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Air Conditioning

Its all about comfort.

Air Conditioning
Air conditioning is the removal of heat from
indoor air for thermal comfort.
In another sense, the term can refer to any
form of cooling, heating, ventilation,
or disinfection that modifies the condition of

Air Conditioner
An air conditioner (often referred to as AC) is
a home appliance, system,
or mechanism designed to dehumidify and
extract heat from an area. The cooling is done
using a simple refrigeration cycle.
In construction, a complete system of
heating, ventilation and air conditioning is
referred to as "HVAC".
Types of Air Conditioners
Window AC System
Split AC System
Packaged AC System
Central AC System
Window AC System
Window air conditioner is the most commonly used air
conditioner for single rooms.
In this air conditioner all the components, namely the
compressor, condenser, expansion valve or coil, evaporator
and cooling coil are enclosed in a single box.
This unit is fitted in a slot made in the wall of the room, or
often a window sill.
Split AC System
The Split air conditioner comprises of two parts:
1) Outdoor unit
2) Indoor unit
The outdoor unit, fitted outside the room, has components
like the compressor, condenser and expansion valve.
The indoor unit comprises the evaporator or cooling coil and
the cooling fan.
For this unit you dont have to make any slot in the wall of the
room. Further, the present day split units have aesthetic looks
and add to the beauty of the room. The split air conditioner
can be used to cool one or two rooms.
Package AC System
An HVAC designer will suggest this type of air conditioner if
you want to cool more than two rooms or a larger space at
your home or office.
All the components, namely the compressor, condenser
(which can be air cooled or water cooled), expansion valve
and evaporator are housed in a single box. The cooled air is
thrown by the high capacity blower, and it flows through the
ducts laid through various rooms.
Central AC System
The central air conditioning system is used for cooling big
buildings, houses, offices, entire hotels, gyms, movie theaters,
factories etc.
If the whole building is to be air conditioned, HVAC engineers
find that putting individual units in each of the rooms is very
expensive initially as well in the long run.
The central air conditioning system is comprised of a huge
compressor that has the capacity to produce hundreds of tons
of air conditioning.
Cooling big halls, malls, huge spaces, galleries etc is usually
only feasible with central conditioning units.
Fresh Air
Cooling Load Calculation
A building or room gains heat from many sources.
Inside occupants, computers, copiers, machinery, and lighting
all produce heat.
Warm air from outside enters through open doors and
windows, or as leakage though the structure.
However the biggest source of heat is solar radiation from the
sun, beating down on the roof and walls, and pouring through
the windows, heating internal surfaces.
The sum of all these heat sources is know as the heat gain (or
heat load) of the building, and is expressed either
in BTU (British Thermal Units) or kW (Kilowatts).
Cooling Load Calculation
For an air conditioner to cool a room or building its output
must be greater than the heat gain. It is important before
purchasing an air conditioner that a cooling load calculation is
performed to ensure it is big enough for the intended

The heat gain of a room or building depends on:

1) The size of the area being cooled.

2) Size and position of windows, and whether they have

3) Number of occupants.

4) Generated by equipment and machinery.

5) Generated by lighting .

By calculating the heat gain from each individual item and adding them
together, an accurate cooling load figure can be determined.
Cooling Load Calculation
Cooling Load Calculation
Step One

Calculate the area in square feet of the space to be cooled, and
multiply by 31.25

Area BTU = length (ft.) x width (ft.) x 31.25
Cooling Load Calculation
Step Two

Calculate the heat gain through the windows. If the windows dont
have shading multiply the result by 1.4.

North window BTU = Area of North facing windows (m. sq.) x 164

If no shading, North window BTU = North window BTU x 1.4

South window BTU = Area of South facing windows (m. sq.) x 868

If no shading, South window BTU = South window BTU x 1.4
Add the results together.

Total window BTU = North window + South window
Cooling Load Calculation
Step Three
Calculate the heat generated by occupants, allow 600 BTU per

Occupant BTU = number of people x 600

Step Four

Calculate the heat generated by each item of machinery - copiers,
computers, ovens etc. Find the power in watts for each item, add
them together and multiply by 3.4

Equipment BTU = total equipment watts x 3.4
Cooling Load Calculation
Step Five

Calculate the heat generated by lighting. Find the total wattage for
all lighting and multiply by 4.25

Lighting BTU = total lighting watts x 4.25

Step Six
Add the above together to find the total heat load.

Total heat load BTU = Area BTU + Total Window BTU + Occupant
BTU + Equipment BTU + Lighting BTU

Cooling Load Calculation
Step Seven
Finally, find the total heat load in Tons of Air conditioning according
to the following relationship.

1 Ton = 12,000 BTU

Total heat load in Tons = Total heat load BTU

AC Selection
If your load doesnt come out to be a fix quantity
Then you shall select the AC with higher capacity than calculated
load. e.g.
If your load comes out to be 1.8 Tons which is more than 1.5 Tons,
so you shall buy 2 Tons AC to fulfill your requirements.
When you bought your AC, so sit down relax & Just Chill in month of
June-July-August in Peshawar.

Coz its all about comfort.