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CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION
1. 1 GENERAL
Electrical faults seem to be the major reason for industrial disasters in the
country as 56 per cent of incidents are reportedly caused by them. Overheating,
ageing of the material and use of sub-standard quality of electrical gadgets have
been the main factors contributing to the increasing electrical fire accidents in
industries in the past four years. Electrical accidents continue to be a significant
cause of on-the-job death in overall world. In our state also like this injuries
happening frequently. On April 2013, we lost four workmen in Karur district
due to this accident. Wiremen use for their security purpose like cheppals,
wooden ladder, handglows etc,. This is not enough for their security. So we are
introducing an innovative wiremen security system using fingerprint. One of the
main job of wiremen security system is power automatically controlled by
itself. The losses reduced by this method. It is an effective electrical safety
intervention. Actual numbers of electrical injuries can indicate the overall
magnitude of various electrical safety issues in the workplace. However, they
are usually not useful for comparing electrical injury experience among
different industries, or even from year to year in the same industry or group,
because of differences in employment. Rates of injurynormalize the data to
account for differences in exposedpopulations, and so afford a more direct
means to comparethe electrical safety history of disparate groups.





[2]

CHAPTER-2
LITERATURE SURVEY
2.1 Design of super conducting fault current controller

By the advent of the smart Grid and integration of distributed generators,
electrical networks are facing uncountable challenges. The existing protection
schemes that simply limit the fault current to the predetermined set values may
not perform optimally, and even the existing protection coordination schemes
fail and lead to catastrophic failures in the increasingly complex and
unpredictable grid operation. This paper proposes a novel and smart design of
fault current controller constituting a fullbridge thyristor rectifier embedding a
superconducting coil. When a fault occurs and the resulting current through the
superconducting coil exceeds a certain preset value based on the current
operating conditions of the grid to maintain the grid integrity, the magnitude of
the fault current is regulated to a desired value by automatic controlling of the
thyristor. This research also implements a lab-scale Smart FCC with smart
current control capability and demonstrates the desired functionality and
efficacy of design by changing the fault conditions. This proposed Smart FCC
design will make the Smart Power Grid capable of self-healing against current
faults.

2.2 Embedded Control System

The embedded control system consists of a target PC, a DAQ device, and
embedded software for the operation of the algorithm. The DAQ device is
connected to the target PC [11]. Therefore, the target PC can access the
acquired electrical signal through the DAQ device. In addition, the target PC
calculates the line impedance and phase angle according to the embedded
software algorithm.
[3]

In these short circuit tests, the amplitude of the input AC power voltage is 52 V,
and the target current is 60A. Then, the phase angle data table was calculated
to meet the target current condition using there positive circuit simulation.

2.3 Thyristor Control Circuit

To supply the gate pulse corresponding to the phase angle to the thyristor, a
control circuit is required. The circuit is composed of a phase control
IC(TCA785)[12], a BJT to amplify the pulse current, and some passive
elements. The control voltage that was calculated by the algorithm is provided
to the phase control IC. Then, the phase control IC outputs a gate pulse
corresponding to that control voltage. Fig.shows the circuit diagram of the
thyristor control circuit.






[4]

2.4 Superconducting Coil

To prevent adrastic increase in the fault current in the first halfcycle, a
large inductor is required in the FCC system. However, a large inductor
fabricated by the normal conductor leads to severe joule heating and avoltage
drop. To solve this problem, a superconducting coil that can prevent a sudden
increase in the fault current without joule heating loss is required. In this
research, a high temperature superconducting (HTS) coil has been employed of
unctions large inductor. The superconducting coil consist of two pancake HTS
coils connected in parallel, and each pancake coil is wound with SuNAM
CCtapethatis4mmwide and that has a self field critical current of
about130A[13].The Fabricated Pancake coils are stacked together, and the
magnetic field generated by each coil is mutually linked. By doing this, the
total coil inductance can be treated as a single coil inductance even though the
two coils are connected in parallel. The inner radius of the pancake coil bobbin
is 54mm, and the number of turns is 50. The total inductance of the HTS coil
is about 0.1mH. Fig.4 shows the fabricated super conducting coil.


In this paper, Smart FCC employing a super conducting coil is proposed
which is an overland smart method for fault current control in Grid. The Smart
FCC can automatically detect a fault, calculate the line impedance, and
determine the proper phase angle. Through these processes, the Smart FCC can
control the fault current quickly and effectively. It is observed from the
experimental results that the fault current is reduced to the target value by
means of the phase angle calculated by the embedded control system.


[5]

2.5 Circuit Breaker Design and Operation to Improve Safety
Traditional above- ground applications of circuit breakers for over current
protection in industry are generally well understood. Defined design and test
standards, which vary some what across the globe, provide a frame work for
users of these devices to assure that the yare not misapplied. Attention to detail
in circuit breaker maintenance generally assures that these devices will operate
reliability and safety across the industry. However, when circuit breakers are
applied in underground mining applications, traditional design and test
standards give way to in-country mining safety authorities who typically dictate
requirements in these special applications. Because of this, ratings and test
requirements for low-voltage molded-case circuit breakers, low-voltage power
circuit breakers, medium-voltage vacuum and medium voltage sulphur hexa
fluoride(SF
6
) circuit breakers in underground mining are typically different.
In this environment, the user must be aware of issues specific to the application
to assure that these devices operate such that they assure miner safety and
operation reliability. This paper will discuss specific circuit breaker applications
in underground mining and recommend methods to maximize the effectiveness
of these protective devices in this environment.




[6]

2.6 Special circuit breaker applications for mining

Circuit breakers are used in underground mining equipment including the
machines used for mining itself, such as shears and continuous miners, and also
in power centers that typically feed electrical power to the underground mining
equipment. It is interesting that the circuit breaker components themselves are
not necessarily manufactured or tested to traditional standards that otherwise
apply for assemblies used in industry above ground. One variable is the
operating voltage of the device itself. Other issues around necessary fault
current ratings, operating conditions, circuit ground(earth)protection, and a
harsh environmental need to be considered.


. Low-voltage metal-enclosed control gear manufactured to IEC Standard
61439.



[7]

A typical power center applied in underground mining applications. The
power center assembly takes on several different forms and ratings dependent
upon where the underground mine resides across the world. The underground
power center is an engineered assembly designed to transform and distribute
electrical power brought to the underground from the surface. Typically, this
assembly includes a medium- voltage incoming circuit breaker or switch with
current-limiting fuse. This device protects a close-coupled dry- type vacuum
pressure impregnated power transformer used to convert the medium voltage to
a lower distribution voltage. The transformer then feeds low-voltage circuit
breakers that, in turn, feed and protect external underground mining loads
connected to the power center via extended trailing cables. These conductors
can often span thousands of feet(meters)in length.
The first not able difference in this assembly versus those
showninFigs.1and2 is the low-profile design. Where as the low-voltage metal-
enclosed ANSI/NEMA switch gear assemblies are typically2286mm(90in) high
and low-voltage metal- enclosed IEC control gear assemblies are typically
2000mm (78.75in) high, underground power centers are typically less than
half this height in order to satisfy clearance requirements in underground
mining applications. Because the application involves long lengths of
trailing cables, the issue of voltage drop on generally soft power systems
dictates that the application voltage is generally higher. In the U.S., it is not
unusual for secondary distribution voltages to be three-phase 1000 V ac, while
in China or Australia, for instance, operating voltages can be up to 1240 Vac.
Most importantly, the design codes and standards for this assembly are not
dictated by ANSI/NEMA or IEC standards. Instead, the in-country local
mining authority generally review sand approves these assemblies for
application in underground mines.

[8]

In the U.S., this authority is the U.S. governments Mine Safety and
Health Administration(MSHA). MSHA dictates written regulations, and in the
event of a mining accident or fatality, they are the authority having jurisdiction
who will investigate the incident and issue other penalties by law. In Australia,
mines safety and inspection regulations are dictated by the Australian
government.
A.MCCBs in Mining
Todays modern molded-case circuit breakers(MCCBs) are applied
throughout most, if not all, industries, offering a safe and economic means of
connecting and disconnecting loads from the electrical source and providing
both overload and short-circuit over current protection. Although there are
many types of MCCBs, all are comprised of five major components including
them olded case or frame, an operating mechanism, arc extinguishers, contacts,
and trip components. A cut away view of a typical MCCB is
showninFig.4hereinafter.
Unique issues exist in identifying when an MCCB should be considered as a
candidate to be replaced. By nature of the component itself, manufacturers of
these products assemble, calibrate, test, and, then, many times, seal the molded
cases of these devices. There are typically no internal serviceable parts, and
breaking the factory seal generally results in jeopardizing the manufacturers
warranty. Because of issues inherent to the product design, historically, the
maintenance of MCCBs by the end user has been limited to mechanical
mounting, electrical wiring, and manual operation of the mechanism. Although
beyond the scope of this paper, further information on the maintenance of
MCCBs can be found in[7].


[9]

CHAPTER 3
SYSTEM ANALYSIS
3.1 EXISTING SYSTEM
All linemen, especially those who deal with live electrical apparatus,
use personal protective equipment(PPE) as protection against inadvertent
contact. This includes rubber gloves, rubber sleeves, bucket liners and
protective blankets. When working with energized power lines, linemen must
use protection to eliminate any contact with the energized line.
The requirements for PPEs and associated permissible voltage depends
on applicable regulations in jurisdiction as well as company policy. Voltages
higher than those that can be worked using gloves are worked with special
sticks knows as hot-line tools or hot sticks, with which power lines can be
handled from a distance. Linemen must also wear special rubber insulating gear
when working with live wires to protect against any accidental contact with the
wire.
The buckets linemen sometimes work from are also insulated with fiber
glass. During the work these equipments if failure then accidents may happen.
These kind of resistors not provide proper security to our wiremen. If more
current generated from transformer these kind of existing system not enough to
secure them. In order to provide the security to the wireman at the workplace
we are introducing our concept to do make wellbeing.





[10]



3.2 DRAWBACKS
The flash injured an employee, damaged equipment and caused a
power outage affecting the surrounding area.
Lack of awareness and safety measures claimed the life of line
man. For example, In Nagpur, a 30-year-old woman who
was electrocuted while working with her husband at Navkanya
Nagar in Kalama on Sunday The couple was digging a well when
the incident took place.
Another example for electrocution is a lineman with the electricity
department, Krishna Madhu Velip,35,was electrocuted after
coming into contact with a live high tension wire at Costae ,Kalay,
on Tuesday morning. Velip was a resident of Barcem, Quepem.
These accidents are happened due to the usage of above mentioned
existing system.










[11]


3.3 PROPOSED SYSTEM
In order to provide the security to the wireman at the workplace we are
introducing our concept to do make wellbeing. To reduce the electrical injuries
we are introducing the Matrix keypad for providing security to wiremen. By
providing the 4-digit personal code for each wiremen we can control the power
supply. If the entered code is wrong then it will intimate to the lineman using
buzzer and also by the LCD.
We will place this control board on the transformer.After finishing their
work they must enter the personal code to the matrix keypad then power
supply is automatically ON. The control of this project is fully based on the PIC
microcontroller. This is main advantage of our project.
To Isolate controlling circuit from controlled circuit and to control high
voltage system with low voltage and then control high current system with low
current by using relay. Basically we are using EMR relay. The EMR relay act as
a switch to ON and OFF the current supply to transformer.













[12]


3.4 ADVANTAGES OF PROPOSED SYSTEM

The linemen no need to bring any safety equipments with themselves.

After providing the wireman secrete code to the keypad matrix the power
is automatically ON and OFF.

Here the loss of electrical injuries will be reduced.

It is more productive and secured method.














[13]

CHAPTER-4
SYSTEM SPECIFICATION

4.1 TOOLS USED:
PIC Microcontroller-PIC 16F 887
The ac input is 240V rms, 50Hz mains supply.
LCD-2x16 LCD
Matrix Keypad
Relay- EMRs

4.2 BLOCK DIAGRAM:


















Matrix keypad
Power supply
PIC Microcontroller
16F 887
LCD Display
Relay
Lamp 1 Lamp 2
[14]

4.3 CIRCUIT DIAGRAM


[15]


4.4 PIC 16F887 MICROCONTROLLER:
High-Performance RISC CPU:

Only 35 Instructions to Learn:
All single-cycle instructions except branches
Operating Speed:
DC 20 MHz oscillator/clock input
DC 200 ns instruction cycle
Interrupt Capability
8-Level Deep Hardware Stack
Direct, Indirect and Relative Addressing modes

Special Microcontroller Features:

Precision Internal Oscillator:
Factory calibrated to 1%
Software selectable frequency range of
8 MHz to 31 kHz
Software tunable
Two-Speed Start-up mode
Crystal fail detect for critical applications
Clock mode switching during operation for power savings
Power-Saving Sleep mode
Wide Operating Voltage Range (2.0V-5.5V)
Industrial and Extended Temperature Range
Power-on Reset (POR)
Power-up Timer (PWRT) and Oscillator Start-up Timer (OST)
Brown-out Reset (BOR) with Software Control Option
[16]

Enhanced Low-Current Watchdog Timer (WDT) with On-Chip Oscillator
(software selectable nominal 268 seconds with full prescaler) with
software enable
Multiplexed Master Clear with Pull-up/Input Pin
Programmable Code Protection
High Endurance Flash/EEPROM Cell:
100,000 write Flash endurance
1,000,000 write EEPROM endurance
Flash/Data EEPROM retention: > 40 years
Program Memory Read/Write during run time
In-Circuit Debugger (on board)

Low-Power Features:

Standby Current:
50 nA @ 2.0V, typical
Operating Current:
11A @ 32 kHz, 2.0V, typical
220A @ 4 MHz, 2.0V, typical
Watchdog Timer Current:
1A @ 2.0V, typical

4.5POWER SUPPLY SYSTEM
A power supply is a device that supplies electrical energy to one or more
electric loads. The term is most commonly applied to devices that convert one
form of electrical energy to another, though it may also refer to devices that
convert another form of energy (e.g., mechanical, chemical, solar) to electrical
energy. A regulated power supply is one that controls the output voltage or
current to a specific value; the controlled value is held nearly constant despite
variations in either load current or the voltage supplied by the power supply's
[17]

energy source. Every power supply must obtain the energy it supplies to its
load, as well as any energy it consumes while performing that task, from an
energy source. A power supply may be implemented as a discrete, stand-alone
device or as an integral device that is hardwired to its load. In the latter case, for
example, low voltage DC power supplies are commonly integrated with their
loads in devices such as computers and household electronics.




Mains input aspects
Usually, the ac input is 240V rms, 50Hz mains supply.
Take extra care when handling mains powered equipment, make sure of
your safety when constructing and testing.
PLUS make sure that adequate insulation and construction techniques are
employed in the unit.
Mains powered equipment must be properly protected by a fuse and
double pole power switch.


[18]

The mains powered equipment container (box) must be earthed if metallic
or double insulation techniques employed to provide input to output
isolation.
A lot of consumer electronic units (TV, DVD players and the
like) utilise double insulation techniques, so their mains
input power lead only contains Live and Neutral wires,
rather than also including an earth wire as well.
Double insulation techniques present at least two high voltage
insulation barriers between the mains input circuitry and the system being
powered. For example, the mains transformer has its primary (high
voltage) winding on one bobbin and its secondary winding an a separate
bobbin. Thus, if the primary winding burns up, the mains voltage cannot
reach the secondary side.








[19]

DESCRIPTION
The operation of power supply circuits built using filters, rectifiers, and then
voltage regulators. Starting with an ac voltage, a steady dc voltage is obtained
by rectifying the ac voltage, then filtering to a dc level, and finally, regulating to
obtain a desired fixed dc voltage. The regulation is usually obtained from an IC
voltage regulator unit, which takes a dc voltage and provides a somewhat lower
dc voltage, which remains the same even if the input dc voltage varies, or the
output load connected to the dc voltage changes.
A block diagram containing the parts of a typical power supply and the
voltage at various points in the unit is shown. The ac voltage, typically 120 V
rms, is connected to a transformer, which steps that ac voltage down to the level
for the desired dc output. A diode rectifier then provides a full-wave rectified
voltage that is initially filtered by a simple capacitor filter to produce a dc
voltage. This resulting dc voltage usually has some ripple or ac voltage
variation. A regulator circuit can use this dc input to provide a dc voltage that
not only has much less ripple voltage but also remains the same dc value even if
the input dc voltage varies somewhat, or the load connected to the output dc
voltage changes. This voltage regulation is usually obtained using one of a
number of popular voltage regulator IC units.






Transformer

Rectifier

Filter

IC regulator

Load
[20]


4.5.1 VOLTAGE REGULATORS
Voltage regulators comprise a class of widely used ICs. Regulator IC
units contain the circuitry for reference source, comparator amplifier, control
device, and overload protection all in a single IC. Although the internal
construction of the IC is somewhat different from that described for discrete
voltage regulator circuits, the external operation is much the same. IC units
provide regulation of either a fixed positive voltage, a fixed negative voltage, or
an adjustably set voltage.
A power supply can be built using a transformer connected to the ac
supply line to step the ac voltage to desired amplitude, then rectifying that ac
voltage, filtering with a capacitor and RC filter, if desired, and finally regulating
the dc voltage using an IC regulator. The regulators can be selected for
operation with load currents from hundreds of milli amperes to tens of amperes,
corresponding to power ratings from mill watts to tens of watts.
4.5.2 THREE-TERMINAL VOLTAGE REGULATORS:
FIXED VOLTAGE REGULATOR




Fig shows the basic connection of a three-terminal voltage regulator IC to
a load. The fixed voltage regulator has an unregulated dc input voltage, Vi,
applied to one input terminal, a regulated output dc voltage, Vo, from a second
terminal, with the third terminal connected to ground. For a selected regulator,
IC device specifications list a voltage range over which the input voltage can
vary to maintain a regulated output voltage over a range of load current.
IN OUT
7805
GND
[21]

The specifications also list the amount of output voltage change resulting
from a change in load current (load regulation) or in input voltage (line
regulation).





















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Primary Side
Usually single 240V winding or two 120V windings. Might have tappings to
allow operation from other supplies such as 200V, 220V, 240V, 100V, 110V
etc. These multi tapped transformers are usually fitted to test equipment that
could be used all over the world.
Secondary Side
Efficiency usually ~90% for small (<20VA) units, rising to 95% for larger
(~100 to 200VA) units.
MAINS transformers ratings
Transformers are rated in VA Volt Amps - with respect to their outputs
A 20VA transformer with a 10V secondary will provide 2A (10V x 2A =
20VA)
A 45VA transformer with a 15V secondary will provide 3A (15V x 3A =
45VA)
A 60VA transformer with two 20V secondary windings will provide 1.5A from
each secondary winding (20V x 1.5A x 2 = 60VA)
The power rating of a transformer is directly related to the cross sectional area
of its magnetic circuit for a conventional E I transformer this is the cross
sectional area of its central limb (or twice the CSA of one side limb)
Rule of Thumb, VA rating = (CSA x 5.6)
2
where CSA is measured in square
inches
So transformer with centre limb 1 wide and laminations 1.2 deep is rated to
(1 x 1.2 x 5.6)
2
= 6.72
2
= 45VA

[23]

AC rectification

This full wave rectification arrangement only has one diode drop in the dc
path, but requires a centre tapped (or dual windings) secondary on the
transformer. More efficient on low voltage supplies because the diode drop
represents a significant loss at low voltage (despite additional transformer
losses). 2V drop (2 diodes) at 10V is 20% loss, whilst 1V drop (1 diode) at 10V
is 10% loss
The Smoothing Capacitor


The output from the transformer and rectifiers the sin waveform. The
smoothing capacitor fills in the low voltage portions, so reducing the ripple
voltage amplitude. The larger the capacitor (for a given load), the smaller the
ripple voltage, but the higher the peak current through the rectifiers.


[24]

The Smoothing Capacitor
Close approximation calculations;
C x E = I x t where C is the capacitance in uF
E is the peak to peak ripple in Volts
I is the full load current in mA
t is the diode conduction time in ms, ~ 9ms @ 50Hz
With a 20Vrms output from the transformer the maximum voltage will be about
(20V x 1.414) less 2 diode drops, = 28.28V 1.4V = 26.88V.
The minimum output (at full load) will be (28.28V x 0.9) 2V = 23.4V
With a 4700uF smoothing capacitor the peak to peak ripple will be
(I x t)/C = (2000mA x 9ms)/4700uF = 3.83V this is the peak to peak ripple.
i.e. at full load the minimum voltage will be 23.4V 3.83V = 19.5V.










[25]


4.6 LCD DISPLAY:
LCD is mainly used for display the information. Here we are using 2x16
LCD. Operation of the LCD is
The declining prices of LCDs.
The ability to display numbers, characters, and graphics. This is in
contrast to LEDs, which are limited to numbers and characters.
Incorporation of a refreshing controller into the LCD, thereby relieving
the CPU of the task of refreshing the LCD. In contrast, the LED must be
refreshed by the CPU to keep displaying the data.
Ease of programming for characters and graphics.


4.6.1 LCD pin descriptions
V
cc
, V
ss
, and V
ee:

While Vcc and V
ss
provide +5V and ground, respectively, V
ee
is used for
controlling LCD contrast.
RS, register select:
There are two very important registers inside the LCD. The RS pin is
used for their selection as follows. If RS=0 the instruction command code
register is selected, allowing the user to send a command such as clear display,
cursor at home, etc. if RS=1d the data register is selected, allowing the user to
send data to be displayed on the LCD.


[26]

R/W, read or write:
R/W input allows the user to write information to the LCD or read
information from it. R/W =1 when reading; R/W=0 when writing.
E, enable:
The enable pin is used b y the LCD to latch information presented to its
data pins. When data is supplied to data pins, high-to-low pulses must be
applied to this pin in order for the LCD to latch in the present at the data pins.
This pulse is a minimum of 450 ns wide.
D0 D7:
The 8 bit data pins, d0 d7, are used to send information to the LCD or
read the contents of the LCDs internal registers.
A liquid crystal display (LCD) is a thin, flat electronic visual, 2*16
matrix display that uses the light modulating properties of liquid crystals (LCs).
LCDs do not emit light directly. Liquid crystal displays (LCDs) are a passive
display technology. This means they do not emit light; instead, they use the
ambient light in the environment. By manipulating this light, they display
images using very little power. This has made LCDs the preferred technology
whenever low power consumption and compact size are critical. They are used
in a wide range of applications, including computer monitors, television,
instrument panels, aircraft cockpit displays, signage, etc. They are common in
consumer devices such as video players, gaming devices, clocks, watches,
calculators, and telephones. LCDs have displaced cathode ray tube (CRT)
displays in most applications. They are usually more compact, lightweight,
portable, less expensive, more reliable, and easier on the eyes.



[27]


Pin Information of LCD:

4.6.2 Algorithm to send data to LCD:
1.Make R/W low
2.Make RS=0 ;if data byte is command RS=1 ;if data byte is data (ASCII value)
3.Place data byte on data register
4.Pulse E (HIGH to LOW)
5.Repeat the steps to send another data byte






[28]


4.6.3 LCD Initialization:

Working of LCD depend on the how the LCD is initialized. We have to
send few command bytes to initialize the lcd. Simple steps to initialize the LCD.
1. Specify function set:
Send 38H for 8-bit,double line and 5x7 dot character format.
2. Display On-Off control:
Send 0FH for display and blink cursor on.
3. Entry mode set:
Send 06H for cursor in increment position and shift is invisible.
4. Clear display:
Send 01H to clear display and return cursor to home position.
Addresses of cursor position for 16x2 LCD:
line1 80H 81H 82H 83H 84H 85H 86H 87H 88H 89H 8AH
8BH 8CH 8DH 8EH 8FH
line2 C0H C1H C2H C3H C4H C5H C6H C7H C8H C9H CAH
CBH CCH CDH CEH CFH




[29]

4.6.4 16 x 2 Character LCD
FEATURES:
5 x 8 dots with cursor
Built-in controller (KS 0066 or Equivalent)
+ 5V power supply (Also available for + 3V)
1/16 duty cycle
B/L to be driven by pin 1, pin 2 or pin 15, pin 16 or A.K (LED)
N.V. optional for + 3V power supply

4.7 MATRIX KEYPAD
The Keyboard
It is an input device. Its design came from typewriters that did not use
electricity. A person can type a document, access menus, play games and
perform variety of other tasks. Keys, called Keycaps are the same size and
shape from keyboard to keyboard. These are also placed at the similar
distance from one another in a similar pattern.
Matrix Keypad
Matrix Keypad switches are widely used as digital input devices.
Normally one switch requires one digital I/P pin of a microcontroller, to
interface a matrix of such switches (say a 16 digit keypad), assigning a digital
I/O pin for each key its not possible. To minimize the required number of digital
I/O pins of microcontroller. A very popular method is a keypad matrix where
the keys are arranged into rows and columns so that a 44 (16) switches can be
interfaced to a microcontroller using only 4+4 = 8 I/O pins.




[30]

4 x 4 matrix keypad organized in the row and column format
Four columns are connected to the lower half of PORTB (RB0-RB3)
Four rows are connected to upper half of PORTB (RB4-RB7)
When a key is pressed, it makes a contact with the corresponding row
and column
Matrix Keypad Basic Connection







[31]

The rows R0 to R3 are connected to Input lines of Microcontroller. The i/o pins
where they are connected are made Input. This is done by setting the proper in
AVR and TRIS Register in PIC. The columns C0 to C3 are also connected to
MCUs i/o line. These are kept at High Impedance State (AKA input), in high z
state (z= impedance) state these pins are neither HIGH nor LOW they are in
TRISTATE. And in their PORT value we set them all as low, so as soon as we
change their DDR bit to 1 they become output with value LOW.

4.7.1 MATRIX KEYPAD BASIC CONNECTION






[32]


MATRIX KEYPAD 4*3:



DESCRIPTION:
Keypad is an input device which gives the input to other devices depends
upon its matrix ranges. It is classified into 2 types that is 4*4 matrix keypad and
3*4 matrix keypad. The 4*4 matrix keypad have 16 keys and 3*4 matrix keypad
have 12 switches. If we press any key that corresponding row an column was
energized that output is given to other devices. For example if press the first key
D0 and D3 is energized and generate high pulse. This high pulse is given to
other devices.



[33]

The rows R0 to R3 are connected to Input lines of Microcontroller. The
i/o pins where they are connected are made Input. This is done by setting the
proper in AVR and TRIS Register in PIC. The columns C0 to C3 are also
connected to MCUs i/o line. These are kept at High Impedance State (AKA
input), in high z state (z= impedance) state these pins are neither HIGH nor
LOW they are in TRISTATE. And in their PORT value we set them all as low,
so as soon as we change their DDR bit to 1 they become output with value
LOW.
Software
To recognize and encode the key pressed
Set all the columns High by sending ones
Check for any key pressed (non-zero)
Set one column High at a time
Check all the rows in that column
Once a key is identified
Encode based on its position in the column
Time Multiplex Scanning Technique
Codes of the numbers to be displayed are stored in data registers in
sequence
The program gets the codes from the data registers by using the
pointer (FSR0) and sends them out to the LED segments through
PORTB
One display at a time is turned on by sending logic 1 to the
corresponding transistor connected to PORTC
After an appropriate delay, the first display is turned off and the next
display is turned on
Turning displays on/off is repeated in sequence


[34]

Problem statement
Interface four common cathode seven-segment displays to PORTB and
PORTC using the time multiplex scanning technique.
Write instructions to display a four-digit number stored in data registers.
Time Multiplex Scanning

Hardware
Eight data lines of PORTB are connected to the anodes of each display
Each cathode is connected to PORTC (RC3-RC0) through a transistor
Transistors (and LEDs) can be turned on by sending logic 1
Each display is turned on and off in a sequence to display a digit



[35]


Operation:
The keyboard controller detects the keystroke.
The controller places a scan code in the keyboard buffer, indicating
which key was pressed.
The keyboard sends the computer an interrupt request, telling the CPU to
accept the keystroke

4.8 RELAY:

4.8.1 Relay Purpose:
Isolate controlling circuit from controlled circuit.
Control high voltage system with low voltage.
Control high current system with low current.
Logic Functions

4.8.2 Relay characteristics
Electromagnetic Relays (EMRs)
EMRs consist of an input coil that's wound to accept a
particular voltage signal, plus a set of one or more contacts that
rely on an armature (or lever) activated by the energized coil to
open or close an electrical circuit.

Solid-state Relays (SSRs)
SSRs use semiconductor output instead of mechanical
contacts to switch the circuit. The output device is optically-
coupled to an LED light source inside the relay. The relay is turned
on by energizing this LED, usually with low-voltage DC power.

[36]

Microprocessor Based Relays
Use microprocessor for switching mechanism. Commonly
used in power system monitoring and protection.


4.8.3 Working Principle:



All relays contain a sensing unit, the electric coil, which is powered by
AC or DC current. When the applied current or voltage exceeds a threshold
value, the coil activates the armature, which operates either to close the open
contacts or to open the closed contacts. When a power is supplied to the coil, it
generates a magnetic force that actuates the switch mechanism. The magnetic
force is, in effect, relaying the action from one circuit to another. The first
circuit is called the control circuit; the second is called the load circuit.








[37]


4.8.4 ELECTROMAGNETIC RELAY
An electromagnetic relay is a type of electrical switch controlled by an
electromagnet. The electromagnetic relay is used in a variety of applications,
including alarms and sensors, signal switching, and the detection and control of
faults on electrical distribution lines. The electromagnetic relay was invented in
1835, and its straightforward function has not changed much since. Consumers
interact with the electromagnetic relay in a variety of forms daily, from timed
office lights to test buttons and other quality control devices.
The core of the electromagnetic relay, naturally, is an electromagnet, formed by
winding a coil around an iron core. When the coil is energized by passing
current through it, the core in turn becomes magnetized, attracting a pivoting
iron armature. As the armature pivots, it operates one or more sets of contacts,
thus affecting the circuit. When the magnetic charge is lost, the armature and
contacts are released. Demagnetization can cause a leap of voltage across the
coil, damaging other components of the device when turned off. Therefore, the
electromagnetic relay usually makes use of a diode to restrict the flow of the
charge, with the cathode connected at the most positive end of the coil.
Contacts on an electromagnetic relay can take three forms. Normally opened
contacts connect the circuit when the device is activated and disconnect it when
the device is not active, like a light switch.
Normally closed contacts disconnect the circuit when the relay is magnetized,
and a change-over incorporates one of each type of contact. The configuration
of the contacts is dependant upon the intended application of the device.


[38]

The electromagnetic relay is capable of controlling an output of higher power
than the input, and it is often used as a buffer to isolate circuits of varying
energy potentials as a result. When a low current is applied to the
electromagnet, throwing the switch, the device is capable of allowing a higher
current to flow through it.
This is advantageous in some applications, such as tripping alarms and other
safety devices, because a safer low current can be used to activate an application
requiring more energy.


DESCRIPTION:
Relays are electrical switches that open or close another circuit under certain
conditions.12V supply voltage is given to the circuit to switch ON the relay.
Relay circuit have transistor, diode, LED, and electromagnetic coil.
When relay is connected to PIC Microcontroller, 5v is passed to base of the
transistor but transistor has 0.7v only so resister is connected to drop the excess
voltage. Transistor output is give to electromagnetic coil after that it is
energised so emf is produced. This emf closes the second switch and output is
given to load. Diode is connected across the collector terminal of the transistor
and supply terminal it is used to block the flow of emf to supply terminal.
[39]


4.9 PIN DIAGRAM:



4.9.1 Peripheral Features:

24/35 I/O Pins with Individual Direction Control:
High current source/sink for direct LED drive
Interrupt-on-Change pin
Individually programmable weak pull-ups
Ultra Low-Power Wake-up (ULPWU)
Analog Comparator Module with:
Two analog comparators
Programmable on-chip voltage reference
[40]

(CVREF) module (% of VDD)
Fixed voltage reference (0.6V)
Comparator inputs and outputs externally accessible
SR Latch mode
External Timer1 Gate (count enable)
A/D Converter:
10-bit resolution and 11/14 channels
Timer0: 8-bit Timer/Counter with 8-bit Programmable Prescaler
Enhanced Timer1:
16-bit timer/counter with prescaler
External Gate Input mode
Dedicated low-power 32 kHz oscillator
Timer2: 8-bit Timer/Counter with 8-bit Period Register, Prescaler and
Postscaler
Enhanced Capture, Compare, PWM+ Module:
16-bit Capture, max. resolution 12.5 ns
Compare, max. resolution 200 ns
10-bit PWM with 1, 2 or 4 output channels, programmable
dead time, max. frequency 20 Hz
PWM output steering control
Capture, Compare, PWM Module:
16-bit Capture, max. resolution 12.5 ns
16-bit Compare, max. resolution 200 ns
10-bit PWM, max. frequency 20 kHz
Enhanced USART Module:
Supports RS-485, RS-232, and LIN 2.0
Auto-Baud Detect
Auto-Wake-Up on Start bit
In-Circuit Serial Programming TM (ICSPTM) via Two Pins
[41]

Master Synchronous Serial Port (MSSP) Module supporting 3-wire SPI
(all 4 modes) and I2C Master and Slave Modes with I2C Address
Mask






4.9.2 DESCRIPTION:
The PIC16F887 having 40pins and 5 ports. In this PIC microcontroller
the first pin is connected with the master clear circuit, it is used for the clear
purpose. For this circuit we will provide +5v supply. For this project we wont
use port A and port E. 11th and 12th pin for the purpose of VSS and VDD. 13th
and 14th pin connected with the crystal oscillator. For PIC16F887 we can use
4MHz to 20MHz crystal oscillator frequency here we are using 4MHz. It will
provide clock pulse for digital circuit. In port C 17th pin is connected with
buzzer circuit. In D port 19,20,21,27,28,29,30 pins are connected with the LCD.
For LCD we will provide +5v supply.
[42]

For RF communication TX and RX C port 25th and 26th pins are used.
For RF we will provide +5v supply. In power supply circuit first the step down
transformer will provide 12v AC supply. Then this alternating current converted
into direct current with the help of bridge rectifier. At last with the help of
particular rectified IC we can get particular voltage level.
I/O PORTS
There are as many as thirty-five general purpose I/O pins available.
Depending on which peripherals are enabled, some or all of the pins may not be
available as general purpose I/O. In general, when a peripheral is enabled, the
associated pin may not be used as a general purpose I/O pin.
OSCILLATOR MODULE (WITH FAIL-SAFE CLOCK MONITOR)
The oscillator module has a wide variety of clock sources and selection
features that allow it to be used in a wide range of applications while
maximizing performance and minimizing power consumption. Clock sources
can be configured from external oscillators, quartz crystal resonators, ceramic
resonators and Resistor-Capacitor (RC) circuits.
In addition, the system clock source can be configured from one of two
internal oscillators, with a choice of speeds selectable via software. Additional
clock features include:
Selectable system clock source between external or internal via
software.
Two-Speed Start-up mode, which minimizes latency between
external oscillator start-up and code execution.
Fail-Safe Clock Monitor (FSCM) designed to detect a failure of the
external clock source (LP,XT, HS, EC or RC modes) and switch
automatically to the internal oscillator.




[43]

TIMER0 MODULE
The Timer0 module is an 8-bit timer/counter with the following features:
8-bit timer/counter register (TMR0)
8-bit prescaler (shared with Watchdog Timer)
Programmable internal or external clock source
Programmable external clock edge selection
Interrupt on overflow
TIMER1 MODULE WITH GATE CONTROL
The Timer1 module is a 16-bit timer/counter with the following features:
16-bit timer/counter register pair (TMR1H:TMR1L)
Programmable internal or external clock source
3-bit prescaler
Optional LP oscillator
Synchronous or asynchronous operation
Timer1 gate (count enable) via comparator or T1G pin
Interrupt on overflow
Wake-up on overflow (external clock, Asynchronous mode only)
Time base for the Capture/Compare function
Special Event Trigger (with ECCP)
Comparator output synchronization to Timer1 clock
TIMER2 MODULE
The Timer2 module is an eight-bit timer with the following features:
8-bit timer register (TMR2)
8-bit period register (PR2)
Interrupt on TMR2 match with PR2
Software programmable prescaler (1:1, 1:4, 1:16)
Software programmable postscaler (1:1 to 1:16)



[44]

ANALOG-TO-DIGITAL CONVERTER (ADC) MODULE

The Analog-to-Digital Converter (ADC) allows conversion of an analog
input signal to a 10-bit binary representation of that signal. This device uses
analog inputs, which are multiplexed into a single sample and hold circuit. The
output of the sample and hold is connected to the input of the converter. The
converter generates a 10-bit binary result via successive approximation and
stores the conversion result into the ADC result registers (ADRESL and
ADRESH). The ADC voltage reference is software selectable to be either
internally generated or externally supplied. The ADC can generate an interrupt
upon completion of a conversion. This interrupt can be used to wake-up the
device from Sleep.

Enhanced Capture/Compare/PWM (CCP1)

The Enhanced Capture/Compare/PWM module is a peripheral which
allows the user to time and control different events. In Capture mode, the
peripheral allows the timing of the duration of an event. The Compare mode
allows the user to trigger an external event when a predetermined amount of
time has expired. The PWM mode can generate a Pulse-Width Modulated signal
of varying frequency and duty cycle.

ENHANCED UNIVERSAL SYNCHRONOUS ASYNCHRONOUS
RECEIVER TRANSMITTER (EUSART)

The Enhanced Universal Synchronous Asynchronous Receiver
Transmitter (EUSART) module is a serial I/O communications peripheral. It
contains all the clock generators, shift registers and data buffers necessary to
perform an input or output serial data transfer independent of device program
execution. The EUSART, also known as a Serial Communications Interface
[45]

(SCI), can be configured as a full-duplex asynchronous system or half-duplex
synchronous system. Full-Duplex mode is useful for communications with
peripheral systems, such as CRT terminals and personal computers. Half-
Duplex Synchronous mode is intended for communications with peripheral
devices, such as A/D or D/A integrated circuits, serial EEPROMs or other
microcontrollers. These devices typically do not have internal clocks for baud
rate generation and require the external clock signal provided by a master
synchronous device.
MASTER SYNCHRONOUS SERIAL PORT (MSSP) MODULE
The Master Synchronous Serial Port (MSSP) module is a serial interface useful
for communicating with other peripheral or microcontroller devices. These
peripheral devices may be Serial EEPROMs, shift registers, display drivers,
A/D converters, etc. The MSSP module can operate in one of two modes:
Serial Peripheral Interface (SPI)
Inter-Integrated Circuit TM (I2CTM)
Full Master mode
Slave mode (with general address call).
The I2C interface supports the following modes in hardware:
Master mode
Multi-Master mode
Slave mode








[46]

CHAPTER-5
CONCLUSION AND FUTURE ENHANCEMENT

5.1CONCLUSION
This method can be implemented in transformer for protection
and avoidance of workers death in workplace. By using our project we
can able to secure them at the workplace. It is more protective and
secured method. Innovative wiremen security system will provide more
security to the linemen. And our project will reduce the electrical injury
fatal. In our technical world this kind of project will show our
improvement and also safe the life.

5.2FUTURE ENHANCEMENT
Future work is to implement this project by using finger print recognizer
for more safety.
Otherwise we can implement this project using zigbee for long
distance transmission.










[47]

CHAPTER-6
REFERENCES

[1]M.AminandB.F.Wollenberg,Towardasmartgrid:Powerdeliveryfor
21stcentury,IEEEPowerEnergyMag.,vol.3,no.5,pp.3441,2005.
[2]R.E.Brown,Impactofsmartgridondistributionsystemdesign,in
Proc.IEEEPowerandEnergySoc.Gen.MeetingConvers.Del.Elect.
Energy21stCentury,2008,pp.14.
[3]S.D.Maqbool,M.Babar,andE.A.Al-Ammar, Effectofdemand
elasticityandpricevariationonloadprofile,inProc.InnovationSmart
GridTechnol.,IEEEPESConf.,2011,pp.15.
[4]J.A.Momoh,Smartgriddesignforefficientandflexiblepowernetworks
operationandcontrol,inProc.PowerSyst.Conf.Expo.,2009,pp.18.
[5]A.Ipakchi,Grid ofthefuture,IEEEPower EnergyMag., vol.7,no.2, pp.52
62,2009.
[6]C.WangandP.Li,Development
andchallengesofdistributedgeneration,themicro-
gridandsmartdistributionsystem,Automat.Elect.Power Syst.,2010.
[7]C.W.Potter,A.Archambault,andK.Westrick,Buildingasmartersmart
gridthroughbetterrenewableenergyinformation, inProc.PowerSyst.
Conf.Expo.,2009,pp.15.
[8]J.W.Shim,T.Nam,J.Y.Jang,T.K. Ko,M.C.Ahn,andK.Hur,Toward aself-
healingelectricgridwithsuperconductingfaultcurrentcontrollers,
IEEETrans.Appl.Supercond.,vol.22,no.3,p.5600904,Jun.2012.
[9]M.C.AhnandT.K.Ko,Proof-of-conceptofasmartfaultcontrollerwith
asuperconductingcoilforthesmartgrid,IEEETrans.Appl.Supercond.,
vol.21,no.3,pp.22012204,Jun.2011.
[10]R.C.Dorf,IntroductiontoElectricCircuit,7thed. Hoboken,NJ:Wiley,
2006.
[11]D.D.Roybal,Circuitbreakerinterrupting capacityandshort-timecur-
rentratings,inConf.Rec.IEEEIASAnnu.Meeting,2004,pp.130134.
[48]

[12]Metal Enclosed Low-Voltage AC Power Circuit Breaker Switchgear
Assemblies,ANSI/NEMAStandardC37.20.1,2002
[13]GuideforTestingMetalEnclosedSwitchgearRatedUpto38kVfor
InternalArcingFaults,ANSI/NEMAStandardC37.20.7,Jan.2008.
[14]Low-Voltage Switchgear and Controlgear Assemblies, IEC Standard
61439-1/2,Jan.2009.
[15]StandardforMolded-Case CircuitBreakers,Molded-Case Switchesand
Circuit-BreakerEnclosures,UL489,2006.
[16]Low-VoltageSwitchgear&Controlgear,Part2CircuitBreakers,IEC
60947.2(AS60947.2),2005.
[17]M.HigginsonandD.B.Durocher,Properapplication&maintenanceof
molded-casebreakerstoassuresafeandreliableoperation,inConf.Rec.
Annu.PulpPaperInd.Tech.,2009,pp.90101.
[18]NFPA70EStandardforElectricalSafetyintheWorkplace,2009Edition.
[19]NationalInstituteforOccupationalSafety&Health.[Online].Available:
http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/mining/topics/topicpage1.htm
[20]ElectricalEquipmentforMines&Quarries,AS/NZS4871.1,May25,
2010.
[21]IEEEGuideforPerformingArc-FlashHazardCalculations,IEEEStd
1584-2002.
[22]ByproductsofSulfurHexafluoride(SF6)UseintheElectricPowerIndus-
try,U.S.Environ.ProtectionAgency,Washington,DC,Jan.2002.











[49]


APPENDIX

#include <lcd.c>
#include "keypad.h"
int1 light1on=0,light2on=0;
int8 Pass[6],Keypad_Value=0,i=0;
void Read_Keypress()
{
Keypad_Value='\0';
lcd_putc("\fEnter Password");
lcd_putc("\n");
for(i=0;i<4;i++)
{
do
{
Keypad_Value = kbd_getc();
}
while(Keypad_Value == '\0');
Pass[i]=Keypad_Value;
lcd_putc(Keypad_Value);
delay_ms(100);
}
delay_ms(100);
if(Pass[0]=='1' && Pass[1]=='2' && Pass[2]=='3' && Pass[3]=='4')
{
if(light1on==1)
[50]

{
RE0=0;
light1on=0;
lcd_putc("\fLIGHT-1 OFF");
}
else
{
RE0=1;
light1on=1;
lcd_putc("\fLIGHT-1 ON");
}
}
else if(Pass[0]=='5' && Pass[1]=='6' && Pass[2]=='7' && Pass[3]=='8')
{
if(light2on==1)
{
RE1=0;
light2on=0;
lcd_putc("\fLIGHT-2 OFF");
}
else
{
RE1=1;
light2on=1;
lcd_putc("\fLIGHT-2 ON");
}
}
[51]

else
{
lcd_putc("\fWrong Password");
}
delay_ms(1000);
}
void main()
{
TRISA=0x00;
TRISB=0xFF;
TRISC=0x00;
TRISD=0x00;
TRISE=0x00;
PORTA=0x00;
PORTB=0x00;
PORTC=0x00;
PORTD=0x00;
PORTE=0x00;
ADCON1=0x06;
ANSEL =0x00;
ANSELH=0x00;
lcd_init();
lcd_putc("\fWIREMAN SAFETY");
lcd_putc("\n SYSTEM");
RD3=1;
delay_ms(1000);
RD3=0;
[52]

delay_ms(1000);
PORTE=0x03;
light1on=1;
light2on=1;
while(true)
{
Read_Keypress();
}
}

















[53]