Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 24

Published by the Labour Department

Printed by the Government Logistics Department 12/2008-1-OHB120


jigtig Jzzzzt
i t Wr[pI
jigtig Jzzzzt
i t Wr[pI
0ccupat|ona| $afety and hea|th ranch
Labour 0epartment
1hls bookleL ls prepared by Lhe
CccupaLlonal SafeLy and PealLh 8ranch, Labour ueparLmenL.
1hls edlLlon uecember 2008
1hls bookleL ls lssued free of charge and can be obLalned from Lhe offlces of Lhe CccupaLlonal
SafeLy and PealLh 8ranch of Lhe Labour ueparLmenL. lL can also be downloaded from webslLe
of Lhe Labour ueparLmenL aL hLLp://www.labour.gov.hk/eng/publlc/conLenL2_9.hLm. lor enqulrles
on addresses and Lelephone numbers of Lhe offlces, please call 2339 2297.
1hls gulde may be freely reproduced excepL for adverLlslng, endorsemenL or commerclal
purposes. lease acknowledge Lhe source as 'LlghLlng AssessmenL ln Lhe Workplace',
publlshed by Lhe Labour ueparLmenL.
19
jigtig Jzzzzt
i t Wr[pI
Contents
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
.
7.
8.
9.
1.
11.
............................................................................... 2
............ 3
.......................................... 4
...........................................6
...................... 7
..................10
......... 14
.................................................................. 16
................................................................................ 17
.................................................................................. 19
................................................................................ 20
1
Introduction
1he Purpose of Lighting Assessment in the Workplace
Approaches to Lighting Assessment
Illuminance Measuring Instrument
Illuminance Measurement for Ceneral Lighting
Illuminance Measurement for a 1ask / an Activity
Salient Points in Illuminance Measurement in Ceneral
Assessment Records
References
Enquiries
Complaints
2
1. Introduction 1. Introduction
Good lighting plays an important role in saIeguarding health at
work by enabling employees to perIorm their work
comIortably and eIIiciently. It also allows employees to read
clearly labels and saIety instructions (such as those aIIixed to
chemical containers) to ensure compliance with saIety
measures Ior the prevention oI hazards. Accordingly, there
should be an appropriate level oI the light Ialling on the
surIace on which employees are working. Excessive contrast,
strong glare and light Ilickering in their Iields oI vision are
also inappropriate.
To ensure good lighting, the person responsible Ior a
workplace should arrange Ior a suitable assessment on the
lighting levels in the workplace. This booklet is intended to
help the responsible person understand the basic concepts oI
lighting assessment and the measurement oI lighting levels
with a luxmeter.
Readers who are not Iamiliar with lighting requirements at
work are also advised to read the publication, produced by the
Labour Department, 'Guidelines Ior Good Occupational
Hygiene in a Workplace which provides inIormation on
lighting at work in general, and on the speciIic illumination
requirements Ior various tasks / activities.
2. 2.
3
1he Purpose of Lighting Assessment
in the Workplace
1he Purpose of Lighting Assessment
in the Workplace
In simple terms, a lighting assessment is a careIul examination
oI the lighting condition in the work environment. It serves to:
a) identiIy the potential hazards arising Irom the work
activity under the current lighting condition in the
workplace, such as insuIIicient illumination, excessive
contrast, glare or Ilicker;
b) decide who may be harmed; and
c) evaluate the risks and decide whether improvement
measures are needed to protect the employees, including
but not limited to the lighting provision.
3. 3. Approaches to Lighting Assessment Approaches to Lighting Assessment
There are basically two approaches to conducting a lighting
assessment in the workplace: by means oI a checklist and by
lighting measurement.
3.1 L|ght|ng Assessment by 6heck||st
In some situations, the responsible person should conduct
lighting measurements Ior the purpose oI veriIication, e.g.
when the adequacy oI the lighting level is in doubt Ior the
tasks / activities involved.
3.2 L|ght|ng Assessment by Heasurement
4
This is a simple approach and usually does not involve
measurements. For example, iI the workplace is an
oIIice, the responsible person can Iollow the checklist
provided in the publication 'A Simple Guide to Health
Risk Assessment OIIice Environment Series Lighting
in OIIices produced by the Labour Department to assess
the lighting condition there. With the checklist, the
responsible person can spot out most lighting problems
such as dim work environment, deIective lamps, strong
glare and reIlections. Possible solutions to such problems
are also provided in the publication. Similar concepts
may also be applied to assess the lighting conditions in
other workplaces like warehouses or retail shops.
5
Compared wi t h t he checkl i st approach, l i ght i ng
measurement has the advantage oI providing objective,
accurate and comprehensive inIormation about the
lighting condition. This inIormation would be useIul
Ior the assessor to draw an evidence-based conclusion
and Iormulate speciIic improvement measures.
'Illuminance is a common parameter to be measured in
a lighting assessment. It reIers to the amount oI light
Ialling on a unit area oI the work surIace and its
measurement unit is 'lux (lx). It is used to evaluate
the adequacy oI lighting Ior seeing an object. The
remaining parts oI this publication will explain more
about the instrument Ior measuring illuminance, and the
basic principles Ior measurement.
Irom people with the relevant knowledge and experience.
Notwithstanding the above, readers should note that
suitable illuminance is only one oI the requirements Ior
good lighting. In doubtIul or complicated situations,
other lighting parameters may also need to be measured
Ior a more accurate assessment and the person
responsible Ior a workplace should seek assistance
4. 4. Illuminance Measuring Instrument Illuminance Measuring Instrument
Illuminance is measured by a luxmeter, which is a handy
instrument with a sensor The measured
illuminance is directly displayed in lux (lx). In general,
luxmeters conIorming to internationally recognised speciIications,
1 2
such as BS 667:2005 , DIN 5032-7:1985 or CIE Publication
3
No. 69 (1987) , should be used. There should be regular
calibration, typically once a year, to ensure accurate measurement.
Ior light detection.
1
British Standard, BS 667.2005 Illuminance Meters Requirements and
Test Methods, 2005.
2
Ger man St andar d, DI N 5032- 7. 1985 Phot omet ry, Cl assi f i cat i on of
I l l umi nance Met ers and Lumi nance Met ers.
3
International Commission on Illumination Publication, CIE Publication
No. 69 (1987) Methods of Characteri:ing Illuminance Meters and Luminance
Meters. Performance, Characteristics and Specifications.

A gooo /uxmeler w/ln error /ess lnon 10% /s ovo//ob/e /n lne morkel.
5,;
6
J;,ply
5. 5.
Illuminance Measurement for Ceneral
Lighting
Illuminance Measurement for Ceneral
Lighting
In ordinary workplaces, general lighting is provided to give
uniIorm illumination over the work area to meet the lighting
requirement Ior a particular type oI work activity, e.g.
oIIice, reception or storage. To determine the adequacy oI
general lighting Ior the work area, an assessor may measure
the illuminance there.
In doing so, the work area should Iirst be divided into a
number oI equal small areas which should be as nearly
square as possible. For example, Ior an ordinary medium-
2
sized work area oI less than 50m where the lighting is at a
height oI around 2.5m, the work area is normally divided
into a minimum oI 16 small squares. For a work area oI size
2
up to around 100m , the recommended minimum number oI
small squares is 25. II the work area is even larger, a
minimum number oI 36 small squares is recommended. In
general, more small squares are preIerred Ior a larger work
area. For Iurther guidelines on setting small squares Ior
illuminance measurement, readers may reIer to 'Code Ior
Lighting 2006, published by the Chartered Institution oI
Building Services Engineers.
7
8
|or on oro/norj workroom o/ o/mens/ons 5 m x 5 m, loke ///um/nonoe
meosuremenls ol lne oenlres o/ 1o equo//j o/v/oeo squores.

AIter setting the small squares, the assessor may take


illuminance measurement at the centre oI each square with
a luxmeter. The results indicate whether the lighting is
evenly distributed. In addition, the average value oI these
measurements represents the average illuminance Ior the
whole work area. To evaluate whether an appropriate level
oI illuminance is provided Ior the purpose, the average
value should be compared with the optimum average
Readers should also note that two work areas with two
diIIerent work activities should be separately evaluated. In
other words, the oIIice and the storage room oI a company
should be separately measured and assessed.
9
illumination provided in the publication 'Guidelines Ior
Good Occupational Hygiene Practice in a Workplace.
Illuminance measurement should be taken at the height oI
the work plane. In case there is no speciIied plane Ior
the task, the measurement should be taken at a horizontal
plane at around 0.8m above the Iloor.
The light sensor oI the luxmeter should be placed on the
work plane, which is normally a horizontal plane, but is an
In measuring illuminance at a task position, the Iollowing
points should be noted:
10
6. 6.
Illuminance Measurement for a
1ask / an Activity
Illuminance Measurement for a
1ask / an Activity
In some workplaces, there may be visually-demanding tasks
/ activities Ior which more illumination is required than Ior
the surroundings. In these circumstances, local lighting
may be provided in the vicinity oI the task or installed close
to the work location. To assess whether lighting Ior an
individual task is adequate, the assessor should measure the
illuminance at the task position.
In measuring illuminance at a task position, Iour representative
points on the work plane should normally be selected and
the illuminance measured at each point. The average oI these
measurements is then calculated as the average illuminance at the
task position. To evaluate whether the illuminance is adequate,
the average illuminance should be compared with the optimum
average illumination recommended Ior the task.
11
Ine //gnl sensor o/ lne /uxmeler snou/o be p/ooeo verl/oo//j //
lne objeol /s reoo verl/oo//j.
inclined plane iI the object is to be read on such a plane, e.g.
an easel. Similarly, the work plane is a vertical plane iI the
object is to be read vertically.
Ine //gnl sensor o/ lne /uxmeler snou/o be p/ooeo on lne work p/one.
\j;
|,| ;
For example, iI the task position is mostly at the central
Iront area oI an ordinary writing desk or a counter (as shown
in the Iollowing Iigure), this area may be divided into 4
equal areas as shown and measurement taken at the centre oI
each area.
|or o wr/l/ng oesk or o oounler, loke meosuremenl ol lne oenlre
o/ eoon o/ lne 4 equo//j o/v/oeo oreos o/ lne mojor losk oreo.
12
However, iI the task position is at a computer workstation,
the illuminance may be measured in a slightly diIIerent
manner. Two measurement points may be taken at the
keyboard position, 20cm apart, and two others on the top oI
the screen, 10 cm apart, as shown in the Iigure on the next
page. The sensor oI the luxmeter should be placed
horizontally when taking the measurements.


|or o oompuler workslol/on, loke lwo meosuremenls ol lne
kejbooro pos/l/on ono lwo olners on lne lop o/ lne soreen.
13
7. 7.
Salient Points in Illuminance
Measurement in Ceneral
Salient Points in Illuminance
Measurement in Ceneral
In measuring illuminance Ior general lighting or Ior a task /
an activity, the Iollowing points should be noted:
Select the lowest measurement range oI the luxmeter as
appropriate. This gives a more precise reading.
Except Ior measuring the impact oI the operator on the task
/ activity, the path between the lighting source and the
point oI measurement should be clear as Iar as practicable.
In particular, the assessor should avoid obstructing the
normal light path, and should move sideways, back and
Iorth to ascertain that he / she is not blocking the light
Ialling on the light sensor oI the luxmeter.
Ine reoo/ng o/ meosuremenl oeoreoses wnen lne //gnl poln /s b/ookeo.
300 ly
14
The measurement points should not be too close to walls or
obstructions.
Daylight should be shielded by blinds or curtains when assessing
artiIicial lighting only.
The above introduces some basic concepts on illuminance
measurement. Readers should note that the inIormation is
not exhaustive and should not be applied as rigid rules in all
cases. In many situations, the assessor may have to take
other Iactors into consideration and make due variation in
the course oI measurement according to his/her proIessional
judgement.
15
8. 8. Assessment Records Assessment Records
16
Finally, the results oI any lighting assessment should be
properly documented Ior reIerence and Iollow-up actions.
The illuminance measurement data and the calculated
average illuminance should be properly recorded. Other
relevant inIormation that should also be recorded includes:
a description oI the work area and the task / activity.
the position oI the measurement points.
details oI the lighting Iixtures including their position, type
and size.
identiIication oI the luxmeter, such as the model number and
serial number.
the date and time oI testing.
the person who conducted the assessment.
the conclusions and improvement measures suggested.
9. 9. References References
For Iurther inIormation on lighting, you may reIer to the
Iollowing publications:
Labour Department, Guidelines for Good Occupational
Hygiene Practice in a Workplace
Labour Department, A Simple Guide to Health Risk Assessment -
Office Environment Series - Lighting in Offices
Chartered Institution oI Building Services Engineers, Code
for Lighting 2006
Chartered Institution oI Building Services Engineers, Code
for Interior Lighting, 1994
17
Canada Occupational Health and SaIety Regulations, Part VI
Int erpret at i ons, Pol i ci es and Gui del i nes (IPGs) on
Occupational Health and SaIety, Part II oI the Canada Labour
Code, Measurement of Lighting Levels in the Workplace,
Canada Occupational Health and Safety Regulations (COHSR),
Part JI, 928-1-IPG-039, 1990
National Research Council Canada, The Effect of Office
Design on Workstation Lighting. Simulation Results, Newsham,
G.R., Sander, D.M., IRC-IR-847, December 2003
Illuminating Engineering Society oI North America, The
th
IESNA Lighting Handbook Reference & Application, 9
Edition, 2000
18
nd
Health and SaIety Executive, HSG38 Lighting at Work, 2
Edition, 1997
British Standard, BS 667.2005 Illuminance Meters - Requirements
and Test Methods, 2005
German Standard, DIN 5032-7.1985 Photometry, Classification
of Illuminance Meters and Luminance Meters
International Commission on Illumination Publication, CIE
Illuminance Meters and Luminance Meters. Performance,
Characteristics and Specifications
Publication No. 69 (1987) Methods of Characteri:ing
19
Telephone 2852 4041
Fax 2581 2049
E-mail enquirylabour.gov.hk
10. Enquiries Enquiries 10.
For enquiries about this booklet or advice on occupational health
and hygiene matters, please contact the Labour Department's
Occupational SaIety and Health Branch through:
InIormation on the services oIIered by the Labour Department
and on major labour legislation can also be Iound on our
website at http://www.labour.gov.hk.
InIormation on the services provided by the Occupational
SaIety and Health Council can be obtained through its hotline
2739 9000.
20
II you have any complaint about unsaIe workplaces and
practices, please call the Labour Department Occupational
SaIety and Health complaint hotline on 2542 2172. All
complaints will be treated in the strictest conIidence.
11. Complaints 11. Complaints
Published by the Labour Department
Printed by the Government Logistics Department 12/2008-1-OHB120
jigtig Jzzzzt
i t Wr[pI
jigtig Jzzzzt
i t Wr[pI
0ccupat|ona| $afety and hea|th ranch
Labour 0epartment