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WHAT IS ATTITUDE AND ITS FORMATION: A predisposition or a tendency to respond positively
or negatively towards a certain idea, object, person, or situation. Attitude influences an
individual's choice of action, and responses to challenges, incentives, and rewards (together
called stimuli).
Four major components of attitude are (1) Affective: emotions or feelings. (2) Cognitive: belief
or opinions held consciously. (3) Conative: inclination for action. (4) Evaluative: positive or
negative response to stimuli.
FORMATION-attitudes form directly as a result of experience. They may emerge due to direct
personal experience, or they may result from observation. Social roles and social norms can
have a strong influence on attitudes. Social roles relate to how people are expected to behave
in a particular role or context. Social norms involve society's rules for what behaviors are
considered appropriate.

Attitudes can be learned in a variety of ways. Consider how advertisers use classical
conditioning to influence your attitude toward a particular product. In a television commercial,
you see young, beautiful people having fun in on a tropical beach while enjoying a sport drink.
This attractive and appealing imagery causes you to develop a positive association with this
particular beverage.

Operant conditioning can also be used to influence how attitudes develop. Imagine a young
man who has just started smoking. Whenever he lights up a cigarette, people complain,
chastise him and ask him to leave their vicinity. This negative feedback from those around him
eventually causes him to develop an unfavorable opinion of smoking and he decides to give up
the habit.

Finally, people also learn attitudes by observing the people around them. When someone you
admire greatly espouses a particular attitude, you are more likely to develop the same beliefs.
For example, children spend a great deal of time observing the attitudes of their parents and
usually begin to demonstrate similar outlooks.
COGNITIVE DISSONACE THEORY- Cognitive dissonance is a communication theory adopted
from social psychology. The title gives the concept: cognitive is thinking or the mind; and
dissonance is inconsistency or conflict. Cognitive dissonance is the psychological conflict from
holding two or more incompatible beliefs simultaneously. Cognitive dissonance is a relatively
straightforward social psychology theory that has enjoyed wide acceptance in a variety of
disciplines including communication. The theory replaces previous conditioning or
reinforcement theories by viewing individuals as more purposeful decision makers; they strive
for balance in their beliefs. If presented with decisions or information that create dissonance,
they use dissonance-reduction strategies tot regain equilibrium, especially if the dissonance
affects their self-esteem. The theory suggests that 1) dissonance is psychologically
uncomfortable enough to motivate people to achieve consonance, and 2) in a state of
dissonance, people will avoid information and situations that might increase the dissonance.
How dissonance arises is easy to imagine: It may be unavoidable in an information rich-society.
How people deal with it is more difficult.
ATTRIBUTION THEORY- Concept that people make sense of their surroundings on the basis of
what they consider is the cause and what is the effect of a phenomenon. It suggests that
individuals observe their own behavior or experience, try to figure out what caused it, and then
(whether or not their conclusion is in fact correct) shape their future behavior accordingly. If a
consumer, for example, has had bad experience with a locally-made product (and good
experience with an imported one) he or she may conclude that the bad product is bad because
it is locally made.
Informal group
Any structure or hierarchy
IMPACT OF SOCIAL CLASS- The effects of social class can be felt anywhere. Almost every aspect
of society is influenced in some manner by social class. The magazines one reads, the television
shows one watches, and the clothes a person buys affect social class. School, work, religious,
and home lives are also linked to the influence of social classes. Schools and the workplace are
greatly influenced by social class. The look of employment is changing because workers can no
longer expect to work their way up through a company. Many companies look outside of the
company for people with the right educational background instead of hiring from within. This
greatly limits the potential for advancement of workers who lack formal education. For people
to move up in the social hierarchy, they must obtain higher education. Instead of spending
years at a lower level position, people are spending more time in school and moving directly
into management. Thus the change in the workplace influences the educational system.
Social class also plays a part in families, especially in the development of children. Youth are
often taught to fit in with their social class, thus developing a personality that correlates with
social status. Educational systems can help or hinder the prospect of social mobility. Although
many teachers work hard to ensure against favoritism, this is not always possible, partly
because of the stigma attached to social class. Teachers may give special opportunities to
certain groups. They may also wrongly anticipate the knowledge or potential of specific classes
of children. For example, children from high-class families are sometimes viewed as being more
intelligent than those from lower social classes. Sometimes more attention will be invested in
the children who have more knowledge attributed to them. The idea that upper-class children
are smarter has been passed down throughout the ages, but there is no conclusive evidence to
back it up. In fact, lower-class children do not have lower IQ scores than upper-class children as
previously suspected. This means there must be a glitch in the system somewhere because a
greater number more of high social class children are going on to college and getting jobs with
advancement potential while lower-class children are in positions without hope of
advancement. The lack of money in lower social classes may contribute to the problem, but the
presence of social class in the educational system may be contributory as well. Thus it is vital to
study how the effects of social class are entering into classrooms and helping to determine the
future of children.
Social class is often used when researching children. Despite its frequent use, it is difficult to
use social class as a reliable variable. The lack of a consistent definition is one of the reasons.
Each researcher uses a different definition of social class, thus making it difficult to study it as a
variable across research. Not only does the definition of social class cause a problem, so does
measuring it. Once again there is not a specific assessment process used universally. The
reporting of social class contributes to the lack of reliability as well. Since social class is often
self-reported, it is difficult to assure the accuracy of the information collected. Even if the data
is accurate, social classes are not the same in each region or city. What constitutes upper class
in one location may be middle class in another. The lack of consistency involved in researching
social class accounts for the difficulty in using it as a reliable variable.
influences consumers through the norms and values established by the society in which they
live.It is the broadest environmental factor that influences consumers behavior.Culture is
inculcated- It is passed down from one generation to another through institutions such as
family members and religion. As culture evolves, it may be possible to associate benefits of a
product or brand with new values or it may be necessary to change the product if that value is
no longer gratifying the society. Example: Movies, TV serials, etc.
Definition: Culture as the complex whole that includes knowledge, beliefs, art, law, morals,
customs and any other capabilities and habits acquired by humans as a member of a
society.Culture is invented: It cannot be viewed as something that just exists and is waiting to
be discovered. People areresponsible for inventing their culture Culture is learnt: It is not
biological feature or instinctive. The process of learning cultural values begin early in life largely
through social interactions among families, friends etc.Culture is Shared: Culture by at large is
shared by huge group of human beings, generally religion, language, etc.Culture satisfies
needs: Culture offers order, direction and guides societies in all phases of life by providing tried
and trusted ways of meeting physiological, personal and social needs.Cultures are similar but
different : There are certain similarities among all cultures and many elements are present in all
societies such as cooking, dressing, etc.Culture is not static: Culture do change gradually and
continuously. These change however may be very slow or very fast.
A sub culture -is a segment within a culture that share a set if meanings, values or
activities that differ in certain respects from those of the overall culture. Sub culture
analysis enables the marketing manager to focus on beliefs, values, and customs
shared by member of a specific sub group make them desirable candidates for special
marketing attention.Sub culture therefore can be defined as a distinct culture group
that exists within a layer, complex society as an identifiable segments in terms of its
beliefs customs and values. Therefore sub culture are relevant units of analysis for
marketing research.Sub culture tend to transfer their beliefs and values
Cross-cultural -marketing is defined as the effort to determine to what extent the
consumers of two or more nations are similar or different. This will facilitate marketers to
understand the psychological, social and cultural aspects of foreign consumers they wish to
target, so as to design effective marketing strategies for each of the specific national markets
involved.The firms objectives could be
To determine how consumers in two or more societies are Similar / different and devise
suitable, appropriate strategies
Devise individualized marketing strategy if cultural beliefs, values and customs of a
specific country are different