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Siva Ganesh Malla and Jagan Mohana Rao Malla 1

International Journal of Emerging Trends in Electrical and Electronics (IJETEE ISSN: 2320-9569) Vol. 10, Issue. 3, April-2014.
Direct Torque Control of Induction Motor with
Fuzzy Controller: A Review
Siva Ganesh Malla and Jagan Mohana Rao Malla
Abstract:At present, induction motors are the dominant drives
in various industries. It is quite cumbersome to control an
induction motor (IM) because of its poor dynamic response in
comparison to the DC motor drives. The central theme of
Vector Control (VC) is to decouple the stator current of the IM
into two orthogonal components and is to control these two
components individually so as to achieve an independent
control of flux and torque of the IM. VC is still very complex
to implement. Direct Torque Control (DTC) is an improvised
VC method. With the DTC scheme employing a Voltage Source
Inverter, it is possible to control directly the stator flux linkage
and the electromagnetic torque by the optimum selection of
inverter switching vectors. The modeling of an IM drive
employing DTC with application of fuzzy is performed in this
article, it is better to understand the DTC and its difficulties.
The reference voltage vector is then realized using a voltage
vector modulator. Several variations of DTC-SVM have been
proposed and discussed in the literature. The work of this
review paper is to study, evaluate and compare the various
techniques of the DTC-SVM applied to the Induction Motor.
Keywords: Induction Motor Drive, Modeling of Induction
Motor, Vector Control, Field Orient Control, Direct Torque
Control, and Fuzzy Applications.
1. INTRODUCTION
The history of electrical motors goes back as far as
1820, when Hans Christian Oersted discovered the magnetic
effect of an electric current. One year later, Michael Faraday
discovered the electromagnetic rotation and built the first
primitive D.C. motor. Faraday went on to discover
electromagnetic induction in 1831, but it was not until 1883
that Tesla invented the A.C. asynchronous motor [1].
Currently, the main types of electric motors are still the
same, DC, AC asynchronous and synchronous, all based on
Oested, Faraday and Teslas theories developed and
discovered more than a hundred years ago.
An IM is a type of asynchronous AC motor where
power is supplied to the rotating device by means of
electromagnetic induction [2-5]. Induction motors are
widely used, especially polyphase induction motors, which
are frequently used in industrial drives. These facts are due
to the induction motors advantages over the rest of the
motors. Most of the industrial motor applications use AC
induction motors. The reasons for this include high
robustness, reliability, low price and high efficiency [2-8].
2. PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION AND COMPARISON TO
SYNCHRONOUS MOTORS
A 3-phase power supply provides a rotating
magnetic field in an IM. The basic difference between an
IM and a synchronous AC motor is that in the latter a
current is supplied onto the rotor. This then creates a
magnetic field which, through magnetic interaction, links to
the rotating magnetic field in the stator which in turn causes
the rotor to turn. It is called synchronous because at steady
state the speed of the rotor is the same as the speed of the
rotating magnetic field in the stator. By way of contrast, the
IM does not have any direct supply onto the rotor; instead, a
secondary current is induced in the rotor [2, 9]. This
changing magnetic field pattern can induce currents in the
rotor conductors. These currents interact with the rotating
magnetic field created by the stator and the rotor will turn
[10].
This difference between the speed of the rotor and
speed of the rotating magnetic field in the stator is called
slip. The three phase AC IM and is the most widely used
machine. Because it is having the characteristic features
Simple and rugged construction, Low cost and minimum
maintenance, High reliability and sufficiently high
efficiency, Needs no extra starting motor and need not be
synchronized, and an IM has basically two parts: Stator and
Rotor [10].
2.1. APPLICATIONS
A wide variety of induction motors are available
and are currently in use throughout a range of industrial
applications. Single phase induction motors are widely used,
due to their simplicity, strength and high performance. They
are used in household appliances, such as refrigerators, air
conditioners, hermetic compressors, washing machines,
pumps, fans, as well as in some industrial applications.
Before the days of power electronics, a limited speed control
of IM was achieved by switching the three-stator windings
from delta connection to star connection, allowing the
voltage at the motor windings to be reduced [1-20].
2.2. VARIABLE-FREQUENCY DRIVES (VFD)
A VFD can easily start a motor at a lower frequency
than the AC line, as well as a lower voltage, so that the
motor starts with full rated torque and with no inrush of
current. The rotor circuit's impedance increases with slip
frequency, which is equal to supply frequency for a
stationary rotor, so running at a lower frequency actually
increases torque [21-23]. Industries have many applications,
where variable operating speed is a prime requirement.
Principal benefits of variable speed drives in industrial
applications are that they allow the drive speed and torque to
be adjusted to suit the process requirements. In many
applications, operating the plant at a reduced speed when
full output is not needed produces a further important
benefit: energy savings and reduced cost [21]. Whereas
infinitely variable speed drives with good performances for
DC motors already existed. These drives not only permitted
the operation in four quadrants but also covered a wide
power range. Moreover, they had a good efficiency, and
Siva Ganesh Malla and Jagan Mohana Rao Malla 2
International Journal of Emerging Trends in Electrical and Electronics (IJETEE ISSN: 2320-9569) Vol. 10, Issue. 3, April-2014.
with a suitable control even a good dynamic response. Its
main drawback was the compulsory requirement of brushes
[10].
The various methods of speed control of squirrel
cage IM through semiconductor devices are given in [2, 9-
20] as under: Scalar control, Vector control (Field-Oriented
Control, FOC), Direct Torque Control (DTC) and DTC with
SVM & Fuzzy based control. These controllers are depends
on how inverters can be controlled, mostly multilevel
inverters are using in industries due to their advantages [21-
45].
Scalar controllers: Despite the fact that Voltage-
Frequency (V/F) is the simplest controller, it is the most
widespread, being in the majority of the industrial
applications [2]. It is known as a scalar control and acts by
imposing a constant relation between voltage and frequency,
so as to give nearly constant flux over wide range of speed
variation [9]. More over Constant voltage/hertz control
keeps the stator flux linkage constant in steady state without
maintaining decoupling between the flux and torque [2].
However, this controller does not achieve a good accuracy
in both speed and torque responses, mainly due to the fact
that the stator flux and torque are not directly controlled.
Even though, as long as the parameters are identified, the
accuracy in the speed can be 2% (expect in a very low
speed), and the dynamic response can be approximately
around 50ms [2, 9].
Vector controllers: In 1971, Blaschke propose a
scheme which aims as the control of an IM like a separately
excited dc motor, called field oriented control, VC, or Trans
vector control [46-48]. In this scheme the IM analyzed from
a synchronously rotating reference frame where all
fundamental variables appears to be dc ones. The torque and
flux component of currents are identified and controlled
independently to achieve good dynamic response [46, 47].
The most widespread controllers of this type are the ones
that use vector transform such as either Park or Ku.
However there is a necessity of transforming the variables in
the synchronously rotating reference frame to stator
reference frame to affect the control of actual
currents/voltages [47]. Additionally the transformation also
needs the approximate flux vector angle, where is either
calculated slip angle or measured rotor angle as indirect VC
or by estimating the flux angle directly by employing a flux
observer as in direct VC [47]. Its accuracy can reach values
such as 0.5% regarding the speed and 2% regarding the
torque, even when at standstill. The main disadvantages are
the huge computational capability required and the
compulsory good identification of the motor parameters.
Recently advanced control strategies for PWM
inverter fed IM drives have been developed based on the
space vector approach, where the IM can be directly and
independently controlled without any co-ordination
transformation [48]. One of the emerging methods in this
perspective is the direct torque and flux control (DTFC). In
DTFC, the motor torque and the flux are calculated from the
primary variables, and they are controlled directly and
independently by selecting optimum inverter switch modes
[2-52]. This control results in quick torque response in the
transient operation and improvement in the steady state
efficiency [14]. Its main characteristic is the good
performance, obtaining results as good as the classical
vector control but with several advantages based on its
simpler structure and control diagram.
DTC is said to be one of the future ways of
controlling the IM in four quadrants. In DTC it is possible to
control directly the stator flux and the torque by selecting
the appropriate inverter state [46, 54]. DTC main features
are direct control of flux and torque, indirect control of
stator currents and voltages, approximately sinusoidal stator
fluxes and stator currents, and High dynamic performance
even at stand still [53, 54]. DTC have several advantages
like, Decoupled control of torque and flux, Absence of co-
ordinate transforms, Absence of voltage modular block,
Absence of mechanical transducers, Current regulator,
PWM pulse generation, PI control of flux and torque and
co-ordinate transformation is not required, Very simple
control scheme and low computational time, and Reduced
parameter sensitivity and Very good dynamic properties as
well as other controllers such as PID for motor flux and
torque, and Minimal torque response time even better than
the VCs [53, 54]. However, some disadvantages are also
present such as: Possible problems during starting,
Requirement of torque and flux estimators, implying the
consequent parameters identification, and Inherent torque
and stator flux ripple [53-54]. Although, some
disadvantages are: High torque ripples and current
distortions, Low switching frequency of transistors with
relation to computation time, Constant error between
reference and real torque [3].
After this, comparison of variable speed drives is
given. The aim being to find even simpler methods of speed
control for induction machines one method, which is
popular at the moment, is DTC.
Initially the theory of induction machine model is
given. The understanding of this model is mandatory to
understand both the control strategies (i.e. FOC and DTC).
DTC drives utilizing hysteresis comparators suffer from
high torque ripple and variable switching frequency.
Straightly speaking, Major drawback of Classical DTC is
high torque & flux ripples. The most common solution to
this problem is to use fuzzy applications with Space Vector
Modulation (SVM) or using multilevel inverter [2, 3]. In
this Paper the author briefly explained about two-fuzzy
controller along with the SVM technique is applied to two
level inverter. Before going to DTC, first we study about the
mathematical background of DTC.
3. INDUCTION MOTOR MATHEMATICAL MODEL
The steady-state model and equivalent circuit are
useful for studying the performance of machine in steady
state. This implies that all electrical transients are neglected
during load changes and stator frequency variations. The
dynamic model of IM is derived by using a two-phase motor
in direct and quadrature axes [55]. This approach is
desirable because of the conceptual simplicity obtained with
the two sets of the windings, one on the stator and the other
on the rotor.
The equivalence between the three-phase and two-
phase machine models is derived from the simple
observation. The concept of power invariance is introduced
[2, 3, 8]. The reference frames are chosen to arbitrary and
particular cases such as stationary, rotor, and synchronous
reference frames, are simple instances of the general case.
Siva Ganesh Malla and Jagan Mohana Rao Malla 3
International Journal of Emerging Trends in Electrical and Electronics (IJETEE ISSN: 2320-9569) Vol. 10, Issue. 3, April-2014.
The space-phasor model is derived from the dynamic model
in direct and quadrature axes [55].
3.1 DYNAMIC d-q MODEL
The assumptions are made to derive the dynamic
model as uniform air gap, balanced rotor and stator
windings, with sinusoidal distributed mmf, inductance vs.
rotor position in sinusoidal, and Saturation and parameter
changes are neglected.
The dynamic performance of an AC machine is
somewhat complex because the three-phase rotor windings
move with respect to the three-phase stator windings as
shown in Fig 1(a). Basically, it can be looked on as a
transformer with a moving secondary, where the coupling
coefficients between the stator and rotor phases change
continuously with the change of rotor position
correspond to rotor direct and quadrature axes [2-4, 7, 8].
Note that a three-phase machine can be represented by an
equivalent two-phase machine as shown in Fig 1(b), where
d
s
~ q
s
correspond to stator direct and quadrature axes, and d
r
~q
r
is corresponding to rotor.
Fig 1: (a) Coupling effect in three-phase stator and rotor windings of motor; (b) Equivalent two-phase machine.
Although it is somewhat simple, the problem of time-
varying parameters still remains. R.H. Park, in the 1920s,
proposed a new theory of electric machine analysis to solve
this problem. Essentially, he transformed or referred, the
stator variables to a synchronously rotating reference frame
fixed in the rotor [56]. With such a transformation (called
Parks transformation), he showed that all the time-varying
inductances that occur due to an electric circuit in relative
motion and electric circuits with varying magnetic
reluctances can be eliminated [3,7]. Later, in the 1930s, H.
C. Stanley showed that time- varying inductances in the
voltage equations of an induction machine due to electric
circuits in relative motion can be eliminated by
transforming the rotor variables to variables associated
with fictitious stationary windings. Later, G. Kron proposed
a transformation of both stator and rotor variables to a
synchronously rotating reference frame that moves with the
rotating magnetic field. D. S. Brereton proposed a
transformation of stator variables to a rotating reference
frame that is fixed on the rotor. In fact, it was shown later by
Krause and Thomas that time-varying inductances can be
eliminated by referring the stator and rotor variables to a
common reference frame which may rotate at any speed.
3.2. AXES TRANSFORMATION
Fig 2. Stationary frame a~b~c to d
s
~q
s
axes transformation.
Consider a symmetrical three-phase induction
machine with stationary as-bs-cs axes at 2/3-angle apart, as
shown in Fig 2. Our goal is to transform the three-phase
stationary reference frame (as-bs -cs) variables into two-
phase stationary reference frame (d
s
~q
s
) variables and then
transform these to synchronously rotating reference frame
(d
e
~ q
e
), and vice-versa [3, 56]. Assume that the d
e

q
e.
Axes
are oriented at angle, as shown in Fig 2. The voltages
r

Siva Ganesh Malla and Jagan Mohana Rao Malla 4


International Journal of Emerging Trends in Electrical and Electronics (IJETEE ISSN: 2320-9569) Vol. 10, Issue. 3, April-2014.
and can be resolved into as-bs-cs components
and can be represented in the matrix form as
=
(1)
The corresponding inverse relation is.
=
(2)
Where is added as the zero sequence component,
which may or may not be present. The current and flux
linkages can be transformed by similar equations. It is
convenient to set = 0, so that the q
s
axis is aligned with
the as-axis, the transformation relations can be simplified by
ignoring zero sequence. Fig 3 shows the synchronously
rotating d
e
- q
e
, which rotates at synchronous speed with
respect to the d
s
-q
s
axes and the angle the two-
phase d
e
- q
s
windings are transformed into the hypothetical
windings mounted on the d
e
-q
e
axes [3]. The voltages on the
d
s
-q
s
axes can be converted (or resolved) into the d
e
-q
e
frame
as follows:
(3)
(4)
For convenience, the superscript e has been
dropped from now on from the synchronously rotating
frame parameters. Again, resolving the rotating frame
parameters into a stationary frame, the relations are.
(5)
(6)
The q
e
-d
e
components can also be combined into a
vector form:
(7)
Or inversely
(8)
Note that the vector magnitudes in stationary and
rotating frames are equal, that is,
(9)
In Equation (7),
e
j
e

is defined as the inverse
vector rotator that converts d
s
-q
s
variables into d
e
- q
e
variables. The vector V and its components projected on
rotating and stationary axes are shown in Fig 3. The as-bs-cs
variables can also be expressed in vector form. And also:
(10)
Where a=e
j 2 / 3
. The parameters a and a
2
can be
interpreted as unit vectors. Similar transformations can be
made for rotor circuit variables also [3, 8, 17].
3.3. SYNCHRONOUSLY ROTATING REFERENCE
FRAME - DYNAMIC MODEL.
Fig.3: (a) Stationary frame d
s
- q
s
to rotating frame de - q
e
;
(b) Flux and current vectors d
e -
q
e
.
For the two-phase machine shown in Fig 3, we need
to represent both d
s
-q
s
and d
r
q
r
circuits and their variables
s
ds
V
s
qs
V

cs
bs
as
V
V
V

+ +

1 ) 120 sin( ) 120 cos(
1 ) 120 sin( ) 120 cos(
1 sin cos
0 0
0 0


s
os
s
ds
s
qs
V
V
V

s
os
s
ds
s
qs
V
V
V
3
2

+
+
5 . 0 5 . 0 5 . 0
) 120 sin( ) 120 sin( sin
) 120 cos( ) 120 cos( cos
0 0
0 0

cs
bs
as
V
V
V
s
os
V

. t
e e
=
e
s
ds e
s
qs qs
V V V sin cos =
e
s
ds e
s
qs ds
V V V cos sin + =
e ds e qs
s
qs
V V V sin cos + =
e ds e qs
s
ds
V V V cos sin + =
e e
j j s
ds
s
qs
e
s
ds e
s
qs e
s
ds e
s
qs ds qs
e
qds
e V e jV V
V V j V V jV V V



= =
+ = =
) (
) cos sin ( ) sin cos (
e
j
ds qs
s
ds
s
qs
e jV V jV V V
+
= = ) (
2 2

ds qs m
V V V V + = =

cs bs as
cs bs cs bs as
s
ds
s
qs
V a aV V
V V j V V V
jV V V
2
3
2
3
1
3
1
3
1
3
1
3
2
+ + =

.
|

\
|
+

.
|

\
|
=
=
Siva Ganesh Malla and Jagan Mohana Rao Malla 5
International Journal of Emerging Trends in Electrical and Electronics (IJETEE ISSN: 2320-9569) Vol. 10, Issue. 3, April-2014.
in a synchronously rotating d
e
-q
e
frame. We can write the
following stator circuit equations:
(11)
s
ds
s
ds s
s
ds
dt
d
I R V + = (12)
Where and are q- axis and d-axis stator flux
linkages, respectively. When these equations are converted
to d
e
-q
e
frame, the following equations can be written:
(13)
qs e ds ds s ds
dt
d
I R V + = (14)
If the rotor is not moving, that is, , the rotor
equations for a doubly fed wound-rotor machine will be
similar to Equations (13) - (14):
(15)
qr e dr dr r dr
dt
d
i R V + = (16)
The rotor actually moves at speed
r
, the d - q axes
fixed on the rotor move at a speed
e
-
r
relative to the
synchronously rotating frame. Therefore, rotor equations
should be modified as.
(17)
(18)
The d
e
-q
e
dynamic model equivalent circuits that
satisfy Equations (13), (14) and (17), (18). A special
advantage of the d
e
-q
e
dynamic model of the machine is that
all the sinusoidal variables in stationary frame appear as dc
quantities in synchronous frame. The flux linkage
expressions in terms of the currents can be written from Fig
3(b) as follows:
(19)
) (
qr qs m qr lr qr
i i L i L + + = (20)
) (
qr qs m qm
i i L + = (21)
) (
dr ds m ds ls ds
i i L i L + + = (22)
) (
dr ds m dr lr dr
i i L i L + + = (23)
) (
dr ds m dm
i i L + = (24)
Combining the above expressions with Equations
(13), (14), (17) and (18), the electrical transient model in
terms of voltages and currents can be given in matrix form
as
(25).
Where S is Laplace operator. For a cage motor,
V
rq
=V
dr
= 0. If the speed is considered constant. Then,
knowing the inputs V
sq
, V
sd
and , the currents i
qs
, i
ds,
i
qr
and i
dr
can be solved from Equation (25). If the machine is
fed by current source, i
qs
, i
ds
and are independent. Then
the dependent variables V
sq
,V
sd
, i
qr
and i
dr
can be solved
from Equation (25). The speed in Equation (25) cannot
normally be treated as a constant. It can be related to the
torques as
(26)
Where T
L
= load torque, J = rotor inertia, and =
mechanical speed. Often, for compact representation, the
machine model and equivalent circuits are expressed in
complex form [3]. Multiplying Equation (14) by j and
adding with Equation (13) gives.
(27)
Or
(28)
Similarly, the rotor equations (17)-(18) can be combined to
represent
qdr r e qdr qdr r qdr
j
dt
d
i R V ) ( + + = (29)
Where V
qdr
=0. Therefore, the steady-state equations
can be derived as
(30)
(31)
If the parameter R
m
is neglected. We know that
sin
2 2
3
r m e
I
P
T

.
|

\
|
= (32)
From Equation (32), the torque can be generally
expressed in the vector form as
(33)
dr qm qr dm e
I i
P
T

.
|

\
|
=
2 2
3
(34)
Some other torque expressions can be derived easily
as follows:
s
qs
s
qs s
s
qs
dt
d
I R V + =
s
qs

s
ds

ds e qs qs s qs
dt
d
I R V + + =
0 =
r

dr e qr qr r qr
dt
d
i R V + + =
dr r e qr qr r qr
dt
d
i R V ) ( + + =
qr r e dr dr r dr
dt
d
i R V
)
( + =
) (
qr qs m qs ls qs
i i L i L + + =

+
+
+
+
=

dr
qr
ds
qs
r r r r e m m r e
r r e r r m r e m
m m e s s s e
m e m s e s s
dr
qr
ds
qs
i
i
i
i
SL R L SL L
L SL R L SL
SL L SL R L
L SL L SL R
V
V
V
V
) ( ) (
) ( ) (




r

dt
d
J
P
T
dt
d
J T T
r
L
m
L e
2
+ = + =
m

) ( ) ( ) (
ds qs e ds qs ds qs s ds qs
j j j
dt
d
ji i R jV V + + =
qds r e qds qds s qds
j
dt
d
i R V ) ( + + =
s e s s s
j I R V + =
r e r
r
j I
S
R
+ = 0
r m e
I x
P
T

.
|

\
|
=
2 2
3
Siva Ganesh Malla and Jagan Mohana Rao Malla 6
International Journal of Emerging Trends in Electrical and Electronics (IJETEE ISSN: 2320-9569) Vol. 10, Issue. 3, April-2014.
ds qm qs dm e
I i
P
T

.
|

\
|
=
2 2
3
(35)
ds qs qs ds e
I i
P
T

.
|

\
|
=
2 2
3
(36)
) (
2 2
3
qr ds dr qs m e
i i i i L
P
T

.
|

\
|
= (37)
) (
2 2
3
dr qr qr dr e
I i
P
T

.
|

\
|
= (38)
Equations (25), (26), and (37) give the complete
model of the electro-mechanical dynamics of an IM in
synchronous frame. Fig 4 shows the block diagram of the
machine model along with input voltage & output current
transformation [2, 8] and resolving variables into dq
e
components. Renewable energy based water supply system
is one of the application [57-74]. In irrigation and drinking
water supply, mostly we are using induction motors; hence
study of control of induction motor is necessary.
4. CONTROL METHODS
Stator flux linkage is estimated by integrating the
stator voltages. Torque is estimated as a cross product of
estimated stator flux linkage vector and measured motor
current vector [75, 76]. The estimated flux magnitude and
torque are then compared with their reference values. If
either the estimated flux or torque deviates from the
reference more than allowed tolerance, the GTO of the
variable frequency drive are turned off and on in such a way
that the flux and torque will return in their tolerance bands
as fast as possible. Thus DTC is one form of the hysteresis
or bang-bang control. This control method implies the
properties of the control: Torque and flux can be changed
very fast by changing the references, The step response has
no overshoot, No coordinate transforms are needed, all
calculations are done in stationary coordinate system, No
separate modulator is needed, the hysteresis control defines
the switch control signals directly [3, 75, 76], and There are
no PI current controllers. Thus no tuning of the PI is
required.
However, by controlling the width of the tolerance
bands the average switching frequency can be kept roughly
at its reference value [2, 3]. This also keeps the current and
torque ripple small. Thus the torque and current ripple are of
the same magnitude than with vector controlled drives with
the same switching frequency. Due to the hysteresis control
the switching process is random by nature. Synchronization
to rotating machine is straightforward due to the fast
control; just make the torque reference zero and start the
inverter [2, 3, 75, 76]. The flux will be identified by the first
current pulse. Typically the control algorithm has to be
performed with 10 - 30 microseconds or shorter intervals
because of the simplicity of the algorithm.
Fig 4. Synchronously rotating frame machine models with input voltage and output current transformations.
Siva Ganesh Malla and Jagan Mohana Rao Malla 7
International Journal of Emerging Trends in Electrical and Electronics (IJETEE ISSN: 2320-9569) Vol. 10, Issue. 3, April-2014.
Fig 5: Block diagram of the induction motor drive system based on DTC scheme.
The DTC method performs very well even without
speed sensors [3]. However, the flux estimation is usually
based on the integration of the motor phase voltages [75,
76]. Due to the inevitable errors in the voltage measurement
and stator resistance estimate the integrals tend to become
erroneous at low speed. Thus it is not possible to control the
motor if the output frequency of the variable frequency
drive is zero. However, by careful design of the control
system it is possible to have the minimum frequency in the
range 0.5 Hz to 1 Hz that is enough to make possible to start
an IM with full torque from a standstill situation. A reversal
of the rotation direction is possible too if the speed is
passing through the zero range rapidly enough to prevent
excessive flux estimate deviation [77, 78]. If continuous
operation at low speeds including zero frequency operation
is required, a position sensor can be added to the DTC
system [77-79].
4.1. VIEW OF DIRECT TORQUE CONTROL
In principle the DTC method selects one of the six
nonzero and two zero voltage vectors of the inverter on the
basis of the instantaneous errors in torque and stator flux
magnitude [13, 76]. In spite of its simplicity, DTC allows
good torque control in both steady and transient state. Its
main characteristic is the good performance, obtaining
results as good as the classical vector control. Fig 5. Shows
the Block diagram of the IM drive system based on DTC
scheme [3, 75, 76]. DTC method still required further
research in order to improve the motors performance, as
well as achieve a better behavior regarding environment
compatibility (Electro Magnetic Interference and Energy),
that is desired nowadays for all industrial applications.
4.2 CLASSICAL DIRECT TORQUE CONTROL
Classic DTC makes use of hysteresis comparators
with torque and stator flux magnitude errors as inputs to
decide which stator voltage vector is applied to motor
terminals. The complex plane is divided in six sectors, and a
switching table is designed to obtain the required vector
based on the hysteresis comparators outputs [3, 4]. Due to
fast time constants of stator dynamics it is very difficult to
keep machine torque between the hysteresis bands. This can
do either by increasing the sampling frequency as in, thus
increasing switching frequency, commutation losses and
computation requirements, or using multilevel converters.
The use of hysteresis comparators in classic DTC
implementations give rise to variable switching frequency
(VSF), which depends on rotor speed, load, sample
frequency, etc. VSF may excite resonant dynamics in the
load and hence constitute a serious drawback of DTC.
Generally there are two methods to reduce the torque
and flux ripple for the DTC drives. One is multi level
inverter; the other is space vector modulation (SVM) [77,
78]. In the first method, the cost and the complexity will be
increased, in the second method, the torque ripple and flux
ripple can be reduced, however the switch frequency still
changes. In the next section a fuzzy approach is given to
reduce torque ripple [8]. This goal is achieved by the fuzzy
controller which determinates the desired amplitude of
torque hysteresis band.
4.3 TORQUE EXPRESSIONS WITH STATOR AND
ROTOR FLUXES
The torque expression for induction machine can be
expressed in vector form as,
2 2
3
s s e
I
P
T

.
|

\
|
=
(39)
Where
s
ds
s
qs s
j = and
s
ds
s
qs s
ji i I =
.
In this equation,
s
I
is to be replaced by rotor flux
r
. In
the complex form,
s
and
r
can be expressed as
function of currents as,
r m s s s
I L I L + = (40)
s m r r r
I L I L + = (41)
From equations 39, 40 and 41:
s r
s r
m
e
L L
L P
T
'
2 2
3

.
|

\
|
=
(42)
That is, the magnitude torque is
sin
2 2
3
'

s r
s r
m
e
L L
L P
T

.
|

\
|
=
(43)
Where is the angle between the fluxes, indicating
the vectors
s

,
r

, and
s
I
for positive developed
torque. If the rotor flux remains constant and stator flux is
changed incrementally by stator voltage
s
V as shown and
Siva Ganesh Malla and Jagan Mohana Rao Malla 8
International Journal of Emerging Trends in Electrical and Electronics (IJETEE ISSN: 2320-9569) Vol. 10, Issue. 3, April-2014.
the corresponding change of angle is A , the incremental
torque
e
T A expression is given as
sin
2 2
3
'
A A +

.
|

\
|
= A
s s r
s r
m
e
L L
L P
T
(44)
4.4 CONTROL STRATEGY OF DTC
Fig 6: In principle the DTC method selects one of the six nonzero and two zero voltage
Fig 7: Inverter voltage vectors and corresponding stator flux variation in time t
.
Table1: Switching table of inverter voltage vectors.
H HTe S(1) S(2) S(3) S(4) S(5) S(6)
1
1 V2 V3 V4 V5 V6 V1
0 V0 V7 V0 V7 V0 V7
-1 V6 V1 V2 V3 V4 V5
-1
1 V3 V4 V5 V6 V1 V2
0 V7 V0 V7 V0 V7 V0
-1 V5 V6 V1 V2 V3 V4
Table2: Flux and Torque variations due to applied voltage
vector in.
Voltage
vector
V
1
V
2
V
3
V
4
V
5
V
6
V
0
or V
7

s
0
T
e
Block diagram of the IM drive system based on DTC
scheme is shown in Fig 6. The speed control loop and the
flux program as a function of speed are shown as usual and
will not be discussed. The command stator flux
*

and
Siva Ganesh Malla and Jagan Mohana Rao Malla 9
International Journal of Emerging Trends in Electrical and Electronics (IJETEE ISSN: 2320-9569) Vol. 10, Issue. 3, April-2014.
torque
*
e
T
magnitudes are compared with the respective
estimated values and the errors are processed through
hysteresis-band controllers, as shown [2]. The flux loop
controller has two levels of digital output according to the
following relations:
for 1

HB E H + > = (45)

HB E H < = for 1 (46)
Where

HB 2 = total hysteresis-band width
controller. The circular trajectory of the command flux
vector
*

with the hysteresis band rotates in an anti-


clockwise direction as shown in Fig 7. The actual stator flux
s

is constrained within the hysteresis band and it tracks


the command flux in a zigzag path. The torque control loop
has three levels of digital output, which have the following
relations [2]:
Te Te Te
HB E H + > = for 1 (47)
Te Te Te
HB E H < = for 1 (48)
for 0
Te Te Te Te
HB E HB H + < < = (49)
The feedback flux and torque are calculated from the
machine terminal voltages and currents. The signal
computation block also calculates the sector number S(k) in
which the flux vector
s
lies. There are six sectors (each /3
angle wide), as in Fig 7(a). The voltage vector table block in
Fig 8 receives the input signals , ,
Te
H H

and S(k)and
generates the appropriate control voltage vector (switching
states) for the inverter by lookup table, which is shown in
table 1 (the vector sign is deleted) [2, 3]. The inverter
voltage vector and a typical
s

are shown in Fig 7(b).


Neglecting the stator resistance of the machine, we can
write.
) (
s s
dt
d
V = (50)
Or
. t V
s s
A = A (51)
Which means that
s

can be changed incrementally


by applying stator voltage
s
V for time increment t. The
flux increment vector corresponding to each of six inverter
voltage vectors is shown in Fig 7. The flux in machine is
initially established to at zero frequency (dc) along the
trajectory OA shown in Figure 7. With the rated flux, the
command torque is applied and the
*
s

vector starts
rotating [2, 3].
Table 1 applies the selected voltage vector, which
essentially affects both the torque and flux simultaneously
[2, 3]. The flux trajectory segments AB, BC, CD and DE by
the respective voltage vectors
4 3 4 3
and , , , V V V V are
shown in Figure 7(a). The total and incremental torque due
to
s
A are explained in Fig 7(b). Note that the stator flux
vector changes quickly by, but the
r
change is very
sluggish due to large time constant T
r
. Since
r
is more
filtered, it moves uniformly at frequency
e
, whereas
s

movement is jerky. The average speed of both, however,


remains the same in the steady-state condition. Table2
summarizes the flux and torque change (magnitude and
direction) for applying the voltage vectors for the location of
s
shown in Fig 7(b) [2, 3]. The flux can be increased by
the
6 2 1
and , , V V V vectors, whereas it can be decreased
by the
5 4 3
and , , V V V vectors [2]. Similarly, torque is
increased by the
4 3 2
and , , V V V Vectors, but decreased
by the
6 5 1
and , , V V V vectors. The zero vectors (V
0
or
V
7
) short-circuit the machine terminals and keep the flux
and torque unaltered. Due to finite resistance (R
s
) drop, the
torque and flux will slightly decrease during the short-circuit
condition.
Consider for example, an operation in sector S(2)
as shown in Fig 7(a), where at point B, the flux is too high
and the torque is too low; that is,
1 =

H
and
1 + =
Te
H . From table 1, voltage V
4
is applied to the
inverter, which will generate the trajectory BC. At point C,
1 + =

H and 1 + =
Te
H and this will generate the
V
3
vector from the table. The drive can easily operate in the
four quadrants, and speed loop and field-weakening control
can be added, if desired [80]. The torque response of the
drive is claimed to be comparable with that of a vector-
controlled drive [2].
5. FUZZY APPLICATION
Soft computing techniques can apply for nonlinear
system [80-83]. A fuzzy controller is introduced to allow the
performance of DTC scheme in terms of flux and torque
ripple to be improved [84-87]. The speed regulators are
conventional PI controllers (CPIC), which requires precise
math model of the system and appropriate value of PI
constants to achieve high performance drive. Therefore,
unexpected change in load conditions or environmental
factors would produce overshoot, oscillation of the motor
speed, oscillation of the torque, long settling time and
causes deterioration of drive performance [84-87].
Siva Ganesh Malla and Jagan Mohana Rao Malla 10
International Journal of Emerging Trends in Electrical and Electronics (IJETEE ISSN: 2320-9569) Vol. 10, Issue. 3, April-2014.
Figure 8: Direct torque and flux control block diagram.
Fig: 9. Two fuzzy based DTC-SVM model
The selected voltage vector is applied for the entire
switching period, and thus allows electromagnetic torque
and stator flux to vary for the whole switching period. This
causes high torque and flux ripples. To overcome these
problems in DTC, two fuzzy controllers are widely analyzed
in literature [2, 3]. Those are:
1. Fuzzy PI Controller (FPIC) to achieve precision
speed control.
2. Fuzzy Logic Duty Ratio Control (FLDRC) to
minimize torque & flux ripple.
When Fuzzy Logic is used for the on-line tuning of
the PI controller, it receives scaled values of the speed error
and change of speed error. Its output is updating in the PI
controller gains based on a set of rules to maintain excellent
control performance even in the presence of parameter
variation and drive non-linearity [87]. Block diagram of the
method with close-loop torque and flux control in stator flux
coordinate system is presented in Fig 9. The output of the PI
flux and torque controllers can be interpreted as the
reference stator voltage components V
sx
, V
sy
are the stator
flux oriented coordinates (x y). Design of Fuzzy Logic
Controller is depend on Selection of input variables,
Selection of output variable, Number of fuzzy controllers,
Selection of Membership functions and Selection of
defuzzification. Here, we had taken two fuzzy controllers
for torque and flux, triangular membership and centroid
defuzzification.
FPIC does dynamically adjusts the gains k
P
and k
I
to
ensure the stability of system over wide torque-speed range,
Swift speed response, Less overshoot and, Extremely small
steady state errors.
FLDRC does Minimizes torque & flux ripples
effectively, increased efficiency, Low acoustic noise,
Operates at a lower switching frequency compared to the
existing methods, and Reduces computation burden.
Siva Ganesh Malla and Jagan Mohana Rao Malla 11
International Journal of Emerging Trends in Electrical and Electronics (IJETEE ISSN: 2320-9569) Vol. 10, Issue. 3, April-2014.
By using these two fuzzy controllers we achieve
good speed and torque responses. After outputs of these
fuzzy controllers (after defuzzification) we generate Vsx and
Vsy, again converted this X-Y coordinate components to -
components. By using this values generate 6 pulses with the
help of Space Vector Modulation.).
CONCLUSION
The paper has presented a DTC drive with fuzzy
controller. This controller determinates the desired
amplitude of torque hysteresis band. The main advantage is
the improvement of torque and flux ripple characteristics at
any speed region; this provides an opportunity for motor
operation under minimum switching loss and noise.
The two-fuzzy based DTC-SVM-IMD system,
thereby dramatically reducing the torque ripple. A fuzzy
controller seems to be a reasonable choice to evaluate the
amplitude of torque hysteresis band according to the torque
ripple level. Fuzzy-PI Controller to achieve precision speed
control and Fuzzy Logic Duty Ratio Control is used to
minimize torque & flux ripple. When Fuzzy Logic is used
for the on-line tuning of the PI controller, it receives scaled
values of the speed error and change of speed error.
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