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1.1 Search on the WEB to find at least three web sites that have information on topics in Solids Processing
as described in Chapter 1. List the web sites and summarize the topics pertinent to Solids Processing at
each web site.

1.2 Visit the website www.erpt.org.
(a) What does ERPT mean?
(b) Who is the editor of ERPT?

2.1 Do a WEB search for a process flow sheet for making beer. How many unit operations do you identify
from the flow sheet that involve handling of solid particles? Are these all of the particle processing
operations for the process or are there some not shown in the diagram? Explain. Attach a copy of the
flow sheet to your explanation.

3.1 Calculate the arithmetic mean and cubic mean diameters of the number distribution of the particles
given in the sieve data summarized in Table 3.1. How do the arithmetic and cubic mean diameters
differ qualitatively? Hint: first determine the number distribution.

Table 3.1
Mesh Screen opening,
Mass retained, g
4 4.699 0
6 3.327 0.251
8 2.362 1.250
10 1.651 3.207
14 1.168 2.570
20 .833 1.590
28 .589 0.538
35 .417 0.210
48 .295 0.102
65 .208 0.077
100 .147 0.058
150 .104 0.041
200 .074 0.031
Pan --- 0.075

3.2 Plot the cumulative distribution of the data given in Table 3.1 on semilog paper. Is the plot linear over
any range of particle sizes? How does the amount of fine material (smaller than 20 mesh) differ from
what would be predicted from the size distribution of the coarser material?

3.3 A BR8 particle counter with 8 channels is used to measure the particle size distribution of particles in a
liquid sample. The measured particle number counts are listed in Table 3.3. Plot the data to observe
the number distribution.

(a) If you were running the measurements, discuss how you would adjust the channel sizes to get a
better distribution (you are limited to only 8 channels).
(b) Fit the given data to a normal distribution function. What are the mean and standard deviation
from the fit.

Table 3.3 Particle count for a given channel size is the number of particles per ml of that
channel size and smaller but greater than the next smaller channel size.
Channel size (microns) Particle count
10 5050
15 4721
20 2990
30 1850
45 430
55 100
75 4
100 0

3.4 Suppose you have a cube shaped particle (all three sides are of equal length L).
a. What is the equivalent sphere diameter that would pass through the smallest screen that the cube
can pass?
b. What is the equivalent sphere diameter of a sphere of the same volume as the cube?
c. What is the equivalent sphere diameter of a sphere with the same projected area of the cube
when the cube sits on a flat surface and the projected area is upward (such as on a microscope)?
d. What is the equivalent sphere diameter with the same projected area of the cube for the largest
possible projected area of the cube (ie, the cube in part c may rotate to a position that gives the
largest projected area).

3.5 A 1 cm diameter spherical particle settles through water.
a. What particle densities would be required for the particle to fall with a Reynolds number of 1, 100,
and 10,000?
b. Is it possible to find pure material, composit material, or design a hollow sphere to achieve such
densities? Explain your answer.

3.6 Consider a coagulation/flocculation process which is used to enhance gravity settling. What definition
of average particle diameter is the most appropriate?

3.7 You are asked to estimate the simultaneous heat and mass transfer occurring in a spray dryer. What
definitions of the average particle diameter are most appropriate?


3.8 A particle analysis is shown in Table 3.8.
(a) Determine the median particle size and mode for the mass distribution.
(b) Compare the arithmetic, quadratic, cubic, geometric, and harmonic mean particle sizes of the
given mass distribution data where the means are defined by
( )
( ) g x g x dF =

in the class notes.

Table 3.8 Cumulative percentage undersize distribution (by mass, sieve analysis).
Sieve Size mm Cum. % undersize
0.038 1.4
0.043 9.8
0.061 17.9
0.074 32
0.104 50
0.147 64.5
0.175 76
0.246 87.4
0.295 93.9
0.351 98.1
0.417 99.4
0.495 99.9

3.9. Determine the mass arithmetic, quadratic, and geometric means from the following particle size
Cumulative %
undersize by mass
Particle size (um)
0.7 20
5.0 30
15.0 40
27.5 50
42.0 60
53.0 70
64.0 80
72.5 90
80.0 100
90.0 125
95.0 150
98.5 200
99.6 250

3.10 Make a table of particle scale forces and the way that we may use these forces either to move
particles, to separate particles from other particles, or to separate particles from the fluid. In this table
list in one column the various possible forces that may act on a particle. In a second column indicate
the range of particle sizes in which these forces are probably important. In a third column list some
ways in which we may take advantage of these forces.

3.11 DESIGN A FALLING BALL VISCOMETER. The purpose of this problem is to design a "Falling
Ball" viscometer to be used to measure the viscosity of Newtonian liquids in the range of 10 to 1000
poise. The viscometer consists of a cylindrical tube with an inside diameter of 4 inches and length of
4 feet. The upper one foot of the cylinder is assumed to be long enough for the spherical balls to
reach terminal velocity prior to reaching the start point for the measurement. The length of fall for the
measurement is to be 30 inches.

Select a ball or balls (diameter and material) suitable for this viscometer such that the time of fall is at
least 30 seconds but not greater than 4 minutes. The balls may be made up of materials of 316
stainless steel ( =7.9 g/cm
), sapphire ( =4 g/cm
), or aluminum ( =2.7 g/cm
). You may
assume these densities are determined at 60 F, which is the temperature of the liquids being tested.
The liquids being tested may be assumed to have a density of 1.1 g/cm
. The diameter of the balls
must not exceed 1/10 the diameter of the tube otherwise wall effects will become significant.

If the above constraints cannot be satisfied, how would you modify the design to cover the entire
range of viscosities?

3.12 The Great Pyramid of Egypt stands 146.7 m tall and has four sides 230.35 (.0.1 m) at the base. For
this object (neglect any structures below the ground surface), find
(a) its sphericity
(b) screen size (ie., the smallest screen opening the pyramid will always fit through regardless of
(c) its projected area diameter (as viewed from an airplane above).

3.13 You are given of 10 spherical particles all with the same density and the diameters sequentially 1mm,
2mm, 3mm, up to 10 mm;
(a) Plot the number fractional frequency and cumulative frequency curves versus particle size (f
and F versus x).
(b) What are the fractional frequency distribution by projected surface area and by mass?
(c) What is the quadratic mean of the surface area distribution and what is the geometric mean of
the mass distribution?

3.14 The optimum catalyst size for a particular process is between 1 and 5 mm in size (assuming spherical
particles). You have purchased a sample of catalyst material from a South American supplier. You
must have at least 90% of the material mass in the 1 to 5 mm size range for the catalyst to be
acceptable. You send your sample for analysis and the analysis tells you that the number size
distribution is given by the log-normal expression



b a x f
ln exp ) (
where 453 . 0 = a , 041 . 1 = b , and 00 . 1 =
x mm

(a) To convert from a number basis to a mass basis, show that the geometric shape factor,
k , is
approximately equal to 0.027. Hint: use a spreadsheet numerical integration such as Trapezoidal
Rule to obtain
k .
(b) Use the
k value given in (a) to determine functional values for the mass distribution ) (x f
Integrate these values to determine the values of ) (x F
at x =1 mm and x =5mm. Does the
sample satisfy the 90% requirement?
3.15 An F-15 fighter jet traveling at 966 km/hr relative to the air develops a mechanical problem and the
pilot must eject. The pilot sitting in his chair is roughly cylindrical in shape (0.82 m in diameter and
1.7 m long). Upon ejection he encounters the full force of the air perpendicular to the cylinder. The
pilot weighs 84 kg and the chair weighs about 160 kg. What is the g-force de-acceleration due to the
air drag that the pilot experiences when the pilot has first cleared the aircraft but is still traveling at
966 km/hr relative to the air? Hint: see Figure 7.3 of the text McCabe & Smith or Figure 5-76 in
Perrys handbook 6
ed for drag coefficients for cylinders. This ejection occurs where the air
temperature is +5C and the pressure is 0.8 atm.

Figure 3.15. Pilot in his chair exposed to the air at high velocity.

3.16 A cube of aluminum, 1 cm length on each edge, is supended by a thin wire in a stream of
flowing water. The cube is held stationary while the water flows at 1 m/s. If the force on the
thin wire is 5 N, what is the value of the drag coefficient? The orientation of the cube to the
flow is not specified (you specify the orientation). If you were to develop a correlation for the
drag coefficient you would define a Reynolds number for the cube. For your cubes
orientation, what characteristic length would you use in the correlation? Since this is a
contrived problem with made-up values, comment on whether you think the 5 N force is a
reasonable value (is it in the range of forces you would expect?).
3.17 Recently the Mars rover, Curiosity, landed on Mars. Mars has an atmosphere mostly of CO
at a
pressure of about 0.001 ATM. The rover has a mass of about 1000 kg. Make up a homework
problem around the landing of the rover that involves a calculation regarding terminal velocity and
drag coefficients. Turn in a solution to your homework question.
4.1 A 20-ton dump truck loaded with 25 tons of ore dumps its load into a pit. Estimate the surface area of
the pit floor that is covered with the ore. The ore has a bulk density of 1 ton per cubic yard and an
average angle of repose of 40 degrees. You may assume that the ore piles against the flat wall of the
pit in the shape of a half cone.


4.2 A contractor proposes to use spherical foam beads to insulate the empty space inside of a double wall
of an older house. The wall is 16 feet wide, 8 feet high, and the empty space between the walls is 4
inches wide. The beads are blown into the wall through inch diameter holes 1 inch below the top of
the wall. Three holes will be used, spaced evenly across the width of the wall. If the beads have an
angle of repose of 20 degrees and the beads pour straight down from the hole (without mixing from
movement of air), estimate the area of the wall that will not have the bead insulation.
INJ ECTION POINTS (4 ft apart)


4.3 If particles agglomerate, they change their effective size. Design a problem based on spherical
particles all of the same diameter. Using the definitions of average particle size, how does the average
particle size change with the number of spheres agglomerated into one particle and with the
agglomeration geometry? This is an open-ended problem so you can set some of your own constraints,
such as only considering particles arranged in a cubic packing shape, or as close to a cube as you can
get, and do the calculations for 1 to 10 particles. Or, you may take, say 8 spherical particles, and
arrange them in different geometry agglomerates, and compare the average diameters of the
4.4 1750 kg of wilcox sand (SpG =2.5, sphericity =0.6) with a mean diameter size of 2 mm is mixed into a
tank of agitated water water. The tank is 2 m in diameter and initially has water to a depth of 2 m
(without the sand). When the agitation is stopped the sand will settle in hindered settling. Estimate
how long it will take for the sand to settle to the bottom of the tank. (Note, take into account the
increase in fluid depth due to the addition of the sand).

4.5 Spherical particles with a diameter of 500 m are packed in two types of packing arrangements: (a)
cubic and (b) rhombohedral. In cubic packing, each sphere of diameter d occupies a cube having the
length of a side equal to d and the cubes surrounding adjacent particles do not overlap.
Rhombohedral arrangements represent the closest possible packing with particles resting on 60 centers
with a porosity (void fraction) =0.259. For the case of the cubic arrangement, what is the porosity?
In both cases determine the specific surface area (ie. area of particle surfaces per volume) based on the
particle volume and based on the container volume.

4.6 Extend example 4-2 by changing the particle diameter. What particle diameter gives R
= 1 and what
is the corresponding Darcy permeability?

4.7 In Example 4-2 what would be the particle size if the flow rate was such that the R
= 50 ? Note: this
requires solving the Ergun Equation because the low Reynolds number assumption in deriving Eq.(4-
23) does not hold.

4.8 Water at 20C flows through a 100 ft long horizontal 2 inch schedule 40 pipe. The flow rate is such
that the Re = 20000. The water is replaced with a well mixed slurry of very small neutrally buoyant
particles where the porosity varies from 0.6 to 1.0. The Reynolds number is constant for each case.

The slurry Reynolds number is calculated by


and the slurry viscosity is estimated by

| |
) 1 ( 6 . 16 2
00273 . 0 ) 1 ( 05 . 10 ) 1 ( 5 . 2 1

+ + + = e

Make a plot showing how the pressure drop varies with the porosity. Discuss how this analysis would
change if the particles were not neutrally buoyant. (Note: the particles are not held suspended due to
the upward flow of the water as in a fluidized bed. The pressure drop should be found using the
Bernoullis equation for pipe flow.)

4.9 Design a problem similar to 4.8 but for which you heat a slurry. Provide a solution to the problem.
What correlations do you use and how do those correlations account for slurry porosity?

4.10 Rework one of the text examples (Coulson and Richardson) 5.1, 5.2 and 5.3 into a design problem
with solution (ie, work the problem backwards). Design problems should include some (not
necessarily all) of the following characteristics:
Develops student creativity
Develops and uses design methodology
Formulates design problem statements and specifications
Considers alternative solutions
Takes into account feasibility solutions
Considers detailed system descriptions
Includes realistic constraints: economic factors, safety, reliability, aesthetics, ethics, and
social impact

4.11 Create a new design problem on settling. This problem could be based on examples given in other
references. Turn in a problem statement and solution.

4.12 Problem 7.12 from W.L. McCabe J .C. Smith, and P. Harriott, Unit Operations of Chemical
Engineering, 6
ed., McGraw Hill, Boston, 2001: According to a brochure from Dow Chemical
Company, the pressure drop for water flowing through a bed of 20 mesh to 50 mesh Dowex 50x8
resin is said to be proportional to the flow rate and has a value of 0.80 lbf/inch
/ft at a flow rate of
10 gal/min/ft
. (a) predict the pressure drop, using an arithmetic averge particle size and a void
fraction of 0.35. (b) what average particle size or alternate value of porosity would be needed for
agreement with the published pressure drop?

4.13 Plot Thomas's, Krieger-Dougherty's, and Shooks equations for slurry viscosity and compare (plot

vs ). Use loose packing as an estimate of the critical porosity in Shooks equations.
Where do these correlations agree? Where do they differ significantly? Why do they differ?

Thomas Eq. ( )
) 1 ( 6 . 16 2
00273 . 0 ) 1 ( 05 . 10 ) 1 ( 5 . 2 1

+ + + = e

D.T.Y. Kao, Rheology of Suspensions, in Handbook of Fluids in Motion,
chapter 23, 863-893, Ann Arbor Science, Ann Arbor, Michigan, 1983.

Krieger-Dougherty Eq.
) 1 (



I.M. Krieger and T.J . Dougherty, Trans. Soc. Rheol., 3, 137-152, 1959.
(for concentrated suspensions, assume glassfibers with axial ratio =7, A =3.8
Shook Eq. ( ) ( )
16 . 0 1 ( 5 . 2 1 + + =





J . Schaan, R.J . Sumner, R.G.Gillies, and C.A. Shook, The effect of particle
shape on pipeline friction for Newtonian slurries of fine particles, Can. J.
Chem. Eng. 78, 717-725, 2000.

4.14 Clay particles (intrinsic density of 1960 kg/m
) roughly disk shaped, about 10 microns in diameter
and 2 microns thick, are in a water slurry concentration at 95% water by volume. (a) Estimate the
hindered settling velocity (by gravity) of this mixture. (b) discuss ways in which you could
improve the rate of separation

4.15 In places where large earth-moving equipment is not available, boulders can be lifted with a crane
by boring a hole in them, inserting a metal plug with a cable attached and backfilling the hole with
sand as shown below. What mass of boulder can be picked up with a plug one-inch in diameter
that is buried 8 inches into the boulder? Assume the sand to boulder friction coefficient 1 =
and J anssen coefficient of 0.4. The bulk density of the sand is 100 lbm/ft
. Neglect the effect of
the cable.

Figure 4.15. Bolder with hole and cable with plug for lifting.

4.16 A pile of ore, similar to the pile shown in the figure in question 4.1, covers a semi-circular area of
a radius of 8 yards. If a 5-ton dump truck can carry 8 cubic yards, how many dump truck loads
would be required to move the pile?

4.17 For the slurry flow in problem 4.8, the slurry has a liquid volume fraction of 0.9 and flows at a
rate of 4345 lbm/hr (Re is no longer 20000), what is the pressure drop across the 100 ft long
horizontal pipe?

5.1 Design a problem to calculate the minimum fluidization velocity of a fluidized bed. Turn in a problem
statement and solution.

5.2 Design a problem on fluidized bed expansion or liquid-solid mixing. Turn in a problem statement and

5.3 Design a problem on gas-solid fluidization. Turn in a problem statement and solution.

5.4 Design a problem on heat transfer in a fluidized bed. Turn in a problem statement and solution.

5.5 Design a problem on mass transfer in a fluidized bed. Turn in a problem statement and solution.

5.6 In a chemical plant you are asked to help design a new aqueous phase fluidized bed reactor
in which the particles have a size distribution ranging from 1 to 10 mm but all of the particles
have the same terminal velocity as a 1mm stainless steel sphere (density =7.8 g/cm

To test the fluid flow conditions in the reactor you decide to make 10 spheres of diameters
1mm, 2mm, 3mm, , 10 mm. Explain how you would construct these spheres, by specifing
materials, coatings, composite structures, hollowing out the spheres, etc. (you figure out a
way of doing it).

In a table, summarize the key features of your sphere designs for all 10 spheres (how much
of each type of material, the dimensions, etc.). Show in calculations that each sphere has the
required terminal velocity in water.

5.6 A peanut farmer asks you to help him design a fluidized bed dry roaster to cook his peanuts. He
believes that dry air at 110C can roast his peanuts in 30 minutes. He needs to process 100 tons per

(a) Design a flow diagram for such a process identifying the major components of equipment.
You may assume that the peanuts have their shells removed and are stored in a large hopper.
(b) What are the design sizes (height and diameter) of your fluidized bed (or beds if your design
calls for more than one). At what volumetric flow rate of air at 1 atm and 110C will you
fluidize the bed(s)?
(c) What is the pressure drop over your bed(s)?

Notes: (1) peanuts are not spherical; you need to estimate their sphericity. You may assume they
are roughly cylindrical 8mm in diameter by 16 mm long. (2) Peanut density is about 1.4 g/cc.

5.7 A loosely packed bed is made of 1 mm diameter stainless steel spheres (density =7.8 g/cm
). The bed
depth is 10 cm and the bed diameter is 10 cm. This bed is to be fluidized to a height of 15 cm in water
at 20 C. What volumetric flow rate of water is required? What is the pressure drop across the bed?


7.1 Search recent literature for information on slurries and particulate materials and select one slurry
material for a hypothetical separation. Use the equipment selection guides in Chapter 7 (Solids Notes
Chapter 7 on the web site). Select 3 likely separation equipment for separating the particles from the
fluid if the dry cake or particles are the primary product of interest. J ustify your equipment selection.

7.2 For the two cases in example Coulson and Richardson example problem 7.3, how much slurry can be
processed in an 8-hour shift? You may assume the plates are the same size as in example problem 7.1.
The cake has an average porosity of 0.4 and the feed slurry liquid volume fraction is 0.92.

Example problem 7.3. A sludge is filtered in a plate and frame press fitted with 25 mm frames.
(Case 1) For the first 10 min the slurry pump runs at maximum capacity. During this period the
pressure rises to 415 kN/m
and a quarter of the total filtrate is obtained. The filtration takes a
further 60 min to complet at constant pressure and 15 min is required for emptying and resetting
the press. (Case 2) It is found that if the cloths are precoated with filter aid to a depth of 1.6 mm,
the cloth resistance is reduced to a quarter of its former value. What will be the increase in the
overall throughput of the press if the precoat can be applied in 3 min?
Case 1 gives a total cycle time of 5100s.
Case 2 gives a total cycle time of 4083s.

Example problem 7.1. A slurry is filtered in a plate and frame press containing 12 frames, each
0.3m square and 25 mm thick. During the first 3 min, the pressure difference for the filtration is
slowly raised to the final value of 400 kN/m
and during this period, the rate of filtration is
maintained constant. After the initial period, filtration is carried out at a constant pressure and the
cakes are completely formed in a further 15 min. the cakes are then washed with a pressure
difference of 275 kN/m
for 10 min, using thorough washing. What is the volume of the filtrate
collected per cycle and how much wash water is used? A sample of the slurry had previously been
tested with a leaf filter of 0.05 m
filtering surface using a vacuum giving a pressure difference of
71.3 kN/m
. The volume of filtrate collected in the first 5 min was 250 cm
and, after a further 5
min, an additional 150 cm
was collected. Assume the cake to be incompressible and the cloth
resistance to the same as in the filter press.

9.1 A conical hopper that is centrally filled contains a detergent powder that has a particle size distribution
shown below. The angle of the hopper from horizontal is

54 . The hopper is constructed of plate

steel. The angle of wall friction is

27 . The particle size distribution in shown in Figure 9.1.

Figure 9.1. Particle size distribution in hopper.

Show qualitatively, considering all mechanisms of segregation, the % of fine material (<200 um) as a
function of the amount of detergent emptied. Note that the hopper is slowly filled from a fluid bed
dryer locaed above it.

9.2 In the operation sketched below some coarse and fine particles are well mixed and loaded in a
transporter. The transporter is moved a short distance and its contents are discharged in mass flow.
Will the initial material discharged be higher or lower in concentration of fines? Explain your

Figure 9.2. Transporter starts out with well mixed powder. After traveling a short
distance the transporter is emptied in mass flow discharge.
50 200 535 800


10.1 Square bins with pyramidal bottoms are attractive to designers because they are easy to fabricate. Yet,
reliable flow the valleys in the bin can be a problem.

a. Derive an expression that relates the valley angle, , to the side angle, , and the side width, D.
b. What is the valley angle for

30 = (from vertical)?
c. At what angle is the difference between and the greatest?
d. Explain what this difference in angles can have on whether the powder flows in mass flow or
funnel flow from the hopper.

10.2 Choose whether mass flow or funnel flow would be appropriate for the following situations (give
reasoning for your choice):

a. A large silo full of unifomly sized free flowing pellets that empties into railroad cars.
b. A pharmaceutical product of varying particle size that has been granulated into spheres. The
mixture consists of active granules and inactive granules of different sizes. This mixture will feed
a capsule filling machine.
c. A sorbent powder is to be packaged into 1 ton supersacks. The rate of absorption is particle size
dependent. The powder has a particle size distribution from 140 US mesh to 18 US mesh.
d. Free-flowing sand to be stored at a concrete mixing facility.
e. A flaked raw material with a wide particle size distribution (dust to 3/16" x 1/8" x 1/4" flakes) is to
be emptied from a "day" hopper into a reactor where it will be disolved in a solvent over night. (A
day hopper is one that is daily reloaded).

10.3 What are the hopper storage challenges associated with the following everyday materials?

a. corn starch
b. oatmeal (Akron is famous for it!)
c. sugar
d. baking mix
e. coal
f. gravel

10.4 A large welded steel silo 4 meters in diameter is to be built. The silo has a central discharge on a flat
bottom. The silo will be filled with plastic pellets with the following characteristics

kg/ m

At what depth of pellets in the silo (measured from the top) would the vertical stress reach 99% of
its maximum (ignore the effect of the hopper discharge region)?

(corner between 2 walls)
Wall angle,

10.5 Bulk density for compressible solids can be represented by



' was taken by J enike to be 13 lb/ft
. The following data was obtained in a lab using a
compressibility cell. Determine ' and B.

29.33 27.2
88.01 29.83
205.35 32.25
440.03 34.26
880.06 36.54
1760.12 38.86

10.6 A plant engineer needs to design a hopper for a new polymer product. The flow function of this
material was obtained from shear test data:

f lb
3.26 1.80
15.49 5.05
36.87 10.69
70.07 19.20
The area of shear and normal force is 1/13 ft

50 = . The material is incompressible and has a bulk density of 27.2 lbm/ft

. The bin
will be constructed out of sheet finish stainless steel with

18 =
a. What are the outlet size and angle for a mass flow conical bin?
b. What are the outlet size and angle for a mass flow wedge shaped hopper?
c. What is the minimum rathole dimension assuming the bin is to be 30 ft high and 6 ft in

10.7 Calculate the discharge rate of a fine 50 m powder discharging from a circular 8 inch sch 40 outlet.
Assume the hopper angle from vertical is 20. The particles have a density of 0.92 g/cm
and the fluid
is air at STP. The material has a bulk density of 35 lbm/ft

10.8 It is desired to prevent sticking of rubber particles that are shaped like footballs. The particles have a
density of 1.2 g/cm
. It is preferred to use talc as the anti-block (anti-stick) agent. The length of the
football shaped particles is 3.37 mm. It is known that coverage of surfaces by spheres is roughly 82%
for random coverage. The talc is 2um in mean diameter. How much talc is required for adequate
coverage (ie, monolayer)? Express your anser in ppm talc (by mass).

10.9 A process engineer has a conical hopper that can hold 200,000 lbs of bulk material. The bulk material
has a mean size of 6 mm and bulk density 43 lb/ft
. The hopper has a semi-included angle of 25 and
tangent angle to the Mohr circle is 40. The hopper has two liner materials. Material (A) has a wall
friction of
=18 and (B) has a wall friction of
=26. Which wall material should be used to
ensure mass flow from the hopper?
10.10 Design a cylindrical silo fitting the following description:

Centrally located top feed point
Diameter of 10 feet
Sufficient capacity to supply an 8 hour shift
Mass flow discharge of 12 tons per hour
Conical mass flow hopper

Given a material with the following properties:
Wall friction angle 30
Bulk density 235 lbm/ft

Angle of internal friction 50
Flow function 2.1 +0.15
Angle of repose 45
Particle diameter 0.0394 inches

Provide the missing dimensions on the silo in Figure 10.10

Figure 10.10. Silo design. Specify the missing dimensions.

10.11 Solve J anssens equation (Eq. 10-9) for the special case when the wall friction approaches zero,
0 . How do you interpret the results?

? ft
10 ft
0.5 ft
? ft
? ft
10.12 You asked a technician to measure internal and wall friction (stainless steel wall) for a powdered
polycarbonate material. The technician brought you the following data:
Average particle diameter, dp =5 microns
Bulk density =1110 kg/m

Particle density =2560 kg/m

Area of shear cell in experiments =0.039 m

Internal Friction
Set 1 Set 2 Set 3
Normal mass
(applied) kg
Shear Force
Normal mass
Shear Force
Normal Mass
Shear Force
1 23 3 38 5 48
5 24 7 43 8.5 55
8.5 25 12 48 15 65
15 50 22 73

Wall Friction
Normal mass
(applied) kg
Shear Force
12 54
16 71
20 88

(a) Plot the normal stress (N/m
) vs shear stress (N/m
) for the three internal friction sets of data. Be
sure to convert kg mass to N force and divide the force by the cell area to get the right units.
(b) For a slotted outlet hopper, determine the semi-included design angle. Remember to subtract 3
degrees for a margin of safety from the angle determined from the chart. Make sure your axes are
scaled the same when you draw the circles to determine fc and sigma 1.
(c) What is the minimum opening size (ie, smallest area) for the slotted hopper? For this minimum
opening size what is the maximum flow rate through the opening (ie, assuming that you do not use
any control device). You may take the density of air to be 1.2 kg/m
and the air viscosity to be
0.02 cP.
11.1 You have a cyclone that operates with a grade efficiency G(x). Your feed stream cumulative size
fraction by mass is given by Fm(x) where dF/dx =f(x).

(a) If your product material is of size X or greater in the coarse stream, starting from the
fundamental definitions for F and G, show that the amount of product material lost in
the fines stream per unit time is given by
( )

dx x f x G m m ) ( ) ( 1
where m is the total mass rate of the feed stream.

(b) G(x) is given by
For x<1 um G(x) =0
For 1 um <G(x) <1000 um G(x) =0.03162x
For 1000 um <x G(x) =1

And F
(x) for the feed stream is given by
For x<1 um F(x) =0
For 1 um <x <1000 um F(x) =1/3 log
For 1000 um <x F(x) =1

If the desired product size is X =50 um and larger, what is the % loss of product
material from this separation?

11.2 Plot the grade efficiency curve for the following data. What is the cut size and S

Feed rate =6000 lbm/hr
Fines rate =2100 lbm/hr

44 0 0
75 0.2 8
150 1.2 26.1
212 5.8 51.8
300 22.2 75.5
475 65.9 94.9
600 86.4 99.6
850 100 100


11.3 You have four identical separators, shown below, all with the same grade efficiency, G(x). For the x

size particle, list the exit streams (Coarse 2, Fines 2, Fines 3, Coarse 4, and Fines 4) in order of
highest concentration in x
to lowest concentration in x
. Recall, x
is the size particle that
corresponds to G(x) =0.80.

1 2
3 4
Feed Coarse 2
Fines 2
Fines 4
Coarse 4
Fines 1
Coarse 3
Coarse 1
Fines 3
12.1 You have a spare cyclone having dimensions shown below. If you use this cyclone on the process
stream described below, how much product will be lost per year if this cyclone is used as the only
means of product recovery?

Process stream/conditions
Product loading in gas stream 22 grams/scf
gas air
gas flow rate 7546 scfm
gas temperature 160F
annual hours of operation 8400 hr/yr
entrained particle size distribution (sieve analysis)
80 mass % 10e-6 <d
<20 e -6 meters
20 mass % 5 e-6 <d
<10 e-6 meters
product: NaCl salt crystals, roughly cubic in shape

(Hint, you can estimate the collection efficiency curve from correlations and apply it to each size
range of particles).

All dimensions in feet.

H =8
De =1
h =4
s =4
a =3
b =1
B =1

13.1 Estimate the saltation velocity of polystyrene particles with the following characteristics: (pellets)

g/cm 05 . 1 =
mm 3 =
d .

The mass flow rate through the pipe is 30,000 lb/hr. Calculate the air flow rate reqired if the
system is to be designed for 10% above saltation in a 6 inch schedule 10 pipe (see Perrys
Handbook for pipe schedule 10). What is the phase ratio for the system? Assume the conditions
at the pick-up point are 0 psig and 83F.

13.2 Find the horsepower required for the blower of the pneumatic conveying system described below.
You are to pneumatically convey duck food pellets from a hopper to a pond at a rate of 1 lbm/minute.
When the pellets exit the end of the pneumatic tube they follow a parabolic projectile path to land in a
pond at a distance of 50 feet from the end of the tube.

The tube exit is 20 feet above the pond surface and the end section of the tube is angled 40 degrees
off of vertical. The 40 degree bend has a bend radius to pipe diameter ratio of R/D =12. The pipe
is smooth PVC with a 1.0 inch inside diameter. Air at the pipe exit is at STP (1 atm, 68F, density
0.075 lbm/ft
and viscosity of 0.017 cP). The pellets are spherical, diameter of 5 mm, and density
of 60 lbm/ft

(a) What velocity must the pellets leave the end of the pipe to reach the pond (you may neglect air
drag on the pellets from the end of the tube to the pond).

(b) Assuming that the answer to part (a) is 50 ft/s, what air velocity is required through the pipe for the
pellets to reach this velocity?

(c) Assuming that the answer to (b) is 70 ft/s, what is the pressure at the blower exit? You may
assume that the conveyance is dilute phase and the particles have a terminal velocity of 42 ft/s.

(d) If the pressure loss to the inlet to the blower is 0.3 psi, the pressure at the blower exit is 16.3 psia,
and the blower motor is 80% efficient, what size horsepower motor is required to operate the

Hint, recall that for liquids, power =pressure drop x flow rate. For gases the power is given by

m Power

You may use the ideal gas law to relate pressure to density to evaluate the integral.

50 ft
100 ft
20 ft

13.3 Design the following vacuum pneumatic conveying system for soda ash (Na
). The air is pulled
through a filter, past the rail car hopper (where it picks up the particles), through the pipeline, into a
cyclone where the particles drop out, and through the blower (the blower is at the exit on the right side
of the diagram).

Assume the following:
Particles: 220 um, spherical in shape,
=2532 kg/m
Pipe: 6 inch schedule 10
Bends R/D=8
Roughness k/D =0.0002
Conveying gas: air at 50 F
Throughput 25,000 lbm/hr (allows 180,000 lbm railcar to unload in a shift)
Pressure drop of inlet pipe is 1.5 inches H2O
Pressure drop of cyclone is 4.25 inches H2O

What is the gas volume rate required and the system pressure drop?

14.1 Describe the conditions in which dust can cause an explosion. How can you prevent them?

14.2 Explain why smaller particles, 10 micron in diameter, are more likely to cause a dust explosion than
larger particles, say 250 microns in diameter. If the surface reaction rate is the same for both size
particles, use the ideal gas law, assuming a constant temperature, to estimate the rate of pressure
increase for the small particles compared to the larger particles in a confined space.
30 ft
30 ft
200 ft