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. . r usi bl e. Thi s
, rrn i xi de sl ag,
. n
pl ug of t he
-' : r
i t rvel di ng i s
, mel t i ng poi nt .
-t ' rl i di f l es. The
rhe met al
; r i s an al l oy of
: t rt i
sol der wr l l
J of heat i ng t he
r r r s t o be
j oi ned
Irr red hot.
i t he sol der i ns
' . t s
of sol der i i
. enr i pcr manen:
r s appl i ed i r t t hr '
' , pcs
of aut or t t - -
- r per at Ll r es
i - :
J- l r or Spl l et : :
( - l n
sol i di t r c: -
. , - ' r ;
. f ^ , r n n - -
' . - - - . !
! r r \ ' f f ! . .
' - a , , t c l e a l e ;
T, . , . ' , , c l ant : : :
11. 1. Lat he
machine or machine tool is a machine that imparts the required shape and size
to a workpiece with the desired accuracy by removing metal from the workpiece in the form
Lathe is the most gen.*l putpo-t.
t1e wolkPiece
rgtated against suitable cutting tool fo1thb pqryopp of producing surface of revolution . Lathe
has become so popular because of its versatality and it is usually found in almost all work-
Pri nci pl e of worki ng
The main function of a lathe is to provide suitable means to hold aworkpiece andto4otate
it about an axis. A cutting tool, fed eithql4arallel
or perp-e-qqrcg!4f tq t[%4i-q glthe
removes material from the rotating work to give the required size and shape. If the tool is
Fig. I l.l. Working principle of a lathe
moved parallel to the axis of rotation of the work then a cylindrical surface is
shown in fig. I l.l (a). If the tool is moved perpendicular to the axis of rotation of the work,
then a flat surface is produced*as shown in fig' I l ' l (b)'
Principal parts of a lathe
The line diagram of a common lathe is shown in fig. 11.2.The various important compo-
r t . 2
nents are bed, head stock, tool post, lead screw and feed mechanism.
t. Bed
The lathe bed forms its body structure and is supported
at convenient
height. The head-
stock, tailstock, carriage etc. are mounted on the bed. The bed also provides
the required
strength and rigidity to the m'achine.
2. Headstock
/ The headstock is mounted on the bed at the left end and is permanently
secured there.
The head stock has a gear box for changing the speed of rotation
of spindle and thereby the
speed of rotation of workpiece.
Li ve centre
Dead centre
r. Talstock
Fi g. I1.2. Bl ockdi agram
of apl he
The tailstock is mounted on the bed at the right end and can be clamped at anyconvenient
It supports one end ofthe *o.kpi..e.J-tlGi-so
used for holding a tool for performing
operations such as drilling, reaming.t"
+, Carriage
The carri age of a l athe consi sts of several parts
that serves tq_l gppgl l l !_e
cutting tool and to control the action of the cutting tool. It can u. rnou.a utong the bed ways
vv rrrv Y vs sr\r'
5. Lathe centres
Lat he cent r es
ar e t aper ed component s
f i t i nt o spi ndl es pr ovi ded
i n t he
| : e{' t oct qdJg! : 3: 5. Thecent reconnect edt ot heheadst ocki , @si nce
rotates with the spindle. The centre connected to the tailstock is called dead
- ?. , \ - l r l
t ' F
- .
i . i \ \ a\ !
centre since it does not rotate and its function is only to support the workpiece.
Toolpost is mounted on the carlia_ge . It holds t[:u{1lg--t991-end qla-blgq th9-9utti1g tool
to be adjust to a convenient working positio4'
. Lead screw
The lead screw is a long thrg4ded shaft which is brought iqlq qq!9,r1gnlll4t9qlh19ads
cu!. The rotation of lead screw is used
screw thread.
4. reea mechani sm
The movement of tool rgla!rye to tnqyoltglg_9e is termed as feed. The lathe tool can be
g iv e n t[rg
fq e-d,
g itudi
t?l {9
t,1_und an gul ar'
When the tool is moved parallel to the axis of rotation of workpiece, the movement is
called longitudinal feed
When the tool is moved perpendicularto the axis of rotation ofworkpiece, the movement
is called
When the tool is moved at an angle to the axis of rotation of workpiece, the feed is c{lled
angular feed.
Specification of lathe \/'-
The size of a lathe is usually specified by,
(i) The overall length of bed'
. ( i i ) Thehei - ght of l i veanddeadcen! - r es- 1pov@. Thel ar gest di amet er of
thl workpiece that can be rotated without to-uchlng the bed is
(iii) The maximum distance between centres. The maximum length of workpiece that
can be held between centres is limited by this specification.
(iv) The range of spindle speed and the number of steps of speed in between the range of
(v) The power rating of electric motor'
(vi) The diameter of lead screw and the number and range of threads that can be cut.
performed on a lathe
Workpiece mustbe held properly for any machining operation. Several methods are avail-
able and the choice of method depends on the nature of the work itself and the operations to
t t . 4
be performed on i t. The most common devi ces used i n l athe are, l athe centres ;nd chucks
Lathe centres are used for hol di ng the workpi ece duri ng turni ng operati on. Central hol e i s
made at each end of the workpiece and the workpiece is then supported in between the dead
and l i ve centres as shown i n fi g.1l .l (a). The chuck i s al so used for hol di ng and rotati ng a
workpiece . Refer fig. I l.l (b) . It is mounted concentric with the spindle and rotates with it.
The jaws
of the chuck can be moved radially by turning the screw head provided on the
peri phery of the chuck.
Several operations like turning, taper turning, thread cutting, drilling, boring, grinding, etc.
can be performed on a lathe. A brief description of some of the important operations that can
be performed on a lathe are given below.
- 11. 1. 1 Tur ni ng v/
Turning is the removal of material from the periphery of a work piece to obtain a cylindri-
cal surfac.e. Turning can be carried out by holding the work ilr alhuck or by supoorting the
work in between lathe centres. The cutting tool, fed parallel to the axis of rotation of the
removes material from the rotating work. The following procedure is adopted for
i) Hold the workpiece in a chuck with a short length projecting out. Rotate it at aconstant
ii) Face the end of the work by feeding the topl perpendicular to the axis of rotation
i i i ) Dri l l a smal l hol e at the centre of thi s faced surface. Thi s can be done by fi xi ng the
drillbit in the tailstock and feeding it into the rotating workpiece.
iv) Remove the drillbit from the tailstock and fix the dead centre.
v) Set the workpiece between the chuck and the dead centre.
vi) Fix a tool in the tool post in such a way that the tip of the tool is in level with the axis
of rotation of workpiece. r
vii) Adjust the depth of cut by moving the tool perpendicular to the axis of work. After
giving the depth of cut, the tool is moved parallel to the axis ofthe rotating work. For further
reduction in diameter of the work, apply further depth of cut and traverse the tool again. For
final finish the speed of rotation must be increased and a fine depth of cut must be given. The
traversing of tool must also be slow and steady.
ll.l.2 Taper turning
Some machine elements and other parts are required to be turned with a taper. Taper is
expressed as the ratio of the difference in the end diameters to the length of tapered
I 1 . 5
measured parallel to the axis. Taper tuming lneans produc-
ing a conical surface by gradualreduction in diameter from
a cyl i ndri cal workpi ece. The fol l owi ng methods are used
for taper turni ng.
(i) Forming tool method
Fig. 1 I .3. shows the method of taper turning by a form-
ing tool. The tool having a straight cutting edge is set at
correct angle and is fed straight into work to generate the
tapered surface. Thi s method i s l i mi ted to turn short
external tapers only.
(i i ) Tai l stock set over method.
Fi g. 11. 3. For mi ng t ool
The principle of turning taper by this method is to shift the axis of rotation of the workpiece
at an angle to the lathe axis and feeding the tool parallel to the lathe axis. The tool will cut a
Fig. 11.4. Tail stock set over method.
taper on the work, the angle of which will be twice the inclination of the axes as shown in
fi g .11.4. Thi s method i s l i mi ted to the producti on of smal l taper on l ongj obs.
(i i i ) Compound rest method
The pr i nci pl e of t ur ni ng t aper by t hi s
method is to rotdte the workpiece on the lathe
axis and feeding the tool at anangle to the axis
of rotation of the workpiece.The compound
rest, on whi ch the tool i s mounted, has a ci rcu-
lar base graduated in degrees. By swiv-
eling compound rest, it can be set at any de-
si r ed angl e. For t aper t ur ni ng t hi s angl e
must be hal f the taper angl e. Once the com-
pound rest i s set at the desi red angl e, rotati on
ofthe compound slide screw will cause the tool
t o be f ed at t hat anel e and
gener at e
Swi vel
Fi g. 1 1. 5. Compound rest met hod.
corresponding taper. This method shown in fig. I 1.5.
the l i mi ted movement of the cross sl i de.
11. 1. 3 Thread cut t i ng
/ /
I 1 . 6
is limited to turn a short taper owing to
Thread cutting is one of the most important
operations performed in a lathe. Threads can be
cut either on outside or inside surface of an ob-
A thread on the outside surface of an object
such as a bolt is called external thread. Thread on
the inside surface of an object such as a nut is
called internal thread.
For cutting a thread, it is necessary that there
should be a relation between the movement of
the tool and rotation of work. This is obtained by
means of a lead screw. The lead screw is driven
by a set of gears from the spindle as shown in
fig.1 1.6 The lead screw
through which the saddle receives its motion along the bed, has a
definite pitch. For each turn of the screw the sf,idle moves along the bed a distance equal to
the pitch of the lead screw. The tool which is held in the tool post also moves the same
distance. Thus there is rotation of work, combined with a fixed longitudinal movement ofthe
tool for each turn of the work. This results on the work as shown in fig. I1.6. The gears
connecting the headstock spindle with the lead screw can be selected to cut a thread of any
desired pitch. For example, suppose the pitch of a lead screw is l2 mm and it is required to
cut a screw of 4 mm pitch, then the gears are to be so selected that the spindle rotates 3
times the speed of the lead screw.
11. 1. 4 Knurl i ng
Knurling istfprocess of roughening a smooth
surface of a cylindy"twgrip_i_gge. The purpose of
knurling is to get grip over tfrg,sg$-a-c_e.For knurling
process, the workpiece is held between the chuck
and the.dead_centre and rotated at the required
speed. The knurling tool, which consists of a set of
hardened steel rollers with the teeth cut on the sur-
face in u l-.nnit.- patte-, is held rigidly in the tool
post. The knurling tool i, pr.ilf,ugailtt ttt.-..-
Lead screw
Fig. I 1.6. Thread cuuing.
Fi g. I1.7 Knurl i ng
t t . 7
11.2. Shapi ng Machi ne
The function of the shaping machine or the shaper is, primarily, the production of flat
surfaces. It uses a single point tool for machining. The work is held in a visa fastened to the
Fig. I 1.8 Working principle ofshaping machine.
worktable and the tool reciprocates over the work. During the forward stock of the tool, it
removes metal from the workpiece. At the end of the return stroke the feed operates to
move the table and work to the desired amount. Fig.l I .8 shows the working principle of a
Pri nci pal parts of a shaper
The block diagram of a shaper is shown in fig.11.9 and the principal parts are described
/ Thnl hparl
Fi g. I I .9. Bl ock di agram of shaper
T f t ,
l i v
, i l
Tool head
I 1 . 8
(i ) Base
The base is the necessary bed or support required for the machine.
(ii) Column
The column is mounted on therbase and is the main support for the operating mecha-
nisms' The top of the column i{machined
to form a flat bearing for the ram. The front
vertical face of the column is also machined to enable the table to be raised or lowered.
(iii) Ram
It is the reciprocating part of the shaper. it reciprocates
on the guideways
on the
top of the column. It carries the tool head at the extreme forward end. The ram is connected
to the quick return mechanism which allow the ram to move at a slower speed during the
cutting stroke and at a faster speed during the return stroke.
(iv) Tool head
It is mounted at the front of the ram. It can be swivelled to any angle to enable the tool to
take angular cuts. Vertical feed to the tool is given by the vertical tool feed screw.
(v) Tabl e
I t i s a box t ype cast i ng havi ng T-sl ot s f or cl ampi ng t he vi ce. Vi ce i s a devi ce
to hold work on the tableb(1!9 shaper. An elevating screw and other necessary parfs are
to accomplish the vertical movement. For the horizontal movement
a cross feed
screw and other necessary parts are provided.
f l 3 Shapi ng
shaper is primarily designed to generate
it may also be used to
perform many other operations. The different operations performed
on a shaper are dis-
cussed bel ow.
(i) Machining horizontal surface
The workpiece to be shaped is herd in a vise provided on the
table of the shaper. The bed is raised so that the workpiece is
near to the tool fitted in the tool holder. The tool is fed on to
the work by lowering the tool head. The tool head is lowered by
rotating the down feed screw of the tool head. The tool, as it
moves forward, removes material from the work. The work is
moved laterally a little when it is ready for the cut during the
next forward stroke. Fig. I I .10. shows this operation.
Fi g. I l . l 0
(i i ) Machi ni ng verti cal surface
The downfeed is used for vertical machining such as finishing
the si des of tongues, squari ng shoul ders, cutti ng keyways. The
work is mounted in the vise. The vertical slidyis set exactly at
zero position and the apron is swiveled in a d-rrection away from
the surface bei ng cut as shown i n fi g.l 1 .l l . The swi vel l i ng of
apron prevents the side of the tool from dragging of the plained
vertical surface during return stroke. The down feed is given by
rotating the downfeed screw of the tool head.
(iii) Machining angular surface
The work is set on the table and the vertical side of the
requi red angl e frorn the verti cal posi ti on as shown i n fi g.l l .l 2.
T'he apron is then further swiveled away from the work. The
dowu feed is given by rotating the downfeed screw.
(i v) Machi ni ng i rregul ar surface
produce a small irregular surface / forming tool is used.
For machining of large inegular surface ,
the required shape is
i ni ti al l y scri bed on the surface of the workpi ece. The operator
by ski l l ful mani pul ati on of the verti cal and hori zontal feeds,
e' ri des the cutti ng tool to fol l ow the scri bed l i ne.
f 1"4. Dri l l i ng Machi ne
Fi g. l l . l 1
tool head is swivelled to
l 1 . 9
Fi g. 11. 12
Drilling is the operation of making holes in a workpiece by forcing a rotating tool called
drill against it. The machine which primarily designed to make this operation is called d4ltng
machi ne.
Pri nci pal parts of a dri l l i ng machi ne
block diagram of a typical drilling machine is shown in fig. 1 I . 13. The principal parts
are (i ) Base, (i i ) Col umn, (i i i ) Tabl e and (i v) Dri l l head.
(i ) Base
The base of the drilling machine is a rectangular casting on which the column is mounted.
(i i ) Col umn (
The column is the vertical member of the machine which supports a iable. The head
supporting the motor and spindle is mounted on the top of the column
(i i i )Tabl e Be
The tabl e of the dri l l i ng ma-
chine supports the workpiece or
spindlc hcad
other work holding device . It can
Feed handle
be moved up and down on the
col umn. Al so i t can be set i n vari -
ous posi ti ons i n the hori zontal
pl ane.
(iv) Drill head
It is mounted on the top of the
column and supports the spindle
head and motor. The spindle head
houses drill holding and rotating
devices. Ahand wheel is provided
for upward and downward move-
ment of the spi ndl e. A dri l l chuck
is mounted in the spindle for hold-
1 1 . 1 0
Fig. 12.14. Operations performed on a
drilling machine.
Dr i l l chuck
Fig.l I . 13 Block diagram of drilling tnachine
ing thej1il1-The spindle receives power from the motorthrough belt and pulley arranged as
shown in fig. I I . I 3. The speed of the spindle can be varied by shifting the belt on different
steps of the cone pulley.
Operations performed on a drilling nacny{
l . Dri l l i ng
It is the operation of producing a circular hole
usi ng a dr i l l by r emovi ng met al f r om t he
workpi ece. Fi g. 11.14 (a) shows thi s operati on.
2. Reaming
Reaming is the operation of sizing and finish-
ing a hole by means of a reamer (reaming tool)
having several cutting edges. The reamer does
not originate a hole. It merely follows a drilled
hole and removes a very small amount of metal.
Reami ng operati ons i s shown i n fi g. 11-14 (b).
3. Bori ng
\ i
Borilg is the operation of enlarging a hole by means of an adjustable single point tool.
l l . l l
4. Counter bori ng
It is the operation of increasing the diameter of a hole for a certain distance down. It is
done wi th a speci al cutter as shown i n fi g.l I .14 (c).
5. Counter sinking
It is the operation by which a cone shaped enlargement is made at the end of a hole .
Fi g. 1l . l 4 ( d) .
6. Spot faci ng
It is the operation of smoothening and squaring the surface around a hole drilled in a
rough surface. It provides a flat seating for nut and washer.
7. Taping
It is the operation of cutting internal threads by means of a tool called tap. When a tap is
screwed into the hole it removes metal and cuts internal threads as shown in fig.1 l.la (e).
12. 5. Mi l l i ng
, r/
Milling is the process of removing metal by feeding the workpiece against a rotating
multipoint cutter. As the cutter rotates. each cutting edge removes a small amount of mate-
riai from the advancing workpiece for eacir rotatiorr of the cutter. The rate of metal removal
is rapitl as the cutter rotates at very high speed and has many cutting edges. The difference
of mitling and other machining processes are interrupted cutting
relatively small size of
chiirs and variation of chip thickness in a single chip itself.
Fi g. 11. 15.
Based on the direction of the cutter motion and workpiece feed, milling can be classified
i nto conventi onal mi l l i ng or up mi l l i ng and cl i mb mi l l i ng or down mi l l i ng. In conventi onal
Fi g. 1 I . 16
1t . 12
mi l l i ng (up mi l l i ng) the work pi ece whi ch i s mounted on a tabl e i s fed i n the opposi te di recti on
of that of the rotati ng cutter as shown i n fi g I 1.15. In down mi l l i ng tl -re work pi ece whi ch i s
mounted on tl-re table is fed in the same direction of that of the rotating cutter as shown in
f i gl 1. 1 6.
In conventi onal mi l l i ng the chi p thi ckness vari es from mi ni mum at the start of cut to a
maximum at the end of cut. The load on each cutting edge is gradually increased . Since the
cutting force is directed upwards at an angle, the cutter tends to lift the work piece from the
worktable. While taking heavy cuts this results in poor surface finish.
I n cl i mb mi l l i ng t he chi p t hi ckness vari es f rom a maxi mum at t he st art of cut
to a minimum at the end of cut. If the workpiece has a hard surface the cutter has to cut
through the hard surface which reduces the life of the cutter. The cutting force is directed
downwards at an angle, forcing the work piece towards the table. This is advantage for
mi l l i ng of such work pi ece whi ch cannot be easi l y hel d on the tabl e. Down mi l l i ng produces
surface of higher quality because the cutting pressure keeps the work piece firmly pressed
agai ns tabl e.
Mi l l i ng operat i ons
Some of the different operations that can be performed in the milling machine are
( I
Sl ab or pl ai n mi l l i ng
(2) Face mi l l i ng
(3) Si de mi l l i ng
(a) End mi l l i ng
(5) T- sl ot mi l l i ng
(6)Angul ar mi l l i ng
(7) Form mi l l i ng and
(8) Gear cutting
-. -
l . Sl aborpl ai nmi l l i ng -/
t i on i s shown i n f i g. I l . l 7.
Facemi l l i ng
SIab milling is the process by which the flat, horizontal surfaces parallel to the axis of
cutter can be produced. The cutter used is called plain milling cutter. The plain milling opera-
Face milling is the process by which flat surface perpendicular to the axis of cutter is
produced. The cutter used is called face milling cutter. The face milling operation is shown in
f i g. 1 1. I 8
( )
l l . l 3
Fi g I 1. 17 . Pl ai n mi l l i ng Fi g 1 1. 18. Face mi l l i ng
Side milling is the process by which flat vertical face is produced at the side of a
Fi g 11. 19. Si demi l l i ng
Fi g 1 1. 20. End mi l l i ng
work pice. The cutter used is called side milling cutter. Side milling operation is shown tn
f i g . l l . l 9 .
' gi ndmi l l i ng
End milling is the process by which a flat surface which may be vertical or horizontal is
produced. The cutter used is called end milling cutter. It has cutting edges on the periphery of
a shank as shown in fig. I 1.20.. The end milling cutters are used for producing slots, grooves,
keyways etc. End mi l l i ng operati on i s shown i n fi g. l l -20.
r5l sl ot mi l l i ng
A T- sl ot i s pr oduced usi ng a T- sl ot cut t er . Fi r st of al l a pl ai n- sl ot i s cut on
the work piece using an end milling cutter. Then the T:slot cutter is fed from one end of the
work piece. The neck portion of the cutter passes through the already milled plain slot. T:slot
nri l l i ng operati on i s shown i n fi g. 11.21.
I l . 1 4
Fi g I l . 2l . T- Sl ot mi l l i ng
6. Angalar milling
Angul ar mi l l i ng i s t he
work piece . The cutter used
shown i n fi g. 11.22.
Fo*mi l l i ng
Fi g 1 1.22. Angul ar mi l l i ng
process i n whi ch angul ar surf ace are produced on a
is called angle milling cutter. Angular milling operation is
o a
Form mi l l i ng i s the process by whi ch profi l es on the work pi ece are produced . The
cutter i s cal l ed angl e mi l l i ng cutter. The shape of form mi l l i ng cutter corresponds to the
profile of the surt-ace to be produced. Form milling operation is shown in fig. 1l -23 -
AI Fi g 1 1. 23. Form mi l l i ng
Fi g I 1.24. Gear cutti ng
1 1 . 1 5
Gear cutting
Ge a r c u t t i n g i s t l r e p r o c e s s b y wh i c h g e a r s a r e p r o d u c e d u s i n g f o r r r c u t t e r s .
The profile of the cutter corresponds
to the tooth space of the gear. Gear cutting operation
shown i n fi g. 11.24.
rr.7. Grinding
/ -X
is a process of metal removal
in which the cutting tool used is an abrasive
Gri ndi ng i s mai nh' used
for the fol l owi ng
(i) To remove small amount of metal from the workpiece to bring its dimensions
within very
cl ose tol erance
of the si ze desi red'
(ii) To obtain better finish on the surface'
(iii) To machine
hard surfaces
which are otherwise
difficult to be machined
by other means'
(iv) To sharPen the cutting tools'
These are made of abrasi ve
part i cl es bonded t oget her
by some sui t abl e
An abrasive
is a hard material
which can be used to cut or wear away other materials'There
are two types of abrasive
natural and artificial.
Natural abrasives
include sand-
stone, emery diamonds
etc. Artificial
abrasives are manufactured
and its examples
are sili-
con carbide,
oxide and boron carbide'
Types of grinding
to the type of surface
to be ground, grinding is classified
as cylindrical
ing, surface
grinding and form
produces cylindrical
surface on a workpiece'
The workpiece
rotated about its axis and is traversed
the face of a rotating
wheel' After
each traverse the wheel is moved towards
the work a distance
equal to the depth of
metal to be removed.
The working
of external cylindrical
grinding operation
shown i n fi g. 11.25 - Fig 1 l.25.Working PrinciPle
produces flat surfaces.
The grinding *1.:r is rotated on a vertical axis
as shown in fig. ll.26.The
work is traversed
under the revolving
g-r'inding wheel'
l 1
Cri ndi ng rvheel
Fig. I 1.26. Surface grinding
Fig. I 1.27 . Formgrinding
Form grinding prodrlces formed surfaces on a revolving cylindrical workpiece, the forms
being determined by the shape of the grinding
wheel or by the relative movement
of the
grinding wheel and the work. The principle of form grinding is shown in fig. ll.Z7 .
11.8. Non conventi onal machi ni ng
Traditional methods ofremoving materials from a workpiece are not readily available to
harder and difficult to machine materials such as stainless steel, high-strength-temperature-
resistant alloys etc. These materials find wide applications in aerospace, nuclear engineering
and other i ndustri es. For such materi al s the conventi onal
edge tool machi ni ng i s hi ghl y
and the degree of accuracy and surface finish attainable are poor. Non
machining processes have emerged to overcome these difficulties. These
are non conventional in the sense that they do not employ a conventional
tool for
metal removal' instead they directly utilize some form of energy for metal removing. Non
conventional machining processes can be classified into various groups according to the
type of fundamental
machi ni ng empl oyed such as mechani cal ,
el ectri cal , chemi cal ,
etc. Accordingly the various non-conventional
l .Abrasi ve Jet Machi ni ng
2.Ul trasoni c Machi ni ng
3. Chemi cal Machi ni ng
[ CHM]
4. El ect r o Chemi cal Machi ni ng
[ ECM] , 5.
El ect r o Chemi cal
Gr i ndi ng
[ ECG] ,
6' Pl asma Arc Machi ni ng
[ PAM] ,
7. El ect ro Di scharge Machi ni ng
[ EDM] ,
g. El ect ro
beam Machi ni ng
9. Laser Beam Machi ni ng
11. 8. 1 El ect ro Chemi cal Machi ni ng
El ectro chemi cal machi ni ng i s one of the newest and most useful machi ni ng process
of metal removal . The pri nci pl e of thi s machi ni ng process i s reverse of el ectropl ati ng.
el ectropl ati ng
metal i s deposi ted on the workpi ece whereas i n el ectro chemi cal machi ni ng
metal is deplated or removed from the workpiece. This process is particularly
suited to
metal and al l oys whi ch are di ffi cul t to machi ne by mechani cal machi ni ng processes.
Thi s
process is based on Faraday's classical laws of electrolysis
and requiring
basically, the two
electrodes, an electrolyte, a gap between the tool and workpiece and a source of DC power.
I 1 . 1 7
The workpiece which must be a conductor of electricity is placed in a tank on the machine
tabl e and i s connected to the posi ti ve termi nal of a DC suppl y. Thus the workpi ece i s made
anode in the ECM process. The tool electrode is mounted in the tool holder and is connected
to the negative terminal of the Dc supply. The tool is so shaped to produce the required
cavity in the workpiece. An electrolyte
flows through the gap between the tool and the
workpiece. The electro chemical reaction deplates the metal of the workpiece. There is no
mechanical contact between the workpiece and the tool. Any tendency of the workpiece
metal, to be plated on the tool
cathode] is counteracted
by the flow of the electrolyte
which removes the dissolved metal from the working zone'
The i mportant el ements of ECM are'
1 . El ectrodes
[tool s].
The tool s are most commonl y made of copper and copper al l oys'
Stainless steel and titanium. The electrode is insulated except at the cutting tip'
2. Electrolyte.
Most commonly
used are water solutions of sodium chloride, potassium
chloride, sodium nitrate and sodium hydroxide. The electrolyte
must be sufficiently active
chemically to cause efficient metal removal. The electrolyte is circulated under pressure
usually around 2000 kN/m2. The electrolyte
besides being the medium for electrolysis to
take place, removes heat from the work zoneand takes away the removed workpiece metal
from the working zone.
3. Filters or settlilg tanks: Suspended
metal in the electrolyte are removed by settling,
centrifuging or filtering and the filtered electrolyte is recirculated
for use.
Supply: Electric current of the order 500 to 25000 Amps at 5 to 30 v is required'
Most of the work can be done wi th current 1000 to 5000 Amps'
5. workpiece:
The workpiece to be machined-should
be good conductor of electricity' It
should have higher atomic weight and lower valency for better metal removal.
Suppl y
Work piece
Fi s. I 1. 28. El ect ro Chemi cal Machi ni ng'
I l . l 8
Appl i cati ons of ECM
The mai n appl i cati ons of ECM processes are i n machi ni ng of hard heat resi sti ng al l oys,
for cuttingcavities in forging dies, for drilling small deep holes, machining of complex extemal
shapes like that of turbine blades, aerospace components etc, machining of tunston carbide,
machinin gof nozz,les in alloy steels etc. Almost all conducting materials can be machined by
thi s method.
Advantages of ECM
l . There i s no si gni fi cant tool wear
2. Metal removal rate by this process is quite high for high strength temperature resistant
materials compared to conventional machining processes.
3. The machined metal is stress free.
4. Itcan machine configurations which are beyond the capability of conventional
machi ni ng processes.
5. Cutting forces are not involved.
6. Surface fi ni sh i s i n the order of 0.2 to 0.8 mi crons.
7. Extremely thin metal sheets can be easily machined without distortion.
Di sadvantages of ECM
l . The tool s are more di ffi cul t to desi gn.
2. Non conducting materials cannot be machined.
3. The electrolyte is corrosive to equipments, workpiece, fixtures etc.
4. The i ni ti al cost i s hi gh.
5. Power consumpti on i s hi gh.
11.8.2 El ectro Di scharge Machi ni ng
Electro discharge machining is a process of metal removal based on the principle of
erosion of metals by an interrupted electric spark discharge between the electrode tool and
the workpi ece.
The i mportant el ements of EDM are'
1. A power supply to direct current
0.5 to 400 Amps and voltage 40 to 300V.
2. Tool head holding the electrode made up of copper, tungsten and graphite alloy. This
electrode can be compared with the cutting tool of conventional machining.
3. A drive unit to accurately control the movement of the electrode to maintain the current
gap between the electrode and the workpiece.
4. A coolant usually a light mineral oil that forms a dielectric barrier between the electrode
and the workpiece at the arc gaq.
The electrode and workpiece are submerged in the dielectric fluid. In electrodischarge
machining the control of erosion of the metal is achieved by the rapidly recurring spark
' )
r .
: nt al
: l d e .
: d br
Fi g. I 1.29. El ectro Di charge Machi ni ng'
discharges produced between the electrode tool and the workpiece- Asuitable gap, generally
0.01 to 0.5mm, knorvn as spark gap i s rnai ntai ned between the tool and the workpi ece by a
servsmo!rr. The metal removal rate depends on the spark gap maintained. To remove
maxi mum uretal and to have mi ni rnum \rear on the too! the workpi ece i s made anode and
is made cathode.
iwo electrodes
arrd the workpiece] are separated by a
di el ectri c fl ui d nredi um. When the vol tage across the gap reaches a poi nt suffi ci ent to cause
the di el ectri c fl ui d to breakdown
a spark occurs. l emperature around 10000 "C
and very
high pr:ssure are created all in less than one rnicrosecond for each spark. Each spark
ero4es a mi nute pi ece of metal from the workpi ece but as the sparki ng occurs 20000 to
3ti 000 ti mes perseconcl appreci abl e
quanti ty of metal i s removed. The di el ectri c fl ui d al so
serves to flush particles from the gap, keep the tool and workpiece cool and prevent fusion
of the electrode
with the work piece'
Appl i cati ons of EDM
EDM is used for the manufacture of tools having complicated
profiles and a number of
other components for making wire drawing and extrusion dies, forging dies, intricate mould
cavities etc. Typical EDM applications include drilling of micro-holes, thread cutting' helical
profi i e mi l l i ng and curued hol e dri l l i ng.
Advantages of EDM
l . Any el ectri cal l y conducti ng metal regardl ess of hardness or strength can be machi ned.
2. Any shape that can be produced i n a tool can be reproduced i n the workpi ece'
3. Si nce no mechani cal force i s requi red, even the most del i cated materi al s can be
rnach i ned rr' i t hout di st ort i on
Har.l and corrosi on resi stant surfaces essenti al l y needed for di e maki ng can be
de r . - l oped.
. I &f l t
pi e of
rl and
r i s
Current l CaP{ci t or
cont rol I
- Dielectric
4- - - =
Suppl y
r 1. 20
Di sadvantages of EDM
1. EDM process i s a sl ow process and hence machi ni ng ti me i s more.
2. Machining heats the workpiece considerably and hence it causes change in surface
metallurgical properties of the workpiece
3. Excessive tool wear.
4. Hi gh power consumpti on,
l l . 9 CNC machi nes
t /
Production of complicated components in large quantities with high accuracy requires
the transfer of instructions from man to the machine through automatic devices. The control
systems used with such machines require the instructions to be encoded in a suitable language,
in a particular pattern and on a convenient medium, so that the machine can read these
instructions automatically to perform the
job. Numerical control of machine tools refers to
the operation of machine tools using numerical data. It is a technique for automatically
controlling n-rachine tools, equipment or processes. Numerical control can be defined as a
form of programmable automation in which the process is controlled by numbers, letters and
symbols. These numbers, letters and symbols gathered together and logically organized to
direct a machine tool for a specific task is calledNC program. Thus a numerically controlled
machine tool is basically a conventional machine tool where the operator is replaced by NC
program. The seromotors replace human operations in the positioning of work piece and
positioning and operation of cuttingtools.
It is possible to use computers instead of controller units in the numerical control machine
tools thereby replacing much of the conventional NC hardware with software. Such a
machine having a computer assigned to one particular task or a group of related tasks to
perform some or all the basic numerical control actions is known as Computer Numerical
machine. Thus CNC is an NC system in which a dedicated computer is
used to perform some or all the NC functions in accordance with control programs stored in
the memory of the computer.
The advantages of CNC machines are the substantial reduction in the time required to
set up the machine for doing a
job, the drastic reduction ofthe time rtsed to take trial cuts in
order to obtain the required accuracy, consistency in the quality of product by eliminatin-e
human error, easy incorporation of changes in the design of the components. Since CNC
machines produce ditto parts the inspection cost can be reduced. Flexibility is the main
advantage of CNC machine. Flexibility means the possibility to incorporate changes b1'
revising the software Newly developed options can be added after the instatlation. Equipment
can be upgraded as new options are available. The requirement of special skill in programming
and maintenance, high initial cost etc are the main demerits of CNC machines.