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STYRO/PLASTIC RECYCLING

TECHNOLOGY
Presented by :

ARACELI M. MONSADA, PhD


Senior Science Research Specialist
Materials Science Division (MSD)

“ Technical B riefing on P las tics and the E nvironment


O rganized by the P hilippine P lastics Indus try As sociation, Inc. (P P IA)
For the M ulti S ectoral C ommittee on the E nvironment
25 July 2008, S heraton P ark Hotel, M anila
The Solid Waste Scenario
 Studies show that an average of 0.56 kg
of waste is produced per person per day
 In Metro Manila, with a population of
about 12 M, about 6,700 tons of solid
wastes are generated per day
 about 56% is biodegradable
 and 44% is non-biodegradable and
mostly, RECYCLABLE
Typical Waste Characterization Data
But...
 in reality recycling and composting
accounts only to 720 tons per day, or only
11% of post consumer solid waste
generated in Metro Manila, because of
 non-segregation
 unavailable recycling technologies
 no market for recyclables

Thus….
We see solid wastes in …..

River Channels
We see solid wastes in …..

Bays
We see solid wastes in …..

Canals
We see solid wastes in …..

Streets
Some are openly burned adding to the heavily
polluted air shed.
ECOLOGICAL SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT ACT of 2000
• NO TO OPEN DUMPSITES

• SEGREGATION AT SOURCE

• RECYCLING – PACKAGING MATERIALS ARE RECYCLABLE

• MATERIALS RECOVERY FACILITY (MRF)

• SANITARY LANDFILL

RA 9003 Approval : January 26, 2001


IRR Effectivity: January 06, 2002
ITDI has an Integrated Approach to Solid
Waste Management which includes
development of technologies on:

Special wastes Clay Lined


Landfill
4%

Recycling Recyclables
Technologies Biodegradables
40%
56%
Bioreactor
Biogas digester
Ecoshops/Buying Centers
Our TARGET>>>>>>>>>……..

POST-C ONSUM ER W ASTE PL ASTI C BAG S


(shopping bags, sando bags, etc.)
Municipal Solid Waste Transfer Station (Metro Manila)
Municipal Solid Waste Transfer Station (Metro Manila)
POST C ONSUM E R W ASTE STY R O

EXPANDED POLYSTYRENE (EPS)

Extruded Foamed
Polystyrene (FPS)
“Recycling/Processing of Waste
Styro/Sandobags using the
Styro/Plastic Melting Densifier”
Primary Objective of the Project:

 Introduce a plastics recycling technology that is


simple, affordable, environmental friendly
and able to generate livelihood; decentralizing
plastics recycling (community level).
Polystyrene Foam Food
Packaging Products
✽ Most common plastic material used for disposable

food packaging by almost all “ fast food chains”


like McDonalds, Jollibee, Wendy’s, etc.

✽ About 200 tons of “waste styrofoam” is generated


per month in the country;
✽ 70% of which, accounting to 140 tons per month, is
in Metro Manila.
“Styro” disposable
packages are usually
made up of 95% air
and 5% PS resin
Extruded Foamed Polystyrene (FPS)

✽ commonly called, “Styrofoam”; Styropor


✽ Polystyrene (PS)- a commodity plastic material
✽ Thermoplastic” – remelts / reprocessed by heat;

✽ Unique characteristics: inert, lightweight, versatile and


cheap.
✽ “Non- biodegradable;
✽ Single Plastic material – “RECYCLABLE”
The Styro/Plastic
Melting Densifier
FEATURES :

 Steel casserole with cover, double jacketed body with a


melting capacity of 50 kgs per batch

 A motorized blunger for homogeneous mixing.

 A cylindrical steel downspout - to facilitate the discharge of


melted plastic during casting into the metal molds.

 The exhaust/chimney is installed with a charcoal stack to


absorb smoke emission during melting.

 The temperature recorder measures the melting


temperature

 LPG fired with three-line burner.


Recycling Process
Waste FPS/EPS

Size Reduction

Melting/Densification

Densified Products
(functional, novelty)
RAW MATERIALS
The technology mainly involves densification of “waste
Styro” or “plastic bags” by melting them in a vegetable
cooking oil at a controlled heating temperature; converting
the waste styro/plastic bags into rigid functional products.

✽ Post Consumer “Waste Styro”


✽ Waste plastic bags (PE, PP)
✽ Cooking oil ( e.g., “used cooking oil”
from fast foods and
restaurants )
The waste Styro or plastic bags must be ground/shredded or broken into small pieces.
Shredding/Grinding
Can GRIND:

• plastic sando bags • PE, PP household


(PE, PP, PVC) plastic wares

• styropor/styrofoam • other commodity


( FPS, EPS) plastics

• HDPE, PET bottles


trays and containers

• Aluminum foil packs


( sachet, pouch)
Weighing and Charging
Melting/Densification
 Molded functional products are produced
by melting the ground post consumer
waste styrofoam or plastic sandobags in a
preheated used cooking oil at 150 upto
200oC for about two(2) hours using the
ITDI fabricated portable melting densifier.
Melting Process
THE PRODUCT
 The resulting molten waste plastic is easily
molded by casting and converted into the
metal molds which displayed potential uses
for tabletops, planters and other valuable
functional products.
Molding/Forming Technique

Molten Plastic casting/pouring


into the metal molders
Molded Products
Functional Products

Table tops

School chair

Cat walk blocks


Table Tops
Cat Walk
Other Products

Boards

Synthetic
Bricks timber plank
PS MELTING UNIT
Design
Fabrication
Melting Unit Transformations…

 Steel vessel with steel


cover
 LPG Fired
 50 kgs capacity per
batch
 With downspout for
pouring molten
products
 Manual charging of
materials and mixing
of molten plastic
2nd Generation
Melting Unit Transformations (b)

1st Generation

1st Generation w/ make over


Temperature Gauge

2nd Generation after a make-over by PPCP


3rd Generation Styro-Oven
Fabricated in ITDI
3rd Generation Styro-oven
Exhaust Chimney
Suction
Blower

Condenser for
liquid/gas collection Hopper

Activated
Charcoal
Motorized Chamber
Blunger

Melting
Chamber cover
Improved Feeding/charging of
plastic materials
Ease in monitoring the working temperature

Temperature
Recorder

Spout
Improved Paddle for Mixing
Improved Pouring/casting
Newer Products Produced

Plastic Planters
Comparative Modulus of Rupture of
Different Construction Materials
Cleaner Gas Emission
Smoke/Gas Emission
Analysis
Environmental Impact
Smoke Emission/Gas Analysis
Vacuum pump for gas collection
Liquified Gas Collected by the
Condenser
Gas Emission Tests Conducted

Gas Chromatography
(ITDI)
GC-MS Spectra
(Ateneo)
fatty acids
Gas Collected during the melting of PS in oil at 200C

30

composition of PS + oil before charcoal column


25
composition of PS + oil after charcoal column
Styrene
Relative Amount, %

20

15

10

benzene
5

1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 31 33 36 38 40 42 44 46 48 50
Chemical Identity No.
Analysis of Airborne Contaminants, as
per ASTM D4490*

* Tested by the Environmental Division, ITDI-DOST


Project/Business Highlights
250 kg/day Waste Styropor Recycling Facility (w/o land)
PRODUCT: Zigzag Tiles/Blocks
Annual Plant Capacity : 71,100 pcs.
Technology Source : ITDI-DOST
Total Project Cost: P469,000
Unit Cost of Production/kg: P 9.39
Proposed Selling Price/pc. : P11.50
Internal Rate of Return (equity): 35%
Internal Rate of Return 35%
(Investment):
Payback Period: 2.4 years
Net Profit before TAX P226,045
Gross Profit on Sales P398,345
Basic Needs to start the
business
 Melting unit and fuel (LPG )
 Metal molds and accessories

 raw materials: waste styropor/plastic

bags and used oil


 appropriate working space with shade (min.50m2

 proper exhaust system


Socio Economic
Impact
 Employment generation
 Low investment
 good profitability
 Cleaner environment
 Part Solution to solid wastes problem
 Functional products and lumber substitute
Technology Adaptors
1. Local Government Unit
a. Los Banos, Laguna: June 2005
b. Municipality of Enrique B. Magalona
Negros Occidental: December 01, 2005
c. Davao City: June 2006
d. Cebu City : July 2006
e. Lapu-lapu City : July 2006
f. Boracay, Aklan : August 2006
g. San Fernando, Pampanga – October 2006
h. Anilao, Batangas – January 2007
i. Tanay, Rizal - November 2007
j. Sta. Cruz, Laguna – July 2008
k. Lipa, Batangas
l. Bantayan, Bantayan Island, Cebu – July 2008
m. Canaman, Camarines Sur, Bicol - June 2008
Technology Adaptors…….
2. Non-Government Organizations
a. ZKK Corporation
Taytay, Rizal
March 2005
b. Mirriam College
Quezon City
August 2006
3. Plastics Industry
Philippine Plastic Industrial Association (PPIA)
Polystyrene Packaging Council of the
Philippines
Cost of the Technology
One(1) unit of Styro Oven/Plastic Densifier
Features: Batch Type
50kg capacity
Steel Casserole with cover
Hopper
Motorized blunger
Temperature Gauge
Exhaust system packed with activated
carbon/charcoal
Price: P150,000.00 (excluding
shipment/freight cost)

Training chargeable against: Proponent of the


Technology
ITDI-DOST Accredited Fabricators
(As of October 2007)
NCR
•Asia Environcon, Inc.
Quezon City, Metro Manila Region 4
Tel.: (02) 932-4758 / 932-4756 L. Angeles Machineries Corp.
(LAMACO)
•Dragon Construction, Inc. Bacoor, Cavite
Quezon City, Metro Manila Tel.: (02) 887-6596 / (046) 970-5672
Tel: (02) 371-5082 / 361-4627 Region 11
Davao NCG Services, Inc.
•I.M. Bongar & Co., Inc. Davao City
Las Pinas City, Metro Manila Tel.: (082) 227-4462
Tel: (02) 801-3943 / 801-3341
Region 7
•Raymac, Inc. Suki Trading Center
Caloocan City, Metro Manila Pajac, Lapu-Lapu City
Tel.: (02) 366-7342 Cebu Tel. no. 341-5760; 341-2151
(accreditation in process)
PS BLOCKS ON PATHWAYS
IN Bgy. Balabag, Boracay

PS BLOCKS FLOORINGS
In Barangay Hall,
Bgy. Balabag, Boracay
Blocks from waste Styrofoam

Blocks from waste plastic sando bags


PPIA’s Pilot Project on Mobile Plastic Collection and Recycling of
Post Consumer Plastic Bags and Styropor in Metro Manila

Source: PPIA
LIKHA AWARD, 2 ND
Place
Outstanding Creative Research
National Inventors Week
“ Plastic Sando Bags Recycling”
1st Place Likha Award (Outstanding
Creative Research) National Inventors Week
November 2006, PTTC, Pasay
For more details, please
contact:
Dr. Nuna E. Almanzor
Director
Industrial Technology Development Institute
Department of Science & Technology
Tel.: (02) 837-2071 local 2182, 2215
Fax: (02) 837-3167
Email: nea@dost.gov.ph