46 vues

Transféré par Hifdzul Malik Zainal

fhxcgfc

- Pyramidal Electric Transducer
- yoon_yong-kyu_200405_phd
- Alone, FCG-Driven High Power Microwave System
- Electronics 2
- Ec105 Beec Lab
- Ch19 Giancoli7e Manual
- Physics For Nust Test
- Combine
- 1.1770669
- lecture notes Mechanical
- 12 Physics Notes Ch07 Alternating Current
- FAA 8083 30 Index.image.marked
- unit 1-5th grade 2018-2019 pbl template
- Apprenticeship and Industry Training
- Fundamentals of Elec 1
- Silent Weapons for Quiet Wars
- giriş.pdf
- Chapter 13 - Resistors
- RLC Circuits Engphys
- EE Reviewer

Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 36

FACULTY OF ENGINEERING

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

ELECTRICAL CIRCUITS

LAB

For

Electrical students

Eng. Nasim Zayid

2010

AN-NAJAH NATIONAL UNIVERSITY

FACULTY OF ENGINEERING

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

ELECTRICALCIRCUITS

LAB

Student name:

Experiment #:

Experiment Name:.

Day :. Date: / /

Instructor name:

ELECTRICAL CIRCUITS

LAB

EXPERIMENT # 1: Introduction to Circuits

EXPERIMENT # 2: Ohms Law & Resistors-Series and Parallel

Connection

EXPERIMENT # 3: Network Theorems

EXPERIMENT # 4: Voltage Source

EXPERIMENT # 5: Characteristics in AC

EXPERIMENT # 6: Capacitor in the A. C. Circuit

EXPERIMENT # 7: Inductors in the A. C. Circuit

EXPERIMENT # 8: RLC Series &Parallel

EXPERIMENT # 9: Series Resonance

EXPERIMENT # 10: Parallel Resonance

EXPERIMENT # 11: Three-Phase Alternating Current

EXPERIMENT # 12: Using Computer for Analyses

FACULTY OF ENGINEERING

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

EXPERIMENT #1

INTRODUCTION TO CIRCUITS

Objective:

To practice the use of electrical and electronic engineering labs instruments, such

as Digital Multi-meters , Oscilloscopes and the Training Electronic Boards (

prototype boards ) .

Apparatus and components:

1- Digital Multi-meter (DMM).

2- Oscilloscope (some times called Cathode Ray Oscilloscope or CRO)

3- Training boards and electronic Components.

Introduction:

- Oscilloscope:

An Oscilloscope can be used for monitoring parameters associated with signals

that vary with respect to time . also the same instrument can be used ( although to a

lesser extent ) to measure DC signals.

- Digital Multimeter DMM:

This instrument can provide a measure of D.C . signals as well as the r.m.s

values of AC signals . Such signals can be that of the output voltage or the currents

passing through a particular component in a given circuit .

A DMM can also provides resistance , capacitance and Transistor D.C .

amplification factor measurements.

- Training Electronic Board

Using this training board and employing suitable electronic components, then

many electronic circuits may be realized e.g. Power supplies, A.C generators etc.

See fig-1 [The electronic board].

Experimental procedure:

- Using the Digital multi-meter:

Resistance measurement:

1- connect the circuit as shown in fig.2

2- Tabulate you are results as in table-1.

3- How you can read the value of resistance? (Color code)

Voltage measurement:

1- Connect the circuit as shown in fig.3

2-Tabulate you are results as in table-2 (voltage reading raw).

Current measurements:

1- Connect the circuit as shown in fig.4.

2- Tabulate yours results as in table-3 (current reading row).

AN-NAJ AH NATIONAL UNIVERSITY

FACULTY OF ENGINEERING

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

EXPERIMENT #2

Eng.Nasim Zayid Mr.Imad khader

OHMS LAW AND RESISTORS-SERIES AND PARALLEL CONNECTION

Objective

1- To investigate the various applications of ohm's law.

2- To investigates series and parallel resistive circuits.

Apparatus and components:

1- Training Electronic Board.

2- A DMM.

3- Resistors : 22 , 100 , 150 , 220 , 330 , 470 , 680 , 1k .

Theoretical aspects of Ohms law :

Ohm's law defines the mathematical relation ships that exist between the Voltage

(v) across a particular electrical component in a circuit and the electrical current (I),

passing through it

i.e. V I

or. V = I R where R is the resistance of the component

This follows that :

R

V

I = ,

I

V

R =

If resistors are connected in series, then the same current will follow through

them. The value of the current I, can be determined using the following

relationships:

R

V

I

tot

= , where Rtot = R1 +R2 + .. +Rn

Also, the sum of all partial voltages equals the applied voltage.

i.e.

V tot =VR1 +VR2 + +V Rn

If resistors are connected in parallel, they will all experience the same voltage.

i.e. V =VR1 =VR2 = =VRN.

The total current equals to the sum of all partial currents flowing in every branch.

i.e. Itot =IR1 + IR2 + +Irn

or

R

n

V

...

R

V

R

V

R

tot

V

+ + + =

2 1

This follows that

R

n

...

R R R

tot

1

2

1

1

1 1

+ + + =

Voltage Divider

Voltage dividers (potentiometer) consist of two series resistors, R1 and R2

connected as shown, in the following diagram.

In this case we may write the following equation:

R

R R

V

V

2

2 1

2

+

=

When a load resistor (R3) is connected in parallel with R2, the voltage ratios

change, since current branching takes place

R R

R R

R

) , ( eq

3 2

3 2

3 2

+

R

, eq

R

, eq

R

V

V

3 2

3 2 1

3

+

=

Experimental procedure:

- Ohms law

1- connects the circuit as shown in fig 2.

2- Measure the currents at resistors R =100, 150, 330 , respectively for voltage

values 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and12 volts, Tabulate your result as in Table-1.

Plot the current against the voltage at each value of resistor.

I = f (V) R constant

3- Set the DC supply voltage to 4 V, then complete the row in table - 2 , then change

the DC supply to 8 and 12 voltage respectively then fill out the second and third

rows in the same table . Plot the current against the resistance.

I = f(R) v constant

R () 100 150 220 330 470 680 1000

I (mA) at

4 V

I (mA) at

8 V

I (mA) at

12 V

Table - 2

- Series and parallel resistive connection

4- Connect the circuit as shown in fig - 3

5- Measure the voltage VR1, VR2, VR3 and the respective currents IR1, IR2, IR3

Calculate the equivalent resistance of R1, R2, R3, then find the relation between

the total resistance and R1, R2, R3.

VR1= , VR2= , VR3= IR1= , IR2= , IR3=

6- Connect the circuit as shown in fig - 4.

7- Measure the Voltage VR1, VR2, VR3, and the respective currents IR1, IR2, IR3 and

IRtot

Calculate the equivalent resistor of R1, R2, R3, then find the relation ship between

the resistances.

VR1= , VR2= , VR3= IR1= , IR2= , IR3= IRtot =

AN-NAJ AH NATIONAL UNIVERSITY

FACULTY OF ENGINEERING

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

Mr.Imad Khader Eng. Nasim Zayed

EXPERIMENT #3

NETWORK THEOREMS

Objective :

1- To study the effect of more than one voltage source in a network.

2- To find a method of simplifying a network in order to obtain the current in one

particular branch of the network.

3- To study the parameters of the voltage source.

Introduction :

Kirchhoffs law :

Kirchhoffs current law is stated as follows: The sum of the currents into a junction

(total current in ) is equal to the sum of the currents out of that junction ( total current

out ) .

= 0

Kirchhoffs voltage law is algebraic sum of all the voltages around a closed path is

zero or, in other words, the sum of the voltage drops equals the total source voltage .

V = 0

Superposition Theorems:

The superposition method is away to determine currents and voltages in a circuit

that multiple source by taking on source at a time , the other sources are replaced by

their internal resistance , the ideal voltage source has a zero resistance

Thevenins Theorem:

The Thevenins equivalent for any resistive circuit consists of an equivalent voltage

source ( Vth ) and an equivalent resistance ( Rth ) . Vth is defined to be the open

circuit voltage between two specified points in a circuit. Rth is the total resistance

appearing between two specified points in a given circuit with all sources replaced by

their internal resistance.

I

th

V

th

R

R

=

+

Experimental Procedure

- Kirchhoffs law

1 - Connect the circuit as shown in fig - 1

* Note the polarity of the voltage and current.

2 - Adjust the applied voltage to be12 V. Measure the voltage across R1, R2, R3, R4,

R5, and the currents in each components. Tabulate your results in a table - 1.

Apply the Kirchhoffs law in your results.

3 - From the measured values of current and voltage in each branch calculate the

value of the resistance R1 to R5.

4 - Using KCL, KVL, calculate the currents and voltages theoretically.

- Superposition Theorem:

1- Connect the circuit as shown in fig - 2.

2- Measure the current in R1 to R5, not both the magnitude and the polarity of each

current and tabulate them.

3- Disconnect the 15 V sources, the circuit shown in fig - 3. Measure and tabulate the

current I1, I2, I3.

4- Connect the circuit as shown in fig - 4, then measure the currents I1,I2, I3, make

a table of all the currents. You should have found that the sum of the currents due

to individual voltage source is equal to the current resulting when both sources are

present in the network.

Questions

Q1- Do the current directions agree with those in the fig?

Q2- Can you notice any relation ship between I1, I1, I1?

Q3- Does the same relation ship hold for I2, I2, and I2, also with I3, I3, and I3?

-Thevenins Theorem:

1 - Convert the circuit as shown in fig - 5.

2 - measure the current in the 680 resistors.

I680=

3- Remove the 680 resistors, and measure the voltage between terminals X, Y,

Vth= .

4- Remove the source of voltage, the circuit as in fig -6. The resistance of this network

my be found by connecting a voltage source to points X, Y and measure the total

current, measure the current for voltage of 2,4,6 and 8 V, then calculate the

resistance using ohms law, and take the average of the values found (Rth),

calculate the current through the 680 Ith.

Compare the calculated and measured value (step 2) of current.

AN-NAJ AH NATIONAL UNIVERSITY

FACULTY OF ENGINEERING

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

Mr.Imad Khader Eng. Nasim Zayed

EXPERIMENT#4

Voltage Source

Objectives:

1-To studies the parameters of the voltage source.

2-To study the Series Circuiting of Voltage Sources.

3-To study the Parallel Circuiting of Voltage Sources.

Introduction :

Voltage Source

The voltage source consists of the initial voltage VOC and internal resistance Ri .If

no current flowing in the circuit (IL =0)

Vt =VOC (Vt :terminal voltage

When a current flowing in the circuit :

Vt =VOC - IL Ri

R R

V

I

L i

oc

L

+

= .

A short circuit current ISC is limited by the internal resistance Ri :

SC I

oc

V

i

R

=

An equivalent voltage source can be represented by a curve as show below

Series Circuiting of Voltage Sources

Series circuiting of voltage sources as in the fig-1 (The precondition is that the poles of

the voltage source are connected correctly, plus pole of one voltage source to the minus

of the next one) gives a higher total voltage:

Vtot=V1+V2

Fig-1

If the poles are reversed the total voltage corresponds to the difference between the

initial voltages:

Vtot=V1-V2

The internal resistors of the series-connected voltage sources add to a total internal

resistance of:

Ri tot=Ri1+Ri2

A load resistor RL a current IL:

R R R

V

o

I

I

I L

L

2

1

+ +

=

Parallel Circuiting of Voltage Sources

By parallel circuiting of several voltage sources the same initial voltage a higher load

current IL is achieved.

Fig-2

Matching poles must be connected (Fig-2). If the initial voltages are different, a

compensating current Io flows within the voltage sources, which is dependent on the

difference voltage of the respective internal resistances of individual voltage sources an

initial voltage.

R

L

R

i

R

L

R

i

R

i

R

i

R

i

V

o

R

i

V

o

I

L

+ +

+

=

2 1 2 1

1 2 2 1

The internal resistors are in parallel, this gives a total internal resistance of:

R

i

R

i

R

i

R

i

R

itot

2 1

2 1

+

=

Experimental Procedure

-Voltage Source :

1- Connect the circuit as shown in fig -3,we add 22 resistor as an internal

resistant Ri.

2- Measure the open circuit voltage VOC at points (1, 2), connect a 100 resistor and

measure Vt at points (1,2) and IL, replace 100 by 33 , measure IL and Vt,

disconnect RL and connect Ammeter to the points1, 2 then measured ISC.

Plot the graph of equivalent voltage source, showing load lines (100 ,33 ).

Q1- What is the maximum power that can be transferred from the source, and under

what condition max power transfer occurs?

- Series Circuiting of Voltage Sources:

1- Connect the circuit as shown in fig 4 with a power supply unit =2V and a battery.

Fig-4

2-How great is the voltage Vtot:

Opposite poles connected(+with-)

Vtot=

Matching poles connected (+with+)

Vtot=

- Parallel Circuiting of Voltage Sources

1-Connect the circuit as shown in fig-5. We add internal resistance Ri=22.

Fig-5

2-Connect two voltages source in parallel and make the flowing measurements at equal

and unequal initial voltages. Measurements should be made on both no-load and load

operation, as in table-1.

Equal initial voltages VO1=VO2=1.5V

No-load

Load=100

Vi1 (V) Vi2 (V) V12 (V) Io (mA) Vi1 (V) Vi2 (V) V12 (V) I1 (mA) I2(mA) IL (mA)

Check the results by calculation.

Unequal initial voltages VO1=3 VO2=1.5V

No-load

Load=100

Vi1 (V) Vi2 (V) V12 (V) Io (mA) Vi1 (V) Vi2 (V) V12 (V) I1 (mA) I2(mA) IL (mA)

Check the results by calculation.

Table-1

AN-NAJ AH NATIONAL UNIVERSITY

FACULTY OF ENGINEERING

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

Mr. Imad Khader Eng .Nasim Zayed

EXPERIMENT #5

CHARACTERISTICS IN AC

Objective:

1-To study characteristics of the sine wave and square wave voltages ,which are the

most forms in electrical and electronic engineering.

2- To practice the use Oscilloscope (some times called Cathode Ray Oscilloscope or

CRO)

Introduction

Alternating current (AC) changes its direction of flow continuously, in contrast to direct

current (DC), which always flows in same direction.

The wave (function) of the current or required voltage may adopt different shape.

Fig-2

The functions in time of the sinewave AC voltage during one period as in fig.2 with the

values are:

T =period duration in S

Vp =peak voltage (positive or negative) in V, amplitude peak value.

Vpp =peak-to-peak voltage in V.

Vrms =root mean square voltage in V.

If a sinewave AC voltage is applied to an ohmic resistor, it generates an AC current in it

with the same function with the values are:

Ip =peak current value (positive or negative) in A.

Ipp =peak-to-peak current value in A.

Irms =root mean square value of current in A.

Other characteristic values and the formulae calculating them are specified below:

Frequency f in Hz: f

T

=

1

, Radian frequency in 1/s, =2.. f

Wavelength in m, =

v

f

and V=propagation speed

Root mean square value Vrms, Irms:

Vrms Vp =

1

2

Irms Ip =

1

2

Momentary values i, v:

v Vp t = sin i Ip t = sin

Active power with sine voltage P in watt

P Irms Vrms = . P

I

rms R =

2

. P

V

R

=

2

P v i = -Momentary values, or P

Vp Ip

=

2

Experiment

1- Connect the circuit as in Fig 3

2- Connect the oscilloscope to point A and make suitable sittings in CRO.

3- The sinewave AC voltages shown in the CRO should be draw on simegraph

appear and the sittings.

4- From (CRO) and graph determine:

Vp=

Vpp=2Vp=

Ip=Vp/R=

Vrms=

Irms=

T =

f =

=

( )

v= 240

10

6

=

Momentary voltage after a third of a period v=

4- Connect the circuit as in Fig- 4

Fig-4

5- Connect the CRO ch1 and ch2 to Y1,Y2 and the ground to C , make the sittings .

Draw the displayed curves for i,v.

6- Determine the power from the graph:( r.m.s Values)

P Irms Vrms = =

P

I

rms R =

2

=

P

V

R

=

2

=

P

Vp Ip

=

2

=

7-Determine the momentary power for each time? Table-1

P v i = =[momentary values at times] =

8- Draw the curves for i,v.and P at the same graph paper

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

AN-NAJ AH NATIONAL UNIVERSITY

FACULTY OF ENGINEERING

Eng.Nasim Zayid Mr.Imad Khader

EXPERIMENT #6

Capacitor in the A. C.circuit

Objectives

1- To investigate the factors determining the charge and discharge for a capacitor

2 - To investigate what happen when capacitors are connected in series and in parallel

3 - To notice the phase shift between current and voltage .

Introduction:

In this experiment we wish to see how a capacitor work at AC source . If an AC is

applied to a capacitate circuit the current waveform reaches its positive peak value 90

.

A capacitor charges and discharges flowing an exponential curve, when the

voltage has risen to 63 % of the final voltage after 1 during charging or 37 % of the

initial voltage during discharging, is the time constant = R. C where R in ohm and

C in F.

The momentary current and voltage are calculated by :

charging case:

Vc =Vc ( 1 -

e

/ t

)

Ic =

C

t V

R

e

.

discharging case:

Vc =V

t

e

/

Ic =

V

R

t

e

The resistance to sinusoidal current in a capacitor is called capacitive reactance

Xc .The value of the capacitance reactance depends on the capacitance of the

capacitor and the frequency. The Xc is calculated by the formula:

fc c

X

C

=

=

2

1 1

If Ic and Vc are known, Xc can be calculated by ohms law :

Xc

V

I

C

C

=

If a capacitors are connected in series the total capacitance is equal to:

1 1

1

1

2

1

total

C C C

n

C

= + + + ...

Vctot =VC1 +VC2 + Vcn

If a capacitors are connected in parallel the total capacitance equal to :

Ctot =C1 +C2 + +Cn

Ictot =IC1 +IC2 + +Icn

Experimental procedure :

-Charging and discharging process of a capacitor

1- Connect the circuit shown in fig -1 and connect the generator with a positive

square wave voltage.

2- Display the input signal (point A) , capacitor signal (point B ) and current

signal ( point C ). Draw in same graph paper.

3- From the graph determine the values:

A - Time constant .

B- Capacitance C.

C -Momentary voltage value Vc after charging time 2ms.

D - Momentary current value Ic after discharging time of 2.5 ms.

E - Charge Q .

4 - Confirm the results obtained in step -3 by calculation.

- Phase shift :

5 - In fig 1A set the function generator to Vpp =3 V sinusoidal,at 1 kHz.

6 - To display the phase shift between voltage and current, connect ch1 of the

CRO to point A(capacitive current), and other ch-2 inverse to point B (capacitor

voltage), Draw the curves and determined the phase shift between Vc and Ic

.

- Capacitive Reactance Xc .

7 - Connect the circuit as shown in fig - 2.

8 - Set the function generator to 4 Vrms at 100 Hz , ... ,1kHz. Tabulate your result in

table -1 then plot the characteristic curve Xc =f ( F ) for 1 and 0.22.

F(KHz) 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0

Vc(rms) 1.0f

0.22f

Ic(mA) 1.0f

0.22f

Xc(K) 1.0f

0.22f

Table-1

Question

1- What does the curve tell you?

2- Check the Xc of the capacitor 0.22F at 220 Hz from the graph and

calculation?

V -Capacitor in series and parallel

9 - Connect the circuit as shown in fig - 3.

10 - Measure the current in the circuit

Voltages across VR1,VC1 ,VC2 ,VC3 and Vctot.

Calculate (from measured values) XC1, XC2, XC3 and Xctot , then C1 ,C2 ,C3

and Ctot .Calculate ( from result ) the Ctot and compare between Ctot

measured and calculated .

11 -Connect the circuit as shown in fig -4

.Measure the voltage VC1, VC2, VC3, and Vctot

And Ictot ,IC1 , IC2 , and IC3 .

Calculate (from the measured value) XC1 ,XC2 ,XC3 and Xctot ,then C1 , C2

, C3 and Ctot .

Calculate (from result) the Ctot and compare between Ctot measured and

calculated.

.

AN-NAJ AH NATIONAL UNIVERSITY

AN-NAJ AH NATIONAL UNIVERSITY

FACULTY OF ENGINEERING

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

Eng.Nasim Zayid Mr.Imad Khader

EXPEREMENT #7

INDUCTORS

Objectives:

1- To describe the characteristics of an inductor under DC and AC conditions.

2- To investigate series and parallel inductive circuits

3- To determine the phase shift that exist between current and voltage in inductive

circuits.

Introduction :

In this experiment, an inductors behavior is investigated under DC and AC

conditions. The term inductance (of a particular coil) defines the ability of the coil to

induce back emf when subjected to an AC applied voltage , Va ( which causes the

flow of an AC drive current , Ia ) . Under such condition , the driving current Ia will

be lagging the applied voltage by 90 ( in an ideal case -- ie. Resistance of the

coil is neglected ) .

If on the other hand , a DC voltage is applied to the coil ,then the current arising

from the DC. Voltage will increases to 63% of its final value in 1 second , also it

will , decrease ( when the DC. Applied Voltage is switched off ) to 37% of its initial

value , in 1 . In both cases , the current requires 5 second to reach its final

destination ( full current or zero current respectively )

R

L

= [sec.] - is the time constant

Where R is the sum of the ohmic resistance of the coil in ( ) and the internal

resistance of the voltage source .

The instantaneous current and voltage are calculated using:

When switched on IL =

( )

V

R

t

e

1

/

VL =V

t

e

.

/

when switched off IL =

V

R

t

e

VL=- V.

t

e

/

A coil has a current limiting effect under AC condition, this arises from the counter

voltage generated in it (induced back emf ). Such effect is directly proportional to the

inductive reactance XL of the coil.

The value of XL depends on the inductance of a coil and frequency of the applied

AC source, as shown in the following expression:

XL =2 f L for a sinusoidal signal

If IL and VL are known , then XL can be calculated using ohms law as follows :

I

L

V

L

X

L

=

When inductors are connected in parallel then the total inductance will be

determined using the following equation:

1 1

1

1

2

1

tot

L L L

n

L

= + + + ....

Also when inductors are connected in series then the total inductance will be

determined using the following equation :

Ltot = L1 +L2 + +Ln

Experimental Procedure:

1- Construct the circuit as shown in fig -1 and set the function generator to :

positive square wave , amplitude of voltage 4 V and at 1 kHz .

2- Plot the input signal at point A .

Inductance voltage signal at point B.

Inductance current signal at point C .

Determine (from graph) . Then calculate the inductance L.

3- Calculate the values of and L and compare the calculated values with those

obtained from 2.

4- To determine the phase shift between the current IL and the voltage VL. Change

the positive square wave to sin wave with amplitude 8 Vp-p, then connect ch1 at

point B (voltage monitor), and ch2 at point C (current monitor)

Plot the graph and determine the phase shift.

5- To determine the inductive reactance XL, connect the circuit shown in fig -2

6-Set the function generator to 4Vrms at 1kHz , tabulate your result in table-1, then

plot the characteristic curve XL =f (F) for 40mH and 200mH .

F (kHz ) 1 2 3 4 5 6

VL

40 mH

200 mH

IL 40mH

200mH

XL 40mH

200mH

Table-1

Question

What can you deduce from the curve ?

Check the value of XL , from graph , for L= 200mH at 3 kHz and compare it

with calculated value ?

7- Connect the circuit as shown in fig - 3.

8- Measure the current I L1, I L2, V L1, V L2 and V Ltot .

Calculate (from measured values ) X L1 ,X L2 , X Ltot then L1 , L2 and L tot .

and subsequently , Calculate L tot , compare between the measured and

calculated value for Ltot .

9-Connect the circuit as shown in fig - 4, measure the voltage V L1, V L2, VLtot

and ILtot , IL1 and IL2 .

Calculate (from the measured values) XL1,X L2 and X Ltot ,then L 1, L2 ,Ltot.

Calculate (from result) the Ltot and compare between Ltot

AN-NAJ AH NATIONAL UNIVERSITY

FACULTY OF ENGINEERING

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

Eng: Nasim Zayid Mr:Imad Khader

EXPERIMENT #8

RLC Series & Parallel Circuits

Objective of experiment

1 - To investigate the impedance of RLC circuit.

2 - To determine the distribution of the applied voltage V and current I in the R, L

and C elements.

3 - To determine the phase angle between the voltage and the current for each

element in the RLC circuit.

Theoretical aspects :

Series circuits

If a sinusoidal AC voltage is applied across a series circuit, containing resistor,

capacitor and coil, the same current would flow through all the components. In the case

of the resistor, the voltage across the resistor, VR will be in phase with the current, IR

passing through it. However, the voltages across the capacitor and across the coil

experience a phase shift with their respective currents.

The Apparent voltage V (the voltage applied to the circuit) may be defined as follows:

V

V

V Vc

R

L = +

2

2

( )

or

V Z I =

where Z is called the apparent resistance Z ( or more commonly known as the

Impedance ):

The Impedance Z may be calculated as follows :

Z

R

X Xc L = +

2

2

( ) XL =w L, Xc =

1

w C

I

V

Z=

The phase angle : ( being the angle between the applied voltage & current for the

circuit )

tan =

=

V Vc

V

X Xc

R

L

R

L

Parallel circuits

In a parallel RLC circuit, the voltages across all the components are the same. and the

total current , I , is divided into active current IR, capacitor current IC, and coil current

IL. A phase shift occurs between each of the currents IL, IC, and the total current I (

it is clear that no phase shift exist between IR and I ) , due to the reactances XL of the

coil and XC of the capacitor.

The current IC precedes (leads) IR ( and therefore I ) constantly by 90 -- assuming

that the capacitor contains no resistance , While the current IL lags the active current

IR constantly by 90 -- also assuming that the coil is pure inductive , i.e contains no

resistance .The Currents IC opposes IL (180 angle phase ) and thus tends to equalize

each other depending on their magnitude .

The apparent current I ( the total current supplied to the circuit ) can be calculated

using the following equation :

I

I

(Ic I )

2

R

2

L

= +

Also the apparent conductance Y of the circuit may be obtained from the following

equation:

Y

B B c L

= +

2

2

G

( )

Bc w C = BL

L

=

G

R

=

1

Tan of the phase angle :

tan =

=

Ic I

I

Bc B

G

L

R

L

Experimental procedure

- Series circuit

1 -- Connect the circuit as shown in fig -1, and set the function generator at the

following voltage: Vrms =3V (sinusoidal), f =1kHz .

2 -- With the DMM measure VL(AB), VC(BC) and VR(CD) .

Using the appropriate calculation and the respective vector diagram

,determine the above voltages as well as the phase angle , , between the

total voltage supplied to the circuit and the total current.

3 -Connect the oscilloscopes ch-1 to point C, ch-2 to point A and connect

point D to ground , and draw the displayed voltage waveforms and determines

the phase angle .

Parallel circuits:

4 -Connect the circuit as shown in fig -2, and set the function generator to voltage:

Vrms = 3V (sinusoidal), f = 1kHz.

5 -- With the DMMs measure I, IR, IC, IL and deduce from calculations the total

current I and phase angle .

6 -Using the related calculations, constructs the victor diagrams.

AN-NAJ AH NATIONAL UNIVERSITY

FACULTY OF ENGINEERING

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

Mr: Imad Khader Eng: Nasim Zayed

EXPERIMENT # 9

SERIES RESONANCE

Objective:

To investigate the series resonance in RLC circuit around the point of minimum

impedance resonance.

Theory:

For series resonance, we can notice that the impedance of the circuit is changing

with frequency.

Z =R +jL +

1

J C

Z= ( )

2

2

1

1

1

R

L C

L C

R

+

/

tan

/

The frequency at which the capacitive reactance is equal to be inductive reactance,

and they cancel each others is called the resonant frequency of the circuit. The circuit

impedance at this frequency is just the resistance of the circuit.

Xc

fc

=

1

2

=

1

c

; XL=2fL =L, at resonance f =f0 , =o , Xc =XL

1

2fc

=2f L ------- fo =

LC 2

1

----- o=

1

LC

At resonance oL=

1

oc

and Io =

Vi

R

VL =oLIo = o L

V

R

=

V L

R

V

o

Vc =

Io

c

V

cR

L

R

V

o o

o

= = = VL from which

oL

R oCR

Q = =

1

Where Q is the quality factor, a dimensionless ratio

Experimental procedure:

Series resonance

1- Connect up the circuit fig1, then connect one of the ac voltmeters between point

P&S.

2-For a suitable generator output value, vary the frequency of the generator from

about 100 Hz to 1kHz, and notice the variation in current and voltage, then find the

resonant frequency.

Now we are going to draw Vo, I ,VL and VC with frequency. Determine the output

of the function generator, which must be constant for the whole range of

frequency.

3- construct a table like fig-2 containing of freq. against each of V, I, VC, VL and take

readings for changing the frequency from 100Hz to 1000Hz by 50 Hz step.

NOTE: Around the resonant frequency take several readings.

F(Hz) Vo

I

Vc VL

50

..

To 1000

Fig-2

On a sheet of single cycle logarithmic graph paper, draw curves of I, VL, and VC

against frequency.

4- Repeat above steps for L=200mH.

Questions

1- From the curves plotted with R = 100, what is the resonant frequency?

2-What are the values of I, VL, VC at res. frequency?

3- what is the quality factor (Q) theoretically and practically?

4- What is the bandwidth?

AN-NAJ AH NATIONAL UNIVERSITY

FACULTY OF ENGINEERING

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

Mr:Imad Khader Eng:Nasim Zayid

EXPERIMENT #10

Parallel Resonance

Objective:

To investigate the parallel RLC circuit around the point of minimum impedance

resonance.

Theory:

Ideally, parallel resonance occurs when Xc=XL, the frequency at which resonance

occurs is called the resonance frequency. When Xc=XL, the two branch currents Ic and

IL are equal in magnitude and they are always 180 out of phase, the two currents Ic

and IL cancel and the total current is zero Fig 1.

For an ideal parallel resonant circuit, the frequency at which resonance occurs is

determined by the same formula as in series resonant circuits:

o

f

LC

=

1

2

In practice we have not only L and C, but also other components which cause energy

loss. The most obvious one is the winding resistance of the inductor, but there are

others in practice. The effect of the winding resistance is to rotate the phasor IL slightly.

Consequently the currents IL and Ic cannot quite cancel each other, and small residual

current flows in the terminals.

Experimental procedure:

1- Connect the circuit as shown in fig-2, and then connect two AC Ammeters for Ic

and IL.

2- From a function generator output vary the frequency at 100 to 1kHz,In table-1

write your results, and then find the resonant frequency. Output of function generator

must be constant.

Frequency (Hz) Ic (mA) IL (mA) IR (mA)

Table-1

3- Connect the circuit as shown in fig- 3, then vary the frequency of function

generator slowly from 100 Hz to 1kHz, and notice the variation of V1 and V2 on the

osill. (CRO), tabulate your results in a table-2.

Frq. (Hz)

V1

V2

100

-----

-----

1000

Table-2

4- Find the resonant frequency, and calculate the total current (I) at this moment and the

impedance of the RLC circuit.

Questions:

1- Compare between series and parallel resonance circuits?

2- Compare between the theoretical and practical values of resonant frequencies?

AN-NAJ AH NATIONAL UNIVERSITY

FACULTY OF ENGINEERING

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

EXPERIMENT #11

Mr:Imad Khader Eng:Nasim Zayid

Three-Phase Alternating Current

INTRODUCTION

Three-phase current systems result when several phases shifted voltages are

connected together. The most common three-phase generator which is usually used in

the public power supply network supplies three sinusoidal AC voltages which are linked

to each other and phase shifted by 120 (fig-1).

Fig- 1

Two basic circuit types are common in the coils of the three-phase current generator

and on the load side when connecting motors, for example, the star circuit and the delta

circuit as in fig-2 and fig-3.

fig-2 fig-3

In the star circuit three conductor voltages (380V) are available between the conductors

L1, L2 and L3 as will as three phase voltages (220V) between the conductors L1 ,L2 and

zero conductor (N).

In the delta circuit three voltages are available between the conductors L1, L2 and L3

with 380V each.

The three necessary sinusoidal AC voltages are not taken directly from the mains, they

are generated electronically by phase shifters. For risk less experimentation the voltage

220V is limited to 12V.

The conductor voltage VL and phase voltage V phases are linked with factor 3 , also

called the linkage factor. In the public power supply network therefore, at a phase

voltage of 220V there is a conductor voltage of:

V V V L ph = = = 3 173 220 380 * . . *

EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE:

- Potential gradient in three-phase current systems

1-Display the phase voltages of a three-phase current system on the oscilloscope draw

the displayed voltage curves in a diagram and determine the angle of phase shift

between the individual voltages.

5- Measure the phase and conductor voltages with a multimeter and establishes the

linkage factor.

Q. What is the peak value of phase and conductor voltage?

- Load in star circuit:

1- Connect the circuit as shown in fig - 4. Set each of R1=R2=R3=100 (Symmetrical

load).

Fig-4

2- Measure the currents IL and IN and the voltages VL and Vph. (r.m.s values) with a

mulltimeter, tabulate your result in table-1.

3- Set each of R1=100, R2=220, R3=470 (Unsymmetrical load) and measure the

currents and the voltages, tabulate your result in table -1.

Star circuit Load

Symmetrical Unsymmetrical

Conductor IL1

currents IL2

IL,IN,Iph IL3

IN

Conductor VL1, L2

voltages VL2,L3

VL VL3,L1

Phase VL1,N

voltages VL2,N

Vph VL3,N

Table-1

4- Disconnect IL1 and measure IN for Symmetrical load

5- Disconnect IL1 and IN and measure VL1 VL2 for Symmetrical load

6- Disconnect IN for for Unsymmetrical load and and measure voltages as

in table

-Load in delta circuit:

1-Connect the circuit as shown in fig -5

2-Measure the phase currents and conductor currents as well as the conductor voltages

in a three-phase AC mains on a delta circuited when R1=R2=R3=100 (Symmetrical

load) and tabulate your result in table -2.

3- Set each of R1=100, R2=220, R3=470 (Unsymmetrical load) and measure the

currents and voltages, tabulate your result in table-2.

Fig-5

Delta

circuit

Load

Symmetrical Unsymmetrical

Conductor IL1

currents IL2

IL IL3

Phase IR1

currents IR2

Iph IR3

VL1,L2

VL=Vph VL2,L3

VL3,L1

Table-2

- Pyramidal Electric TransducerTransféré parBenjamin Chiu
- yoon_yong-kyu_200405_phdTransféré parlinorusso
- Alone, FCG-Driven High Power Microwave SystemTransféré parpauljanson
- Electronics 2Transféré parHung Lam
- Ec105 Beec LabTransféré parVikram Rao
- Ch19 Giancoli7e ManualTransféré parRM
- Physics For Nust TestTransféré parahmad.faraz
- CombineTransféré pargudlar59
- 1.1770669Transféré parashikhmd4467
- lecture notes MechanicalTransféré parNidhija Pillay
- 12 Physics Notes Ch07 Alternating CurrentTransféré parNaveen Rai
- FAA 8083 30 Index.image.markedTransféré pararif
- unit 1-5th grade 2018-2019 pbl templateTransféré parapi-438888114
- Apprenticeship and Industry TrainingTransféré parAmanda Moore
- Fundamentals of Elec 1Transféré parnirmalb21
- Silent Weapons for Quiet WarsTransféré parviolaviolin13
- giriş.pdfTransféré partahakaplan
- Chapter 13 - ResistorsTransféré parAnonymous zivtZLbd
- RLC Circuits EngphysTransféré parAvinash Kumar
- EE ReviewerTransféré parjoeynaga
- 255061634-EE-Reviewer.docxTransféré parRa Yaj
- Circuit TheoryTransféré parजितेन्द्र कुमार शर्मा
- NEET 2016 questions paperTransféré parsumit kumar
- Chapter 9Transféré parDarwin Lim
- Daily Lesson Plan Scf3 2016Transféré parHusnulHisyam
- 32 IEEE Trans Antennas and Propagation FinalTransféré parNSee5
- CH5 INDUCTORS AND MAGNETISM.pptTransféré parPinky Guinto
- 08、SF6 Circuit BreakerTransféré parRodrigoAndrade
- Electric RevisionTransféré parsre_eram4160
- Electric RevisionTransféré parAlok Jain

- Differentiate Symbolic Expression - MATLABTransféré parHifdzul Malik Zainal
- 3D2N Perhentian, Redang & Lang Tengah Island, Shari-La Island Resort 2013Transféré parHifdzul Malik Zainal
- 3D2N Perhentian, Redang & Lang Tengah Island, Shari-La Island Resort 2013Transféré parHifdzul Malik Zainal
- 3D2N Perhentian, Redang & Lang Tengah Island, Shari-La Island Resort 2013Transféré parHifdzul Malik Zainal
- 3D2N 3in1 Perhentian, Rawa & Seringgi Island, Shari-La Island Resort 2013Transféré parHifdzul Malik Zainal
- Basic Kinematic ConceptsTransféré parHifdzul Malik Zainal
- 5S slideTransféré parHifdzul Malik Zainal
- Innacomm W3400V_User ManualTransféré parjhonsonlee
- 3D2N Perhentian, Redang & Lang Tengah Island, BUBU Resort 2013 (New )Transféré parHifdzul Malik Zainal
- Iem Code of EthicTransféré parHifdzul Malik Zainal
- parallel dc circuit7_ParallelRLCCircuits.docTransféré parmsgucci
- BK Function Generator and AWG GuidebookTransféré parMohd Fazli
- Nokia 5320 XpressMusic UG EnTransféré parStephanie Cortina
- phasorsTransféré parjbusowicz
- 241 Rlc Circuit Ac SourceTransféré parHifdzul Malik Zainal
- MatlabTransféré parDINESHKUMARMCE
- Differentiate Symbolic Expression - MATLABTransféré parHifdzul Malik Zainal
- 10t-causeeffectTransféré parHifdzul Malik Zainal
- 4_dsoTransféré parHifdzul Malik Zainal
- eBook Manipulasi EmasTransféré parHifdzul Malik Zainal
- jenis-jenis dadahTransféré parSuhartika Kasimun
- Multi RoomTransféré parHifdzul Malik Zainal
- Zikir-Zikir Selepas Solat Fardhu Yang Tsabit Dari SunnahTransféré parzuhadisaarani
- Basic Logic GatesTransféré parHifdzul Malik Zainal
- Unhide Folder CommandTransféré parHifdzul Malik Zainal
- lab1_sTransféré parHifdzul Malik Zainal
- Question and ProblemTransféré parHifdzul Malik Zainal
- Klang Valley Integrated Rail SystemTransféré parEll Elyana
- 12 RLC CircuitTransféré parHifdzul Malik Zainal

- NetworksTransféré parvenukareddy
- EMI AC Previous Years QuestionTransféré parKireeti Narala
- Emi Assignment[Nitin m Sir]Transféré parKenny Ruiz
- lect7_match.pdfTransféré parallanromario
- syllabus for bsc pcaTransféré parRajesh Jagadeesan
- RLC CircuitsTransféré parDheiver Santos
- CBSE Class XII Physics and Chemistry Viva Questions Class XII ScienceTransféré parTcyonline Tcy
- Comparison of Series and Parallel Resonance CircuitsTransféré parAnonymous CqEszLtC
- RC RL RLC 3.0.pdfTransféré parlp_blackout
- Us 7034498Transféré parMladen Muškinja
- Circuit Analysis II With Matlab Computing and Simulink SimpowerSystem ModelingTransféré parPhantomEduardo
- Using Matlab SimulinkTransféré parDustin White
- Physics Lab ManualTransféré parxosilverliningox888
- Matlab - circuit analysisTransféré partmya06
- Eie SyllabusTransféré parkavaliebooks
- Circuits in matlabTransféré parRana Usman
- Nt Lab ManualTransféré parTomy Julie
- LabVIEW Multisim Co SimulationTransféré parMax Marcano Campos
- EC3to4syllabus270509Transféré parswarna_mishra
- Rlc Series Ac Circuits 5Transféré parJun Nelo Galicia
- Circuit Analysis and Design Manual Final (1)Transféré parSadam Chandio
- Circuit Analysis ii using MATLAB & SimulationTransféré parRana Abhishek Singh Kadgi
- Unit-4Transféré parkarnatisharath
- Second Order CircuitsTransféré parYusmizan Yusof
- PART 4-Elec Buk(Final)Transféré parChelsie Patricia Demonteverde Miranda
- acTransféré parRaj Sinha
- APSPDCL -2012 A.E QPTransféré parGsn Reddy
- TutorialTRVAlexander-DufournetTransféré par노영진
- RLC circuitsTransféré parMK
- 4 2 Formulae Alternating CurrentsTransféré parNathanian