE pay! promotions and
promotion opportunities! co/workers! super&ision! and the work itself% 'he scale
is simple! participants answer either yes! no! or canGt decide ;indicated by MNG< in
response to whether gi&en statements accurately describe oneGs job%
3ther job satisfaction questionnaires includeE the Minnesota -atisfaction
Iuestionnaire ;M-I<! the 2ob -atisfaction -ur&ey ;2--<! and the ,aces -cale%
'he M-I measures job satisfaction in =0 facets and has a long form with 600
questions ;fi&e items from each facet< and a short form with =0 questions ;one
item from each facet<% 'he 2-- is a @D item questionnaire that measures nine
facets of job satisfaction% ,inally! the ,aces -cale of job satisfaction! one of the
first scales used widely! measured o&erall job satisfaction with just one item
which participants respond to by choose%

IN CELLO house Ware Ltd.

Job satisfaction of employees in Cello ho!se %a#e Lt"6
'he concept of job satisfaction of employees in (ello house ware +td% Is of
great interest to social scientists and managers because they recognise the
importance of a job in the total life e*perience of an indi&idual%
'he issue of job satisfaction related to turno&er and quality of care in nursing
and it is a major concern literature is replaced with a job satisfaction and its

' 'he term job satisfaction refers to the attitude and feelings people ha&e about
their work% 1ositi&e and ,a&ourable attitudes towards the job indicate job
satisfaction% ?egati&e and unfa&ourable attitudes towards the job indicate job
'he (ello House )are +td% 1ro&ide the +oans! canteen facilities!
ad&ance payments! lea&e in cash! open system! :-I(! 1,! sanitation! and
compensation! for the benefit of the employees% And to satisfy the job of the
'he following benefits are gi&en to employees/
:6 "4ance payment to the employees
'he cello pro&ides the ad&ance payment to employees through which take
ad&antage in critical situation of their life% And they can take benefit of the
company policy% If employees are in some difficulty the company is pro&ide
the ad&ance payment to their employees% 'hrough which they moti&ated
and also satisfying with job%
;6 Loans
'he cello pro&ides to employees loans facilities to sol&e their personal
problems% 'he company tries to help their employees as much as possible%
<6 Canteen
'he cello also pro&ides them the canteen facility for their launch! and
breakfast% 'hrough which they also get moti&ated toward their jobs% 'hey
feel that the company is taking care of them% 'hey feel belongingness in the
company and they also feel job satisfaction%
=6 Open system
'he open system means that e&ery employee is free to talk with top
management% If they are not feeling good they go and share their feelings to
top le&el management directly% 'hey ne&er wait to talk with hierarchical
le&el% 'hey do not belie&e in le&els of jobs and authority of employers% 'hey
just go and communicate with the person whom they want to talk and meet%
'his method sa&e time and increase job satisfaction of employees%

>6 ESIC benefits
In this the company fill an online form of e&ery on role employees for
their benefits and increase producti&ity indirectly% 'his online form is filled by
the human resource manager by on because this task is so much important
for e&ery employee% :&ery information is gi&en in this form about the
?6 P#o4i"ent f!n"s
'he pro&ident fund is ducted from the basic salary or wages of the
employees% 'his benefit they got after the lea&ing the organisation% And any
other situation of their life%
'here are some types of pro&ident funds which they are pro&ide to
their employees/
6% Reco1niHe" P#o4i"ent '!n" .RP' <E
'his scheme is applicable to an organi4ation which employs =0 or
more employees% An organi4ation can also &oluntarily opt for this scheme%
All 1, schemes must be appro&ed by 'he (ommissioner of Income 'a*%
Here the company can either opt for go&ernment appro&ed scheme or the
employer and employees can together start a 1, scheme by forming a
'rust% 'he 'rust so created shall in&est funds in specified manner% 'he
income of the trust shall also be e*empt from income ta*es%
=% Un#eco1niHe" P#o4i"ent '!n" .URP'/5
-uch schemes are those that are started by employer and employees in
an establishment! but are not appro&ed by 'he (ommissioner of Income
'a*% -ince they are not recogni4ed! "1, schemes ha&e a different ta*
treatment as compared to 1,s%
<6 Stat!to#y P#o4i"ent '!n" .SP'/5
'his ,und is mainly meant for >o&ernmentC"ni&ersityC:ducational
Institutes ;affiliated to uni&ersity< employees%
9% P!blic P#o4i"ent '!n" .PP'/5
'his is a scheme under 1ublic 1ro&ident ,und Act 67D8% In this scheme
e&en self/employed persons can make a contribution% 'he minimum
contribution is s%$00 per annum and the ma*imum contribution is
s%50!000 per annum% 'he contribution made along with interest earned is
repayable after 6$ years! unless e*tended% 'he rate of interest is statutorily
set at 8L per annum%


Resea#ch &etho"olo1y
esearch methodology is a way to systematically sol&e the research problem%
esearch Methodology comprises of two words! research and methodology%
esearch is defined as human acti&ity based on intellectual application in the
in&estigation of matter% 'he primary purpose for applied research is disco&ering!
interpreting! and the de&elopment of methods and systems for the ad&ancement of
human knowledge on a wide &ariety of scientific matters of our world and the
esearch may be defined as a careful in&estigation or inquiry especially
through search of new facts in any branch of knowledge% In short! it comprises
defining a refined problemKs! formulating hypothesis or suggested solutionH
collecting! organi4ing and e&aluating dataH making deductions and research
a6 Resea#ch *esi1n
A research design is considered as the framework or plan for a study that
guides as well as helps the data collection and anal ysi s of data% 'he
research design may be e*pl oratory! descripti&e and e*perimental for the
present study% 'he descripti&e research design is adopted for this project%
b6 Resea#ch pp#oach

'he r esear ch wor ker cont act ed t he r espondent s per sonal l y wi t h w
el l / prepared sequentially arranged questions% 'he questionnaire is prepared on the
basis of objecti&es of the study% .irect contract is used for sur&ey%
i%e%! contacting employees directly in order to collect data%

c6 Sample siHe
'he study sample constitutes $0 respondents constituting in the research
"6 Samplin1 #ea
'he study is conducted in employees of (:++3 H3"-:)A: +td%
e6 Samplin1 *esi1n
'he researcher has used probability sampling in which stratified random
sampling is used%
h6 Collection of *ata
Most of the data collected by the researcher is primary data through
personal inter&iew! where the researcher and the respondent operate face to
P#ima#y "ata collection
It include/
,ace to face response
Secon"a#y "ata collection
It includes/
i6 Resea#ch Inst#!ment
'he researcher has used a structured questionnaire as a research
instrument tool which consists of open ended question! multiple choice
and dichotomous questions in order to get data% 'hus! questionnaire is
the data collection instrument used in the study% All the questions in
the questionnaire are organised in such a way that elicit all the
rele&ant information that is needed for the study%
F6 Statistical Tools
'he statistical tools used for analy4ing the data collected are
percentage method! chi square! bar diagrams and pie diagrams%

06 nalysis of *ata
'he data are collected through sur&ey and books! reports!
newspapers and internet etc%! the sur&ey conducted among the
employees of (:++3 H3"-: )A: +td% 'he data collected by the
researcher are tabulated and analysed in such a way to make
interpretations% Oarious steps! which are required to fulfil the purpose%
,or e*ample/ editing! coding and tabulating%
E"itin1 refers to separate! correct and modify the collected data%
Co"in1 refers to assigning number or other symbols to each answer
for placing them in categories to prepare data for tab!lation refers to
bring together the similar data in rows and columns and totalling them
in an accurate and meaningful manner% 'he collected data are
analysed and interrupted using statistical tools and techniques
Scope of the st!"y
'his study emphasis in the following scopeE
'o identify the employees le&el of satisfaction upon that job%
'his study is helpful to that organi4ation for conducting further research%
It is helpful to identi fy the employerG s le&el of satisfaction towards
welfare measure%

'his study is helpful to the organisation or identifying the area of

dissatisfaction of job of the employees%
'his study helps to make a managerial decision to the company%

Limitations of the st!"y
'he sur&ey is subjected to the bias and prejudices of the respondents%
Hence 600L accuracy canGt be assured%
'he researcher was carried out in a short span of time! where in the
researcher could not widen the study%
'he study could not be generali4ed due to the fact that researcher
adopted personal inter&iew method%
I6% Ho% lon1 you have been working in the in"!st#yI
6% +ess than @years 60L
=% @/$ years 5$L
@% More than $years 6$L
less than 3 yrs
3-5 yrs
more than 5yrs
time working in industry
Most of the respondents are less than @years is 5$L and more more than $ years
are only 6$L%
G;6 Ho% "o yo! feel the working environmentI
6% :*cellent 6$L
=% >ood D0L
@% -atisfactory 6$L
9% ?ot satisfactory 60L
Most of the respondents feel good D0L and not satisfy only 60L respondent
G<6 Ho% secure do you feel in yo!# FobI
6%% High secure 50L
=% -ecure =0L
@% Insecure 60L
not satisfactory
working environment of industry
high secure
secure in their jobs
Most of the respondents feel high secure 50L and insured only 60L respondents%
G=6 Ho% "o yo! feel the smooth relationship with your employers
and co- workersI
6% Oery high 50L
=% High 60L
@% Medium 6$L
9% low $L
ery high
relation with workers and co-workers
the relation with workers and co/workers is &ery high is 50L and low is only $L
G>6 #e yo! satisfie" %ith yo!# FobI
6% Highly satisfied =0L
=% -atisfied 50L
@% ?ot satisfied 60L
highly satisfied
not satisfied
percentage of job satisfaction
most of the employees is stisfied with 50L with their job and not satisfied is not
G?6 #e yo! satisfie" %ith the appreciation or reward system
p#o4i"e" by yo!# mana1ementI
6% Highly satisfied 6$L
=% -atisfied D0L
@% ?eeds impro&ement =$L
highly satisfied
saisfaction with their reward and
Most of the employees satisfied D0L and =$L employees need impro&ement%
G@6 #e yo! satisfied with the bonus and incentives 1i4enI
6% Highly satisfied 60L
=% -atisfied 5$L
@% ?eeds impro&ement 6$L
highly satisfied
need im"roement
satisfaction with bonus and incentives
Most of the employees are satisfied 5$L and 6$L employees need impro&ement
the bonus and incenti&e system%
GA6 #e yo! satisfied with the overall compensation pac0a1eI
6% Highly satisfied 60L
=% -atisfied 5$L
@% ?eeds impro&ement 6$L
highly satisfied
satisfaction with compensation package
Most of the employees are satisfied 5$L and 6$L employees need impro&ement in
compensation system%
GD6 What "o yo! feel abo!t the welfare scheme of yo!#
6% Highly satisfied 60L
=% -atisfied 80L
@% ?eeds impro&ement 60L
highly satisfied
10% 0%
satisfaction with welfare schemes
Most of the employees are satistied 80L ! 60L are not satisfied and 60L are need
impro&ement in welfare schemes%
G:J6 Ha4e yo! e4e# obse#4e" o# e8pe#ience" any of the follo%in1
fo#ms of discrimination in the companyI
6% acial discrimination 60L
=% Age discrimination =0L
@% >ender discrimination $L
9% ?one of the abo&e D$L
age discrimination
none of these
observation about discrimination
Most of the employees obser&ed none of these D$L and racial discrimination 60L!
age discrimination =0L and gender discrimination only $L in the company%
G::6"o yo! #eally enFoy K #ela8 in yo!# tea time an" l!nch b#ea0I
6% Fes 70L
=% no 60L
Most of the employees satisfied 70L and not satisfied 60L with their tea and launch
break time%
G:;6&y mana1e#Ks!pe#4iso# p#o4i"es me %ith contin!o!s
fee"bac0 to help me achie4e the tas0I
6% -trongly .isagree $L
=% .isagree 60L
@% Agree 50L
9% -trongly agree 6$L
satisfaction with tea and launch break time
strongly disagree
strongly agree
satisfaction wicontinous feedback of
Most of the employees agree 50L and $L are disagree that managers and superior
are pro&ide continuously feedback to achie&e the task%
G:<6 *o yo!# company is conce#ne" %ith the lon1 te#m %elfa#e of
the employeesI
6% -trongly disagree $L
=% .isagree 60L
@% Agree 5$L
9% -trongly agree 60L
strongly disagree
strongly agree
satisfaction with long term welfare of
Most of the employees agree 5$L and $L strongly disagree with their long term
welfare of employees%
G:=6 -o!# company maintains sala#y le4els that compa#e %ell to
othe# companies in this a#eaI
6% -trongly disagree 60L
=% .isagree $L
@% Agree 5$L
9% -trongly agree 60L
strongly disagree
strongly agree
satisfaction with salary level
Most of the employees are agree 5$L and 60L strongly disagree with the salary
le&el compare with the other company of this area%
G:>6 -o!# company maintains benefits that compa#e %ell to othe#
companies in this a#eaI
6% -trongly disagree 60L
=% .isagree $L
@% Agree 5$L
9% -trongly agree 60L
strongly disagree
strongly agree
satisfaction with benefits
Most of the employees are agree 5$L and $L disagree with the benefits of the
welfare compare with the other company in this area%
Beeping in &iew my findings during the last 6 month at (:++3 H3"-: )A: +td% !
i am pro&ing certain recommandation or suggestions! in hope that they will be
appreciated and some of them can be adopted to achei&e better results%

1$ %he techni&ue and method used should 'e regularly u"dated of
(o' satisfaction of em"loyees$
2$ %raining should "roide to the ne! em"loyees of the com"any$
3$ )t should aims to !hole deelo"ment of the em"loyees through
"roiding sufficient income$

2ob satisfaction is simply how content an indi&idual is with his or her job% At
the more specific le&els of conceptuali4ation used by academic researchers
and human resources professionals! job satisfaction has &arying definitions%
Affecti&e job satisfaction is usually defined as a one/dimensional subjecti&e
construct representing an o&erall emotional feeling indi&iduals ha&e about
their job as a whole%
In cello house ware ltd%! the employees are mostly agreeing with their salary
structure! welfare programme! mentainance! job posting%
'hey are well aware about the en&ironment conditions and they also try to
compare their performance with the other company situated in the same
'hey try to maintain the job satisfaction of employees through pro&iding
&arious benefits to the employees%
'hey are following bellow/
1ro&ident funds
:mployees state insurance compensation and
(anteen facility etc%
1ersonal management and industrial relation 1%(% 'ripathi
1ersonal management and industrial relation -%B% -ingh and
B%% .uggal

?oteE / Iuestionnaire was made to a limited number of respondents that is $0%
.ear -irCMadam!
I am doing a research work job satisfaction of employees% I would request you to
Bindly spare some time to fill up this questionnaire%
'hank you &ery much for your cooperation%
?ame //////////////////////////////////////////////////
I6% Ho% lon1 you have been working in the in"!st#yI
a< +ess than @ years
b< @/$ years
c< More than $ years
G;6 Ho% "o yo! feel the working environmentI
a< :*cellent
b< >ood
c< -atisfactory
d< ?ot satisfactory
G<6 Ho% secure do you feel in yo!# FobI
a< High secure
b< -ecure
c< Insecure
G=6 Ho% "o yo! feel the smooth relationship with your employers
and co- workersI
a< Oery high
b< High
c< Medium
d< +ow
G>6 #e yo! satisfie" %ith yo!# FobI
a< Highly satisfied
b< -atisfied
c< ?ot satisfied
G?6 #e yo! satisfie" %ith the appreciation or reward system
p#o4i"e" by yo!# mana1ementI
a< Highly satisfied
b< -atisfied
c< ?eeds impro&ement
G@6 #e yo! satisfied with the bonus and incentives 1i4enI
a< Highly satisfied
b< -atisfied
c< ?eeds impro&ement
GA6 #e yo! satisfied with the overall compensation pac0a1eI
a< Highly satisfied
b< -atisfied
c< ?eeds impro&ement
GD6 Ho% "o yo! feel abo!t the welfare scheme of yo!# sho%#oomI
a< Highly satisfied
b< -atisfied
c< ?eeds impro&ement
G:J6 Ha4e yo! e4e# obse#4e" o# e8pe#ience" any of the follo%in1
fo#ms of discrimination in the companyI
a< acial discrimination
b< Age discrimination
c< >ender discrimination
d< ?one of the abo&e
G::6"o yo! #eally enFoy K #ela8 in yo!# tea time an" l!nch b#ea0I
a< Fes
b< ?o
G:;6&y mana1e#Ks!pe#4iso# p#o4i"es me %ith contin!o!s
fee"bac0 to help me achie4e the tas0I
a< -trongly disagree
b< .isagree
c< Agree
d< -trongly agree
G:<6 *o yo!# company is conce#ne" %ith the lon1 te#m %elfa#e of
the employeesI
a< -trongly disagree
b< .isagree
c< Agree
d< -trongly agree
G:=6 -o!# company maintains sala#y le4els that compa#e %ell to
othe# companies in this a#eaI
a< -trongly disagree
b< .isagree
c< Agree
d< -trongly agree
G:>6 -o!# company maintains benefits that compa#e %ell to othe#
companies in this a#eaI
a< -trongly disagree
b< .isagree
c< Agree
d< -trongly agree