Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 290

XDM

Converged MSPP
and All-Range ROADM
General Description
Version 7/7.1
417006-2002-0H3-D00



XDM (ETSI) General Description
V7/7.1
Catalog No: X36544
October, 2007






Copyright by ECI Telecom, 1999-2007. All rights reserved worldwide.
This is a legal agreement between you, the end-user, and ECI Telecom Ltd. (ECI Telecom). BY OPENING THE
DOCUMENTATION AND/OR DISK PACKAGE, YOU ARE AGREEING TO BE BOUND BY THE TERMS OF THIS
AGREEMENT. IF YOU DO NOT AGREE TO THE TERMS OF THIS AGREEMENT, PROMPTLY RETURN THE
UNOPENED DOCUMENTATION AND/OR DISK PACKAGE AND THE ACCOMPANYING ITEMS (INCLUDING
WRITTEN MATERIALS AND BINDERS OR OTHER CONTAINERS), TO THE PLACE FROM WHICH YOU
OBTAINED THEM.
The information contained in the documentation and/or disk is proprietary and is subject to all relevant copyright,
patent, and other laws protecting intellectual property, as well as any specific agreement protecting ECI Telecom's
rights in the aforesaid information. Neither this document nor the information contained in the documentation and/or
disk may be published, reproduced, or disclosed to third parties, in whole or in part, without the express prior
written permission of ECI Telecom. In addition, any use of this document, the documentation and/or the disk, or the
information contained therein for any purposes other than those for which it was disclosed, is strictly forbidden.
ECI Telecom reserves the right, without prior notice or liability, to make changes in equipment design or
specifications. Information supplied by ECI Telecom is believed to be accurate and reliable. However, no
responsibility whatsoever is assumed by ECI Telecom for the use thereof, nor for the rights of third parties, which
may be affected in any way by the use and/or dissemination thereof.
Any representation(s) in the documentation and/or disk concerning performance of ECI Telecom product(s) are for
informational purposes only and are not warranties of product performance or otherwise, either express or implied.
ECI Telecom's standard limited warranty, stated in its sales contract or order confirmation form, is the only warranty
offered by ECI Telecom.
The documentation and/or disk is provided AS IS and may contain flaws, omissions, or typesetting errors. No
warranty is granted nor liability assumed in relation thereto, unless specifically undertaken in ECI Telecom's sales
contract or order confirmation. Information contained in the documentation and in the disk is periodically updated,
and changes will be incorporated in subsequent editions. If you have encountered an error, please notify ECI
Telecom. All specifications are subject to change without prior notice.
The documentation and/or disk and all information contained therein is owned by ECI Telecom and is protected by
all relevant copyright, patent, and other applicable laws and international treaty provisions. Therefore, you must
treat the information contained in the documentation and disk as any other copyrighted material (for example, a
book or musical recording).
Other Restrictions. You may not rent, lease, sell, or otherwise dispose of the documentation and disk, as
applicable. YOU MAY NOT USE, COPY, MODIFY, OR TRANSFER THE DOCUMENTATION AND/OR DISK OR
ANY COPY IN WHOLE OR PART, EXCEPT AS EXPRESSLY PROVIDED IN THIS LICENSE. ALL RIGHTS NOT
EXPRESSLY GRANTED ARE RESERVED BY ECI TELECOM.
All trademarks mentioned herein are the property of their respective holders.
ECI Telecom shall not be liable to you or to any other party for any loss or damage whatsoever or howsoever
caused, arising directly or indirectly in connection with this documentation and/or disk, the information contained
therein, its use, or otherwise. Notwithstanding the generality of the aforementioned, you expressly waive any claim
and/or demand regarding liability for indirect, special, incidental, or consequential loss or damage which may arise
in respect of the documentation and/or disk and/or the information contained therein, howsoever caused, even if
advised of the possibility of such damages.


417006-2002-0H3-D00 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary i

Contents
Introduction.............................................................................. 1-1
The Future's Bright for Carrier Class Optical Networking................................. 1-1
XDM: Today's Challenges and Tomorrow's Goals........................................... 1-5
Optimized Network Convergence..................................................................... 1-7
Converging Functional Layers.......................................................................... 1-8
XDM Product Lines - Tailored to Your Needs ................................................ 1-10
Next-Generation MEMS-WSS ROADM ......................................................... 1-11
Carrier Class MPLS/Ethernet Service............................................................ 1-19
Next-Generation SDH .................................................................................... 1-24
Introducing ASON in the XDM........................................................................ 1-25
End to End Layered Management.................................................................. 1-26
XDM's Unique Value Proposition ................................................................... 1-27
Comprehensive Solution for All Your Applications ......................................... 1-30
Market Segments and Services.............................................. 2-1
Today's Market Opportunities........................................................................... 2-1
ILECs................................................................................................................ 2-3
Cellular Operators ............................................................................................ 2-4
Utelcos ............................................................................................................. 2-5
Multiple Service Operators............................................................................... 2-7
Carrier of Carriers............................................................................................. 2-9
Government and Defense Solutions .............................................................. 2-10
Efficient Triple Play Service Delivery.............................................................. 2-12
Cellular Service for a Mobile Society.............................................................. 2-14
Metro WDM/ROADM Networks...................................................................... 2-20
Regional/Long Haul DWDM/ROADM............................................................. 2-21
Repeaterless Undersea DWDM Connectivity ................................................ 2-22
Business Services.......................................................................................... 2-22
System Architecture................................................................ 3-1
Overview .......................................................................................................... 3-1
Control and Communications Subsystem........................................................ 3-2
Traffic and Cross-Connect Functionality .......................................................... 3-8
I/O Traffic Interface Configuration Options..................................................... 3-10
Power Feed Subsystem................................................................................. 3-15
Engineering Orderwire ................................................................................... 3-16
Contents XDM General Description

ii ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D00

XDM Platform Layout .............................................................. 4-1
Overview .......................................................................................................... 4-1
XDM-50 ............................................................................................................ 4-2
XDM-100 Platform Suite................................................................................... 4-4
XDM-300 ........................................................................................................ 4-10
Expansion Shelves for the XDM-100 Product Line ........................................ 4-12
XDM-40 .......................................................................................................... 4-14
XDM-500 ........................................................................................................ 4-16
XDM-1000 ...................................................................................................... 4-18
XDM-2000 ...................................................................................................... 4-21
MPLS and Ethernet Data Solution.......................................... 5-1
MPLS Technology............................................................................................ 5-1
User Benefits with the MCS/M ......................................................................... 5-3
MCS/M's Unique Value Proposition ................................................................. 5-4
Applications and Services ................................................................................ 5-5
MPLS Protection Schemes ............................................................................ 5-16
MPLS/Ethernet Card Summary...................................................................... 5-19
Ethernet Interfaces......................................................................................... 5-31
WDM Optical Components and Service Cards ..................... 6-1
Overview .......................................................................................................... 6-1
MEMS-WSS ROADM....................................................................................... 6-2
Mux/DeMux Cards............................................................................................ 6-4
OADMs............................................................................................................. 6-6
Transponders ................................................................................................... 6-8
Combiners...................................................................................................... 6-13
Pluggable Transceiver Modules (SFP/XFP/SFF) ........................................... 6-16
Splitter and Coupler Combination Module...................................................... 6-18
Optical Amplifiers ........................................................................................... 6-19
OPM Card ...................................................................................................... 6-24
OMSP Card.................................................................................................... 6-27
DCM and DCF................................................................................................ 6-28
PELES............................................................................................................ 6-28
MSPP Components and Service Cards ................................. 7-1
Overview .......................................................................................................... 7-1
PDH Service Cards .......................................................................................... 7-4
SDH Service Cards .......................................................................................... 7-5
Aurora-G GbE Encryptor Card ......................................................................... 7-7
ATS Service Matrix for 3G Cellular Networks .................................................. 7-8
I/O Protection Modules................................................................................... 7-10
Simplified SDH Trail Movement ..................................................................... 7-12
XDM General Description Contents

417006-2002-0H3-D00 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary iii

ASON in the XDM..................................................................... 8-1
Introduction....................................................................................................... 8-1
Standardizing the Control Plane: ASTN/ASON, GMPLS, and UNI/E-NNI
Standards......................................................................................................... 8-2
ASON/GMPLS in the XDM Family ................................................................... 8-5
Optical Control Plane Architecture ................................................................... 8-7
Control Plane Functionalities............................................................................ 8-9
Protection and Restoration............................................................................. 8-12
Network Communication Control .......................................... 9-1
Routing and Forwarding Functionality.............................................................. 9-1
Digital Communication Channel (DCC) ............................................................ 9-2
Optical Supervisory Channel (OSC)............................................................... 9-10
General Communications Channel (GCC) ..................................................... 9-11
Communications Module................................................................................ 9-12
XDM Protection and Restoration Mechanisms ................... 10-1
Overview ........................................................................................................ 10-1
SDH Path Protection Schemes ...................................................................... 10-2
SDH Line Protection....................................................................................... 10-6
Traffic Protection and Restoration.................................................................. 10-9
Optical Layer Protection............................................................................... 10-12
Equipment Protection................................................................................... 10-14
Management........................................................................... 11-1
Overview ........................................................................................................ 11-1
Layered Architecture ...................................................................................... 11-2
Client/Server Architecture .............................................................................. 11-3
Integration with Other Products...................................................................... 11-3
LightSoft Network Manager............................................................................ 11-3
EMS-XDM .................................................................................................... 11-12
LCT-XDM ..................................................................................................... 11-21
Maintenance........................................................................... 12-1
Overview ........................................................................................................ 12-1
Short MTTR.................................................................................................... 12-2
Built-In Test (BIT) ........................................................................................... 12-2
Alarms System............................................................................................... 12-3
Troubleshooting.............................................................................................. 12-4
Contents XDM General Description

iv ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D00

Reference Documents............................................................ A-1
Glossary .................................................................................. B-1
Index .......................................................................................... I-1


417006-2002-0H3-D00 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary v

List of Figures
Figure 1-1: Converged transport network ...................................................................... 1-2
Figure 1-2: Carrier class Ethernet requirements............................................................ 1-3
Figure 1-3: Typical multi-degree ROADM application.................................................... 1-5
Figure 1-4: XDM's converged transmission technologies.............................................. 1-6
Figure 1-5: Converged metro aggregation network ....................................................... 1-8
Figure 1-6: Converging three functional layers.............................................................. 1-9
Figure 1-7: XDM products portfolio.............................................................................. 1-10
Figure 1-8: Multi-degree development ......................................................................... 1-12
Figure 1-9: Multi-degree scalability .............................................................................. 1-13
Figure 1-10: Unrivalled convergence tailored to your requirements............................ 1-15
Figure 1-11: All-Range WDM services......................................................................... 1-16
Figure 1-12: OTN as a universal transport layer, access to core ................................ 1-18
Figure 1-13: Variety of Ethernet services..................................................................... 1-20
Figure 1-14: E-Line service.......................................................................................... 1-21
Figure 1-15: E-LAN service.......................................................................................... 1-22
Figure 1-16: XDM in multi-ring closure mode .............................................................. 1-25
Figure 1-17: Comprehensive XDM functionality .......................................................... 1-31
Figure 2-1: XDM: E2E service........................................................................................ 2-2
Figure 2-2: Service aggregation..................................................................................... 2-3
Figure 2-3: ECI full solution for the Utelco network........................................................ 2-6
Figure 2-4: ECI full solution for the MSO network.......................................................... 2-8
Figure 2-5: CoC services via XDM................................................................................. 2-9
Figure 2-6: Comprehensive military solution................................................................ 2-11
Figure 2-7: Triple play IPTV using MPLS multicast ..................................................... 2-12
Figure 2-8: IPTV service delivery network architecture ............................................... 2-13
Figure 2-9: Cellular services provisioning approach.................................................... 2-15
Figure 2-10: 3G mobile aggregation ............................................................................ 2-16
Figure 2-11: ATM for 3G networks............................................................................... 2-19
Figure 2-12: XDM product line in a typical triple play transport network ..................... 2-20
Figure 2-13: Typical XDM regional DWDM network .................................................... 2-21
Figure 2-14: Repeaterless undersea DWDM............................................................... 2-22
Figure 2-15: Enterprise Ethernet data service via XDM .............................................. 2-24
Figure 2-16: MPLS/IP VPN.......................................................................................... 2-25
Figure 2-17: Multi-SAN services in an integrated network........................................... 2-27
Figure 2-18: Leased-line services via XDM................................................................. 2-28
Figure 3-1: XDM card architecture................................................................................. 3-2
Figure 3-2: Control system block diagram..................................................................... 3-4
Figure 3-3: Timing distribution block diagram................................................................ 3-6
List of Figures XDM General Description

vi ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D00

Figure 3-4: XDM cross-connect scheme........................................................................ 3-8
Figure 3-5: System architecture..................................................................................... 3-9
Figure 3-6: XIO with slide-in I/O module...................................................................... 3-13
Figure 3-7: XIO384F with ADM64 configuration.......................................................... 3-14
Figure 3-8: Power distribution ...................................................................................... 3-15
Figure 4-1: XDM-50 platform.......................................................................................... 4-2
Figure 4-2: XDM-50 slot allocation................................................................................. 4-3
Figure 4-3: XDM-100 platform........................................................................................ 4-4
Figure 4-4: XDM-100 slot allocation............................................................................... 4-5
Figure 4-5: Hybrid MSPP/CWDM configuration (XDM-100H) ....................................... 4-6
Figure 4-6: XDM-100H slot allocation............................................................................ 4-7
Figure 4-7: Pure CWDM configuration (XDM-200) ........................................................ 4-8
Figure 4-8: XDM-200 slot allocation............................................................................... 4-9
Figure 4-9: XDM-300 platform...................................................................................... 4-10
Figure 4-10: XDM-300 slot allocation........................................................................... 4-11
Figure 4-11: TPU shelf ................................................................................................. 4-12
Figure 4-12: XDM-40 platform...................................................................................... 4-14
Figure 4-13: XDM-40 slot allocation............................................................................. 4-15
Figure 4-14: XDM-500 platform.................................................................................... 4-16
Figure 4-15: XDM-500 slot allocation........................................................................... 4-17
Figure 4-16: XDM-1000 platform.................................................................................. 4-18
Figure 4-17: XDM-1000 slot allocation......................................................................... 4-20
Figure 4-18: XDM-2000 platform.................................................................................. 4-21
Figure 4-19: XDM-2000 slot allocation......................................................................... 4-22
Figure 5-1: P2P tunnel example..................................................................................... 5-6
Figure 5-2: EPL service.................................................................................................. 5-8
Figure 5-3: VPLS service example ................................................................................ 5-9
Figure 5-4: E-LAN service............................................................................................ 5-11
Figure 5-5: P2MP multicast tunnel example ................................................................ 5-13
Figure 5-6: P2MP multicast tunnel example - physical and logical networks.............. 5-14
Figure 5-7: Triple play network solution for IPTV, VoD, VoIP, and HSI services ........ 5-15
Figure 5-8: P2P FRR example..................................................................................... 5-16
Figure 5-9: P2MP link protection example................................................................... 5-17
Figure 5-10: P2MP node protection example .............................................................. 5-18
Figure 5-11: MCS/M functional block diagram............................................................. 5-22
Figure 5-12: Metro network illustration......................................................................... 5-25
Figure 5-13: Ethernet packet path ............................................................................... 5-26
Figure 5-14: DIOB block diagram................................................................................. 5-29
Figure 6-1: WSS-based ROADM technology................................................................. 6-3
Figure 6-2: Pluggable OADM in standby and active modes.......................................... 6-6
Figure 6-3: TRP25_4 block diagram............................................................................ 6-10
Figure 6-4: 10 Gbps combiner block diagram.............................................................. 6-13
XDM General Description List of Figures

417006-2002-0H3-D00 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary vii

Figure 6-5: Seamless GbE/FC transport from access to core..................................... 6-14
Figure 6-6: SFP transceiver ......................................................................................... 6-16
Figure 6-7: Typical MO_OFA_PHBC application in a fully redundant ROADM
node ............................................................................................................................. 6-22
Figure 6-8: OFA_R in a bidirectional distributed amplification application .................. 6-23
Figure 6-9: OPM cards location and connections to the network manager................. 6-25
Figure 6-10: Typical OPM configuration in an ROADM site ........................................ 6-26
Figure 6-11: Adding nodes using the OMSP ............................................................... 6-27
Figure 6-12: PELES ..................................................................................................... 6-29
Figure 7-1: Aurora-G in P2P Ethernet over DWDM configuration ................................. 7-7
Figure 7-2: XDM ATM approach.................................................................................... 7-8
Figure 7-3: ATS ports..................................................................................................... 7-9
Figure 7-4: TPM protection - four groups of 1:1........................................................... 7-11
Figure 8-1: Control plane architecture ........................................................................... 8-2
Figure 8-2: Control plane interfaces............................................................................... 8-5
Figure 8-3: ASON-XDM family portfolio......................................................................... 8-6
Figure 8-4: Three-layered ASON architecture in the XDM............................................ 8-7
Figure 8-5: 1++ protection............................................................................................ 8-14
Figure 8-6: 1+R protection ........................................................................................... 8-15
Figure 9-1: Integrating a variety of DCN schemes......................................................... 9-6
Figure 9-2: DCC to VC-12 Clear Channel conversion................................................... 9-8
Figure 9-3: Point-to-point DCC transparency................................................................. 9-9
Figure 9-4: Integrating communication channels......................................................... 9-11
Figure 10-1: Typical SNCP-protected network sites.................................................... 10-3
Figure 10-2: SNCP-protected XDM sites..................................................................... 10-4
Figure 10-3: MSP protection modes ............................................................................ 10-7
Figure 10-4: Two-fiber protection................................................................................. 10-8
Figure 10-5: Protection schemes in a typical metro network..................................... 10-11
Figure 10-6: Example of OCH protection scheme..................................................... 10-12
Figure 10-7: Line protection ....................................................................................... 10-13
Figure 11-1: ECI Telecom's layered architecture management concept..................... 11-2
Figure 11-2: LightSoft main window............................................................................. 11-5
Figure 11-3: XDM-1000 shelf view as displayed in EMS-XDM.................................. 11-12
Figure 11-4: EMS: three network perspectives.......................................................... 11-13
Figure 11-5: FTM topology map................................................................................. 11-17
Figure 11-6: LCT-XDM shelf view.............................................................................. 11-21


List of Figures XDM General Description

viii ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D00






417006-2002-0H3-D00 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary ix

List of Tables
Table 3-1: Examples of maximum ports per shelf........................................................ 3-11
Table 5-1: MPLS/Ethernet components and service cards per platform..................... 5-20
Table 5-2: MCSM/MCS5/MCS10 data cards and modules ......................................... 5-23
Table 5-3: EIS/EISMB data cards and modules .......................................................... 5-27
Table 5-4: DIOB/DIOM data cards and modules ......................................................... 5-30
Table 6-1: WSS ROADM modules................................................................................. 6-4
Table 6-2: Mux/DeMux modules - selected subset........................................................ 6-5
Table 6-3: OADM cards and modules - selected subset ............................................... 6-7
Table 6-4: Transponder cards - selected subset ........................................................... 6-8
Table 6-5: Combiner cards - selected subset .............................................................. 6-14
Table 6-6: OFA cards - selected subset ...................................................................... 6-19
Table 7-1: MSPP components and service cards per platform..................................... 7-2
Table 7-2: PDH service cards ........................................................................................ 7-4
Table 7-3: SDH service cards ........................................................................................ 7-5
Table 7-4: TPM options................................................................................................ 7-10
List of Tables XDM General Description

x ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D00



417006-2002-0H3-D00 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 1-1

In this chapter:
The Future's Bright for Carrier Class Optical Networking..............................1-1
XDM: Today's Challenges and Tomorrow's Goals.........................................1-5
Optimized Network Convergence...................................................................1-7
Converging Functional Layers........................................................................1-8
XDM Product Lines - Tailored to Your Needs.............................................1-10
Next-Generation MEMS-WSS ROADM......................................................1-11
Carrier Class MPLS/Ethernet Service...........................................................1-19
Next-Generation SDH...................................................................................1-24
Introducing ASON in the XDM....................................................................1-25
End to End Layered Management.................................................................1-26
XDM's Unique Value Proposition.................................................................1-27
Comprehensive Solution for All Your Applications.....................................1-30

The Future's Bright for Carrier
Class Optical Networking
The world of telecommunications is driven by changes in consumption
patterns. As illustrated in the following figure, telecommunications is moving
from voice PSTN to VoIP, from TDM leased lines to Ethernet VPNs, from
TDM-based 2G and 2.5G mobile networks to 3G data networks, and from
simple best-effort high-speed Internet access to advanced triple play networks
for small and medium businesses and home use. Today's challenge is to build
an infrastructure that maximizes bandwidth capacity while minimizing costs.
Operators must provide a carrier class standard of service with more bandwidth
at less cost per bit, and still get a satisfactory ROI.
1
Introduction
Introduction XDM General Description

1-2 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D00


Figure 1-1: Converged transport network

Carrier Class Ethernet and MPLS
Ethernet service, the preeminent LAN technology, is now becoming the
dominant service for the metro domain (WAN) as well. Consumers require
guaranteed service delivery of the appropriate quality, expecting operators to
provide differentiated services with comprehensive carrier class capabilities,
from access to core.
MPLS technology is used to carry Ethernet services across the network metro
and core. MPLS as a transport layer for Ethernet services, rather than using
Ethernet as both transport and service layers, enhances Ethernet service,
enabling it to meet a complete carrier class standard, including:
Hard QoS, with guaranteed end-to-end (E2E) SLA for business, mobile,
and residential users that enables efficient Differentiated Services, allowing
service providers (SPs) to tailor the level of service and performance to the
requirements of their customers (real-time, mission-critical, best-effort,
etc.), as well as assuring the necessary network resources for Committed
Information Rate (CIR) and Extended Information Rate (EIR).
Reliability, a robust, resilient network that can provide nondisrupted traffic
across the path, including network protection of less than 50 msec
link/node Fast ReRoute (FRR) and meeting a five 9's standard of E2E
service availability.
XDM General Description Introduction

417006-2002-0H3-D00 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 1-3

Scalability of both services and bandwidth, ranging from Mbps to
x10 Gbps with variable granularity, with hundreds of thousands of flows,
supporting complete controlled scalability for both the number of elements
and the number of services on the network.
End to End Service Management through a single comprehensive
Network Management System (NMS) that provisions, monitors, and
controls all network layers, enabling management of multiple technology
layers (SDH, data, and optical) independently of the physical layer through
a user-friendly GUI. Supports fast service provisioning, low OPEX, and
mature OA&M capabilities through a complete Customer Network
Management (CNM) system.
TDM support, providing TDM legacy service integration through a native
MSPP platform for optimal NG-SDH functionality.
Security, with a secure environment that protects subscribers, servers, and
network devices, blocking malicious users, Denial of Service (DoS)
attacks, and use of provider network constraints, as well as complete traffic
segregation that ensures the highest level of security and privacy for even
the most sensitive data transmissions.

Figure 1-2: Carrier class Ethernet requirements

Introduction XDM General Description

1-4 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D00

Flexible WDM/ROADM
Flexible Wavelength Division Multiplexing/Reconfigurable Optical
Add/Drop Multiplexing (WDM/ROADM) networks are becoming an
essential element of next-generation networks, chosen by operators who are
motivated by triple play delivery and business data connectivity demands.
These bandwidth demands require the capacity, resilience, and flexibility of
WDM/ROADM, structured as highly flexible all-range optical networks that
incorporate user-friendly line switching and E2E route selection. XDM

's
field-proven multi-degree MEMS-WSS ROADM technology, together with
fully tunable lasers and innovative modular card designs, introduces true
flexibility to network design by providing any wavelength to any node
("any-to-any") connectivity in any ring or mesh topology, with no need to
predefine traffic demands and virtually unlimited capability to add or reroute
wavelengths.
The unique, state-of-the-art architecture of the XDM enables it to
cost-effectively address metro, regional, and long-haul WDM requirements. A
single product line is used in all deployments, providing complete E2E
management over a multilayered WDM network with complete transparency.
The XDM also offers a rich set of Optical Transport Network (OTN) features
and advantages, including transponders with OTN framing and FEC,
combiners with OTH multiplexing and OTN PM, and OTN in-band
management in all transponders and combiners. The XDM extends the OTN
technology layer from the core down to the metro and access, enabling
operators to seamlessly manage their network wavelength services, end to end.
XDM next-generation optics also offers a full set of features aimed at
simplifying planning, installation, operation, and maintenance of
WDM/ROADM networks.
XDM General Description Introduction

417006-2002-0H3-D00 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 1-5


Figure 1-3: Typical multi-degree ROADM application

XDM: Today's Challenges and
Tomorrow's Goals
The key word in the industry is convergence, representing a single transport
layer that supports existing revenue-generating TDM through Next-Generation
SDH (NG-SDH) as well as carrier class Ethernet, combined with the power of
all-range flexible optics.
The XDM system architecture meets the needs of today's telecommunications
professionals for a MultiService Transport Platform (MSTP). It provides
flexible WDM optical service, market-leading NG-SDH capabilities, and
advanced carrier class Ethernet service delivery. The XDM is a single
converged platform that integrates the best technologies available for the
services currently being offered. Its unique architecture allows future
technology to be added to existing platforms, for smooth in-service migration.
Introduction XDM General Description

1-6 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D00

The XDM platforms provide complete flexibility and scalability, with support
for any topology (multi-ring, mesh, star, and so on) and fully nonblocking
cross-connect capabilities. Everything is managed with E2E provisioning tools
and a layered network view that lets you manage all three layers (optics, SDH,
and Ethernet) through a unified, user-friendly graphic interface.

Figure 1-4: XDM's converged transmission technologies
The XDM platforms are the optimal choice for providing the range of services
expected by today's market. Traditional TDM services are no longer enough.
The market today demands VPNs, VoIP, IPTV, VoD, and HSI. Consumers are
looking for fast web browsing, interactive gaming, music, and more
personalized services.
Today's Incumbent Local Exchange Carriers (ILECs) must meet a dual demand
for NG-SDH as well as full triple play service. Mobile operators must meet a
demand for the 3G networks that are the wave of the future. Businesses must
respond to an ever-increasing range of required services, moving from the
original focused point-to-point (P2P) network into expanded
multipoint-to-multipoint (MP2MP) networks, with all their associated
complexities and benefits.
The XDM family of platforms is the natural choice for satisfying these market
demands. The XDM's unique architecture creates a seamless convergence of
transmission technologies. Multi-degree ROADM and all-range C/DWDM
capabilities are combined with carrier class Ethernet services, over a
sophisticated NG-SDH platform.
XDM General Description Introduction

417006-2002-0H3-D00 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 1-7

Optimized Network Convergence
The optimal network architecture for today's customer demands is a
convergence of Ethernet/MPLS, NG-SDH MSPP, and C/DWDM OTN
capabilities. This convergence enable SPs to exploit the benefits and robustness
of SDH together with the advantages of carrier class Ethernet through the use
of transport MPLS and the high capacity, resilience, and flexibility of
WDM/ROADM.
The converged metro aggregation network enables SPs to continue selling their
current TDM and HSI services while gradually adding the triple play services
of VoIP, IPTV, and VoD, as well as the ability to add any other Ethernet-based
services for business (VPLS), 3G Ethernet-based mobile aggregation,
wholesale services, and so on, in a single unified network.
The key benefits of a single converged network include:
Cost-optimized solution with incremental CAPEX/OPEX, gradually
adding next-generation service cards per customer demand, while allowing
continued sales of current TDM services.
Fast time-to-market (TTM) by adding any service, including new triple
play and wavelength services.
Revenue generation from new services together with any other
Ethernet-based services (LAN over the metro using VPLS, 3G mobile
services, wholesale bandwidth services, and so on).
E2E MPLS from access aggregation to IP/MPLS core router, assuring the
quality of service delivery with MPLS carrier class network capability.
Single unified managed network with the ability to provision any service,
including wavelength, TDM, and Ethernet-based services.
Risk minimization through an evolving metro aggregation network, rather
than revolutionizing the network with the high risks involved.
Introduction XDM General Description

1-8 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D00


Figure 1-5: Converged metro aggregation network
Converging Functional Layers
The XDM is a single, converged, cost-effective system that incorporates the
power and benefits of each separate component under the smooth control of a
single management system, supporting full interoperability and providing E2E
top-down manageability of Ethernet service from access to core. The XDM
platform encompasses three functional layers:
Next-Generation SDH - expanding the limits of traditional TDM
leased-line services with a unique fully nonblocking matrix that provides
exceptional high-/low-order granularity capabilities. The XDM can be
configured to operate as either a single ADM/TM providing classic SDH
multiplexing functionality and operating at STM-1/4/16/64 line bitrates, or
as a multi-ADM/TM providing a more granular and scalable bandwidth at a
far lower cost than traditional TDM services, delivered over an existing
SDH network.
Carrier Class Ethernet Data Services - a comprehensive set of carrier
class capabilities that provide assured service delivery of the appropriate
quality for each Ethernet service, based on the capabilities of scalability,
Hard QoS, restoration, security, and simple management, integrated with
native support of NG-SDH.
XDM General Description Introduction

417006-2002-0H3-D00 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 1-9

Next-Generation MEMS-WSS ROADM - flexible C/DWDM capability.
The XDM provides a complete range of flexible optical capabilities,
servicing the other network layers as well as providing lambda services,
combining SDH, data, and C/DWDM in a single platform that supports the
total wavelength provisioning flexibility of MEMS-WSS ROADM,
through 'any wavelength to any node' connectivity. The XDM is the only
truly converged MSPP/WDM equipment on the market today, with
field-proven state-of-the-art technology unmatched by any competitor.

Figure 1-6: Converging three functional layers

Introduction XDM General Description

1-10 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D00

XDM Product Lines - Tailored to
Your Needs
The XDM product lines provide a comprehensive family of platforms that
address all your networking needs, for all ranges of size, configuration, and
service level requirements. The XDM platforms are organized into two product
lines:
The XDM-100 product line, the intelligent MSPP for metro and edge
networks, includes the following main shelf configurations:
XDM-50, Compact Resilient MSPP
XDM-100, Converged Metro MSPP and CWDM
XDM-300, Flexible MSPP for Metro Aggregation Applications
The XDM-1000 product line, converged MSPP and all-range ROADM
platforms, includes the following main shelf configurations:
XDM-40, WDM/OTN Platform for Metro-Access and CPE
XDM-500, Compact Core MSPP and ROADM
XDM-1000, Converged Metro-Core MSPP and ROADM
XDM-2000, Metro Optical Cross Connect

Figure 1-7: XDM products portfolio
XDM General Description Introduction

417006-2002-0H3-D00 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 1-11

The XDM's flexible build-as-you-grow

architecture allows you to design a


configuration tailored to your individual requirements and preferences. The
XDM's modular cards and components are interchangeable between platforms,
enabling you to design the optimal solution for your customers' specific needs.
These modular cards and components are described in greater detail in MPLS
and Ethernet Data Solution (on page 5-1), MSPP Components and Service
Cards (on page 7-1), and WDM Optical Components and Service Cards (on
page 6-1). In addition, the shelf layout has been designed to facilitate simple
installation and easy maintenance. The convenient shelf layouts are described
in XDM Platform Layout (on page 4-1). The complete system architecture has
been designed to integrate all services and interfaces within a single converged
framework. This allows you to choose the range of services and interfaces best
suited to your requirements. The system architecture is described in System
Architecture (on page 3-1).
Next-Generation MEMS-WSS
ROADM
The massive growth in data, video, and packet voice traffic creates major
challenges to SPs worldwide. Expanding the transmission infrastructure to
accommodate new bandwidth requirements is essential. Nevertheless, wireline,
wireless, cable operators, and competitive carriers are faced with several
dilemmas, including:
Investing in new telecom infrastructure that will be both cost-optimized and
future-proof
Reducing operating and maintenance costs
Ensuring the appropriate QoS for each service type
Responding quickly to new and unexpected traffic demands
Implementing new technologies without risking network reliability
ECI Telecoms XDM product lines are specifically designed to address these
challenges. By offering a rich feature set based on innovative technologies and
a highly field-proven platform, the XDM is the metro/regional WDM system of
choice for more and more SPs and carriers worldwide.
Introduction XDM General Description

1-12 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D00

Multi-Degree ROADM-enabled Flexibility
Until recently, adding new channels and rerouting existing ones in a network
based on Mux/DeMux and fixed OADM technology was complicated,
labor-intensive, and often traffic-affecting. Even a minor adjustment often
required extensive network re-engineering. The XDM's MEMS-WSS ROADM
technology, fully tunable lasers, and modular card designs eliminate these
limitations by providing any wavelength to any node connectivity in any ring
or mesh topology. With the XDM, there is no need to predefine traffic demands
and virtually unlimited capability to add or reroute wavelengths.

Figure 1-8: Multi-degree development
XDM General Description Introduction

417006-2002-0H3-D00 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 1-13

One key advantage of using a 10-degree WSS ROADM is cost-effective
scalability with no traffic interruptions. Each degree corresponds to a 'colorless'
port that supports one or multiple wavelengths. For initial deployment, the
ROADM may serve as a typical two-degree OADM mode. As the network
grows, other ports are simply configured as multi-wavelength degrees for new
WDM rings or P2P connections.

Figure 1-9: Multi-degree scalability
When SPs consider ROADM deployment, they expect the following features:
Flexible wavelength assignment and reassignment, simplifying the
planning process and eliminating the need to predict future traffic flow
Ability to create complex optical topologies, such as:
Subtending CWDM and SDH ring closure
Multi-ring DWDM hub
Mixed mesh and ring topologies
CAPEX savings:
Eliminating regeneration in both ring and hub nodes
Coarse and Dense WDM interworking eliminating back-to-back
systems
Reducing spare inventory with widely tunable 10 Gbps and 2.5 Gbps
transceivers
Reducing gain tilt in regional/long-haul networks, thereby extending
the distance between regeneration points
OPEX savings through fewer manual operations, such as:
'SDH-like' provisioning, making wavelength provisioning as simple and
quick as an STM-1
Remote provisioning and reconfiguration using software-tunable
components
Automatic power balancing and equalization
Introduction XDM General Description

1-14 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D00

Implementing 10-degree Wavelength Selective Switch (WSS) technology, the
XDM ROADM supports all these benefits.
To enable flexible and cost-effective utilization of ROADM in both metro and
regional/long-haul networks, the XDM features an innovative
ROADM-optimized amplifier. This amplifier offers low noise, gain flatness,
and very high midstage access loss, accommodating a WSS ROADM and
dispersion compensation with no budget penalty. Plus it has a unique redundant
East/West architecture with no single point of failure. Functionally, it is
comparable to a two-stage Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifier (EDFA) with
discrete amplifiers used in each direction for total redundancy.
True WDM and MSPP Convergence
The XDM is a true WDM/MSPP converged platform with built-in Ethernet
Layer 1, Ethernet Layer 2, SDH, and optical capabilities. As a simple example,
the XDM can add/drop any E1 to/from any STM-16/STM-64 wavelength on
the same shelf. With physical interfaces from 10 Gbps to electrical E1, the
XDM lowers both CAPEX and OPEX.
ECI Telecom pioneered the commercial introduction of convergence as an
innovative approach to optical networking in 2001. Though this concept is now
a trend with many optical network vendors, detailed market research shows that
no other field-proven platform can actually be configured as a pure
WDM/ROADM platform, SDH edge/core MSPP (with switching capacities of
30 Gbps, 60 Gbps, or 120 Gbps), or a converged ROADM and MSPP
synthesis.
Support of Ethernet-based services is already considered an integral part of any
transmission infrastructure. Carriers are counting on Ethernet as a vehicle that
will differentiate their offerings and attract more customers, while minimizing
the risks involved.
The essential aspects of a competitive optical Ethernet platform include carrier
class reliability, robust traffic protection, and diagnostics typically associated
with TDM services. Together, they provide vital Ethernet aggregation and
scaling capabilities for growing metro and regional networks. The XDM
feature set targets the evolution towards data-centric networks, and is designed
to support Ethernet leased line (E-line), advanced Ethernet Virtual Private Line
(EVPL), and MPLS-based VPLS/VPWS services from access to core, featuring
a winning E2E approach.
XDM General Description Introduction

417006-2002-0H3-D00 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 1-15

As Ethernet customers and portions of the network start to migrate towards
higher capacity, the underlying network infrastructure must expand as well.
Some of the Ethernet services will thus be provided directly over an optical
infrastructure. The XDM provides the ideal interconnectivity for these
services, whether SDH- or WDM/OTN-based (see "The Promise of OTN" on
page 1-17).

Figure 1-10: Unrivalled convergence tailored to your requirements

Introduction XDM General Description

1-16 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D00

Maximized Capacity and Range
The unique architecture of the XDM enables it to cost-effectively address
metro, regional, and long-haul WDM requirements. The XDM provides
complete E2E management over a multilayered WDM network with complete
service transparency.
Two of the key aspects of a C/DWDM system are its capacity and range. The
XDM is asingle high-capacity all-range WDM solution for short, medium,
and long-haul routes. It is optimized for any capacity (8, 16, 32, 40, or
80 channels of 2.5 Gbps, 10 Gbps, or 40 Gbps each), and for any range (80 km
to 2,000 km/50 miles to 1250 miles). For example:
Up to 80 km/50 miles (16 x 2.5 Gbps) with OTU1 Forward Error
Correction (FEC) and no amplification
Up to 300 km/190 miles (80 x 10 Gbps) single span, with OTU2 Enhanced
FEC (EFEC), EDF, and Raman amplifiers
Up to 900 km/550 miles (80 x 10 Gbps) with OTU2 EFEC and single-stage
EDFAs
Up to 2,000 km/1250 miles (80 x 10 Gbps) with OTU2 EFEC, RZ
modulation, and dual-stage variable gain EDFAs

Figure 1-11: All-range WDM services

XDM General Description Introduction

417006-2002-0H3-D00 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 1-17

The Promise of OTN
The ITU-T defined a set of standards for OTNs, primarily under rec. G.709. An
OTN is defined through a set of characteristics that includes wavelength
framing, FEC, digital multiplexing of 2.5 Gbps to 10 Gbps and to 40 Gbps,
multi-domain performance monitoring (PM), optical protection, in-band
management, alarm correlation, and more. OTN provides many benefits to
carriers, including:
Universal management layer for wavelengths, regardless of the
underlying services offered (IP, Ethernet, SDH, etc.), simplifying operation
Extended reach via forward error correction and enhanced FEC (EFEC)
Timing transparency for timing-sensitive applications, such as SDH
transport
High capacity in-band management, simplifying and reducing the cost of
metro WDM networks
The XDM offers a rich set of OTN features and advantages, including:
OTN framing and FEC used in all XDM transponders for 2.5 Gbps,
10 Gbps, and 40 Gbps, including a class-leading transponder for
10 GbE LAN to OTN 10 Gbps
XDM combiners/muxponders that implement OTH multiplexing for timing
transparency and OTN PM
OTN in-band management (GCC bytes) supported in all XDM
transponders and combiners
Introduction XDM General Description

1-18 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D00

Furthermore, while OTN development was originally focused on the core, the
XDM extends this technology layer down to the metro and access, enabling
carriers to seamlessly manage their network wavelength services, end to end.

Figure 1-12: OTN as a universal transport layer, access to core
Ease of Installation and Operation
One of the key benefits of XDM next-generation optics is a full set of features
aimed at simplifying planning, installation, operation, and maintenance of
WDM/ROADM networks (previously considered fairly complex). XDM
provides all the convenience of modular automated optics technology,
including:
Comprehensive planning tool for bandwidth optimization, optical link
design optimization and verification, shelf layout, and more
Enhanced Automatic Power Control (EAPC) continuously ensuring
network resiliency, automatically adjusting to changes in optical power
induced by variations in span loss and/or in the number of active channels,
and providing comprehensive information on network status and history
On-line configuration tool that simplifies network installation and
provides logical easy-to-comprehend information on network connectivity
ROADM-enabled wavelength management suite included with
LightSoft

, XDM's NMS
ASON-based automatic Network Element (NE), link, and topology
discovery
XDM General Description Introduction

417006-2002-0H3-D00 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 1-19

Carrier Class MPLS/Ethernet
Service
In today's telecommunications industry, SPs face a decline in available
resources due to multimedia-based services and intranet applications requiring
large amounts of bandwidth. Carriers and SPs therefore require a highly
scalable broadband and metro aggregation infrastructure to deliver increasing
amounts of data traffic to their customers seamlessly and transparently.
SDH and PDH have long been dominant technologies in WAN and PSTN
environments, primarily in networks that were designed to carry voice. In light
of the increasing demand for additional reliable capacity, SDH was deployed
more and more in metropolitan and core networks. Shortly afterwards, these
networks had to cope with a huge explosion of Ethernet service data traffic.
Networking equipment is increasingly using Ethernet (10BaseT, FE, and GbE)
as the connection technology of choice for data communications. Ethernet
services offer a simpler, more cost-effective, and more suitable solution to meet
customer needs for transparent LAN-to-LAN connectivity.
The capacity needed to meet these new demands is outpacing SDH's ability to
cost-effectively scale up to higher speeds. Metro WDM has become a common
solution for dramatically increasing bandwidth on existing fiber infrastructure.
What is needed, therefore, is an infrastructure that combines the most important
features of SDH (guaranteed latency, reliability, and protection), and the
capacity of WDM, with the simplicity, ubiquity, scalability, and low cost of
Ethernet. Networks based on the XDM provide this infrastructure.
Ethernet Aggregation
The XDM provides a carrier class transmission solution for emerging
Ethernet-based applications, such as:
Triple play
Business connectivity (enterprise and medium/small offices)
3G (Rel-5) Ethernet-based mobile aggregation
DSLAM transport and aggregation
Introduction XDM General Description

1-20 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D00

The XDM's wide range of Ethernet cards, including Layer 1 (DIOB/DIOM),
Layer 2 (EIS/MB), and MPLS (MCS/M), supports a full set of Ethernet
services with E2E QoS.

Figure 1-13: Variety of Ethernet services
XDM General Description Introduction

417006-2002-0H3-D00 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 1-21

The XDM is the optimal choice for providing data-centric services, including:
Ethernet Line (E-Line) for P2P connectivity, used to create Ethernet
private line services, Ethernet-based Internet access services, and P2P
Ethernet VPNs. These include:
Ethernet Private Line (EPL) - P2P Ethernet connection that uses
dedicated bandwidth, providing fully managed highly transparent
transport service for Ethernet. EPL provides an extremely reliable and
secure service, as would be expected from a private line.
Ethernet Virtual Private Line (EVPL) - P2P connectivity over shared
bandwidth. Service can be multiplexed at the User to Network Interface
(UNI) level. EVPL is used for hub and spoke architectures in which
multiple remote offices require access to a single headquarters or
multiple customers require access to an ISP's POP.
Virtual Private Wire Service (VPWS) - P2P connectivity over MPLS
pseudo-wire (PW) shares the same tunnel on the same locations, so
benefiting from MPLS E2E Hard QoS and carrier class capabilities.

Figure 1-14: E-Line service
Ethernet LAN (E-LAN) for MP2MP (any-to-any) connectivity, designed
for multipoint Ethernet VPNs and native Ethernet Transparent LAN
Services (TLS). These include:
Ethernet Private LAN (EPLAN) - multipoint connectivity over
dedicated bandwidth, where each subscriber site is connected to
multiple sites using dedicated resources (so different customers'
Ethernet frames are not multiplexed together).
Ethernet Virtual Private LAN (EVPLAN) - multipoint connectivity
over shared bandwidth, where each subscriber site is connected to
multiple sites using shared resources. This is a very cost-effective
service, as it can leverage shared transmission bandwidth in the
network.
Introduction XDM General Description

1-22 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D00

Virtual Private LAN Service (VPLS) - multipoint connectivity over
MPLS PW shares the same tunnel. The VPLS enables delivery of any
to any connectivity that expands business LAN across the wide area
network. VPLS enables SPs to expand their L2VPN services offering to
enterprise customers. VPLS provides the operational cost benefits of
Ethernet with E2E QoS of MPLS.

Figure 1-15: E-LAN service
E-Tree (Rooted-Multipoint) for P2MP Multicast Tree connectivity,
designed for BTV/IPTV services. These include:
Ethernet Private Tree (EP-Tree) - in its simplest form, an E-Tree
service type provides a single root for multiple leaf UNIs. Each leaf
UNI only exchanges data with the root UNI. This service is useful and
enables very efficient bandwidth use for Broadcast TV (or IPTV)
applications, such as multicast/broadcast packet video. With this
approach, different copies of the packet need to be sent only to roots
that are not sharing the same branch of the tree.
Ethernet Virtual Private Tree (EVP-Tree) - an EVP-Tree is an
E-Tree service that provides rooted-multipoint connectivity across a
shared infrastructure supporting statistical multiplexing and
over-subscription.
MPLS Routed-P2MP Multicast Tree (Drop & Continue) - an MPLS
drop-and-continue multicast tree on a shared P2MP multicast tree
tunnel supports multiple DTV/IPTV services as part of a full triple play
solution.
XDM General Description Introduction

417006-2002-0H3-D00 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 1-23

The XDM Ethernet services implementation is ideal for customers that want to
add bandwidth on demand based on the expected increase in their data traffic.
This enables a true pay-as-you-grow infrastructure, allowing them to acquire
capacity only when they need it. The platform's carrier class Ethernet
networking services that are provided directly to customers in wide-area SDH
networks guarantee:
Point-to-point, multipoint-to-multipoint, and multicast connectivity
Assured Hard QoS through MPLS traffic engineering (TE) and SDH
network features
Transparency of protocols and bitrates to end user data packets
MPLS and SDH reliability and security levels
<50 msec link and node protection through MPLS
Extended Ethernet scalability of VLANs through MPLS
Simple point-and-click Ethernet service creation and management
Comprehensive SLA metrics
Extreme cost-effectiveness
XDM provides these data-centric services over fiber with broadband flexibility
and capacity. Services are easy to provision and adjust, offering customers
bandwidth scalability optimized for their unique requirements.
Bandwidth is allocated to Ethernet services in VC-12/3/4 increments. The
service rate adapts to end-user needs, allowing carriers to tailor pricing to a
finer granularity of data rates.
The XDM features three independent cards for Ethernet in mixed SDH and
Ethernet networks: the Data I/O cards (DIOB and DIOM), the Ethernet
Interface and Switching Module (EIS and EISMB), and the MPLS Carrier
Class Switch (MCSM/MCS5/MCS10). These cards are described in detail in
MPLS and Ethernet Data Solution (on page 5-1).
Introduction XDM General Description

1-24 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D00

Next-Generation SDH
SDH has evolved from a simple voice-centric technology to a next-generation
solution capable of efficiently delivering Ethernet services together with the
revenue-generating TDM service demanded by today's metro applications. The
XDM offers a migration path to the future, both by expanding today's SDH
networks to DWDM terabit capacities, and by offering data-oriented services
such as Ethernet, IP, and storage (SAN), over existing legacy networks.
Moreover, XDM networks provide a better utilization of network resources
through the migration to fully protected mesh configurations with variable
service grades and sublambda grooming of DWDM channels. This results in an
extremely cost-effective solution.
The NG-SDH architecture of the XDM enables the following advantages:
Support of any network topology, including mesh, ring, multi-ring, star,
and linear topologies
Network control through a single network management system, the
LightSoft Network Manager
Unique, full low-order/high-order nonblocking cross-connect
technology, enabling complete interconnectivity and switching capabilities
between STM-n interfaces and wavelengths
Smooth migration path from 30G through 60G to 120G capacity within
the existing shelf
Concatenated payloads for various service rates, encompassing both
contiguous and virtual concatenation
Delivering Ethernet services over SDH through standard means:
GFP
VCAT
LCAS
Classic metro networks consist of multiple rings with a few stacked rings
sharing the same physical paths. In these traditional networks, each ring uses its
own set of ADMs. Connectivity between rings is limited and expensive,
requiring the use of large digital cross connects (DXCs).
When functioning as a multi-ADM, the XDM achieves multiple ring closure
with full inter-ring connectivity. The XDM's full low- and high-order
connectivity eliminates the network bottlenecks typical of metro networks. The
XDM also saves equipment costs by substantially reducing the number of NEs
required. It simplifies the network, eases operation, increases reliability, and
reduces operating expenses.
XDM General Description Introduction

417006-2002-0H3-D00 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 1-25

The XDM replaces an array of terminal multiplexers, terminating the SDH line
and delivering lower-rate services to end users. The platforms integrated ADM
and cross-connect functionality allows the network to be built in topologies
other than rings, such as cost-effective mesh, while providing connectivity and
services from the same NE.

Figure 1-16: XDM in multi-ring closure mode
Introducing ASON in the XDM
Ethernet-based oriented services are increasingly becoming the preferred
choice for transmission network traffic. Traffic patterns and protection
requirements are shifting to shared protection schemes relying on efficient
mesh protection methods to make better use of bandwidth resources.
ECIs XDM family supports this evolution with an innovative networking
framework that minimizes operating costs while maximizing revenues. The
XDMs Automatically Switched Optical Network (ASON) architecture and
Generalized Multiprotocol Label Switching (GMPLS) protocols help carriers
reduce CAPEX and OPEX by enabling efficient optical network planning and
operation. The XDM platforms facilitate revenue-generating services, such as
Gigabit Ethernet, optical virtual private networks (O-VPN), bandwidth on
demand (BoD), and differentiated Class of Service (CoS). For example, as a
BoD application, UNI for SDH and DWDM enables client equipment to
request the creation, tear down, and modification of trails. The XDM
networking tools are based on emerging standards from ITU, IETF, and OIF, as
well as advanced distributed control plane architectures.
Introduction XDM General Description

1-26 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D00

Key components of the XDM management and control suite include:
Automatic topology discovery
Resource dissemination
Point-and-click connection provisioning
Automatic user-initiated setup
E2E PM across an SDH circuit
Network-wide E2E path protection and restoration
The XDM also provides a variety of bandwidth-efficient protection and
restoration schemes, while supporting ring, mesh, and P2P network topologies.
Protection modes include linear MSP, fast mesh restoration, SNCP, and
MS-SPRing.
Service providers know that OPEX is dramatically improved through
simplified service provisioning and network maintenance. XDMs automatic
discovery capabilities, including plug&play neighbors and resource
introduction as well as status and topology identification, help carriers reduce
OPEX significantly. The XDMs distributed dynamic routing capability allows
for rapid cost-effective addition of new nodes and additional bandwidth,
without the extensive offline operations required today.
With XDM, the network is the database.
End to End Layered Management
LightSoft is an NMS that controls multiple transmission technologies. Within
the LightSoft system, each technology is represented as a layer, such as
wavelength, SDH, and Ethernet/MPLS, in addition to the standard physical
layers including fibers and equipment. LightSoft's views of technology and
physical network layers are immediately informative, simplifying and
facilitating operator tasks. The layered architecture concept provides
comprehensive control of all equipment in your network, including:
XDM transport platforms
BroadGate

family of multiservice products for access applications


SYNCOM

multiplexer family at the STM-1, STM-4, and STM-16 layers


Third-party equipment
XDM General Description Introduction

417006-2002-0H3-D00 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 1-27

The network management suite includes full configuration, fault management,
PM, administration, maintenance, and security control functionality. These
capabilities are supported for all technologies, providing a single management
system for your SDH, wavelength, and Ethernet/MPLS networks. Within one
integrated management system, LightSoft enables you to fully control all
elements and view all aspects of the complete transport network at a glance. In
addition, multiple users can simultaneously configure the network without
causing access conflicts.
Wavelength and MPLS network configuration and provisioning tasks are
native to LightSoft. Light Path and Optical Channel provisioning, as well as
Tunnel configuration and provisioning, are easy with the intuitive
point-and-click interface.
LightSoft provides a holistic solution to your network management challenges;
simple, smart, scalable, and centralized, it provides a rich, attractive, cutting
edge front-end graphical user interface, backed up by sophisticated server side
engines. These traits make LightSoft quick to learn and easy to operate.
Complex provisioning tasks can be completed easily by novice users, thanks to
the clear, top-down, point-and-click approach. LightSoft offers on-demand
service provisioning, pinpoint bandwidth allocation, and dramatic reductions in
the equipment and operating costs usually incurred by multiple management
systems.
XDM's Unique Value Proposition
The XDM enables you to design a comprehensive transport network for an E2E
solution, from access to core, providing seamless integration of all services and
technologies. The XDM offers a unique value proposition that addresses your
needs through the advantages of modular design, converged SDH/xWDM
capabilities, carrier class Ethernet services, and a layered management system,
offering a comprehensive solution for 3G requirements.
The modular architecture of the XDM enables networks to be expanded
according to market demand. A simple configuration can easily be upgraded
with higher capacity and more functionality. This is done in-service and at very
low cost. The XDM modular architecture enhances all aspects of system
operation by offering:
Unique smooth in-service capacity scalability from 30G to 60G to 120G
in the same shelf
Modular card components that can be configured as needed, with the
same cards plugged into different shelves, tailored to individual system
requirements
Introduction XDM General Description

1-28 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D00

Unique low-order/high-order nonblocking cross-connect technology,
enabling complete interconnectivity and switching capabilities SDH-based
and Ethernet services at all granularities
Carrier class E2E Ethernet services with ingress policing, CoS
definitions, and full MPLS functionality
Multi-degree MEMS-WSS ROADM with the flexibility for any ring or
mesh topology
Multiservice support, including managed wavelength, Ethernet, storage,
PDH, SDH, POS, etc.
Software-configurable service selection, enabling smooth migration to
OTN networks through software-reconfiguration of the same interfaces as
either SDH (STM-16/STM-64) or OTN (OTU1/OTU2)
'Any-to-Any' connectivity for any wavelength to any node, through the
powerful combination of multi-degree ROADM technology, widely
tunable lasers, and all-range components
All-range optics, from metro-access through regional to long-haul WDM
service reach
Convenience of plug&play optics with automatic discovery operation
Universal optical base card for combiners and transponders that
supports multiple configurations and services - fewer spares and inventory
Universal optical components with the same optical modules used in
WDM, SDH, and Ethernet cards
Integrated GbE encryption capabilities
XDM General Description Introduction

417006-2002-0H3-D00 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 1-29

Optimal Financial Choice
The XDM converged transport network is a cost-effective, pay-as-you-grow
solution, enabling:
Increased Return on Investment (ROI) for your existing transport
network infrastructure as you add service over that network
Incremental CAPEX Investment, because with XDM carriers you can:
Add new service cards to existing transport networks
Minimize the need for very high cost Layer 3 routers by offloading
Layer 2 VPN services over the transport network
Reduced OPEX, through:
A single integrated management system for a converged service
oriented network and true remote provisioning of all layers from
wavelengths to Ethernet
E2E carrier class Ethernet services from access to core
Migration Path to the Future
All XDM platforms provide the ideal migration path to next-generation
networks:
Build-As-You-Grow strategy - XDM elements can be expanded in service
as network traffic and subscriber demands grow.
Carrier class Ethernet data-processing networks - the XDM combines
the reliability and QoS of SDH with the efficient data transport of IP,
ATM, and carrier class Ethernet. Plug-in cards can be added in accord with
actual growth, providing a smooth migration path from legacy to
data-aware networks. Bandwidth can be provisioned in a matter of minutes.
Migration path to OTN - the modular architecture of the XDM platforms
facilitates migration to standard-based optical transport networks,
software-configurable networks that enable communication for a wide
range of protocols over long distances.
Flexible terabit DWDM capacity - the XDM optical layer can be
upgraded with more channels, tighter spacing, and higher rate interfaces,
enabling a throughput of up to 1.6 Tbps or more.
LightSoft management system - a single comprehensive NMS that
provisions, monitors, and controls multiple network layers and technology
layers.
Introduction XDM General Description

1-30 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D00

Comprehensive Solution for All
Your Applications
Whether you are building a new network to supply new services, or gradually
upgrading your legacy network to address new market demands, XDM is the
solution. The platforms provide a comprehensive E2E solution featuring full
convergence, cost-effectiveness, and universality. The XDM helps you
customize your network, tailoring it to the needs of today while positioning it
to meet the demands of tomorrow. Be it metro, regional, or long-haul, the
XDM provides a complete field-proven solution for all SPs, offering the best
combination of capacity, reliability, flexibility, and economy.
XDM General Description Introduction

417006-2002-0H3-D00 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 1-31


Figure 1-17: Comprehensi ve XDM functionality

Introduction XDM General Description

1-32 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D00




417006-2002-0H3-D00 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 2-1

In this chapter:
Today's Market Opportunities.........................................................................2-1
ILECs...............................................................................................................2-3
Cellular Operators............................................................................................2-4
Utelcos.............................................................................................................2-5
Multiple Service Operators..............................................................................2-7
Carrier of Carriers............................................................................................2-9
Government and Defense Solutions..............................................................2-10
Efficient Triple Play Service Delivery..........................................................2-12
Cellular Service for a Mobile Society...........................................................2-14
Metro WDM/ROADM Networks..................................................................2-20
Regional/Long Haul DWDM/ROADM ........................................................2-21
Repeaterless Undersea DWDM Connectivity...............................................2-22
Business Services..........................................................................................2-22

Today's Market Opportunities
The XDM platforms are exceptionally versatile, allowing effective deployment
in a variety of applications for diverse customers. Their versatility extends to
their capacity, modularity, right-sized chassis, and economical cost. The XDM
boosts service revenue in all network tiers, making it a single-element solution
for almost all transport needs.
2
Market Segments and
Services
Market Segments and Services XDM General Description

2-2 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D00

The XDM platform has been designed to meet the needs of the most
demanding customers, providing solutions for virtually any SP. The XDM is
suitable for ILECs, cellular SPs, Utility Companies (Utelcos), MultiService
Operators (MSOs), Carrier of Carriers (CoCs), government and military
agencies, and SAN SPs.
For customers with their own infrastructure, like ILECs, the XDM acts as an
MSPP, DXC, and xWDM transport platform from the metro-edge to the
metro-core. A variety of carrier class services are supported, including legacy
circuit-based TDM services and emerging Ethernet services.
For SPs that do not have their own infrastructure, like Competitive Local
Exchange Carriers (CLECs), the XDM can be used as a Point of Presence
(PoP) service platform, enabling multiple services that are optimally integrated
over leased bandwidth. In addition, the XDM can easily migrate to a transport
platform whenever the SP is ready to build its own transport network.
The XDM is a multiservice package that ensures a complete E2E solution that
addresses the needs of today's network SPs.
The XDM solution features:
A single multiservice architecture that can be "right sized" to meet the
needs of every network scenario
A complete portfolio of managed business services
Seamless transition from legacy to next-generation services
The lowest total cost on the market today

Figure 2-1: XDM: E2E service
With its multiservice approach, the XDM provides the perfect infrastructure for
supporting the market's rapidly emerging trends. It is a unique fully integrated
platform that enables the introduction of new services, while continuing to
support legacy services over a converged network infrastructure with carrier
class reliability.
XDM General Description Market Segments and Services

417006-2002-0H3-D00 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 2-3

ILECs
Today, Incumbent Local Exchange Carriers (ILECs) are being forced to
re-evaluate their business plan. Cellular and cable operators are now expanding
their own service offering by moving into the traditional voice telephony
service arena. As a result of the intense competition, ILEC profitability is
decreasing and they are now searching for new ways to increase their revenues
(for example, by moving into providing media services to both private and
business customers), while reducing expenses.
One of the trends in the consumer market is the triple play, where ILECs offer
customers not only traditional voice but also broadband Internet access and
video services. Many ILECs are even looking into expanding their service
offering into the newer realm of quadruple play, adding mobility to the triple
play mix. In the future, ILECs hope to position themselves as the SPs of choice
for telephone, television, high-speed Internet, and wireless services. To
accomplish this goal, they will be looking for suppliers of network equipment
that responds to their demands for secure, reliable, flexible, and cost-effective
service.

Figure 2-2: Service aggregation
Competitive carriers must prepare today to meet the demands of tomorrows
market. There are two major approaches to reaching this new level of service:
revolution and evolution.
Market Segments and Services XDM General Description

2-4 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D00

The revolutionary approach guides ILECs to build completely new
infrastructures to meet their new market targets. The new infrastructure is
usually built on IP-based DSLAMs, high-end Ethernet switches, and routers.
These NEs must be connected through a high-speed flexible optical
infrastructure that provides logical connectivity between elements, overcoming
the constraints of the physical network. The XDM is the best choice for this
approach. It provides the high capacity and flexible connectivity necessary to
overcome the physical constraints of the real fiber topology. In addition, the
XDM can link the new network infrastructure to any legacy network
equipment.
Advocates of the phased evolutionary approach look for ways to expand their
current service offerings while carefully linking the associated costs with
service revenues. These ILECs want to offer new services in their territory
without having to build an expensive new network infrastructure in advance.
The XDM is ideal for this approach, as it enables ILECs to add functionality
when and where needed without major investments. In addition, the XDM
enables ILECs to maintain their current service offerings without interruption
or change.
Cellular Operators
One of the key challenges in building a GSM and GPRS network is to facilitate
not only the services currently being offered in such a network, but also the
gradual introduction of 3G, with the associated multiprotocol support. As the
profitability of 3G data services is sensitive to backhaul costs, the same
network must also be able to scale costs of 3G traffic backhauling in line with
associated revenues. At the network core, the introduction of 3G R4 split
architecture and IP/MPLS places even larger capacity demands on transmission
networks that must cater simultaneously to nonblocking E1, subwavelength,
and full wavelength connectivity.
Driven by the desire to increase revenues, many cellular operators offer or are
interested in offering additional nonmobile services through their
infrastructure; either services to the business community, services for other
carriers, or even services to residential users.
Cellular operators therefore need a product line that is flexible and scalable in
size and services to accommodate both the capacity growth and the increased
diversity, in protocols as well as in services.
XDM General Description Market Segments and Services

417006-2002-0H3-D00 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 2-5

Utelcos
In recent years, Utelcos have been installing more metering and monitoring
devices to improve their network visibility. This enables them to support
features like real-time control, computer networking, safe drinking water
monitoring, security access, and video for facilities monitoring. To facilitate
these added services, utilities are using fibers along their right-of-ways to meet
additional bandwidth demand, as well as upgrading their surveillance network
to support new Ethernet and IP-based services.
Utelcos have recognized that their networks can be leveraged to provide
commercial services. Many are therefore offering CoC and enterprise services,
as well as providing high-speed Internet and telephony services to the
residential market.
These new trends present a major challenge to utility network planners. The
optical transmission layer, a key layer in the network, must be carefully
designed to support current services and be future-ready for new ones. Network
planners must select transmission equipment that will support evolving utility
needs over the next few years in a very dynamic environment. Failure to plan
properly puts utilities in the dangerous position of having to constantly
redesign their network and replace transmission equipment to respond
effectively to their customer service requirements.
To support the dynamic nature of the commercial telecom environment, the
optimal network design must:
Be flexible enough to support current legacy services as well as new
advanced services.
Be able to scale its capabilities and costs to match current needs as
efficiently as possible.
Providesmooth migration as bandwidth demands increase or when
shifting from one business model to another.
Meet thecarrier class and reliability requirements expected by the
industry.
Market Segments and Services XDM General Description

2-6 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D00

ECI Telecom XDM delivers an optimized transport solution for utility
networks. It integrates ADM, data (Ethernet Layer 1/Layer 2, MPLS), and
WDM capabilities into a single carrier class platform. The multiservice
single-platform concept eliminates the need for multiple elements at the same
site, enabling utilities to move in any business direction.

Figure 2-3: ECI full solution for the Utelco network

XDM General Description Market Segments and Services

417006-2002-0H3-D00 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 2-7

Multiple Service Operators
Multiple Service Operators (MSOs) are currently coping with a market
environment where prices and revenues are dropping significantly. They are
therefore seeking new service markets to increase profitability. For example,
once simply considered a conveyer of video programming, cable broadband
infrastructure provides an ideal pipeline for the delivery of new advanced
services like VOD, interactive television, high-speed Internet access,
telephony, and business connectivity.
All these services require high-capacity networks. To support the bandwidth
demand, MSO networks use a WDM layer with most of the wavelengths
dedicated to VOD and broadcast TV and the rest used for voice and high-speed
Internet.
The XDM offers a choice of either a standalone WDM system, or WDM
integrated with MSPP functionality. The high-capacity DWDM capabilities of
the platform ensure a most cost-effective solution for all network distances,
from metro through regional to long haul, eliminating the need for multiple
WDM product lines. In addition, the XDM multi-degree ROADM and Plug &
Play capabilities simplify management of dynamic optical network
environments such as MSO networks. The XDM also provides an efficient
video distribution solution through any of the following technologies:
ROADM cards, with wavelength Add&Drop functionality
ADM on Card (AoC), with GbE Drop&Continue functionality
Ethernet over MPLS (MCS), with statistical multiplexing and efficient
multicast distribution
Market Segments and Services XDM General Description

2-8 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D00

Used as a converged MSPP and WDM system, the XDM supports business
customer services, including TDM, Ethernet leased lines, and advanced
services such as Ethernet VPNs, VPLS, lambda/sub-lambda, and storage
services to the enterprise market.

Figure 2-4: ECI full solution for the MSO network
MSOs are in a position to offer mobile backhaul services at competitive rates,
thereby increasing revenue from their core assets. A smooth and cost-effective
migration from cellular 2G to 2.5G to 3G is provided by ECI Telecom's XDM
transmission platforms, together with a series of BroadGate miniature
multiplexers that support TDM grooming for 2G/2.5G/3G networks, ATM
aggregation for 3G Rel.4 networks, and IP aggregation for 3G Rel.5 networks,
all over a single infrastructure.
XDM General Description Market Segments and Services

417006-2002-0H3-D00 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 2-9

Carrier of Carriers
In the current telecommunications marketplace where infrastructure is costly,
many customers lease bandwidth from CoCs rather than build their own. They
demand much more than simple, fixed, P2P services. They require multiple
services, bitrates, and protocols in their PoPs, as well as convergence of all
services over a single leased transmission pipe. In addition, major customers
seeking higher quality services are shifting from monitored leased lines, which
cannot be managed directly, to fully managed networks and VPNs.
CoCs lease services over their transmission infrastructure to a variety of service
providers, such as ISPs, Interexchange Carriers (IXCs), and wireless. Since
each type of operator needs different services, the CoC must support a variety
of leasing options. Typical alternatives include leasing dark fiber, providing a
wide range of interfaces (E1, STM-1, STM-4, FE, GbE, etc.) or wavelengths.
Cellular operators typically lease PDH/SDH links for backhauling traffic from
cellular antennas to the MSC. This may include TDM aggregation plus SDH
and Ethernet links for connectivity between MSC sites. ISPs mainly lease
Ethernet and SDH links to connect between ISP routers. IXCs lease dark fiber,
SDH, Ethernet, and wavelengths to connect between their central offices.

Figure 2-5: CoC services via XDM

Market Segments and Services XDM General Description

2-10 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D00

Government and Defense
Solutions
Today's complex battlefield demands a complete network solution with
zero-hour deployment and absolute certainty that all components will work
together as the legendary "lean mean fighting machine". The ultramodern
Network Centric Warfare (NCW) arena must ensure:
Flexibility
Reliability and durability
Full connectivity and wide deployment, supporting both local and remote
combined forces
Upgradeability
Rigorous information security (INFOSEC)
Aside from being technology pioneers, ECI Telecom has several noteworthy
advantages with significant INFOSEC and broad-spectrum efficiency
applications in the military communications field. These include:
On-the-shelf single-slot encryption card, replacing expensive standalone
units
Out-of-Band Data Communications Channel (OOB DCC) for maximum
management security
Battle-proven solutions using mobile shelters with exceptional strength and
total environmental control
Single-source integrated solution with no need to orchestrate between
manufacturers of various network components; ECI Telecom serves as a
single point of contact for all network needs
The XDM is a mature and field-proven product, with a robust practical design
that reflects a significant installed base of operating military networks. The
XDM rapid deployment capabilities mean that your network is up and running
ahead of time, with proven Commercial Off-the-Shelf (COTS) technology
adapted to meet rigorous Command, Control, Communication, Computer, and
Intelligence (C4I) needs without sacrificing performance, integration,
reliability, and sturdiness. And exclusive use of INFOSEC-conscious
components and management means that your sensitive applications and data
are always in the right hands.
XDM General Description Market Segments and Services

417006-2002-0H3-D00 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 2-11

ECI Telecom has the knowledge and experience to team up and supply a
multilayer, NCW-proven communications system that suits long term strategic
needs.

Figure 2-6: Comprehensi ve military solution

Market Segments and Services XDM General Description

2-12 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D00

Efficient Triple Play Service
Delivery
Consumers are looking for an easy, convenient, top-quality combination of
telephone, television, high-speed Internet, and wireless services (VoIP, IPTV,
HIS, VOD, and 3G RAN). SPs who wish to meet this demand need suppliers of
top quality network equipment that responds to their demands for secure,
reliable, flexible, and cost-effective service.
The XDM platforms address these SP requirements. For example, the XDM is
the ideal choice for triple play IPTV. Multicast technology defines an optimal
P2MP multicast tree for downstream (unidirectional) IPTV traffic, enabling
extremely efficient use of bandwidth capacity. Dedicated P2MP tunnels are
generated for IPTV multicast group content, such as TV channels. These P2MP
tunnels are designed in a multicast tree structure that defines the shortest
possible path to each Provider Edge (PE). The efficiency of the multicast
approach means that only one packet copy is required per link or branch. Using
IGMP snooping the access link carries only the sum of the subscriber-requested
channels, minimizing any unnecessary bandwidth burden on the DSLAM or
PON devices at the customer edge.
At the same time, the same infrastructure is used for bidirectional VPLS VPN
traffic, carrying the IPTV subscriber control traffic (IGMP packets) back
upstream to the edge routers, as well as transporting additional bidirectional
VOD, VoIP, and HIS services. This means that a single infrastructure can be
used to supply all triple play service requests, optimizing network efficiency
and capacity with minimal overhead in cost or complexity.

Figure 2-7: Triple play IPTV using MPLS multicast
XDM General Description Market Segments and Services

417006-2002-0H3-D00 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 2-13


Figure 2-8: IPTV service delivery network architecture
As illustrated in the preceding figures, when a user selects a channel using a
remote control, the set-top-box (STB) or home gateway (home GW) sends an
IGMP report (join request) packet upstream with information about the channel
selected. This IGMP join packet is snooped by the leaf PE MCSM device,
which, in addition to allowing the packet to proceed upstream, also updates the
forwarding table with the requested channel.
On the downstream path, one copy (packet) of each TV channel is delivered
from the MSER to the root PE MCS device. The channel content is then sent
across the P2MP tunnel multicast tree downstream to the terminating point of
the leaf PE. The leaf PE forwards to the DSLAM only those channels that have
been requested by the users and which are served by the DSLAM. The leaf PE
forwarding knowledge is based on IGMP snooping performed on the upstream.
Channels that have not been requested are blocked at the leaf PE and not
forwarded to the IPDSLAM. When a user changes a channel, an IGMP leave
request and an IGMP join request are sent upstream. The IGMP leave request
includes the information regarding the channel to be deselected. The IGMP
leave request is snooped by the leaf MCSM PE device, which, in addition to
letting the packet proceed upstream, in turn updates the forwarding table and
removes the channel from it.
The P2MP tunnel multicast tree improves network efficiency by reducing the
bandwidth and the fiber needs of the metro network. IGMP snooping reduces
the IPDSLAM bandwidth bottleneck and also allows other triple play services,
such as VoD, VoIP, and HSI, to obtain their required capacity.
Market Segments and Services XDM General Description

2-14 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D00

As illustrated in the preceding figure, connecting a backup multicast router
(second MSER) to a second root PE can be used to protect against root
PE/router failure.
Star VPLS is also connected to the backup root PE/router (second MSER). This
forms a double star VPLS that connects from the multiple leaf PE to the two
root PE devices. In this way, all P2P triple play services are protected with
<50 msec protection as well as IGMP control packets.
SPs deploying ECI Telecom's IPTV multicast solution can fully exploit metro
network bandwidth and benefit from the savings and cost effectiveness of the
IPTV solution. SPs also benefit from the MPLS assured E2E QoS IPTV
delivery and E2E carrier class capability.
Cellular Service for a Mobile
Society
The transport layer of mobile networks is divided into two segments, the core
and the RAN. At the core, the transport layer provides connectivity between
core sites and mobile components (MSCs, SGSNs, and GGSNs). At the RAN,
it provides backhauling and aggregation services for traffic generated at Base
Transceiver System (BTSs)/Node Bs routed towards the switching sites.
Today's mobile operators use a mixture of technologies and protocols. Most
operators employ two to three different wireless technologies concurrently,
introducing advanced data services based on GPRS and/or 3G (UMTS), while
aspiring for a smooth and easy migration towards all IP UTRAN (based on
Release 5).
The XDM offers a distinct advantage to mobile operators facing these changing
trends. It supports multiple technologies (TDM, ATM, and Ethernet/MPLS),
allowing optimized aggregation for any technology phase and a smooth
migration of the network layers towards future standards.
The XDM also enables huge capacity savings at the RAN with its optimized
interfaces and optimum channel utilization before interfacing with the core's
mobile components. Mobile operators who build their own network
infrastructure based on the XDM enjoy a cutting-edge advantage over ILEC
services. The integrated Ethernet capabilities of the XDM enable mobile
operators to offer enterprise users support for data services over existing
network infrastructures at minimal cost. These same XDM advantages are also
significant for CoCs offering a variety of leased-line and Customer Managed
Network (CMN) services, as described in Carrier of Carriers (on page 2-9).
XDM General Description Market Segments and Services

417006-2002-0H3-D00 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 2-15

With the XDM, SPs can now optimize their infrastructure and expand their
service offering with greatest efficiency and ease. The following figure
illustrates an XDM deployment and complete coverage of a mixed network
providing concurrent 2G, 2.5G, and 3G services.

Figure 2-9: Cellular services provisioning approach
Current 2G and 2.5G cellular services use TDM-based transmission
infrastructures with VC-12 granularity, making the XDM ideal for these
applications. Deployed as a nonblocking low-order cross connect (XC), the
XDM provides a comprehensive efficient platform for multi-ring closure or
mesh topologies, providing a complete transmission solution from the RAN to
the core.
3G networks are the wave of the future, with mobile operators migrating to 3G
as a means of increasing revenues by supplying additional value-added cellular
services that address the latest market demands. In contrast to the TDM-based
requirements of 2G and 2.5G networks, 3G networks use ATM between Node
Bs and Remote Network Controllers (RNCs).
The XDM approach effectively optimizes current cellular infrastructure
investments in the core and in the RAN, enabling operators to leverage their
investment in current 2G TDM-based SDH infrastructures with the ATM
requirements needed for 3G and emerging IP/MPLS infrastructures.
Market Segments and Services XDM General Description

2-16 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D00

Today's mobile core network comprises multiple layers:
SDH/WDM transport layer, which provides interconnectivity between
MSC/RNC sites
ATM layer, which supports delivery of 3G data services (Releases 99, 4,
and 5)
IP/MPLS layer, which supports a range of services, including:
IP-based core connectivity (Releases 4 and 5)
VoIP connectivity
Value-added services, such as Layer 2/Layer 3 VPN for corporate
customers

Figure 2-10: 3G mobile aggregation

XDM General Description Market Segments and Services

417006-2002-0H3-D00 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 2-17

Core Functionality
Legacy TDM-based services are routed natively over the existing SDH/WDM
layer. Once migration towards a completely IP-based core begins as part of the
evolution towards 3G Release 4, and/or with the introduction of VoIP (class 4
replacement followed by class 5 in the future), a combined architecture based
on the XDM and ECI Telecom MultiService Edge Router (MSER) can be
supported. New core-generated data streams (from MGW, soft switch, RNC,
SGSN, or GGSN) are carried over an MPLS layer over SDH.
The key advantage of the XDM approach is its efficiency and
cost-effectiveness: initially, the newer services require less capacity, leaving
greater system capacity for legacy TDM services. The XDM is designed to
accommodate a gradual increase in IP/MPLS traffic, and supports a granularity
of N x VC-n over the existing infrastructure. In the future, once data service
increases, a simple insertion of optical DWDM modules will enable MPLS
layer traffic transport directly over dedicated lambdas provided by the existing
XDM.
RAN Functionality
XDM platforms located at hub sites fully support service aggregation. For 2G
and 2.5G networks, the XDM performs aggregation on the TDM layer. With
the introduction of 3G ATM-based networks, the ATS card is installed
wherever it is needed to perform statistical multiplexing, as well as termination
and rebuilding of IMA groups where IMA is used by Node Bs. This efficiency
ensures further capacity savings at the RAN. Once the migration towards
completely IP UTRAN-based systems gains momentum, additional dedicated
IP cards can be inserted in the existing XDM platform, allowing operators to
smoothly introduce IP-based Node Bs in parallel with existing ATM Node Bs.
The XDM's smooth upgrade capability allows operators to leverage their
current infrastructure investment over the coming years and eliminates the need
to purchase additional standalone products, such as ATM switches and IP
routers. The XDM thus provides tremendous CAPEX and OPEX savings,
enabling maximum functionality through more efficient products, minimal
management overhead, and streamlined OAM&P.
Market Segments and Services XDM General Description

2-18 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D00

Efficient ATM Aggregation for 3G Networks
Most cellular networks are based on GSM and GPRS technologies (2G and
2.5G), which require TDM-based transmission infrastructures. However, 3G
technology is ATM-based, with the 3
rd
Generation Partnership Program (3GPP)
designating lub as the ATM interface of choice between Node Bs and RNCs.
The optimal solution is to enhance an underlying 2G TDM-based SDH
infrastructure with ATM multiplexing capabilities. The XDM is perfect for this
task, with a modular architecture that enables carriers to add 3G functionality in
stages, in tandem with actual growth. The XDM's converged technology
enables support of the existing 2G and 2.5G infrastructure while gradually
introducing 3G capabilities over the same infrastructure. The XDM platforms
are also the ideal choice when looking ahead into the future, when the next
generation of networks will be based on IP technology. The same XDM
platforms that support today's 2G, 2.5G, and 3G ATM networks enable future
migration to All IP cellular networks as well.
The XDM is the ideal platform for emerging 3G telecommunications, helping
operators preserve initial equipment investment for 2/2.5G, while adding 3G
capabilities and services with the addition of the ATM Traffic Switch (ATS)
through a simple non-traffic-affecting plug-in operation. The XDM ATS card
has been designed specifically to address the requirements of 3G cellular
networks, enabling cellular operators to smoothly integrate 3G into their
existing 2/2.5G networks while substantially reducing expenses. This
integrative approach provides cellular operators with the following outstanding
benefits:
CAPEX Savings:
Flexible adaptation to any network architecture scenario
Logical reconfiguration capability - no re-engineering of existing
infrastructure
Reduced RNC equipment costs by using STM-1 interfaces instead of
multiple E1 ports or channelized STM-1s
Small footprint - ATS functionality integrated within the MSPP as
opposed to the addition of a standalone ATM switch
OPEX Savings:
Significant reduction in leased lines cost
Increased flexibility and efficiency in provisioning TDM and ATM
services over the same links
Easy adaptation to changes in the network, number of users, and
capacity
Fewer cables, modules, and equipment shelves required, reducing
OA&M
XDM General Description Market Segments and Services

417006-2002-0H3-D00 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 2-19

Minimal Expansion Costs:
Traffic grooming from Node Bs
Statistical multiplexing of ATM traffic
Mapping of E1s into STM-1/VC-4 ATM streams
Aggregation of partially loaded ATM VC-4s towards the RNC
Termination and concentration of E1 ATM and Inverse Multiplexing
over ATM (IMA) lines into a reduced number of IMA-based E1s
Efficient operation with enhanced network management and service
provisioning
Smooth migration from 2G to 3G - ATM functionality can be added as
the need arises

Figure 2-11: ATM for 3G networks

Market Segments and Services XDM General Description

2-20 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D00

Metro WDM/ROADM Networks
For a triple play and business continuity transport network, a cost- and
size-optimized chassis can be selected to accommodate node traffic
requirements. Usually, the compact XDM-40 is installed as Customer Premises
Equipment (CPE) or a remote aggregation unit. An XDM-500 is installed at a
metro POP, and the XDM-1000 can be placed at the core nodes. Since all
elements share the same traffic, photonics, and common cards, operational
simplicity and cost optimization of spare parts is achieved. The XDM universal
base is used in all nodes, configured to support the specific service mix over
line rates of 10 Gbps or 2.5 Gbps. Multi-degree ROADM cards are used to
construct the desired ring, multi-ring, or mesh topology, and a variety of optical
line modules and amplifiers bridge the required distances.

Figure 2-12: XDM product line in a typical triple play transport network

XDM General Description Market Segments and Services

417006-2002-0H3-D00 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 2-21

Regional/Long Haul
DWDM/ROADM
The XDM all-range architecture provides the ability to cover various link
distances of up to 2,000 km (1200 miles), with a wide range of channel bitrates
and capacities offering a choice of topologies, such as ring and mesh. The
following figure illustrates an example of a recent regional DWDM network
that ECI Telecom built for a national carrier.

Figure 2-13: Typical XDM regional DWDM network

Market Segments and Services XDM General Description

2-22 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D00

Repeaterless Undersea DWDM
Connectivity
By incorporating advanced modulation techniques, powerful FEC schemes,
high power amplifiers, and more, the XDM proves highly cost effective in
repeaterless undersea applications of up to 400 km (250 miles). A recent
example is ECI Telecom's repeaterless undersea DWDM long-haul solution in
the Caribbean.

Figure 2-14: Repeaterless undersea DWDM

Business Services
Enterprise Ethernet Services
Enterprises are looking for ways to boost their productivity, growth, and
profitability. Business customers view internal and external communication as
one of the key enablers of success. Companies with multiple sites require
greater bandwidth and more flexibility. This must be accomplished even as
they attempt to lower communication expenses and ensure network robustness
and reliability. They seek a wider range of services, from dedicated P2P to
MP2MP connectivity, over dedicated or shared infrastructures.
The SPs' challenge is to respond to this trend, efficiently creating an appealing
service position while minimizing risks. Enterprises have been particularly
attracted to WAN Ethernet services, offering simplicity, familiarity, flexibility,
and more capacity at reduced costs.
XDM General Description Market Segments and Services

417006-2002-0H3-D00 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 2-23

The Ethernet services in greatest demand include:
E-Line - for P2P connectivity, used to create Ethernet-based Internet access
services and P2P Ethernet VPNs. P2P connectivity can be provisioned over
dedicated infrastructure as EPLs, and over shared infrastructure as EVPLs.
E-LAN - for MP2MP (any-to-any) connectivity designed for multipoint
Ethernet VPNs and native Ethernet TLS. Any-to-any connectivity can be
provisioned over dedicated infrastructure as EPLANs, and over shared
infrastructure as EVPLANs.
E-Tree - for P2MP Multicast Tree connectivity, designed for BTV/IPTV
services. This includes EP-Tree, EVP-Tree, and Drop & Continue multicast
tree services
The XDM is the ideal solution for carriers that want to offer enterprises a richer
set of service options and scalable bandwidth. Using existing infrastructure
maximizes revenue and profit potential.
Ethernet service with the XDM is an E2E solution that enables enterprises to
transform their individual WAN connections into a natural extension of their
internal LAN. The XDM facilitates EPL services with granularities of
VC-12/3/4 for Ethernet and GbE interfaces. Bandwidth allocation is
software-configurable through underlying technologies of LCAS, GFP, and
VCAT.
Private line services can also be provisioned over an OTN/WDM infrastructure.
Full interoperability exists between services provisioned directly over the
optical infrastructure and services provisioned over SDH. EVPL bandwidth can
be configured in 64-Kbit increments. With tiered QoS in terms of resiliency as
well as differentiated service priority, the carrier can customize the services and
SLA offered.
XDM offers private networks over dedicated or shared infrastructure.
Dedicated infrastructures are completely isolated from other traffic, as with
legacy TDM private lines. Multiple private LANs can be built over the same
physical network, each with its own logical topology, priority handling scheme,
routing tables, and encapsulation methods.
Private networks can also be offered over a shared infrastructure. With the
XDM, carriers have a choice of offering Ethernet VPN by using Q-in-Q and/or
the more sophisticated MPLS-based VPLS service schemes. Tiered quality of
service can be provisioned to fulfill individual SLA requirements. The amount
of transport bandwidth carved out for the private or shared network can be
varied per link, with granularities of VC-12/3/4.
Market Segments and Services XDM General Description

2-24 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D00

The following figure shows an Ethernet VPN with regional and branch offices
connected over a varied infrastructure to both the main corporate center and its
backup site. One branch office is connected using native Ethernet in the last
mile. Another branch office is connected via SDH, carrying both TDM and
Ethernet services. The third regional office is connected via an OTN
infrastructure. This entire scenario is implemented through the XDM platform.

Figure 2-15: Enterprise Ethernet data service via XDM

XDM General Description Market Segments and Services

417006-2002-0H3-D00 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 2-25

IP VPN Services
Aside from promoting Ethernet services, many carriers are also marketing IP
VPNs as a service to their clients. The business community is embracing this
approach, with many enterprises looking into IP VPN services as the preferred
means of connectivity between distant branches.
Traditionally, connectivity between customers and the edge of the IP VPN
network cloud is provided through PDH or SDH private lines. This type of
connectivity is relatively expensive and inflexible to changes for both the
customer and the carrier.
Ethernet can serve as the ideal vehicle for connectivity to the IP VPN cloud via
a private line service, provided over dedicated or shared infrastructure. In such
cases, connection capacity can be provisioned to match the bandwidth required
by the clients IP VPN data services. Bandwidth allocation is
software-configurable and is provided at the click of a mouse. This eliminates
site visits by field technicians because meeting the varying bandwidth
requirements does not involve equipment replacement or changing physical
interfaces.
The following figure illustrates how various branch offices can be connected to
the IP VPN network using several methods on the same platform. This network
scenario is similar to the one described in Enterprise Ethernet Services, with a
different application.

Figure 2-16: MPLS/IP VPN

Market Segments and Services XDM General Description

2-26 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D00

Storage Area Network (SAN) SPs
Tremendous growth in enterprise storage needs has created demand for reliable
and cost-effective backup and data protection solutions. Public awareness of
the need for business continuity and disaster recovery solutions is growing
dramatically, aided by an abundance of new data protection legislation.
The rising demand for data storage solutions is addressed by Storage Area
Networks (SANs). High-speed special-purpose networks connect different
types of data storage devices with associated data servers on behalf of a larger
network of users.
SANs can provide storage for residential needs, but are more commonly used
for business continuity and disaster recovery. A SAN is usually clustered in
close proximity to other computing resources, but may also extend to remote
locations for backup and archival storage. Typically, a SAN is only one
element of an enterprise's overall network of computing resources.
SAN services are usually offered as part of a larger portfolio from SPs that are
expanding their market share. To support both LAN performance and SAN
extension traffic, SPs have been operating two separate, complementary
networks. However, this can be a rather expensive solution.
ECI Telecom's SAN XT is a storage extension solution for SDH and DWDM
transport networks. It employs standard Generic Framing Procedure (GFP),
Virtual Concatenation (VCAT), and Fiber Channel Backbone (FC-BB) to
transport Fiber Channel (FC), ESCON, and GbE over SDH. Credit buffers
allow distances of up to 400 km or 250 miles.
Pairing the SAN XT with the XDM produces a comprehensive solution to the
twofold network approach, all within a single unified network structure. The
XDM also includes SAN service support directly over wavelengths. It provides
simultaneous support of full-rate FC, FICON, and GbE through native protocol
interfaces on combiners and transponders.
XDM General Description Market Segments and Services

417006-2002-0H3-D00 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 2-27

The combination of the XDM platforms with the SAN XT provides the optimal
solution for comprehensive SAN service provision.

Figure 2-17: Multi-SAN servi ces in an integrated network

Leased-Line Services
The XDM features a comprehensive set of interfaces and connectivity options
to support all leasing scenarios. It enables CoCs to offer a variety of direct
services as well as an innovative repackaging of conventional services. The
XDM's fully nonblocking 4c/4/3/1 matrix, as well as its unique handling of
data services, enable CoCs to enhance the packages offered to their customers
by providing a variety of interfaces from a single location. The XDM treats
data with encapsulation into N x VC-n, plus virtual concatenation conversion,
as well as integrated WDM capabilities. CoCs can logically separate the
interfaces offered at each location from the pipes connecting each site. This
capability eliminates the need to purchase multiple NEs, thus reducing initial
investment, OPEX, and CAPEX.
Market Segments and Services XDM General Description

2-28 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D00

The XDM enables CoCs to sell E1, SDH, wavelength, and data services right
out of the box. This is accomplished by simply plugging the required line cards
into the platforms.

Figure 2-18: Leased-line services via XDM

XDM General Description Market Segments and Services

417006-2002-0H3-D00 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 2-29

Customer Network Management
Operators leasing bandwidth from CoCs expect the latter to provide them with
full network visibility, to be able to rework the connectivity of their part of the
network in real time. Operators need to know whether there is a problem in the
network, and must be able to change the connections themselves, without
having to rely on the CoC engineers. In short, they expect to be provided with a
CNM system.
A CNM is an NMS that allows operators leasing bandwidth to view and control
their part of the network. Managed by the innovative LightSoft Network
Manager (on page 11-3), the XDM enables CoCs to offer CNM services with
transmission resources, whether low-rate VC-12 or high-rate VC-4, that can be
managed by each customer as proprietary services. This includes virtual
topology views and service provisioning. CNM clients have complete visibility
of their networks and are able to monitor, control, and maintain them, as well
as change connectivity as needed, responding in real time to dynamically
changing needs and requirements.


Market Segments and Services XDM General Description

2-30 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D00




417006-2002-0H3-D00 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 3-1

In this chapter:
Overview.........................................................................................................3-1
Control and Communications Subsystem........................................................3-2
Traffic and Cross-Connect Functionality........................................................3-8
I/O Traffic Interface Configuration Options..................................................3-10
Power Feed Subsystem..................................................................................3-15
Engineering Orderwire..................................................................................3-16

Overview
This section describes the XDM system architecture, focusing on the following
components:
Control and communications subsystems, including:
Control
Communications
Timing and synchronization
Traffic and cross-connect subsystem
I/O traffic subsystem
Power feed subsystem
Engineering orderwire
3
System Architecture
System Architecture XDM General Description

3-2 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D00


Figure 3-1: XDM card architecture

Control and Communications
Subsystem
In all XDM platforms, the controller subsystem is responsible for the following
functionality:
Internal multiplexer control and traffic processing, accomplished through
the main processor that has the main activation software and a nonvolatile
backup memory (NVM)
Internal shelf and card control
Internal communications and processing
Timing and synchronization
SDH traffic cross connection through a switch that handles aggregate and
tributary interface traffic
Double redundancy backup protection
Communication with external equipment and management.
XDM General Description System Architecture

417006-2002-0H3-D00 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 3-3

Comprehensive Data Communication Channel (DCC) functionality with
dynamic Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) routing
Alarms and maintenance
Built-In Test (BIT), described in Built-In Test (BIT) (on page 12-2)
NE software and configuration backup
Control
The main controller subsystem supports central control, alarms, maintenance,
and communication functions. It also communicates with the control processors
of the various cards using a master-slave control hierarchy.
Each controller unit contains an NVM that stores a complete backup of both the
system software and its NE configuration. Through the NVM, the XDM
benefits from superior management and control availability, ensuring that a
faulty controller unit does not affect traffic, even when only a single component
is installed.
Double redundancy in every shelf can be obtained using a redundant NVM unit
in the second, redundant controller subsystem, which is updated automatically
on an hourly basis. In addition, to maintain synchronization, the operator can
initiate a manual NVM update whenever a change occurs in the configuration.
The choice of redundant or nonredundant configuration depends on your
requirements and preferences.
In the XDM-100 product line, the controller is part of the MXC, a single card
that integrates matrix, control, and timing functionalities. In the XDM-100
product line redundant configuration, two controller units operate in parallel.
Each matrix supports full nonblocking connectivity at all VC levels. The
matrixes are connected to all I/O modules, providing 2.5 Gbps capacity to each
of them. Full one-to-one redundancy enables continuous sanity checking,
instantaneous switching as needed to maintain complete uninterrupted service,
and full redundancy protection of the Timing Unit (TMU) and power supply.
The XDM-100 platform provides several types of XCs in compliance with
applicable ITU-T and Telcordia standards. These include broadband, wideband,
and integrated broadband/wideband XCs.
You can also operate the XDM-100 in a nonredundant configuration, in which
the platform is fitted with a single nonredundant controller unit together with a
bridge card. In this configuration, the protection trails are routed via the bridge
card to additional parts of the single matrix. The bridge card bridges traffic
from I/O modules to the dedicated traffic buses located in the controller unit
with a total capacity of 10 Gbps.
System Architecture XDM General Description

3-4 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D00

In the XDM-1000 product line, the controller is implemented in the xMCP
card. The platforms can be operated in a redundant configuration, in which the
main controller card is protected with a second identical controller card. The
redundant controller card contains a database identical to the active controller
card, and operates as a full-capability standby control and communication card.
The XDM control subsystem is separate from the traffic subsystem. When
working with a redundant system configuration, traffic is not impaired if the
controller unit fails or is extracted. In this case, communication capability with
the management station is switched over to the second controller unit, as shown
in the following figure. In fact, as each unit has a separate local controller, once
started, the XDM can operate without either controller unit. In this case,
however, it loses its communication capability with the management station.

Figure 3-2: Control system block diagram
The controller subsystem enables easy software upgrades using a remote
software procedure operated from the EMS-XDM. It can store several different
software versions at the same time, and enables a quick switchover between the
different versions when required.
Communications
The main control processor subsystem is responsible for communication with
external NEs and management stations.
The xMCP and MXC cards enable comprehensive DCC functionality with
dynamic OSPF routing. The xMCP/MXC cards are responsible for
communication with external NEs and management stations. Communication
with other SDH NEs is via the DCC channel embedded in each SDH link;
communication with C/DWDM elements is via the Optical Supervisory
Channel (OSC) or inband GCC.
The XDM performs IP forwarding between all network interfaces, including
DCC and Ethernet gateway management interfaces. The DCC enables
operators to integrate several platforms with their own workstations, and to
pass this management traffic through the XDM.
XDM General Description System Architecture

417006-2002-0H3-D00 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 3-5

The XDM implements dynamic OSPF routing over the network interfaces to
automatically determine the routing table. OSPF support includes PPP
encapsulation of IP packets with HDLC framing over RS-DCC, MS-DCC, and
"Clear Channel" communication channels as defined in ITU G.7712. Support is
also provided for legacy LAN Emulation encapsulation, with full software
configurability between all communication modes.
An Ethernet interface is used to communicate with the EMS-XDM. The
controller subsystem can also communicate with a desktop or laptop PC-based
craft terminal (LCT-XDM (on page 11-21)) via a serial interface or Ethernet.
Note that this section provides only brief highlights to introduce the XDM's
sophisticated communication subsystem. For more detailed information and
component descriptions, see Network Communication Control (on page 9-1).
Timing and Synchronization
The XDM features a central synchronization subsystem that provides extremely
redundant high-quality system timing to all traffic cards and functions.
The main component in the XDM synchronization subsystem is the TMU
residing in the high-/low-order cross-connect (HLXC) or matrix I/O (XIO)
cards of the XDM-1000 product line, or the MXC of the XDM-100 product
line. Timing is distributed redundantly from the TMUs to all traffic and matrix
cards, minimizing unit types and reducing operation and maintenance costs.


NOTE: In V6.1 of the XDM, ECI Telecom has released a
new revision of the TMU named TMU_L. The TMU_L
supports all functionality of the original TMU, and in addition
is optimized to work with the stricter timing requirements of
the XIO384F and HLXC768. The TMU_L is installed
automatically where appropriate, with no action required on
the part of the user. From the user's perspective, there is no
difference in description or functionality between the TMU
and the TMU_L. In this manual the term "TMU" refers to
both the TMU and the TMU_L modules. The term "TMU_L"
refers only to the TMU_L module.
System Architecture XDM General Description

3-6 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D00


Figure 3-3: Timing distribution block diagram
The TMU and internal and external timing paths are fully redundant. The
distributed BIT mechanism ensures top performance and availability.
To provide a reliable timing source, the XDM supports multiple
synchronization reference options. Up to four of the following timing
references can be monitored simultaneously by each XDM shelf:
2 x 2 MHz (T3) external timing input sources
2 x 2 Mbps (T3) external timing input sources
STM-n line timing from any SDH interface card
E1 2M PDH line timing from any PDH interface card (XDM-1000 product
line)
Local interval clock
Holdover mode
Each input timing source has its own 8 kHz frame timing delivered to the
timing generator. The TMU selects one of the timing sources as a system
reference.
The timing signal is received from each of the I/O cards, and is routed to the
TMU through the timing reference bus. Any SIO/PIO interface card can be
selected as a reference source, transferring an 8 kHz timing signal to the TMU.
The external clock signal is routed directly to the clock unit, where the 8 kHz
signal is extracted.
XDM General Description System Architecture

417006-2002-0H3-D00 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 3-7

The TMU provides direct control over the source selection (which it receives
from the system software), and the frequency control loop. The definition of
the synchronization source depends on the source quality and on the
synchronization mode, according to the network timing topology.
The operator can remotely manage network synchronization using the
EMS-XDM, and can select and determine the priority for each XDM timing
source reference. As described, these sources can include any external
reference clock, PDH line signal, SDH line signal or internal clock. In addition,
the EMS-XDM can be used to define overall network synchronization, network
synchronization maps, and alternative synchronization maps for different
contingency events.
Synchronization references are classified at any given time according to a
predefined priority and prevailing signal quality. The XDM synchronization
subsystem synchronizes to the best available timing source using the
Synchronization Status Marker (SSM) protocol. The TMU, a Temperature
Compensated Voltage Controlled Crystal Oscillator (TVCXO), is
frequency-locked to this source, providing internal system and SDH
line-transmission timing. The system is synchronized to this central timing
source.
In addition, the system provides synchronization outputs to synchronize
external equipment within the site. There are two external T4 interfaces that
can provide 2.048 MHz/2.048 Mbps external timing as required. These outputs
can be used to synchronize any peripheral equipment or switch.
XDM supplies a 4.6 ppm stable holdover mode when all alternative
synchronization sources are temporarily unavailable.
The XDM default clock accuracy complies with applicable ITU-T and
Telcordia standards at the network level. Optional G.812 or G.811
synchronization quality can be provided using additional external units.
System Architecture XDM General Description

3-8 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D00

Traffic and Cross-Connect
Functionality
The heart of the XDM is a powerful, high-capacity, nonblocking 4c/4/3/1
high-/low-order cross-connect matrix (MXC, XIO, or HLXC). It is the
architecture of the XDM that enables its outstanding configuration flexibility.
The XDM enables efficient and cost-effective connections for VC-12
granularity for all types of equipment, from E1 to 10 Gbps. The platform's
scalability (up to 80 DWDM channels) and nonblocking 120 Gbps 4c/4/3/1
connectivity and expandability make it the platform of choice for modern
networks. When working with the XDM platform, if you can connect it, you
can cross connect it!

Figure 3-4: XDM cross-connect scheme
All interface modules (PDH, SDH, or Ethernet service cards) connect to the
central matrixes in a star configuration. The main functions of the matrix
include:
High-order and low-order SDH 4c/4/3/1 matrix XCs at the VC-12, VC-3,
VC-4, and VC-nc order, up to 768 VC-4 equivalents and connecting
STM-1, STM-4, STM-16, and STM-64 optical interfaces.
Note that different platform and matrix combinations have different
capacity upper bounds. For example, the XDM-50 supports up to
64 STM-1 equivalents. The wide range of configuration options enables
both pay-as-you-grow and build-as-you-grow flexibility.
Overhead XC of SDH overhead bytes (such as E1, E2, F1, F2, and unused).
This capability is available in all STM-n ports.
XDM General Description System Architecture

417006-2002-0H3-D00 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 3-9

The XDM is equipped with two redundant matrix cards where applicable,
depending on system capacity requirements and network configuration. Each
I/O module is directly connected to the matrix cores (both main and protection,
where applicable) and linked to every cross-connect direction and level. The
link is fully redundant at both the intrashelf and intershelf levels (if expansion
shelves are used). The I/O interface cards switch to the second core within
50 msec.
The following figure illustrates the simplified XDM internal traffic flow. It
provides an overview of both the physical and functional partitioning of the
system. Each of the blocks represents an I/O slot that can accommodate any
type of card with any bitrate and service.

Figure 3-5: System architecture

System Architecture XDM General Description

3-10 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D00

I/O Traffic Interface
Configuration Options
The capability to support and aggregate a wide range of services over a variety
of technologies and media enables operators to deploy the XDM in different
infrastructures. This ensures smooth integration with existing and future
networks and enables the XDM to support:
High-order transmission paths for high-order and low-order subnetworks
and for IP networks (for example, LAN to LAN connectivity:
GbE GbE)
Leased lines at various bitrates, from 2 Mbps up to 10 Gbps
Data and other digital services
These services are provided through a wide range of interfaces such as:
TDM: E1, E3, DS-3, STM-1 electrical interface, STM-1 optical interface,
STM-4, STM-4c, STM-16, STM-16c, STM-64
Data: Ethernet, FE (electrical or optical interface), GbE (electrical or
optical interface), 10 GbE LAN
Others: protocol independent (50 Mbps - 2.7 Gbps over C/DWDM, OTU-1,
OTU-2)
All electrical and optical I/O interfaces are fully compatible with applicable
optical ITU-T and ETSI standards. The XDM enables flexible assignment of
I/Os. Any combination of I/O cards is allowed, provided the total matrix
capacity is not exceeded.
XDM General Description System Architecture

417006-2002-0H3-D00 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 3-11

The following table lists examples of maximum numbers of services supported
on the various XDM shelves.
Table 3-1: Examples of maximum ports per shelf
Traffic type XDM-50 XDM-100
XDM-100
H
XDM-200
XDM-300 XDM-40 XDM-500 XDM-1000 XDM-2000
Over SDH (through the SDH matrix)
2 Mbps 147 252 504 --- 336 924 ---
34 Mbps 12 24 48 --- 64 176 ---
45 Mbps 12 24 48 --- 64 176 ---
STM-1 40 80 128 --- 48e/160o 176e/368o 192o
STM-4 18 40 64 --- 96 192 192
STM-16 4 12 24 --- 24 48 48
STM-64 --- --- 6 --- 4 12 12
FE Layer 1 32 64 128e/64o --- 48o +64e 96o +176e 96o
FE Layer 2 24 48 96e/96o --- 48o +64e 32o +64e +
32o/e
96o
GbE Layer 1 16 32 64 --- 48 +32o/e 96o +88o/e 96o
GbE Layer2 8 16 32 --- 12o +
28o/e
8o +76o/e 84o
Over C/DWDM (direct mapping to a wavelength, without the SDH matrix)
GbE/FC/FICON
over
2.5 Gbps
C/DWDM
--- 16 32 8 24 48 48
GbE over
10 Gbps DWDM
--- --- --- 16 48 96 96
10 GbE
LAN/WAN/STM-
64/OTU-2 over
DWDM
--- --- --- 2 6 12 12
STM-16 over 2.5
Gbps C/DWDM
--- --- --- 4 12 24 24
STM-16 over 10
Gbps DWDM
--- --- --- 8 24 48 48
Protocol-independ
ent
50 Mbps-2.7 Gbps
over C/DWDM
--- 16 16 2 6 12 12

System Architecture XDM General Description

3-12 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D00

HLXC Cards
The heart of the XDM-1000 product line is its powerful high capacity 4c/4/3/1
nonblocking HLXC matrix card. It is available in several versions:
HLXC192 capacity of 192 VC-4 equivalents (4c/4/3/1) (30 Gbps).
HLXC384 capacity of 384 VC-4 equivalents (4c/4/3/1) (60 Gbps). Note
that the HLXC384 supports 32 STM-1 streams per I/O slot (12 x 32 =384).
HLXC768 capacity of 768 VC-4 equivalents (4c/4/3/1) (120 Gbps). Note
that the HLXC768 supports 64 STM-1 streams per I/O slot (12 x 64 =768),
working with the upgraded TMU-L and xMCP-B.
The HLXC supports multiple functionalities, including:
High- and low-order SDH XC at the VC-12/3/4 and VC-4 order levels.
Space-time switching in a square architecture of 192/384/768 STM-1
equivalents with fully nonblocking XCs (4c/4/3/1), implementing time slot
interchanges for the entire matrix capacity. This optimal method provides
the following benefits:
Modular design, enabling the implementation of higher capacity XCs
using the same building blocks and components
Strictly nonblocking solutions without rearrangements in single stage
and multistage configurations
Unlimited broadcast and multicast capabilities
Multiplexer timing unit integrated into the HLXC cards.
In addition to its multi-ring support, the XDM matrix can serve both as a 4/4
and 3/3 XC, as well as a 4c/4/3/1 XC, thus providing a full network backbone
layer digital cross-connect solution. These capabilities are all contained in a
single-shelf unit. By eliminating the need for separate cross-connect nodes, the
XDM provides huge OAM&P savings.
For hardware redundancy, the XDM contains two identical HLXC matrix
cards. Both cards perform the cross-connect and node synchronization
functions simultaneously in a 1+1 protection configuration. The I/O interface
cards switch to the backup HLXC within 50 msec. Similarly, the backup TMU
takes over timing control with no traffic disruption.
The XDM design provides a migration capability from HLXC192 to HLXC384
and from HLXC384 to HLXC768. This scalability functionality gives you the
capability to increase your network capacity only as needed, in tune with your
network expansion and growth. Note that the HLXC768 fully supports all
standard service cards while simultaneously enabling use of the newer
high-density service cards.
XDM General Description System Architecture

417006-2002-0H3-D00 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 3-13

XIO Cards
The XIO is a combo card, combining HLXC matrix functionality and I/O card
functionality within a single board, thereby providing simpler and more
cost-effective ADM solutions. Use the XIO card to expand the XDM platform's
I/O capacity, freeing up two additional slots for I/O use.
Like the HLXC, XIO cards perform cross-connect and node-synchronization
functions simultaneously in a 1+1 protection configuration. I/O interface cards
can switch to the backup XIO card within 50 ms. If required, the backup TMU
can take over timing control from the operational XIO with no traffic
disruption.
As an I/O card, the XIO192 simultaneously supports up to 1 x STM-16
interface and 4 x STM-1 interfaces, or 1 x STM-16 interface and 1 x STM-4
interface. The XIO384F supports up to 4 x STM-16/OTU1 interfaces or
1 x STM-64/OTU2 interface. The XIO card and the SDH I/O cards share the
same extractable optical modules, supporting both colored and noncolored
interfaces. The XIO card supports hot insertion of I/O modules. The following
figure illustrates the simplicity with which you can slide an I/O module into the
XIO card.

Figure 3-6: XIO with slide-in I/O module
System Architecture XDM General Description

3-14 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D00

The XIO192/XIO384F card series is designed to optimize cost-effective
ADM 4/16 (XIO192) and ADM 16/64 (XIO384F) configurations, due to the
matrix's fully nonblocking low-order granularity, capable of extracting a single
E1 from a 40 x 10 Gbps DWDM signal. The XIO384F supports software
configurable interfaces for both SDH (STM-16/STM-64) and OTN
(OTU1/OTU2, including FEC and EFEC). This flexibility provides added
value, especially when working in a converged configuration where some
interfaces connect to a network without FEC while others may, for example,
close a core ring over C/DWDM with FEC. The following figure illustrates a
typical ADM64 configuration using an XIO card.

Figure 3-7: XIO384F with ADM64 configuration

MXC Cards
The MXC is the main cross connect card for the XDM-100 product line,
combining matrix, power feeding, and timing functionality. MXC capacity is
tailored to each member of the XDM-100 product line:
MXC50: Designed for the XDM-50, with a capacity of 80 VC-4
equivalents (4c/4/3/1) (12.5 Gbps)
MXC100B: Designed for the XDM-00/100H/200, with a capacity of
192 VC-4 equivalents (4c/4/3/1) (30 Gbps)
MXC300: Designed for the XDM-300, with a capacity of 384 VC-4
equivalents (4c/4/3/1) (60 Gbps)
MXC cards support the following capabilities:
Multiplexer control and traffic processing.
SDH traffic cross connection. The switch handles aggregate and tributary
interface traffic where the maximum capacity depends on the specific
platform and component configuration.
Multiplexer timing unit.
XDM General Description System Architecture

417006-2002-0H3-D00 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 3-15

Communications and control.
Alarm and maintenance.
Routing and handling of DCC channels.
Like the HLXC, the XDM supports several types of cross connects in
compliance with applicable ITU-T and Telcordia standards. These include
broadband, wideband, and integrated broadband/wideband cross connects. In
addition, the MXC accommodates the NVM compact flash memory card.
The additional MXC card provides 1+1 protection to the cross-connect matrix
and full 1:1 protection to all other functions, since the standby MXC maintains
a database identical to the active MXC. The I/O interface modules switch to the
protection MXC within 50 msec. The backup TMU takes over the timing
control with no disruption in traffic.
Power Feed Subsystem
The XDM features a distributed fully redundant power feed subsystem. Two
external power inputs are available. Two redundant Input Filter Units (xINFs)
filter and distribute the -48 VDC to -60 VDC nominal battery plant inputs to all
internal cards through fully redundant power buses. Each card generates its
own local voltage using high quality DC/DC converters. This distributed power
concept assures system upgrading and efficient heat distribution. It also ensures
maximum reliability of the power feed subsystem. This is illustrated in the
following figure.

Figure 3-8: Power distribution
Additional features of the power subsystem include:
Reverse polarity protection
Surge protection (2 kV line to line, 4 kV line to ground)
Over voltage protection
Over current and short circuit protection
System Architecture XDM General Description

3-16 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D00

Redundancy and current sharing between INF units
Power fail detection +10 msec holdup
Under voltage detection
Lightening strike protection
In the XDM-100 product line, the power feed subsystem is integrated in the
MXC, serving as an interconnection device between the modem card and
-48 VDC to -60 VDC power sources.
Note that if the power feeding source is AC, ECI Telecom offers AC to DC
convertors for up to 60A consumption with redundancy and backup batteries
sufficient for several hours.
Engineering Orderwire
The Engineering Orderwire (EOW) provides 64 kbps voice communication
channels between NEs. The XDM product line currently supports two options,
pure OW and an OverHead Unit (OHU).
The XDM EOW facility is an internal communications interface that provides
voice communication service between NE sites over SDH through 64 kbps
channels, facilitating voice contact using OW (E1 and E2) and F1 bytes. It is
based on a telephone "party line" concept, where all connected parties,
typically technicians, can participate in concurrent voice-based service calls. As
such, it enables one or more technicians to make calls simultaneously using
dedicated OW channels rather than regular SDH lines.
OW lines are normally used between a remote site and a central office during
initial installation of the system, or when no telephone line is available. All
calls are bidirectional.
The OW module supports analog-to-digital encoding, decoding, and routing
functions, thus facilitating voice contact via the E1, E2, or F1 bytes (OW or
user-channel) in the SDH Section Overhead (SOH). (Note that user-channel
functionality via F1 V11 is not supported.)
The OW paths are configured by LightSoft or the EMS-XDM and the site
phone ID number is programmed by the local LCT-XDM.
The OW capability is a fully integrated feature of the XDM product line. It
supports P2P, all-broadcast, and conference calls, allowing a person at any NE
site to communicate individually or simultaneously with the sites in the
network.
XDM General Description System Architecture

417006-2002-0H3-D00 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 3-17

The OW consists of a module plugged into a dedicated Main Equipment
Control Panel OrderWire (MECP_OW) card (in the XDM-1000 product line)
or into a dedicated I/O slot (in the XDM-100 product line) with an integrated
Dual Tone MultiFrequency (DTMF) handset, cable connections, and
configuration interfaces. No other ancillary equipment is required.

System Architecture XDM General Description

3-18 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D00



417006-2002-0H3-D00 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 4-1

In this chapter:
Overview.........................................................................................................4-1
XDM-50..........................................................................................................4-2
XDM-100 Platform Suite................................................................................4-4
XDM-300......................................................................................................4-10
Expansion Shelves for the XDM-100 Product Line......................................4-12
XDM-40........................................................................................................4-14
XDM-500......................................................................................................4-16
XDM-1000....................................................................................................4-18
XDM-2000....................................................................................................4-21

Overview
This chapter describes the shelf layout of each platform in the XDM family.
XDM platforms are organized into two groups; the XDM-100 product line, the
intelligent CWDM/MSPP for metro and edge networks, and the XDM-1000
product line, converged all-range ROADM and MSPP platforms.
XDM shelves have been designed to facilitate simple installation and easy
maintenance. Hot insertion of cards and modules is allowed to support quick
maintenance and repair activities without affecting traffic. The cage design and
mechanical practice of all platforms conform to international mechanical
standards and specifications.


NOTE: All installation instructions, technical specifications,
restrictions, and safety warnings are provided in the XDM
Installation and Maintenance Manuals. Refer to these manuals
for specific instructions before beginning any XDM platform
installation.
4
XDM Platform Layout
XDM Platform Layout XDM General Description

4-2 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D00

XDM-50
The XDM-50 provides a redundant MADM-1/4 MSPP with enhanced I/O
protection for cellular BTS/NB sites, cellular hub sites, Customer Premises
Equipment (CPE), and access networks. The XDM-50 enables carriers to
leverage their SDH installed base while offering an increasing mix of services
to their customers. The XDM-50 provides a swift response to the evolving
network requirements of access and cellular hub site, a solid solution for these
focused and highly cost-sensitive markets.

Figure 4-1: XDM-50 platform
The XDM-50 boasts a completely modular structure that is offered in a few
different shelf configurations. The basic XDM-50 shelf configuration includes
two MXC cards, supporting complete system redundancy. The XDM-50 shelf
can be expanded with a Tributary Protection Unit (TPU) mounted on top of the
basic shelf, providing protection to the I/O modules.
The basic XDM shelf is housed in a 231 mm deep, 443 mm wide, and 130 mm
high equipment cage. Platform components are arranged as follows:
One slot allocated to the CCP connection and I/O protection module,
providing 21 E1 interfaces with 1+1 I/O protection
Four slots (I1 to I4) flexibly allocated to I/O interface modules, supporting
a combination of PDH, SDH, and Ethernet services (Layer 1 and Layer 2)
Two slots allocated to the MXC cards
One slot allocated to the External Connection Unit (ECU)
Two INFs designed for power supply redundancy
One Fan Control Unit (FCU) that consists of six separate fans to support
cooling system redundancy, activated by redundant controllers located on
the two MXC cards
XDM General Description XDM Platform Layout

417006-2002-0H3-D00 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 4-3

All electrical connections are located directly in the tributary modules;
therefore, the XDM-50 does not need additional electrical interface
connections. The ECU is located beneath the MXC cards. Its front panel
features several interface connectors for management, external timing, alarms,
and OW. It also includes alarm severity colored LED indicators and selectors
plus a display for selecting specific modules and ports for monitoring purposes.
The following figure depicts the layout of the basic XDM shelf.

Figure 4-2: XDM-50 slot allocation
When working with the expanded XDM-50 shelf with I/O protection, a TPU is
mounted on top of the basic shelf, providing protection to the I/O modules. For
more information, see TPU Expansion Shelf (on page 4-12).
XDM Platform Layout XDM General Description

4-4 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D00

XDM-100 Platform Suite
The XDM-100 supports the complete range of PDH, SDH, and Ethernet
services with CWDM functionality, a versatile, scalable, and cost-effective
system that caters to virtually every need in a single compact platform.

Figure 4-3: XDM-100 platform
The XDM-100 boasts a completely modular structure that is offered in the
following shelf configurations:
Converged MSPP configuration (XDM-100), including:
Redundant configuration
Nonredundant configuration
Expanded MSPP with I/O protection through the TPU expansion shelf
Hybrid MSPP/CWDM configuration (XDM-100H), including:
Redundant configuration
Nonredundant configuration
Expanded MSPP/CWDM through the TPU/OCU expansion shelf
Pure CWDM configuration (XDM-200), with the OCU expansion shelf
XDM General Description XDM Platform Layout

417006-2002-0H3-D00 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 4-5

Converged MSPP Configuration (XDM-100)
The XDM-100 shelf is housed in a 231 mm deep, 443 mm wide, and 200 mm
high equipment cage. The exact configuration of theXDM-100 can be tailored
to meet specific client requirements. In one configuration, the XDM-100 can be
configured as an integrated MSPP platform, providing both SDH and Ethernet
services using a cost-effective approach that maximizes bandwidth utilization
while delivering both enhanced data and traditional voice services. Platform
components for the redundant MSPP configuration are arranged as follows:
Eight slots (I1 to I8) flexibly allocated to up to eight I/O interface modules,
supporting a combination of PDH, SDH, and Ethernet services
Two slots (MXC-A and MXC-B) allocated to the MXC cards, where each
MXC has two slots (A1 and A2, B1 and B2) to accommodate SDH
aggregate modules
One slot allocated to the ECU module
One FCU that consists of nine separate fans to support cooling system
redundancy, activated by redundant controllers located on the MXC cards
All electrical connections are located directly in the tributary modules;
therefore, the XDM-100 does not need additional electrical interface
connections. To support system redundancy, each MXC contains an integrated
XDM xINF unit with connectors for two input power sources. The ECU is
located beneath the MXC cards. Its front panel features several interface
connectors for management, external timing, alarms, and overhead (future
release). It also includes alarm severity colored LED indicators and selectors
plus a display for selecting specific modules and ports for monitoring purposes.
The following figure depicts the layout of the basic XDM shelf.

Figure 4-4: XDM-100 slot allocation
XDM Platform Layout XDM General Description

4-6 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D00

You may also choose to work with the XDM-100 platform in a nonredundant
MSPP configuration. This shelf is equipped with only one MXC card. The
second MXC position houses an MXC-BR card that bridges the buses of the
second slot to the I/O modules. MXC functional redundancy (for power supply,
timing and synchronization, XC, etc.) is not supported in this configuration.
However, since the MXC has two aggregate modules, SNCP, MSP, and
MS-SPRing traffic protection mechanisms are supported.
Another option is to configure the XDM-100 as an expanded MSPP with I/O
protection. In this configuration, a TPU is mounted on top of the basic shelf,
providing protection to the I/O modules, as described in TPU Expansion Shelf
(on page 4-12).
Hybrid MSPP/CWDM Configuration
(XDM-100H)
The hybrid MSPP/CWDM configuration, commonly referred to as the
XDM-100H, integrates all the functionality and features of both MSPP and
CWDM.

Figure 4-5: Hybrid MSPP/CWDM configuration (XDM-100H)
XDM General Description XDM Platform Layout

417006-2002-0H3-D00 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 4-7

The platform consists of the following:
MSPP shelf, including:
Eight slots (I1 to I8) optimally allocated for I/O transponder and
combiner modules
Two slots (MXC-A and MXC-B) allocated to the MXC cards, where
each MXC has two slots (A1 and A2, B1 and B2) to accommodate
SDH aggregate modules
One slot allocated to the ECU module
One FCU
Replacement NVM module containing the licensed hybrid-option
software
TPU/OCU mounted on top of the main XDM shelf. Either one or two
TPU/OCU units may be mounted, each including:
Four slots (OCM1 to OCM4) for supporting any mix of Mux/DeMux,
splitter/coupler, OADM, or optical amplifiers, described in OCU
Expansion Shelf (on page 4-13), or TPM modules, described in TPU
Expansion Shelf (on page 4-12)
One Tributary Control (TC) or Tributary Control and Fan (TCF)
module for carrying the power and control from the main shelf to the
TPU/OCU backplane
The card layout for the XDM-100H converged configuration is illustrated in
the following figure.

Figure 4-6: XDM-100H slot allocation

XDM Platform Layout XDM General Description

4-8 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D00

Pure CWDM Configuration (XDM-200)
The pure CWDM configuration, commonly referred to as the XDM-200, is
designed for pure CWDM carrier class optical services. This is a compact
CWDM platform for metro-access networks a cost-effective, standalone,
carrier class CWDM solution. The CWDM configuration of the XDM-200 is
based on a completely modular structure, providing a variety of data, lambda,
as well as SDH transmission services and sharing the same service cards as the
XDM-100. The platform's versatility and increased capacity make it perfectly
suited for P2P topologies and ring configurations spanning over 100 km,
accommodating up to 16 CWDM channels.

Figure 4-7: Pure CWDM configuration (XDM-200)
XDM General Description XDM Platform Layout

417006-2002-0H3-D00 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 4-9

The XDM-200 is housed in a 300 mm deep, 450 mm wide, and 275 mm high
equipment cage. The XDM-200 standard shelf is arranged as follows:
Eight slots (I1 to I8) optimally allocated for I/O transponder and combiner
modules
One slot allocated for the MXC, which houses the NVM compact flash
memory card and an OSC module, as well as an integrated xINF unit with
connectors for two input power sources
One slot allocated for the ECU
One FCU that consists of nine separate fans to support cooling system
redundancy
Optical CWDM Unit (OCU), described in OCU Expansion Shelf (on page
4-13), mounted on top of the basic shelf, including:
Four slots (OCM1 to OCM4) for supporting any mix of Mux/DeMux,
splitter/coupler, OADM modules, or optical amplifiers
One TC or TCF module for carrying the power and control from the
main shelf to the OCU backplane
Various types of transponder modules with a variety of client data and SDH
interfaces are available for the module section. A combiner module supporting
GbE, Fiber Channel (FC), and FICON data services is also available.

Figure 4-8: XDM-200 slot allocation

XDM Platform Layout XDM General Description

4-10 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D00

XDM-300
The XDM-300 is designed for metro aggregation applications and cellular
Radio Access Network (RAN) infrastructure. The platform is optimized for
cost- and physical size-effective implementation of MADM-64 and MADM-16
NEs. The XDM-300 platform has been designed to meet the needs of the most
demanding customers, providing a complete solution for metro demands and
services. It provides an optimized migration path from TDM to Ethernet-based
services and from 2.5G to 10G networks. The XDM-300 is also versatile, with
modular cards that can be used interchangeably in all members of the
XDM-100 product line.

Figure 4-9: XDM-300 platform
XDM General Description XDM Platform Layout

417006-2002-0H3-D00 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 4-11

The XDM-300 is a small footprint subrack that fits both ETSI and 19 racks.
Its dimensions are 325 mm high, 450 mm wide, and 300 mm deep. The
XDM-300 standard shelf is arranged as follows:
Eighteen slots (I1 to I18) flexibly allocated to up to eighteen I/O interface
modules, including 2 SDH quad I/O modules (wide slots) and 16 tributary
interface modules (PIM, SIM, and Ethernet cards DIOM, EISMB, and
MCSM). These modules enable a combination of PDH, SDH, and Ethernet
services.
Two slots (MXC-A and MXC-B) allocated to the MXC300 cards.
One slot allocated to the ECU300 module.
One FCU300 that consists of eight separate fans to support cooling system
redundancy, activated by redundant controllers located on the MXC cards.
The XDM-300 can be expanded through three expansion shelves, using TPU
shelves to add tributary protection capability, and/or OCU shelves to add
CWDM modules (Mux/DeMux, OADM, optical filters).

Figure 4-10: XDM-300 slot allocation

XDM Platform Layout XDM General Description

4-12 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D00

Expansion Shelves for the
XDM-100 Product Line
TPU Expansion Shelf
TPU expansion shelves can be added to the basic XDM-100 product line
platforms to add protection to electrical I/O modules. The TPU shelf attaches to
a connector on top of the main XDM shelf, which provides the power and
control buses required for its operation.
The TPU is a 231 mm deep, 443 mm wide, and 75 mm high unit. It connects to
a connector on top of the XDM shelf that provides the power and control buses
required for its operation. When the TPU is not installed, a protection cap
covers this connector. The TPU modules are distributed as follows:
Four slots flexibly allocated for optical networking modules or TPMs
(single-slot or double-slot modules are supported)
One slot allocated for a TC or TCF module
Each TPM is connected to the operating and protection modules of the XDM
shelf respectively. If a failure is detected in one of the operating I/O modules,
the XDM control system sends control signals to the appropriate TPM relays to
switch traffic from the operating I/O module to the protection module. Several
types of TPM modules for 1:1 or 1:3 protection schemes are supported. For
more information, see I/O Protection Modules (on page 7-10).
The TC or TCF is connected to the DC and control buses of the MXC cards via
the TPU backplane. It controls the switching of traffic from the main to
protection I/O module by relays in the corresponding TPM. In addition, the
TCF has four fans that provide cooling air to the modules installed in the TPU
(optional).
The TPU standard layout is illustrated in the following figure.

Figure 4-11: TPU shelf

XDM General Description XDM Platform Layout

417006-2002-0H3-D00 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 4-13

OCU Expansion Shelf
An OCU can be added to the XDM-100H, XDM-200, and XDM-300
platforms, housing passive optical expansion modules and providing interfaces
to the CWDM network when the XDM is configured as a WDM platform. The
modules are connected externally to the I/O modules, at the front of the unit.
The OCU can support any combination of up to four Mux/DeMux, OADM, or
passive splitter/coupler modules. The Mux/DeMux and OADM modules may
include eight (up to sixteen in the future) different CWDM wavelengths, some
featuring a built-in OSC filter, as follows:
Mux/DeMux for four C band CWDM lambdas, with a 1310 nm OSC filter
Mux/DeMux for four S and L band CWDM lambdas, without an OSC filter
Mux/DeMux for eight C, S, and L band CWDM lambdas, including a
1310 nm OSC filter
Mux/DeMux for sixteen O, C, S, and L band CWDM lambdas (future
release)
Expandable Mux/DeMux for four C band CWDM lambdas, including a
1310 nm OSC filter, expandable to support eight lambdas
Optical AB-type OADM1 modules for adding/dropping any one of eight
CWDM lambdas, including a 1310 nm OSC filter
Dual-lambda AB-type OADM2 modules for several lambda pairs,
including a 1310 nm OSC filter
The coupler/splitter modules include:
Quad coupler/splitter (50%) for SMF (single-mode fiber) 850 nm
Quad coupler/splitter (50%) for MMF (multimode fiber) 1310 nm
XDM Platform Layout XDM General Description

4-14 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D00

XDM-40
The XDM-40 is a modular WDM and OTN platform, designed for broadband
metro-access and CPE applications. The XDM-40 enables SPs to build E2E,
flexible, standards-based OTN solutions that address the growing demand for
business data transport. It gives SPs the flexibility to take full advantage of
their existing networks while providing a smooth and fully supported migration
to IP over optics. The XDM-40 is ideal for transporting traffic to network hubs,
featuring a small footprint and flexible packaging, with high availability from
CWDM to DWDM including pluggable optics, and offering WDM capabilities,
optimal support for 1 Gbps and 10 Gbps Ethernet, storage extension, and
support for SDH-all on a single platform. The XDM-40 also functions as an
optimal amplification element in regional/long-haul networks.

Figure 4-12: XDM-40 platform
The compact XDM-40 shelf is located in a 285 mm deep, 447 mm wide, and
256 mm high equipment cage. Platform components are arranged as follows:
Two slots (I1 and I2) flexibly allocated to I/O optical transponders,
combiners, and/or amplifiers
Two slots (M1 and M2) allocated to DWDM/OADM, optical amplifiers,
and accessories modules
One slot (C1) allocated to the xMCP_B card
One slot (C3) allocated to the MECP card, for user and management
interfaces
XDM General Description XDM Platform Layout

417006-2002-0H3-D00 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 4-15

Two xINFs designed for power supply redundancy
One ECM to facilitate routing of external management interfaces,
connecting the management, OHA, and OW interfaces to the active xMCP
One xFCU that consists of three separate fans to support cooling system
redundancy, as well as the power supply for the fan unit (PSFU)
The FCU at the right side of the shelf provides cooling air to the system. It
contains nine separate fans, which add to system redundancy. Air is drawn in
by the fans from the right side of the chassis, and is exhausted through the
horizontally mounted cards and modules and through the left side of the
chassis. The fan assembly is hot-swappable.
The XDM-40 standard card layout is illustrated in the following figure.

Figure 4-13: XDM-40 slot allocation

XDM Platform Layout XDM General Description

4-16 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D00

XDM-500
The XDM-500 is a compact optical platform optimized for the metro-edge,
designed for medium interface capacities and street-cabinet installations. The
XDM-500 can be configured as a pure MSPP (up to n x STM-64), as a
converged platform with both MSPP and optical capabilities, or as a pure
C/DWDM and ROADM. It provides traditional broadband services and highly
advanced data services like adaptive rate GbE, sophisticated Layer 2 Ethernet,
POS, and lambda. It can be used either as a simple ADM, or as an edge
multi-ADM/TM shared between several rings, providing distributed cross
connectivity and concentration of low-rate services.

Figure 4-14: XDM-500 platform
The XDM-500 compact shelf is located in a 285 mm deep, 450 mm wide, and
725 mm high equipment cage. Platform components are arranged as follows:
Six slots (IC1 to IC6) flexibly allocated to I/O cards and/or transponders
(depending on the configuration)
Four slots (#2 to #5) allocated to electric interface connection modules or
DWDM/OADM modules
Two slots (X1 and X2) allocated to the HLXC or XIO matrix cards
XDM General Description XDM Platform Layout

417006-2002-0H3-D00 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 4-17

Two slots (C1 and C2) allocated to the xMCP cards
One slot (C3) allocated to the MECP card, for connecting the OHA and
OW interfaces to the active xMCP card
Two xINFs designed for power supply redundancy
Three xFCUs to support cooling system redundancy
The XDM-500 standard card layout is illustrated in the following figure.

Figure 4-15: XDM-500 slot allocation

XDM Platform Layout XDM General Description

4-18 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D00

XDM-1000
The XDM-1000 is designed for high-capacity central exchange applications,
optimized for the regional core, and features unprecedented port densities. The
XDM-1000 can be configured as a converged platform with both MSPP and
optical capabilities, as pure MSPP (up to n x STM-64), or as a pure C/DWDM
and multi-degree ROADM. As a DXC, it forms a fully protected mesh core; as
a multi-ADM, it simultaneously closes STM-64 core MS-SPRing and multiple
edge SNCP rings; as a DWDM, it enables migration from SDH to DWDM
networks, providing high capacity and sublambda grooming and reliability.
The XDM-1000 provides connectivity between central office legacy switches
from E1 to STM-1 trunks, and between POPs over native FE, GbE, SAN, or
POS, while efficiently grooming traffic from edge rings.

Figure 4-16: XDM-1000 platform
XDM General Description XDM Platform Layout

417006-2002-0H3-D00 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 4-19

The standard XDM-1000 is located in a 285 mm deep, 450 mm wide, and
1100 mm high shelf with a modules cage and a cards cage section. The
XDM-1000 standard shelf is arranged as follows.
Twelve slots (I1 to I12) flexibly allocated to I/O cards and/or transponders,
depending on the configuration.
Eleven slots (M1 to M11) allocated to electric interface connection
modules or DWDM/OADM, optical booster, optical preamp modules.
Two slots (X1 and X2) allocated to the HLXC or XIO matrix cards. Note
that HLXC cards in these two slots support greater matrix functionality,
enabling greater port capacity per slot, while XIO cards in these two slots
provide an additional two slots' worth of I/O functionality, enabling greater
port density per slot.
Two slots (C1 and C2) allocated to the xMCP cards.
One slot (C0) allocated to the MECP card, for user and management
interfaces.
Two xINFs designed for power supply redundancy.
Three xFCUs to support cooling system redundancy.
The modules cage contains 11 double-slot connection modules. Electrical I/O
cards installed in the cards cage interface with the XDM-1000 shelf via
interface connection modules installed in the modules cage. The modules are
extractable, thus allowing a flexible assignment of physical I/O ports.
Optical I/O cards utilize internal slide-in I/O modules for signal interfacing and
do not require connection modules in the modules cage. The free modules cage
slots in optical systems can therefore be allocated to DWDM or OADM
multiplexing and amplification modules.
XDM Platform Layout XDM General Description

4-20 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D00

The XDM-1000 standard card layout is illustrated in the following figure.

Figure 4-17: XDM-1000 slot allocation

XDM General Description XDM Platform Layout

417006-2002-0H3-D00 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 4-21

XDM-2000
Optimized for pure DWDM and converged optical applications, the
XDM-2000 transport platform is designed for the metro and metro-regional
core. It is a high-density DWDM platform that provides intelligent sublambda
grooming and optimum wavelength utilization. As the most flexible optical
switch on the market today, the XDM-2000 can be configured as a pure
C/DWDM and ROADM, as a converged platform with both MSPP and optical
capabilities, or as a pure MSPP (up to n x STM-64). The XDM-2000 transports
up to 400/800 Gbps (upgradable to 1.6 Tbps and above), and integrates the
most advanced optical units with a variety of interfaces and a sophisticated
high-capacity matrix in one small low-cost package.

Figure 4-18: XDM-2000 platform
XDM Platform Layout XDM General Description

4-22 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D00

The XDM-2000 shelf is located in a 285 mm deep, 450 mm wide, and 775 mm
high equipment cage. Platform components are arranged as follows:
Twelve slots (I1 to I12) flexibly allocated to optical modules (transponders
and/or other optical amplifiers)
Two slots (X1 and X2) allocated for Mux/DeMux cards or for matrix cards,
depending on the system configuration
Two slots (C1 and C2) allocated to the xMCP cards
One slot (C0) allocated to the MECP card, for user and management
interfaces
The XDM-2000 standard card layout is illustrated in the following figure.

Figure 4-19: XDM-2000 slot allocation


417006-2002-0H3-D00 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 5-1

In this chapter:
MPLS Technology...........................................................................................5-1
User Benefits with the MCS/M.......................................................................5-3
MCS/M's Unique Value Proposition...............................................................5-4
Applications and Services...............................................................................5-5
MPLS Protection Schemes............................................................................5-16
MPLS/Ethernet Card Summary.....................................................................5-19
Ethernet Interfaces.........................................................................................5-31

MPLS Technology
Based on the tremendous continued growth of data traffic, the demand for
complete service offerings, and network convergence strategies, many network
operators have started to deploy Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS)
networks. In an MPLS network, Ethernet interfaces and Ethernet/MPLS
services are the main toolbox supporting the network operator's strategic goals.
MPLS addresses the needs of SPs in the metro area by providing a
cost-effective solution that supports all services with carrier class capabilities
and significant OPEX and CAPEX reduction.
Benefits of MPLS for network operators include:
Reduced OPEX through integration of multiple networks over a single
converged MPLS network.
Increased revenue generation for both current and new Ethernet services,
such as VPLS VPNs (E-LAN), E-Lines, and Multicast Trees.
5
MPLS and Ethernet Data
Solution
MPLS and Ethernet Data Solution XDM General Description

5-2 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D00

Assured QoS for triple play, IPTV, VOD, business, and other services
through MPLS TE capability.
Efficient provisioning of customer services and VPNs.
SLAs extended with meaningful performance-related criteria.
Enhanced network and service scalability and performance.
Secured services through MPLS tunneling and VPN segregation.
MPLS technology is used to carry Ethernet service across the network metro
and core. MPLS as a transport layer for Ethernet service, (rather than using
Ethernet as both transport and service layers), enhances Ethernet service
through:
Increased Ethernet scalability: MPLS supports hundreds of thousands of
Ethernet services, removing VLAN and MAC scalability limitations.
Enhanced Ethernet QoS: MPLS-TE and Connection Admission Control
(CAC) solutions enable Ethernet service to offer differentiated services
with the appropriate QoS or experience. This is accomplished through
MPLS-TE controlling required service parameters such as delay, delay
variation, and loss.
Enhanced Ethernet Service protection: MPLS supports <50 msec link
and node protection, the lowest common denominator requirement for all
service protection.
Introducing the MPLS/Ethernet Service Cards
The XDM families of MCS, EIS, and DIO service cards support the complete
range of Ethernet and MPLS services. This chapter introduces the XDM's
MPLS and Ethernet service cards, describing features and benefits of the cards
themselves, as well as the various applications and services that these cards
support.
XDM General Description MPLS and Ethernet Data Solution

417006-2002-0H3-D00 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 5-3

User Benefits with the MCS/M
The MPLS functionality provided by XDM MCS/M cards offers operators the
following benefits:
MCS5 card works as a Provider Bridge (QinQ) and is also upgradable to a
Provider Bridge +MPLS.
MCSM and MCS10 cards provide an E2E MPLS solution.
Increased Operator Revenue with standard MPLS-based Ethernet
services:
VPWS-P2P service using Martini encapsulation.
VPLS-LAN over the metro with MP2MP service in a full mesh and/or
hub and spoke scheme.
P2MP drop-and-continue multicast for BTV/IPTV and E-Learning
services.
True Carrier Class Solution, supporting:
Complete scalability, enhancing Ethernet scalability by removing the
limits of VLAN and MAC capacity requirements.
<50 msec Protection, using MPLS FRR link and node protection, dual
homed/attached protection, Ethernet UNI/NNI Link Aggregation
(LAG) and EoS LAG, and Fast Input/Output Protection (IOP) for card
protection.
Hard QoS, using MPLS TE and other mechanisms such as
classification, VLAN manipulation, policing, Weighed Random Early
Discard (WRED), scheduling, and shaping.
Full OAM support of Path OAM and Link OAM for fault localization.
Comprehensive security, with each client separated from the other and
also preventing MAC DoS attacks on clients.
Easy-to-use network management through the LightSoft NMS, with
point-and-click service creation and management including service
parameters and attributes. LightSoft uses preprovision CAC to check
for resource availability on service provisioning. Operators can also
define Shared Risk Source Group (SRLG) to enhance and guarantee
protection.
MPLS and Ethernet Data Solution XDM General Description

5-4 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D00

MCS/M's Unique Value
Proposition
The MPLS functionality provided by XDM MCS/M cards offers the following
unique value propositions:
Reduced OPEX and CAPEX through convergence of multiple networks
(TDM, Carrier Class Ethernet, WDM) and multiple services.
Lower cost per port compared to other carrier-class solutions.
SP revenue generation through any market segment with any service:
Triple play: VoIP, IPTV, VoD, and HIS.
Business: VPLS, VPWS, P2P EoS.
Mobile aggregation: 3G Ethernet-based services.
Wholesale: BW services, leased line services.
Top down point-and-click E2E Service Management.
Extended network management: CAC, SRLG, and Protection.
E2E MPLS from access to core, for Ethernet carrier-class solution and
assured QoS of service delivery.
Client security segregation, with each client within its own Ethernet
switch, using thousands of virtual switches.
Optimized triple play solution and IPTV bandwidth efficiency for
CAPEX saving.
Software upgradable for future services (NPU-based).
XDM General Description MPLS and Ethernet Data Solution

417006-2002-0H3-D00 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 5-5

Applications and Services
The XDM family of Ethernet and MPLS full service cards support the services
necessary for today's network requirements, including the full range of E-Line
(EPL/EVPL) and E-LAN (EPLAN/EVPLAN) services.
E-Line (EPL/EVPL) Service
E-Line service is used for Ethernet P2P service connectivity in two
approaches. Ethernet Private Line (EPL) services use dedicated bandwidth
for single users (Ethernet Layer 1). Ethernet Virtual Private Line (EVPL)
services use shared bandwidth with service multiplexing and multiple users
(Ethernet Layer 2). These services are provided through the following cards:
MCS/M supports both EPL and EVPL service. The cards can be configured
to operate as either MPLS cards or as Ethernet Provider Bridge cards.
EIS/MB supports both EPL and EVPL services.
DIOB/DIOM supports EPL services.
MPLS-based VPWS for Ethernet P2P
EPL/EVPL
Virtual Private Wire Service (VPWS) uses P2P tunnels originating at the
source PE devices, traveling through Transit Ps, and terminating at the
destination PE. As illustrated in the following figure, theSource PE pushes
two MPLS labels into each customer's Ethernet packet as it enters the tunnel.
The inner MPLS label is the VC-label, and represents the VPN to which the
packet belongs. The VC label serves as a demultiplexer field, allowing
aggregation of multiple VPNs into a single tunnel and thereby providing a
scalable tunneling solution rather than a dedicated tunnel per VPN. The outer
MPLS label is the Tunnel label, and represents the tunnel to which the packet
is mapped.
MPLS and Ethernet Data Solution XDM General Description

5-6 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D00

The Transit P provider devices simply swap the MPLS labels from the source
port to the destination port. The Destination PE terminates the tunnel and
identifies the packet VPN based on the VC label. The Destination PE then
looks up the MAC DA of the packet to find the destination Ethernet port,
removes (pops) the two MPLS labels, and forwards the packet to the Customer
Equipment (CE) port(s).

Figure 5-1: P2P tunnel example

Ethernet-based P2P EPL
Ethernet Private Line (EPL) service ensures a seamless migration path from
voice-oriented to data-oriented networks by offering scalable data capabilities.
As such, data networks can be created within SDH networks, integrating the
added value of a typical Ethernet network while maintaining the original SDH
network reliability, robustness, and QoS that carriers demand.
An EPL's P2P service is similar to traditional TDM service in that it allows
Ethernet to be used as a simple plug-in to an existing network delivering
TDM-based services. EPL service over SDH guarantees full connectivity and
flexibility:
Each Ethernet signal can be configured independently, providing full
network connectivity
Traffic is transmitted P2P, in ring, mesh, or any other topology
Each Ethernet signal is transmitted over a separate trail, guaranteeing
SDH/WDM network security levels
The XDM enables SPs to build a scalable infrastructure that ensures consistent
IP service throughput, facilitating capacity increases without disrupting
existing services.
XDM General Description MPLS and Ethernet Data Solution

417006-2002-0H3-D00 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 5-7

The XDM's DIO card set provides the following functional features and
benefits:
Adaptive rate control for each connection - from 2 Mbps to the full GbE
in appropriate increments (VC-12/3/4).
Virtual Concatenation (VCAT) - for variable bandwidth piping down to 2
Mbps, with the capability of capacity distribution across multiple fibers and
optical carriers, guaranteeing data transfer over any SDH infrastructure and
meeting the ITU-T G.707 standard.
Link Capacity Adjustment Scheme (LCAS) mechanism- for in-service
variation of pipe bandwidth and optional reuse of protection bandwidth.
The capacity of the Ethernet link automatically decreases if one or more
VCs fail, and automatically increases when the network fault is repaired,
meeting the ITU-T G.7042 standard.
Generic Framing Procedure (GFP) - for industry-standard mappings
meeting the ITU-T G.7041 standard.
Multitasking card sets - the same cards can be used for multiple levels of
service:
GbE and FE are supported within the same card.
VC-12/3/4 rates are supported within the same card.
Network protection - SDH and/or WDM protection mechanisms,
including SNCP and MS-SPRing, are applied to each connection.
Easy connectivity - point-and-click, E2E, real time, P2P, as in any SDH
trail.
Full interoperability between all Ethernet cards - including the latest
MCS5 card and the BroadGate platforms, as well as seamless interfacing
with external third-party hardware.
Seamless integration and complete backward compatibility with the entire
product line - including the complete XDM family of platforms and the
BroadGate technology.
MPLS and Ethernet Data Solution XDM General Description

5-8 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D00


Figure 5-2: EPL service

E-LAN (EPLAN/EVPLAN) Service
E-LAN service is used for Ethernet MP2MP service connectivity in two
approaches. Ethernet Private LAN (EPLAN) services use dedicated
bandwidth for single users. Ethernet Virtual Private LAN (EVPLAN)
services use shared bandwidth with service multiplexing and multiple users.
These services are provided through the following cards:
MCS/M supports both EPLAN and EVPLAN service. The cards can be
configured to operate as either MPLS plus Ethernet Provider Bridge cards
or as Ethernet Provider Bridge cards.
EIS/MB supports both EPLAN and EVPLAN services.
XDM General Description MPLS and Ethernet Data Solution

417006-2002-0H3-D00 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 5-9

MPLS-based VPLS for Ethernet MP2MP
Virtual Private LAN Services (VPLS) provide connectivity between
geographically dispersed customer Ethernet sites across an SP network,
creating a virtual LAN network. The interconnected customer sites form a
private MPLS VPN. VPLS uses the same tunnels and pseudo-wires used in
VPWS service, using MP2MP connectivity. In the following figure, the three
customer sites are connected via the provider's VPLS network, and can
communicate among themselves using standard Ethernet bridging and MAC
learning as if they were all on a single LAN.

Figure 5-3: VPLS service example
Sites that belong to the same MPLS VPN expect their traffic to be forwarded to
the proper location. This is accomplished through the following means:
Establishing a full mesh of MPLS label switched paths (LSPs) or tunnels
between the PE sites.
MAC address learning on a per-site basis at the PE devices.
MPLS tunneling of customer Ethernet traffic over pseudo-wires (VPN)
while it is forwarded across the provider network.
Packet replication across MPLS tunnels at the PE devices, for
multicast/broadcast-type traffic and for flooding unknown unicast traffic.
MPLS and Ethernet Data Solution XDM General Description

5-10 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D00

Ethernet-based MP2MP
XDM platforms provide Ethernet LAN (E-LAN) services over SDH at
minimum cost and maximum efficiency. By integrating SDH and Ethernet
layers, the XDM achieves enhanced reliability and protection. This solution
provides an ideal multiservice platform, enabling ISP connectivity with a
mixture of full-mesh connectivity and dedicated services by using the same
cards and ports.
The XDM EIS/MB and MCS/M cards provide the following features and
benefits:
High performance, wire speed Layer 2 switching for metro-core and
access networks in ring, multi-ring, star, and mesh topologies.
Provider Bridge capabilities (802.1ad), with double tagging, QinQ-based
switching for P2P, P2MP, and MP2MP connections - fully transparent and
secure Ethernet service over the provider's EoS network.
Up to eight QoS levels assigned per port, VLAN, or client CoS,
maximizing SLA diversity and optimizing packet handling throughout the
network.
High granularity policing and priority marking (802.1p) per SLA,
enabling the provider to control the amount of bandwidth for each
individual user and service. Two-rate three-color policing enhances the
service offering, combining high priority service with best effort traffic for
the same user.
Congestion avoidance mechanism based on user-configurable WRED.
Drops low priority packets first, preventing the network from reaching the
point where congestion increases the higher priority packet loss rate.
Remote Network Monitoring RMON-based PM.
Security capability per customer VPN.
Low cost per port, achieved with statistical service multiplexing, offering
up to 24 interfaces of 10/100/1000BaseT electrical per slot and Small Form
Factor Pluggable-based (SFP) optical FE/GbE ports.
Software upgrade to full MPLS support with the MCS cards for network
scalability and TE in VPLS core networks.
The EISMB and MCS also use multiple EoS ports to connect the cards over
SDH interfaces. EoS capabilities include:
XDM General Description MPLS and Ethernet Data Solution

417006-2002-0H3-D00 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 5-11

Standard-based GFP and VCAT, meeting the ITU-T G.707 standard, for
interoperability with the DIO card set, XDM-100 product line data cards,
ECI Telecom's BroadGate components, and third-party equipment. This
results in an E2E solution that integrates Layer 1 services at the access
layer with Layer 2 services at the metro-core.
Adaptive rate control for each connection (from 2 Mbps and up to
2.5 Gbps in VC-12/3/4 increments).
LCAS protection - automatic adjustment of the Ethernet link capacity,
decreasing in case of VC failure and increasing when the network fault is
repaired, meeting the ITU-T G.7042 standard.
Network protection - including SNCP and MS-SPRing on each
connection.
Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol (RSTP) for loop resolution and restoration
in ring and multi-ring configuration.
Equipment protection - carrier class, with no single point of failure.

Figure 5-4: E-LAN service

MPLS and Ethernet Data Solution XDM General Description

5-12 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D00

E-Tree (Rooted-Multipoint) Service
E-Tree service provides Ethernet P2MP multicast tree connectivity, enabling
very efficient bandwidth use for broadcast TV or IPTV as well as E-Learning
applications using, for example, multicast/broadcast packet video. With this
approach, a single packet copy can be sent to all endpoints (leaves) that share a
single tree branch. Ethernet Private Tree (EP-Tree) services use dedicated
bandwidth with a single root and multiple leaves. Ethernet Virtual Private
Tree (EVP-Tree) services use shared bandwidth with rooted-multipoint
connectivity across a shared infrastructure.
MCS/M cards support both EP-Tree and EVP-Tree services for IPTV/BTV
and E-Learning capabilities.
MPLS-based P2MP multicast tunnels for
triple play IPTV/BTV and E-Learning
services
XDM platforms provide Ethernet Private Tree (E-Tree) services with
maximum efficiency at minimum cost. Metro network optimization is achieved
by an efficient MPLS P2MP multicast tree carrying IPTV services, as well as a
star VPLS for other triple play services such as VoD, VoIP, and HSI services.
The triple play service delivery network architecture includes the following
components:
E2E MPLS carrier class capabilities. MPLS capabilities assure the QoS
of IPTV service delivery over a dedicated P2MP tunnel multicast tree, as
well as reliable <50 msec FRR protection.
Multiple distributed MCS PE service edges (leaf PE). Leaf PEs
terminate the IPTV P2MP tunnel multicast tree branches on downstream
traffic, as well as handling IGMP snooping, policing enforcement, and TE
functions on upstream traffic. This gives SPs the ability to scale their IPTV
network.
Efficient IPTV multicast distribution. IPTV distribution utilizes an
efficient drop-and-continue methodology, using an MPLS P2MP multicast
tree to deliver IPTV content over the metro aggregation network. This
allows SPs to efficiently utilize bandwidth over the metro aggregation
network. It also enables simple scaling capabilities as IPTV service
demands increase.
IGMP snooping at the PE leaf service edges enables delivery of only the
IPTV channels requested by the user, further enabling easy scalability as
the number of IPTV channels grows.
XDM General Description MPLS and Ethernet Data Solution

417006-2002-0H3-D00 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 5-13

Star VPLS topology to carry the VoIP, VoD, and HSI P2P services. The
star VPLS is built over the aggregation network from the root PE
(aggregator) device that connects to the edge router/BRAS to the leaf PE to
the IPDSLAM. This star VPLS also carries the bidirectional IPTV control
traffic that is either sent by the router downstream (IGMP query), or sent
by the subscriber set-top-box (STB) upstream (IGMP join/leave requests).
E2E interoperability with the DSLAM and MSER, through either the
Ethernet or the MPLS layer. The P2MP multicast tree continues from the
PIM-SM multicast tree over the core network.
A P2MP tunnel originates at the source PE and terminates at multiple
destinations PEs. This tunnel has a tree-and-branch structure, where packet
replication occurs at branching points along the tree. This scheme achieves
high multicast efficiency since only one copy of each packet ever traverses an
MPLS P2MP tunnel. An MCS can act as both a transit P and as a destination
PE within the same P2MP tunnel, in which case it may be called a Transit PE
(not Transit P).
The following figure illustrates a P2MP multicast tree with PE1 as the source
PE (root), P1 as a transit P, PE2 as a transit PE (leaf PE), and PE3, PE4, and
PE5 as the destination or leaf PEs. The link from PE1 to P1 is shared by all
transit and destination leaf PEs; therefore the data plane sends only one packet
copy on that link.

Figure 5-5: P2MP multicast tunnel example
MPLS and Ethernet Data Solution XDM General Description

5-14 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D00

The following figure illustrates a second example of a P2MP multicast tree,
arranged over a multi-ring topology network. The multicast tunnel paths are
illustrated in this figure on both a physical layout and in a logical presentation.
In this example, PE1 is the source PE (root), P1 and P2 are transit Ps, PE2,
PE3, PE5, and PE6 are transit leaf PEs, and PE4 and PE7 are destination leaf
PEs.

Figure 5-6: P2MP multicast tunnel example - physical and logical networks
The P2MP tunnels carry multicast content such as IPTV content in a triple play
network, but P2MP tunnels are not enough. Two other functionalities complete
the triple play solution:
Star VPLS
IGMP Snooping
XDM General Description MPLS and Ethernet Data Solution

417006-2002-0H3-D00 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 5-15

The full triple play solution, incorporating P2MP multicast tunnels, star VPLS,
and IGMP snooping, is illustrated in the following figure. The P2MP multicast
tunnels carry IPTV content in an efficient drop-and-continue manner from the
TV channel source, headend router, and MultiService Edge Router (MSER),
through the root PE (PE1) to all endpoint leaf PEs. The VPLS star carries all
other P2P triple play services such as VoIP, VoD, and HSI. The VPLS star also
carries the IGMP messages both upstream (request/leave messages from the
customer) and downstream (query messages from the router). IGMP snooping
is performed at the endpoint leaf PEs to deliver only the IPTV channels
requested by the user. This allows scalability in the number of channels, as well
as freeing up bandwidth for other triple play services such VoD, VoIP, and
HSI.

Figure 5-7: Triple play network solution for IPTV, VoD, VoIP, and HSI services

MPLS and Ethernet Data Solution XDM General Description

5-16 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D00

MPLS Protection Schemes
Facility Backup Fast ReRoute (FRR)
It may be desirable to protect a tunnel against failure of a link or node along its
path. MCS supports a protection mechanism called Facility Backup Fast
ReRoute (FRR). With FRR, a backup LSP called Bypass tunnel is
pre-established by LightSoft NMS to bypass a network link or node failure to a
downstream MCS where the alternative path merges with the path of the
protected tunnel. Switching to a Bypass tunnel requires pushing a third MPLS
tag called an FRR label into the packet. The FRR label remains in the packet
until the Bypass tunnel merges with the path of the protected tunnel, where it is
removed (label pop) off the packet. The primary advantage of FRR over other
protection schemes is the speed of repair. Thanks to the pre-establishment of
the Bypass tunnels and the fast physical-layer-based failure detection, FRR can
provide sub-50 msec switching time for both link and node protection, a value
that is comparable to SDH protection mechanisms.
The following figure illustrates a tunnel flowing from MCS1 through MCS2 to
MCS3. The tunnel is configured with node protection at MCS1 via Bypass 1
and with link protection at MCS2 via Bypass 2.
If MCS1 detects that the node MCS2 has failed, MCS1 switches the tunnel
traffic to thenode-protecting Bypass tunnel 1 while pushing an FRR
label. Bypass tunnel 1 then merges with the protected tunnel path at Next
Next Hop (NNH) MCS3, where the FRR label is removed (pop).
If MCS2 detects that the link between MCS2 and MCS3 has failed, MCS2
switches the tunnel traffic to the link-protecting Bypass tunnel 2 while
pushing an FRR label. When the packet traveling via Bypass tunnel 2
arrives at the Next Hop (NH) MCS3, the FRR label is removed.

Figure 5-8: P2P FRR example

XDM General Description MPLS and Ethernet Data Solution

417006-2002-0H3-D00 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 5-17

FRR for P2MP Tunnels
In Facility Backup FRR link protection for a P2MP tunnel, the MCS
upstream from the failed link redirects the traffic through a Bypass tunnel
whose destination is the NH. The Bypass tunnel is an ordinary P2P Bypass
tunnel and may be shared by both P2P and P2MP tunnels. As in FRR for a P2P
tunnel, an FRR label is pushed to the packets before they are directed to the
Bypass tunnel. The FRR label remains until the Bypass tunnel path merges
with the original tunnel, where the label is removed.
The following figure illustrates a P2MP tunnel that flows from P1 to P2, where
it branches towards destination PEs PE3 and PE4. If P1 detects that the link to
P2 has failed, it switches the traffic to the Bypass tunnel. When the rerouted
traffic merges at P2, the FRR label is removed.

Figure 5-9: P2MP link protection example
In Facility Backup FRR node protection for a P2MP tunnel, the MCS
upstream from the failure redirects the traffic through a Bypass tunnel that
merges with the original P2MP tree at the NNH MCS. If the NH is a P2MP
branching point to N links, N Bypass tunnels are required for complete
protection. As for link protection, when traffic of the same P2MP tunnel share
a Bypass tunnel, the data plane forwards only one packet copy to that Bypass
tunnel. FRR label insertion and removal is handled as in FRR link protection.
MPLS and Ethernet Data Solution XDM General Description

5-18 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D00

The following figure illustrates a P2MP tunnel that flows from P1 to P2, where
it branches towards destinations PE3 and PE4. If the P2 branching point fails,
P1 switches all traffic meant for PE3 to go through Bypass tunnel 1 to PE3. P1
also switches all traffic meant for PE4 to go through Bypass tunnel 2 to PE4.

Figure 5-10: P2MP node protection example

Additional Facility Backup FRR Options
In Facility Backup FRR, multiple protected tunnels share a Bypass tunnel
through the addition of an FRR label. Facility Backup FRR is scalable in terms
of the number of Bypass tunnels.
MCS also supports both Shared and Nonshared Protection BW. In Shared
Protection BW, multiple Bypass tunnels share their bandwidths, while in
Nonshared Protection BW each Bypass tunnel gets its own guaranteed
bandwidth. Sharing protection bandwidth can only be applied if the bypass
tunnels protect against independent risks or SRLGs.
SRLGs refer to situations where links or nodes in a network share a common
physical attribute, such as fiber duct. If a link or node fails, other links and
nodes in the group may fail too. Links and nodes in the group are said to have a
shared risk or shared fate.
Bypass tunnel path selections avoid links (or nodes) in the same SRLG as the
link (or node) they are protecting. Otherwise if that link (or node) fails, the
other SRLG members may fail too.
MCS further supports Best Effort (BE) and BW-based protection per CoS.
BE protection means the Bypass tunnel protects tunnels regardless of their
bandwidth, while in BW-based protection the bandwidth sum of the tunnels
protected by a Bypass tunnel cannot exceed the maximum Bypass tunnel
bandwidth.
XDM General Description MPLS and Ethernet Data Solution

417006-2002-0H3-D00 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 5-19

MCS also offers an option of FRR timing. To avoid switching to protection
while the underlying physical-layer protection is also switching (for example,
with SDH MS-SPRing or SNCP), FRR switching may optionally be delayed
through a per-port configurableHold-Off time. Similarly, to prevent switching
too frequently to or from protection, the switch back from the Bypass tunnel to
the protected tunnel after a failure is repaired may be delayed through a
per-port configurableWait-to-Restore (WTR) time.
MPLS/Ethernet Card Summary
The XDM utilizes a wide range of flexible interchangeable I/O components.
With this range of modular options, the XDM is capable of building a network
tailored to your requirements, providing maximum efficiency and optimal
functionality.
The various I/O components are designed for modularity and ease of use. For
example, I/O cards are interchangeable within a product line, and optical
components are built on a single universal base card. These features simplify
the design, maintenance, and upgradeability of your network.
This chapter describes the following XDM MPLS/Ethernet components and
service cards:
MCSM/MCS: MPLS carrier-class switch card that supports an advanced
Ethernet-based metro-core layer. MCSM/MCS cards enable
next-generation Ethernet applications such as triple play, VPLS business
connectivity, 3G Ethernet-based aggregation, and CoC bandwidth
applications, supporting, for example, up to 10 Gbps with the MCS10.
MCSM/MCS cards provide complete Provider Bridge (QinQ) functionality
and MPLS switching functionality, offering scalability and smooth
interoperability with IP/MPLS core routers.
EIS/EISMB: Ethernet over SDH service cards providing cost-effective
Provider Bridge (QinQ) based EVPL and EVPLAN services. These
field-proven Layer 2 cards for the XDM family offer QinQ-based
switching for ring and multi-ring configurations in the metro-edge and
metro-core. Offering VC-3 and VC-4 granularity on their WAN ports, the
EIS card family is suitable for EVPL and EVPLAN services and
interoperable with the more advanced XDM data cards. For example, the
EISMB supports Ethernet applications in the access and edge layers,
offering high fan-out and multiple WAN interfaces, with a bandwidth
ranging from 2 Mbps up to full capacity GbE and a choice of granularity
options down to 2 Mb steps, together with interoperability with other
Ethernet systems.
MPLS and Ethernet Data Solution XDM General Description

5-20 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D00

DIOB/DIOM: EPL Ethernet over SDH service cards that map multiple
GbE and FE ports (electrical or optical) into virtually concatenated trails,
with a bandwidth ranging from 2 Mbps up to full capacity GbE, and a
choice of granularity options down to 2 Mbps steps.
The following table identifies the MPLS/Ethernet components and the
platforms within which specific modules are used. The different modules are
listed by interface categories, where the modules within a category generally
share the same functionality. Specific details may vary from module to module.
More information describing the capacity, ports, and interfaces for each module
is provided in the rest of this chapter. For exact detailed specifications of each
module, see the Technical Specifications documentation.
Table 5-1: MPLS/Ethernet components and service cards per platform
Interface XDM-50 XDM-
100,
100H,
200
XDM-
300
XDM-
500
XDM-
1000
XDM-
2000
Ethernet over SDH
Layer 1
DIOM_04

DIOM_08

DIOM_40

DIOB

Ethernet over SDH
Layer 1 and 2
EIS-MB_804

EIS-MB_840

EIS-M208

EIS-M244

EIS-M226

EIS2_8

EIS2_14

EIS8_8

Ethernet/MPLS
Layer 1 and 2
MCSM

MCS5

MCS10

XDM General Description MPLS and Ethernet Data Solution

417006-2002-0H3-D00 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 5-21

MCS/M Cards - MPLS/Ethernet Carrier Class
Service Cards
The MCS/M cards are the MPLS Carrier Class Switch cards for the XDM.
These cards enable SPs to build a cost-effective carrier class Ethernet network
over new and existing SDH networks, supporting any Ethernet-based
application and service, including business connectivity (VPLS), triple play
(IPTV drop-and-continue multicast), 3G mobile services, and wholesale/CoC
Ethernet leased line and bandwidth services, all with carrier grade capability.
The MCS/M product series also allows SP to build a converged optical
transmission network that enables them to exploit the benefits and robustness
of SDH and optical DWDM together with the benefits of carrier class Ethernet,
through the use of transport MPLS.
The MCS/M product series enables SPs to build a cost-effective, E2E carrier
class Ethernet network with assured QoS service delivery for access, edge, and
core network applications. This single MPLS network solution is achieved
using MPLS from access aggregation to IP/MPLS core router, integrating
MCS/M cards with an existing IP/MPLS core router network, and enabling SPs
to support any Layer 2 and Layer 3 services.
Access aggregation is provided through the MCSM service card used in the
XDM-100 product line to provide 10 Gbps raw bandwidth and Layer 2
switching for advanced Ethernet-based service aggregation. The XDM-100
product line can aggregate up to 40 Gbps raw bandwidth. Edge and core
networks work with the MCS service card in the XDM-1000 product line to
provide 20 Gbps raw bandwidth and Layer 2 switching, supporting a Layer 2
MPLS access to core service aggregation network. The XDM-1000 product
line can aggregate up to 80 Gbps raw bandwidth. The MCS/M cards support
on-board physical interfaces for Fast Ethernet (FE/FX) and Gigabit Ethernet
(GbE) access.
The MCS/M is a carrier class Ethernet service device that incorporates all
carrier-class capabilities, such as scalability, reliability, <50 msec protection,
E2E Hard QoS, security, and service management for E2E assured service
delivery. MCS/M supports MPLS TE, including classifying, policing, marking,
queuing, performing congestion avoidance mechanism (WRED), scheduling,
and traffic shaping.
MCS/M-based networks work with the LightSoft NMS, providing
point-and-click service provisioning based on a sophisticated Connection
Admission Control (CAC) algorithm that guarantees network services.
LightSoft supports the following Ethernet network topologies:
Ethernet-based network
MPLS-based (VPLS) network
Hybrid Ethernet/MPLS-based networks (Ethernet Access Hierarchy VPLS
(EAH-VPLS))
MPLS and Ethernet Data Solution XDM General Description

5-22 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D00

MCS/M card specifications
The following figure describes the functional block diagram of the MCS/M.
MCSM cards are used in platforms of the XDM-100 product line, and MCS
cards are used in platforms of the XDM-1000 product line.
The MCS/M incorporates the following functions:
Ethernet Provider Bridge (QinQ) switch a standard base 802.1d/q/ad
bridge/switch.
MPLS Layer 2 switch a standard base IETF MPLS and ITU-T T-MPLS
switch supporting Ethernet PW, VPLS, and P2MP multicast trees.
SDH mapper supporting standard Ethernet, PPP, and MPLS mapping to
GFP/VCAT/LCAS with VC-12/3/4 granularity.
16-24 Ethernet ports incorporating 4-8 x GE/FX/FE ports and
8-16 x FX/FE ports. Ethernet ports are supported in either electrical or
optical interfaces.
16-32 EoS (WAN) ports - with standard GFP/VCAT/LCAS mapping and
n x VC-12/3/4 (VCG) granularity.

Figure 5-11: MCS/M functional block diagram
The MCS/M functional block diagram illustrates an Ethernet switch, an MPLS
switch, and an SDH mapper. A powerful Network Processor Unit (NPU)
fulfills the functions of the Ethernet and MPLS switches. This NPU is software
programmable, allowing the MCS card to work as an Ethernet Provider Bridge
(QinQ) switch in V6.2, while also supporting a software upgrade to MPLS in
V7.
XDM General Description MPLS and Ethernet Data Solution

417006-2002-0H3-D00 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 5-23

The foundation for the Ethernet traffic flow is as follows:
VCG trail LightSoft-based preprovisioned VCAT group (with LCAS) to
carry the Ethernet/MPLS traffic.
MPLS tunnel and PW LightSoft-based preprovisioned MPLS PW and
tunnel (LSP), based on MPLS as a connection-oriented technology.
Tunnels and PW are used to carry the Ethernet service traffic.
Table 5-2: MCSM/MCS5/MCS10 data cards and modules
Card Service interface # of Ethernet
(LAN) ports
Electrical
ports
Optical
ports
# of
EoS*
(WAN)
ports
Port granularity Single/
Double
slot
EoS*/MoT**
bandwidth
XDM-100 product line
MCSM 10/100/1000
BaseT (copper)
FX/GbE (optic)
16
configurable
8 8 16
configu-
rable
N x VC-12/3/4 double 5G
XDM-1000 product line
MCS5 10/100/1000
BaseT (copper)
FX/GbE (optic)
24
configurable
16 8 32
configu-
rable
N x VC-12/3/4 single 5G
MCS10 10/100/1000
BaseT (copper)
FX/GbE (optic)
24
configurable
16 8 32
configu-
rabble
N x VC-12/3/4 single 10G
*EoS: Ethernet over SDH
**MoT: MPLS over Transport (SDH)

MPLS and Ethernet Data Solution XDM General Description

5-24 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D00

MCS/M standards compliance
The MCS/M cards all comply with the following international standards:
IEEE
802.1ad, 802.3ah (Link OAM), 802.1D/P/Q, 802.1w, 802.3, 802.3ad,
802.3x
MEF
ECI Telecom's XDM and BG product lines are certified to comply
with MEF9 and MEF14 standards. In addition, MCS/M cards support the
following MEF standards:
MEF 4, MEF 6, MEF 7, MEF 10, MEF 11, MEF 12
ITU-T
G.707, G.7041, G.7042, G.8010/Y.1306, G.8011/Y.1307,
G.8011.1/Y.1307.1, G.8011.2/Y.1307.2, G.8012/Y.1308, Y.1710,
Y.1711
IETF
RFC 3031, RFC 3032, RFC 3270, RFC 3443, RFC 4448, RFC 4379,
RFC 3812, RFC 3813, RFC 2702, RFC 4090, RFC 3916, RFC 3985,
RFC 4125, RFC 4126
Drafts:
Martini encapsulation, draft-martini-l2circuit-encap-mpls
VPLS draft, draft-ietf-l2vpn-vpls-ldp
draft-ietf-pwe3-ethernet-encap
draft-sajassi-l2vpn-vpls-multicast-congruency
draft-ietf-l2vpn-vpls-mcast-reqts
draft-ietf-magma-snoop
draft-ietf-mpls-rsvp-te-p2mp
draft-vasseur-mpls-backup-computation
XDM General Description MPLS and Ethernet Data Solution

417006-2002-0H3-D00 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 5-25

EIS/EISMB Cards - Ethernet Layer 2 Service
Card
The XDM provides Ethernet Layer 2 (E-LAN) service through the EIS/EISMB
card sets. These cards provide Ethernet Layer 2 services in mixed SDH and
Ethernet networks at minimum cost with maximum efficiency. Each card has
multiple Ethernet ports for direct connection to customer sites (either directly
or through a CLE), and functions as an embedded Ethernet switch, eliminating
the need for an external Ethernet switch. These cards are especially useful for
business and ISP applications, providing the reliable capacity and powerful
speed essential for the success of these applications.

Figure 5-12: Metro network illustration
Customers can provision multiple services on any single port, for example:
EVPL services
E-LAN with various QoS options
ISP connectivity services
Business connectivity services
The Layer 2 cards in each XDM in the network are connected to each other via
Network to Network Interface (NNI) EoS ports. These NNI ports can serve
either for dedicated traffic for specific customers or as a shared core for
multiple customers.
MPLS and Ethernet Data Solution XDM General Description

5-26 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D00

The cards support two interface categories:
Ethernet (LAN) ports - physical Ethernet interfaces residing on the card or
in the modules cage. These ports may be configured as UNI ports or as
NNI ports to client equipment.
EoS (WAN) ports - Ethernet over SDH ports which provide connections to
the SDH matrix. EoS ports may be configured as NNI ports to provide
connectivity between EIS/EISMB and MCS/M cards, or as UNI ports to
provide a connection to remote LAN ports.

Figure 5-13: Ethernet packet path
The granularity of the EoS trails is VC-12/3/4, and the link capacity for each
EoS connection may range from 2 Mbps up to 2.5 Gbps. SDH trails can be
modified as required via LightSoft.
XDM General Description MPLS and Ethernet Data Solution

417006-2002-0H3-D00 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 5-27

EIS/EISMB card specifications
The following table summarizes the basic characteristics of the EIS and EISMB
card sets.
Table 5-3: EIS/EISMB data cards and modules
Card Service
interface
# of
Ethernet
(LAN)
ports
Electrical
ports
Optical
ports
# of
EOS
(WAN)
ports
Port
granularity
Single/
Double
slot
EoS
bandwidth
XDM-100 product line
EISMB_804 10/100/1000
BaseT
4 4 0 8 N x VC-12/3/4 single 2.5G
EISMB_840 FE/GbE 4 0 4 8 N x VC-12/3/4 single 2.5G
EISM_208 10/100BaseT 8 8 0 2 N x VC-3/4 double 2.5G
EISM_226 10/100BaseT
FE/GbE
8 6 2 2 N x VC-3/4 double 2.5G
EISM_244 10/100BaseT
FE/GbE
8 4 4 2 N x VC-3/4 double 2.5G
XDM-1000 product line
EIS2_8 FE/GbE 12 2 8 2 N x VC-3/4 single 2.5G
EIS8_8 FE/GbE 12 12 8 8 N x VC-3/4 single 5G
EIS2_14 FE/GbE 14 14 8 2 N x VC-3/4 single 5G

MPLS and Ethernet Data Solution XDM General Description

5-28 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D00

DIOB/DIOM Cards - Ethernet Layer 1
Service Cards
The XDM implements E-Line services by offering transparent Ethernet data
transmission over SDH. This is accomplished through a sophisticated and
intelligent set of cards - the DIOB cards for the XDM-1000 product line and
the DIOM cards for the XDM-100 product line. Installable in all XDM shelves,
the DIO card set enables EPL P2P services to be provisioned and managed in
the same manner as traditional SDH lines. The service provided by the DIO
card set P2P private line is agnostic to the higher layers above Ethernet. This
means that VLANs, jumbo frames, and unicast, multicast, and broadcast
Ethernet packets are all handled transparently at any given rate.
The DIOB/DIOM provides control and bandwidth management allocation for
each Ethernet connection in VC-12/3/4 increments up to the full rate. Each
GbE/FE interface is configured separately without interfering with other
connections. This flexibility enables SPs to adapt service rates to customer
needs and tailor prices accordingly. The card also provides all the benefits of
SFP technology for optical interfaces as well as electrical SFPs for DIOM in
mixed optical/electrical configurations offering GbE services.
The DIOB/DIOM provides multiple EPL Layer 1 (P2P) Ethernet over SDH
services. The DIOB in the XDM-1000 product line maps up to 8 GbE +16 FE
ports (electrical or optical) onto virtually concatenated trails, with a total
capacity of up to 5 Gbps using the SDH switching fabric (HLXC/XIO) and
SDH line cards to reach other network sites. SFP-based optical interfaces are
placed on the DIOB card and electrical interfaces are on the ME16 module
located in the CCP part of the XDM-1000 product line platforms. Similarly, the
DIOM offers either 4 x 10/100/1000BaseT, 4 x GbE/FE optical interfaces, or
8 x 10/100BaseT interfaces on a single XDM-100 product line slot with a
maximum capacity of 2.5 Gbps, using the SDH infrastructure within the shelf
for connectivity. With DIOM cards, all ports are placed on the card itself.
XDM General Description MPLS and Ethernet Data Solution

417006-2002-0H3-D00 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 5-29


Figure 5-14: DIOB block diagram
Using standard VCAT, GFP-F, and LCAS, DIOB/DIOM cards ensure
interoperability with third-party equipment as well as interoperability with
other XDM cards and ECI Telecom products.
The DIOB/DIOM EPL services are user configurable. The bandwidth for each
EPL service ranges from 2 Mbps up to full capacity (100 Mbps or Gbps) with
VC-12/3/4 granularity for any service. Client failures, as well as failures in the
SDH transport layer, are forwarded from one end to the other using CSF/TSF
signaling, thus shortening the fault detection period for the higher layers and
enabling full restoration of customer services much more quickly.
The DIOB/DIOM uses LCAS protection to dynamically decrease and increase
the size of a VCAT group (VCG), in cases of failure and repair of VCG
members. This capability enables a variety of new protection schemes, such as
split bandwidth between multiple routes and SDH protection for part of a VCG.
MPLS and Ethernet Data Solution XDM General Description

5-30 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D00

DIOB/DIOM card specifications
The following table summarizes the basic characteristics of the DIOB and
DIOM card sets.
Table 5-4: DIOB/DIOM data cards and modules
Card Service
interface
# of
Ethernet
(LAN)
ports
Electrical
ports
Optical
ports
# of EOS
(WAN)
ports
Port
granularity
Single/
Double
slot
EoS
bandwidth
XDM-100 product line
DIOM_04 10/100/
1000BaseT
4 4 0 4 N x VC-12/3/4 single 1.25/2.5G
DIOM_40 FE/GbE 4 0 4 4 N x VC-12/3/4 single 1.25/2.5G
DIOM_08 10/100
BaseT
8 8 0 8 N x VC-12/3/4 single 1.25G
XDM-1000 product line
DIOB 10/100/
1000BaseT
FE/GbE
24 16 8 24 N x VC-12/3/4 single 2.5/5G

XDM General Description MPLS and Ethernet Data Solution

417006-2002-0H3-D00 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 5-31

Ethernet Interfaces
All XDM data cards support various combinations of the following Ethernet
interfaces:
SFP-based optical GbE, dual fiber:
1000BaseLX/ZX, single mode
1000BaseSX, multimode
Multi bitrate CWDM
SFP-based optical GbE, single fiber:
1000BaseLX/EX, single mode (1310/1550 or 1550/1310)
SFP-based 100BaseFX, optical interface for 100 Mbps FE, both single
mode and multimode
Electrical SFP:
10/100/1000BaseT (copper)
Electrical interfaces:
10/100BaseT, electrical interface for 10 or 100 Mbps Ethernet with
auto negotiation
10/100/1000BaseT, electrical interface for 10, 100, or 1000 Mbps
Ethernet with auto negotiation

MPLS and Ethernet Data Solution XDM General Description

5-32 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D00



417006-2002-0H3-D00 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 6-1

In this chapter:
Overview.........................................................................................................6-1
MEMS-WSS ROADM....................................................................................6-2
Mux/DeMux Cards..........................................................................................6-4
OADMs...........................................................................................................6-6
Transponders...................................................................................................6-8
Combiners......................................................................................................6-13
Pluggable Transceiver Modules (SFP/XFP/SFF)..........................................6-16
Splitter and Coupler Combination Module....................................................6-18
Optical Amplifiers.........................................................................................6-19
OPM Card......................................................................................................6-24
OMSP Card...................................................................................................6-27
DCM and DCF...............................................................................................6-28
PELES...........................................................................................................6-28

Overview
XDM shelves house a variety of C/DWDM transponders and combiners,
ROADMs, OADMs, Muxes/DeMuxes, Optical Fiber Amplifiers (OFAs),
Optical Performance Monitors (OPMs), and other optical cards and modules
used to process, amplify, and monitor multichannel signals. The
next-generation transponder and combiner components are all based on a single
universal CHTR_B base card. This modular approach increases flexibility,
simplifies operation, and reduces the costs of spare parts.
6
WDM Optical Components and
Service Cards
WDM Optical Components and
Service Cards
XDM General Description

6-2 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D00

XDM transponders and combiners utilize tunable lasers at the line side and
pluggable optics at the client side. These tunable lasers and pluggable optics
provide an ideal cost-effective solution for managing transponder and combiner
components.
For example, transponder spare parts procurement costs can be reduced by as
much as 90% when using tunable lasers. In addition, they enable new services
to be delivered more quickly, as the same type of card can be used for any
wavelength. Tunable laser components can be set to any one of the
40/80 channels in the C band via the management system and have
high-dispersion tolerance transmitters, ensuring successful transponder card
replacement for all types of transmitters.
Pluggable optics provide simple cost-effective wavelength flexibility through
the use of modular SFP/XFP transceivers for diverse applications.
The XDM offers a rich set of optical cards and modules, enabling operators to
design a network tailored to their requirements and preferences. The following
sections describe the highlights of the various optical components, focusing on
the most popular of the XDM cards and modules. For a complete detailed
description of the complete set of XDM optical components, see the XDM
System Specifications.
MEMS-WSS ROADM
Operators' increasing need for capacity and flexibility in DWDM networks is
the driving force behind the development and deployment of ROADM
solutions. These systems provide full management of wavelength services
while reducing OPEX. The fast implementation of new revenue-generating
services thus becomes greatly simplified and cost effective.
The XDM offers an advanced third-generation 10-degree WSS ROADM
providing:
Colorless operation - remote management configuration enabling routing
any channel to any port.
Full n-degree (1 <n <10) operation for multiple ring, subtended ring, star,
and full mesh topologies.
Low insertion loss for through channels.
Expandable to 80 channels.
XDM General Description WDM Optical Components and
Service Cards

417006-2002-0H3-D00 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 6-3

The WSS ROADM card is installed in the modules cage slots of the XDM-500
and XDM-1000. The card is configured for East/West operation and provides
eight add/drop ports. Each port can be configured to add/drop any of the
80 channels in the C band in any combination. Automatic equalization of the
channels is provided via the LightSoft network management system. The WSS
ROADM provides operators with the most cost-effective flexible multiservice
optical platform available today for metro, regional, and long-haul networks.

Figure 6-1: WSS-based ROADM technology
Integrated in the XDM and fully managed by the LightSoft network manager,
the ROADM provides operators with the most cost-effective flexible
multiservice optical platform available today for metro, regional, and long-haul
networks.
WDM Optical Components and
Service Cards
XDM General Description

6-4 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D00

Table 6-1: WSS ROADM modules
Module Slots XDM-100H XDM-200 XDM-40 XDM-500 XDM-1000 XDM-2000 Description
MO_ROADM8 2
CCP

10-degree WSS ROADM
with optical add/drop of any
combination of channels to 9
ports
MO_ROADM8E 2
CCP

10-degree WSS ROADM
with optical add/drop of any
combination of channels to 9
ports, expandable to 80
channels
MO_ROADM8I 2
CCP

10-degree WSS ROADM
with optical add/drop of any
combination of channels to 9
ports, expansion module for
80 channels

Mux/DeMux Cards
The XDM offers a wide range of Mux and DeMux cards for up to 40/80
DWDM channels (with a spectral spacing of 50/100 GHz between channels),
and up to 8/16 channels CWDM (with 20 nm channel spacing). This variety of
cards enables the operator to choose the card or module that provides an
optimal fit for the network capacity, reach, and day-one costs.
Several upgrade and expansion paths are offered, such as from 16 to
32 channels DWDM, from 40 to 80 channels DWDM, and from 4 to 8 channels
CWDM. This variety of expansion options enables operators to optimize
day-one costs with maximum system capacity.
The DWDM components in certain configurations are also equipped with
enhanced capabilities, such as external monitoring points and built in ALS
functionality, essential for more sophisticated networks.
The following table lists some of the more commonly used XDM C/DWDM
Mux and DeMux units. For the full list please refer to the XDM System
Specifications.
XDM General Description WDM Optical Components and
Service Cards

417006-2002-0H3-D00 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 6-5

Table 6-2: Mux/DeMux modules - selected subset
Module Slots XDM-100
H
XDM-200 XDM-40 XDM-500 XDM-1000 XDM-2000 Description
MO_CMD8 1 OCU
8-channel CWDM Mux/DeMux
MO_CMD4C_
E
1 OCU
4-channel CWDM Mux/DeMux,
expandable
MO_CMD4SL 1 OCU
4-channel CWDM Mux/DeMux,
expansion module
MO_CW2 +
OM_CWM8C
+OM_CWD8C
1 CCP

8-channel CWDM Mux/DeMux
MO_DW40VM
D
3 CCP

40-channel DWDM variable
Mux/DeMux for long-haul
applications
MO_DW40VM
DE
3 CCP

40-channel DWDM variable
Mux/DeMux for long-haul
applications, expandable to 80
channels
MO_DW40VM
DI
3 CCP

40-channel DWDM variable
Mux/DeMux for long-haul
applications, expansion module for
80 channels
MO_DW40MC 2 CCP

40-channel C band Mux for
metro/regional applications
MO_DW40DC 2 CCP

40-channel C band DeMux for
metro/regional applications

The Variable Mux (VMUX) card is a key component in cost-effective
high-performance regional and long-haul networks. This controllable Mux can
attenuate each individual input wavelength to any desired value, eliminating
spectral tilt, improving Optical Signal-to-Noise Ratio (OSNR), and facilitating
pre-emphasis of weaker channels. These capabilities enable a significant
extension of the overall reach. They also simplify both the initial installation
and calibration of the network and the addition of more wavelengths as the
network grows.
The VMUX functionality is critical in supporting alien wavelengths that are fed
to the XDM DWDM network from third-party equipment that supports the
ITU-T DWDM grid. The VMUX attenuates the alien wavelength to match the
desired level applied to neighboring wavelengths, thereby eliminating power
tilt and increasing overall reach. The CWDM Mux/DeMux modules handle up
to eight different CWDM wavelengths and feature a built-in OSC filter.
WDM Optical Components and
Service Cards
XDM General Description

6-6 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D00

OADMs
In both metropolitan and long-haul networks, some of the traffic is transported
over short site-to-site distances. However, it is not always necessary to access
all the channels at every node along the path. In these cases, XDM OADM
cards provide a very cost-effective solution.
OADMs add and drop single or multiple channels at specific nodes without
interfering with the remaining pass-through channels. They therefore allow
network resources to be shared among several traffic hubs, nodes, or
subnetworks.
The XDM OADM solutions are provided in East/West and A/B configurations,
in which each OADM interfaces with the two fibers that arrive from the
adjacent site, as follows:
East/West - ideal for protected traffic or asymmetrical channel networks
A/B - low insertion loss, optimized for nonamplified metro applications

Figure 6-2: Pluggable OADM in standby and active modes
XDM General Description WDM Optical Components and
Service Cards

417006-2002-0H3-D00 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 6-7

The following table lists some of the more commonly used XDM OADM
modules. For the full list please refer to the XDM System Specifications.
Table 6-3: OADM cards and modules - selected subset
Module Slots XDM-100H XDM-200 XDM-40 XDM-500 XDM-1000 XDM-2000 Description
MO_COADM1
AB_xx*
1
1-channel CWDM OADM,
AB configuration
MO_COADM2
AB_Gxx**
2
2-channel grouped CWDM
OADM, AB configuration
MO_COADM2
AB_xxyy***
2
2-channel randomCWDM
OADM, AB configuration
MO_CW2 +
OM_OADMC1
AB_xx
1 CCP

1-channel CWDM OADM,
AB configuration
MO_CW2 +
MO_OADM4G
EWxx
1 CCP

4-channel grouped DWDM
OADM for nonamplified
links, EW configuration
OADM4EW +
OM_AD1EWx
x
1 I/O
1-channel OADM for
amplified links, EW
configuration
OADM4EW +
OM_AD4EWx
x
1 I/O
4-channel OADM for
amplified links, EW
configuration
OADM4AB +
OM_AD4ABxx
1 I/O
4-channel OADM for
amplified links, AB
configuration
* xx designates the channel dropped by the OADM.
** Gxx designates the group of two channels dropped by the OADM.
*** xxyy designates the two randomchannels dropped by the OADM.
WDM Optical Components and
Service Cards
XDM General Description

6-8 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D00

Transponders
The XDM offers various transponder cards for 10 Gbps, 4 Gbps, 2.5 Gbps, and
continuous bitrates up to 2.7 Gbps. These transponders support all commonly
required services, such as SDH (STM-1 to STM-64), Ethernet (FE, GbE, and
10 GbE LAN), ATM, IP, SAN, video, and proprietary bitrates.
XDM transponders comply with the ITU-T standards for 50 GHz and 100 GHz
multichannel spacing (DWDM) or 20 nm spacing (CWDM). Most transponders
for the XDM-40/500/1000/2000 are based on the universal CHTR_B base card
for increased simplicity and reduction of spare parts costs.
The 10 Gbps and 2.5 Gbps transponders use ITU-T G.709 mapping and
framing, including FEC, PM, in-band management (GCC), and G.709-based
protection. Performance monitoring of all client side signals is done in their
native layer (SDH and Ethernet).
The following table lists some of the more commonly used XDM transponder
cards and modules. For the full list please refer to the XDM System
Specifications. Transponder features are described in greater detail in the
following sections.
Table 6-4: Transponder cards - selected subset
Module Slots XDM-100H XDM-200 XDM-40 XDM-500 XDM-1000 XDM-2000 Description
10 Gbps Transponders
TRP10_2B 1 I/O
STM-64/10 GbE WAN OTN
add/drop transponder/regenerator
with FEC/EFEC
TRP10_LAN 1 I/O
10 GbE LAN OTN add/drop
transponder with FEC/EFEC
4 Gbps Transponders
TRP4_8 1
Dual protected or quad multi-bitrate
C/DWDM transponder/regenerator
(155 Mbps to 4 Gbps)
2.5 Gbps Transponders
CRPT25_2C 1
Dual continuous bitrate CWDM
add/drop transponder
(100 Mbps to 2.7 Gbps)
CTRP25_2C 1
Dual continuous bitrate CWDM
regenerator
(100 Mbps to 2.7 Gbps)
TRP25_4 1 I/O
Dual STM-16 OTN add/drop
transponder/regenerator with FEC
TRP25_2C 1 I/O
Continuous bitrate DWDM add/drop
transponder/regenerator
(50 Mbps to 2.7 Gbps)

XDM General Description WDM Optical Components and
Service Cards

417006-2002-0H3-D00 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 6-9

TRP10 Cardset
The TRP10 cards all have two transponders (Tx and Rx) on one card, providing
functionality similar to the TRP25_2C (on page 6-12) in a space-saving form
factor, and operate in an East/West configuration. TRP10 cards support the
following features:
Based on universal CHTR_B base card
Variety of client side signals:
STM-64/10 GbE WAN
10 GbE LAN
Variety of client side XFPs
Variety of line side transmitters:
Widely tunable LiNbO
3
line transmitters for improved performance and
flexibility
Single wavelength transmitters for reduced cost
G.709 OTN ODU2/OTU2 mapping and framing including:
Configurable for FEC/EFEC operation
G.709 GCC in-band communication channel
Unique mapping of 10 GbE LAN to a fully standard ODU2, including
full transparency of the Ethernet preamble and SFD bytes
(TRP10_LAN)
Comprehensive PM, such as:
Line side: G.709 OTN PM
Client side: native SDH PM for STM-64 and 10 GbE WAN clients
(TRP10_2B)
Ethernet PM for 10 GbE LAN clients (TRP10_LAN)
Built-in optical channel (OCH) protection based on PM parameters
ALS
800 ps/nm and 1600 ps/nm (40 km and 80 km, 25 and 50 mile) operation
WDM Optical Components and
Service Cards
XDM General Description

6-10 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D00

CRPT25_2C and CTRP25_2C
The CRPT25_2C and CTRP25_2C are compact CWDM dual transponders
used in the XDM-100 product line. Each module is a double CWDM
transponder generating two services over two CWDM wavelengths. Key
features include:
Support of continuous bitrates, from 100 Mbps to 2.7 Gbps for various
services, e.g. STM-1/STM-4/STM-16, 100BaseFX, GbE, FC/FICON,
ESCON, SDI, etc. Both client side and line side interfaces are SFP, either
CWDM (line side) or noncolored (client side).
Optical channel protection with less than 10 msec switching time.
TRP25_4
The TRP25_4 is a multifunction unit that incorporates two 2.5 Gbps
bidirectional transponders within a single base card. It has a very small
footprint and occupies only a single shelf slot.

Figure 6-3: TRP25_4 block diagram
XDM General Description WDM Optical Components and
Service Cards

417006-2002-0H3-D00 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 6-11

TRP25_4 features include:
Based on the universal CHTR_B base card
Variety of client side signals:
STM-16 client interfaces, two per card
OTU1 client interfaces, two per card
Variety of client side SFPs: noncolored and CWDM
Variety of line side transmitters:
Widely tunable transmitter with high dispersion tolerance (up to
1,000 km or 620 miles) for flexibility, long-haul reach, and reduced
cost of spare parts
Dual wavelength transmitter for reduced costs
Full overhead and timing transparency
G.709 OTN ODU1/OTU1 mapping and framing, including:
7% out-of-band FEC
GCC in-band communication channel
Comprehensive PM:
Client side: Native SDH PM
Line side: G.709 OTN PM
1+1 optical channel protection in less than 10 msec
ALS
WDM Optical Components and
Service Cards
XDM General Description

6-12 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D00

TRP4_8
The TRP4_8 incorporates up to four bidirectional transponders within a single
base card for add/drop and regenerator applications, supporting multiple
bitrates up to 4 Gbps. The TRP4_8 can also be configured to provide
Y-protection for up to two clients. This component has a very small footprint
and occupies only a single shelf slot. TRP4_8 features include:
Up to four bidirectional transponders per card:
Add/drop configuration
Regenerator configuration
Multi-bitrate client interfaces (STM-1/STM-4/STM-16, GbE, 1G/2G/4G
FC):
Up to four per card
Any combination
Variety of client side SFPs, noncolored and CWDM
Variety of line side SFP transmitters, DWDM and CWDM
Configurable protection in less than 10 msec:
1+1 optical channel protection for both line and equipment
Y-protection for path only
TRP25_2C
The XDM TRP25_2C consists of a single base card with two separate 2.5 Gbps
transponders. The TRP25_2C features include:
Client side and line side continuous bitrate, from 50 Mbps to 2.7 Gbps
Two-wavelength tunable line side transmitter
Optical channel protection in less than 10 msec, based on LOS or LOD
XDM General Description WDM Optical Components and
Service Cards

417006-2002-0H3-D00 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 6-13

Combiners
The XDM offers a variety of combiner card options for 2.5 Gbps and 10 Gbps.
These cards multiplex several client signals onto a single C/DWDM
wavelength using a built-in TDM matrix. The combiner cards support line side
tunable lasers and hot-swappable client side SFPs, and support a variety of
GbE and SAN applications.
XDM combiners are ideal for reducing network cost, saving wavelengths, and
improving network reliability. For example, all combiners for the XDM-1000
product line are based on the universal CHTR_B base card for increased
simplicity and reduction of spare parts costs.
The following figure shows a block diagram illustrating the operation of the
XDM combiner.

Figure 6-4: 10 Gbps combiner block diagram
One of the XDMs unique features is the ability to combine different services
over the same wavelength, including mixing CWDM clients onto DWDM
lines. This enables the operator to design very cost-effective C/DWDM
networks, from access to core, with no back-to-back connections of multiple
transponders and combiners.
WDM Optical Components and
Service Cards
XDM General Description

6-14 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D00

The following figure illustrates a blending of multiple GbE and FC services,
from access CWDM to core DWDM, through the interworking of three
different combiner types. The result is an E2E solution with no costly and
unnecessary back-to-back transponder and combiner connections.

Figure 6-5: Seamless GbE/FC transport from access to core
The interworking approach described in the previous example can also be
applied to mixtures of different services over the same wavelength, such as
multiple GbEs, FCs, and STM-16s over a single 10 Gbps wavelength.
The following table lists the XDM combiner cards. Module features are
described in greater detail in the following sections.
Table 6-5: Combiner cards - selected subset
Module Slots XDM-100H XDM-200 XDM-40 XDM-500 XDM-1000 XDM-2000 Description
10 Gbps Combiners
CMBR10/
CMBR10_T
1 I/O
4 x STM-16/OTU1 OTN
combiner with FEC/EFEC
CMBR10_D 1 I/O
8 x GbE/FC OTN combiner
with FEC
2.5 Gbps Combiners
CCMB25_2D 1
2 x GbE/FC OTN combiner
with FEC
CMBR25D 1 I/O
Dual 2 x GbE/FC OTN
combiner with FEC (single
card generates 2
wavelengths for a total of 4
clients)

XDM General Description WDM Optical Components and
Service Cards

417006-2002-0H3-D00 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 6-15

10 Gbps Combiners
The CMBR10 card set supports the following key features:
Based on the universal CHTR_B base card
Variety of client side SFPs, noncolored and CWDM
Variety of line side transmitters:
Widely tunable LiNbO
3
line transmitters for improved performance and
flexibility
Single wavelength transmitters for reduced cost
G.709 OTN ODU2/OTU2 mapping and framing, including:
Configurable for FEC/EFEC operation
G.709 GCC in-band communication channel
Comprehensive PM, such as:
Line side: G.709 OTN PM
Client side: Native SDH PM for STM-16 (CMBR10 and CMBR10_T)
Ethernet PM for GbE clients (CMBR10_D)
Built-in OCH protection in less than 50 msec, based on PM parameters
ALS
800 ps/nm and 1600 ps/nm (40 km/25 mile and 80 km/50 mile) operation
2.5 Gbps Combiners
The 2.5 Gbps combiner cards support the following key features:
Based on the universal CHTR_B base card (CMBR25_2)
Variety of client side SFPs, noncolored and CWDM
Configurable for STM-16/G.709 OTN ODU1/OTU1 line rates
Line side transmitters:
Dual wavelength tunable DWDM transmitters (CMBR25_2)
CWDM SFP (CCMB25_2D)
G.709 OTN ODU1/OTU1 mapping and framing, including:
7% FEC operation
G.709 GCC in-band communication channel (CMBR25_2)
WDM Optical Components and
Service Cards
XDM General Description

6-16 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D00

Comprehensive PM, such as:
Line side: G.709 OTN PM
Ethernet PM for GbE clients
Built-in OCH protection in less than 50 msec, based on PM parameters
ALS
Pluggable Transceiver Modules
(SFP/XFP/SFF)
SFPs, XFPs, and SFFs are a new variety of modular optical transceivers with a
small footprint and low power consumption. SFP transceivers operate at rates
of up to 2.7 Gbps, with either electrical or optical ports, including both colored
and noncolored interfaces (C/DWDM). XFP and SFF transceivers operate at
rates of up to 10.7 Gbps. SFF transceivers are available in both tunable and
fixed versions.
The SFP/XFP/SFF transceiver modules are used for the entire spectrum of
interfaces, including intraoffice, short, and long ranges, and the interchangeable
transceiver components are utilized throughout the product line. The
standardized modular design of the transceiver components facilitates network
maintenance and upgrades. Instead of replacing an entire circuit board
containing a number of soldered modules, a single module can be removed or
replaced for repair or upgrade, providing significant cost savings.
All transceivers provide power monitoring capabilities. The SFPs for STM-16
have the added capability to use low-cost colored interfaces (C/DWDM),
further reducing maintenance costs. Transceivers provide a significant
advantage for the XIO, SIO, DIOB/M, EIS, and MCS cards used in XDM
platforms.

Figure 6-6: SFP transcei ver
XDM General Description WDM Optical Components and
Service Cards

417006-2002-0H3-D00 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 6-17

The SFP, XFP, and SFF transceivers support a variety of transmission rates for
several wavelengths and distances
The SFP transceivers support:
Short-haul and long-haul 1310 nm transceivers, ranging from STM-1 to
STM-16.
Long-haul and long-haul 1550 nm transceivers ranging from STM-1 to
STM-16.
Intraoffice 1310 nm STM-16 transceivers.
Short reach 850 nm optical GbE transceivers.
Long reach 1310 nm optical GbE transceivers.
Extended reach 1550 nm optical GbE transceivers.
Short reach CWDM STM-16 SFP transceivers.
Long reach 1550 nm C/DWDM STM-16/OTU1 SFP transceivers.
The XFP transceivers support:
Short-haul 850 nm 10 GbE LAN transceivers.
Long-haul 1310 nm 10 GbE LAN transceivers.
Extended reach 1550 nm 10 GbE LAN transceivers.
Intraoffice 1310 nm STM-64/10 GbE WAN transceivers.
Short-haul 1550 nm STM-64/10 GbE WAN transceivers.
Long-haul 1550 nm STM-64/10 GbE WAN transceivers.
The SFF transceivers support:
Short-haul DWDM C band (40 channel with 100 GHz spacing) OTU2
(G.709) fixed transceivers.
Long-haul DWDM C band (40 channel with 100 GHz spacing) OTU2
(G.709) fixed transceivers.
Long-haul DWDM C band (40 channel with 100 GHz spacing) OTU2
(G.709) configurable FEC/EFEC tunable transceivers.
Long-haul DWDM C band (40 channel with 100 GHz spacing) OTU2
(G.709) configurable FEC/EFEC fixed transceivers.
Short-haul and long-haul (C band with 100 GHz spacing) OTU1 (G.709)
fixed transceivers.
WDM Optical Components and
Service Cards
XDM General Description

6-18 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D00

Short-haul and long-haul (C band with 50 GHz spacing) OTU1 (G.709)
tunable transceivers.
Short-haul 1550 nm STM-64 fixed transceivers.
Long-haul 1550 nm STM-64 fixed transceivers.
Long-haul (C band with 100 GHz spacing) STM-16 fixed SFF transceivers.
Short-haul 1310 nm STM-16 fixed transceivers.
Long-haul 1550 nm STM-16 fixed transceivers.
Intraoffice 1310 nm STM-16 fixed transceivers.
The DIOB and MCS5 SFP transceiver modules support:
SFP transceivers for 100BaseFX (100 Mbps optical Ethernet) on single
mode or multimode fiber.
Short reach 850 nm optical GbE transceivers.
Long reach 1310 nm optical GbE transceivers.
Extended reach 1550 nm optical GbE transceivers.
Splitter and Coupler
Combination Module
The MO_ACC_6CPSP card set provides six splitter and coupler pairs on a
single card, supporting up to six separate fixed protected services
simultaneously. All six splitter and coupler pairs fit on a single component that
sits in a single modules cage slot.
Three different MO_ACC_6CPSP cards are available:
MO_ACC_6CPSP_50: Single slot upper cage (MIO) card with six splitter
and coupler pairs for multimode 50 mm 850 nm transponder protection.
MO_ACC_6CPSP_62: Single slot upper cage (MIO) card with six splitter
and coupler pairs for multimode 62 mm 850 nm transponder protection.
MO_ACC_6CPSP_SM: Single slot upper cage (MIO) card with six splitter
and coupler pairs for singlemode transponder protection.
A single MO_ACC_6CPSP module includes six 50%/50% splitters, designated
SP1 to SP6, and an additional six couplers, designated CP1 to CP6.
XDM General Description WDM Optical Components and
Service Cards

417006-2002-0H3-D00 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 6-19

Optical Amplifiers
As optical signals are attenuated by the fiber through which they travel, they
can reach power levels below the sensitivity of the optical receiver at the other
end. Before this occurs the signal must be regenerated. In the past, regeneration
was performed exclusively using OEO transceivers. However, with the
development of the OFA, amplification can be performed more cost-effectively
in the optical domain, without requiring an expensive conversion to the
electrical domain and back.
The XDM platform offers a large variety of EDFA and Raman amplifiers to
suit any need and application, such as:
Amplified metro-core DWDM networks
Regional and long-haul DWDM networks
Repeaterless undersea DWDM links
Single-channel SDH applications that require extra power budget and for
which no optional regeneration sites are available
The XDM houses these amplifiers in the modules cage as well as in the cards
cage, providing maximum flexibility regardless of the XDM shelf used.
The following table lists some of the more commonly used XDM OFA cards.
Card features are described in greater detail in the following sections.
Table 6-6: OFA cards - selected subset
Module Slots XDM-100H XDM-200 XDM-40 XDM-500 XDM-1000 XDM-2000 Description
MO_DC0_
BAS
1
Booster for single
channel SDH
applications.
MO_BAS/
MO_PAS
1 CCP

Booster/preamplifier for
single channel SDH
applications.
MO_OFA_
HBC
1 CCP

High-power dynamic
booster for long-haul
applications.
MO_OFA_
PHBC
1 CCP

High-power dynamic
booster and preamplifier
in E/W configuration for
regional/long-haul
applications. Optimized
for ROADM nodes.
OFA_M 1 I/O
High-power dynamic
variable gain multistage
amplifier for
regional/long-haul
applications. Mainly used
as an in-line amplifier.
WDM Optical Components and
Service Cards
XDM General Description

6-20 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D00

Module Slots XDM-100H XDM-200 XDM-40 XDM-500 XDM-1000 XDM-2000 Description
MO_OFA_MH 1 CCP

Very high-power
dynamic variable gain
multistage amplifier for
80 channel
regional/long-haul
applications. Mainly used
as an in-line amplifier.
OFA2 1 I/O
Family of boosters,
preamplifiers, and in-line
amplifiers for
metro/regional
applications.
OFA_R 2 I/O
High-power RAMAN
amplifier for long-haul
and undersea
applications.
RM_OFA_
VHB

Rack mounted Very high power booster
for long-haul and
undersea applications.
RM_OFA_HR

Rack mounted High power RAMAN
amplifier for long-haul
and undersea
applications.

MO_DC0_BAS
The MO_DC0_BAS is a very compact and low cost optical amplifier, typically
used for long-haul single channel SDH applications. This amplifier is also used
for boosting specific channels in DWDM networks that are generally
nonamplified. Based on EDFA technology, the MO_DC0_BAS provides
amplification for any bitrate up to 2.5 Gbps in P2P and ring topologies. This
amplifier occupies a single slot in the XDM-100 product line OCU expansion
shelf.
MO_BAS/MO_PAS
The MO_BAS booster and the MO_PAS optical preamplifier offer very
cost-effective amplification solutions for single-channel SDH applications.
Based on EDFA technology, they provide amplification for any bitrate up to
10 Gbps in P2P and ring topologies. Each amplifier occupies a single slot in the
modules cage.
XDM General Description WDM Optical Components and
Service Cards

417006-2002-0H3-D00 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 6-21

OFA2
This family of EDFA-based amplifier cards provides a complete bidirectional
amplification solution for a fiber pair with a very compact form factor on a
single slot card. Its compact size and low cost make it ideal for amplified metro
networks.
Available modules are:
Preamplifier
Booster
23 dB gain amplifier for inline and/or booster applications
29 dB gain amplifier for inline and/or preamp applications
The OFA2 also uses a built-in Variable Optical Attenuator (VOA) that
automatically controls the input power and the amplifier gain so that the
amplifier can be controlled using ECI Telecom's patent-pending power-control
technology.
The OFA2 cards are typically used in metro core/regional networks of channels
that typically range up to 500 km (over 300 miles) and sometimes up to 1000
km (620 miles).
Dynamic Variable Gain Amplifiers (VGA)
The OFA_M, MO_OFA_PHBC, MO_OFA_HBC, and MO_OFA_MH
families of amplifiers include a set of high-power multistage dynamic variable
gain EDFAs. These amplifiers are typically used in regional and long-haul
networks of up to 2000 km (1250 miles). They are also used in repeaterless
undersea DWDM links, typically up to 300 km (190 miles).
Using dynamic EDFA technology, these amplifiers automatically adjust
themselves to the length of the fiber span for which they are compensating,
thereby providing optimized amplification over the entire spectral band. By
maintaining an optimal OSNR at the output of each amplifier, much longer
spans and many more amplifiers can be cascaded, resulting in an OSNR that is
sufficiently high for the receiver at the end of the link. This capability is
essential in real-world regional and long-haul optical networks, where the fiber
spans vary in length and attenuation between amplifier sites. As a result, fewer
spare amplifiers are needed.
WDM Optical Components and
Service Cards
XDM General Description

6-22 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D00

Along with the ability to provide the correct gain at each site while maintaining
flat amplification and optimal OSNR, the OFA_M family has midstage access
for DCF, OADM, and ROADM integration (up to 20 dB of insertion loss) that
does not affect the link power budget. This means that DWDM links based on
the OFA_M family not only have a very impressive reach but require fewer
inline amplifiers to achieve that reach.
The intelligent OFA_M amplifier can even correct the spectral tilt introduced
by the hundreds of kilometers or miles of optical fiber and other optical
components on the line that have wavelength-dependent loss coefficients.
The MO_OFA_MH is a high power version optimized for 80 channel
applications. The MO_OFA_PHBC is a dual stage EDFA that is unique in its
East/West configurations. As illustrated in the following diagram, this
architecture is specifically designed for ROADM nodes, providing high gain,
low noise, and high midstage access to accommodate 2 x WSS ROADM.
Moreover, the unique East/West architecture ensures that no single failure will
cause a node failure.

Figure 6-7: Typical MO_OFA_PHBC application in a fully redundant ROADM node
The MO_OFA_PHBC/MO_OFA_HBC can operate as a booster and
preamplifier for terminal nodes. A single booster configuration
(MO_OFA_HBC) is also available.
RM_OFA_VHB
The RM_OFA_VHB is a very high power (2527 dBm) EDFA booster in a
compact rack-mounted unit. This amplifier is typically used in undersea links
and in very long terrestrial links where very high power is required to bridge
very high fiber loss. In many applications this amplifier is coupled with Raman
amplifiers, described in OFA_R and RM_OFA_HR (on page 6-23).
XDM General Description WDM Optical Components and
Service Cards

417006-2002-0H3-D00 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 6-23

OFA_R and RM_OFA_HR
Optical networks are sometimes deployed under conditions where equipment
must transmit over long fiber spans with no intermediate sites for optical
amplification or electrical 3R regeneration. This is the case with undersea
networks, island hopping, festoons, and other spans over rough terrains or to
remote locations.
Whenever the optical power budget offered by the OFA_2 and OFA_M is
insufficient, the OFA_R or the RM_OFA_HR distributed Raman amplifiers are
the required solution. With these amplifiers, single channel and DWDM
networks can operate over extended distances. The amplification is highly
dependent on the fiber type used, its quality, the splices, and other optical
criteria. Use of Raman amplifiers also reduces the number of inline amplifiers
in an optical span, thus allowing reduced operation costs and higher service
availability.
Raman is a nonlinear physical phenomenon whereby injection of high optical
power into the fiber transforms it into an amplifier and reduces optical
attenuation. This improves optical power budget and increases the effective
range of the signal.
ITU-T Recommendation G.665 classifies distributed Raman amplifiers as
follows:
Forward-pumped
Reverse-pumped
Bidirectional pumped
The Raman amplifiers may be configured to operate in any of the distributed
Raman amplification classes. It operates in conjunction with the EDFA at
either end of the span, serving as the booster or preamp.

Figure 6-8: OFA_R in a bidirectional distributed amplification application
WDM Optical Components and
Service Cards
XDM General Description

6-24 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D00

The OFA_R is a double-slot card that generates 500 mW (27 dBm) optical
power. The RM_OFA_HR is a compact rack-mounted unit that generates very
high power of up to 1.8 W (32.5 dBm).
The Raman amplifiers are designed to operate with various fiber types,
including G.652, G.655, and G.654.
OPM Card
To properly manage DWDM networks, especially regional/long-haul amplified
networks, active monitoring of the optical layer is critical. The Optical
Performance Monitoring (OPM) card for the XDM-1000 product line enables
simultaneous monitoring of all 80 wavelengths, at any four different line points
within a site, delivering direct feedback of the optical signal status.
Specifically, it reports three critical parameters from each active optical
channel to LightSoft and provides alarms about any changes in the following
parameters:
Wavelength (and channel count)
Power level per channel
OSNR per channel
The OPM performs automatic scheduled measurements at 15-minute intervals.
These are compared to a historical database of measurements. Long-term
monitoring provides a performance baseline that enables forecasting and rapid
network restoration in case of failures.
XDM General Description WDM Optical Components and
Service Cards

417006-2002-0H3-D00 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 6-25

The following figure illustrates different possible locations of the OPM and the
connection to LightSoft to enable monitoring of each individual wavelength.

Figure 6-9: OPM cards location and connections to the network manager
WDM Optical Components and
Service Cards
XDM General Description

6-26 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D00

A single OPM card monitors optical parameters at four different points in the
same site. The following figure illustrates how a single OPM card in a single
XDM slot monitors these parameters in an OADM site. More than one OPM
card can be used in hub sites in mesh topologies.

Figure 6-10: Typical OPM configuration in an ROADM site
The OPM card enables comprehensive intelligent monitoring that is of great
value for:
Routine monitoring of optical transmission and fiber quality.
Preventive maintenance of the optical links, recommended to prevent
problems before they occur.
Quick and effective troubleshooting, since the OPM provides operators
with vital information needed to efficiently pinpoint the source of a
network problem with minimal disruption or downtime. Use of the OPM
eliminates the need to send technicians with standalone measuring
equipment, such as an optical spectrum analyzer, to the site, thereby
enabling a quick return to full operational functionality with major OPEX
savings.
XDM General Description WDM Optical Components and
Service Cards

417006-2002-0H3-D00 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 6-27

OMSP Card
The OMSP is an optical MS protection card that provides multiplex section
protection at the optical line level. This single-slot card enables the optical
network to operate in a four-fiber infrastructure while minimizing equipment
needs. Operation in four-fiber rings ensures enhanced protection in cases of a
fiber cut, as a parallel fiber pair protects each fiber pair.
The OMSP card can also be used to add nodes by switching to the appropriate
fiber pair, thus connecting the node to the network.

Figure 6-11: Adding nodes using the OMSP

WDM Optical Components and
Service Cards
XDM General Description

6-28 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D00

DCM and DCF
The XDM offers a variety of Dispersion Compensating Modules (DCM) and
Dispersion Compensating Fibers (DCF) to properly compensate for chromatic
dispersion.
The DCFs are compact rack-mounted units that can compensate for various
distances (20, 40, 60, 80, 95, and 120 km, or 12, 25, 38, 50, 60, and 75 miles),
suitable for various fiber types, such as ITU-T G.652 and G.655 compliant
fibers.
The DCM utilizes state-of-the-art passive Fiber Bragg Grating technology, and
provides a cost-effective solution for single-channel dispersion compensation,
usually in long reach SDH networks. Fiber Bragg Grating technology provides
a filter that reduces amplifier noise at the receiver, thereby increasing the
available power budget. Low-insertion-loss modules for 40 km, 80 km,
100 km, and 120 km (25, 50, 60, and 75 mile) dispersion compensation are
available for installation in a single CCP slot in the XDM-1000 product line. A
rack-mounted unit is also available for use with the XDM-100 product line.
PELES
The XDM uses a patent-pending highly intelligent network control plane to
provide constant optimized power-per-channel (PPC) throughout the link and
the system life span. This mechanism is called PELES (Power Equalization for
Lightwave Enabled Servers), and is essential for providing DWDM networks
with the reliability and ready-to-use simplicity they require.
PELES works at both network and NE level. At the network level, PELES
enables an operator to observe an optical link from beginning to end and to
analyze the actual cause of optical power variations along the link. At the NE
level, PELES remotely and automatically measures the composite and/or
per-channel power levels and monitors the difference between actual power
values (read by the photodiodes in the various optical elements) and expected
(calculated) power values. In case of a power control alarm the XDM analyzes
the situation. If user-defined thresholds are crossed, the XDM readjusts the link
(amplifiers, ROADMs, OADMs, etc.), clears the alarm, and notifies the
management system accordingly.
Using the network power control plane, channels can be freely added and
removed from the DWDM system without requiring reconfiguration or tuning.
The process is completely transparent to all existing channels and does not
interrupt traffic, thereby providing perfectly smooth scalability from the first
channel up to the maximum channel count.
XDM General Description WDM Optical Components and
Service Cards

417006-2002-0H3-D00 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 6-29

PELES offers the following key capabilities:
Span loss change detection and measurement of link attenuation: The
real change in span loss along a single link is detected by comparing
changes of composite power at the input of a controlled element against
changes at the output of the previous element. This enables the operator to
detect fiber degradation and to distinguish between power changes caused
by changes in the number of active channels and those caused by changes
in fiber or connector attenuation.
Active wavelength change measurement: PELES calculates the actual
number of channels that are present at the input of each Mux/OADM and
updates each controlled element when changes in the number of active
channels occur. This eliminates the need for a manual update or
readjustment of the various amplifiers, OADMs, ROADMs, etc. along the
link, thereby simplifying the steps required to add new wavelengths to the
network.
Calculates and defines the correct gain values needed at each
amplifier: PELES takes into account the power goals and optical noise
accumulated along the chain. This optimizes OSNR performance along the
link and ensures highest QoS even during addition/removal of wavelengths
and during changes in fiber attenuation.
Another key feature of PELES is the comprehensive set of indicators available
for the operator's convenience, such as a map of all active channels and a table
showing all changes in span loss. All this serves to ease network operation and
assist the operator in closely monitoring all network changes and provide early
warning of problematic fibers. The following diagram illustrates the
operational concept of PELES.

Figure 6-12: PELES
In addition, complete control of the entire system, including all maintenance
tasks, is achieved via LightSoft, eliminating the need to visit distant sites.



WDM Optical Components and
Service Cards
XDM General Description

6-30 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D00






417006-2002-0H3-D00 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 7-1

In this chapter:
Overview.........................................................................................................7-1
PDH Service Cards..........................................................................................7-4
SDH Service Cards..........................................................................................7-5
Aurora-G GbE Encryptor Card........................................................................7-7
ATS Service Matrix for 3G Cellular Networks...............................................7-8
I/O Protection Modules.................................................................................7-10
Simplified SDH Trail Movement..................................................................7-12

Overview
The XDM utilizes a wide range of flexible interchangeable I/O components.
With this range of modular options, the XDM is capable of building a network
tailored to your requirements, providing maximum efficiency and optimal
functionality.
The various I/O components are designed for modularity and ease of use. For
example, I/O cards are interchangeable within a product line, and optical
components are built on a single universal base card. These features simplify
the design, maintenance, and upgradeability of your network.
7
MSPP Components and
Service Cards
MSPP Components and Service Cards XDM General Description

7-2 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D00

This chapter introduces the following XDM MSPP components and service
cards:
PIM/PIO: PDH I/O service cards, aggregate modules, and tributary
modules that link PDH interface signals to the XDM cross-connect matrix,
supporting E1, E3, and DS-3 interfaces.
SIM/SAM/SIO: SDH I/O service cards, aggregate modules, and tributary
modules that link SDH interface signals to the XDM cross-connect matrix,
supporting all interfaces ranging from STM-1 to STM-64.
Aurora-G: Encryption solution, encrypting Ethernet traffic at GbE rates.
The Aurora-G enables government and defense agencies as well as
commercial Utelco operators to secure their communications.
ATS: An ATM switch designed specifically to address the requirements of
3G cellular networks.
ASON: Add-on cards that add the power of ASON architecture and
GMPLS protocols to XDM platforms, described in ASON in the XDM on
page 8-1.
The following table identifies the MSPP components and the platforms within
which specific modules are used. The different modules are listed by interface
categories, where the modules within a category generally share the same
functionality. Specific details may vary from module to module. More
information describing the capacity, ports, and interfaces for each module is
provided in the rest of this chapter. For exact detailed specifications of each
module, see the Technical Specifications documentation.
Table 7-1: MSPP components and service cards per platform
Interface XDM-50 XDM-
100,
100H
XDM-
300
XDM-
40
XDM-
500
XDM-
1000
XDM-
2000
2M
PIM2_21
PIM2_63
PIM2_63B
PIO2_84
34/45M
PIM345_3
PIO345_16
XDM General Description MSPP Components and Service Cards

417006-2002-0H3-D00 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 7-3

Interface XDM-50 XDM-
100,
100H
XDM-
300
XDM-
40
XDM-
500
XDM-
1000
XDM-
2000
STM-1
SAM1_4o
SAM1_4oB

SIM1_4o
SIM1_4oB

SAM1_4e
SIM1_4e
SIM1_8
SIO1&4
SIO1&4B

STM-4
SAM4_2
SIM4_2
SIM4_4
SIO1&4
SIO1&4B

STM-16
SIO16M
SAM16_1
SAM16_1B

SIM16_1
SIM16_4
SIO164
STM-64
(TDM 10 Gbps)
SIO164
SIO64
SIM64_XFP
Encryption service
Aurora-G
ATM service
ATS
ASON
ACP100
ACP1000
MSPP Components and Service Cards XDM General Description

7-4 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D00

PDH Service Cards
The function of the PDH I/O service card (PIO or PIM) is to link PDH
interface signals to the XDM cross-connect matrix. The XDM PDH service
cards provide all the functionality required to deploy a transport network,
including PM for PDH interfaces and 2 Mbps retiming (for PABX
synchronization). The XDM supports all standards of PDH service, including
hardware Equipment Protection Switching (EPS).
The PIO/PIM modules consist of line interface circuits, PDH signal processing
circuits, and internal interfaces to the two matrix cards. The physical line
interfaces and traffic protection circuits are located in the electrical connection
modules. PIMs with electrical interfaces fully support direct connection to the
module without other external connection modules. PIOs use CCP modules as
conductors.
The protection scheme for all PIO/PIM modules is 1:N, with one card in
standby mode to protect the active n cards. In case of a failure in one of the
active cards, the standby card becomes active and replaces the faulty card,
without having to disconnect any cables. For information about module
protection, see I/O Protection Modules (on page 7-10).
Table 7-2: PDH service cards
Card Service
interface
Balanced/
Unbalanced
(75 /120 )
Single/
Double
slot
Ports
per
card
Minimal
required
slot
capacity
Optical/
Electrical
XDM-100 product line
PIM2_21 E1 120 single 21 1.25G electrical
PIM2_63 E1 120 double 63 1.25G electrical
PIM2_63B E1 120 double 63 1.25G electrical
PIM345_3 E3 / DS-3 75 single 3 1.25G electrical
XDM-1000 product line
PIO2_84
[with CCP
M2_84]
E1 75 /
120
single 84 2.5G optical
PIO345
[with CCP
M345]
E3 / DS-3 75 single 16 2.5G optical

XDM General Description MSPP Components and Service Cards

417006-2002-0H3-D00 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 7-5

SDH Service Cards
The function of the SDH I/O service cards (SIO, SIM, or SAM) is to provide
interfaces that enable SDH signals to connect to the central cross-connect
matrix of the XDM. The XDM SDH service cards provide comprehensive SDH
functionality, supporting the complete range of interface types, including both
colored and noncolored optical interfaces (C/DWDM) as well as electrical
(STM-1).
To provide this comprehensive functionality, the SDH service card consists of
a common base card and either plug-in optical modules or electrical ports,
depending on the service interface. The SIO164 is software configurable
between SDH and OTN interfaces (STM-16/OTU1 or STM-64/OTU2), for
greater convenience and simplicity in your network administration. For better
performance, the XDM supports 7% out-of-band FEC (G.709 RS (255.239)),
as well as EFEC for even greater correction ability.
The XDM service cards are designed for efficiency on a basis of universality
and commonality, with the same modular components used for both SDH and
optical service. For example, the same optical plug-in modules (SFP/XFP) are
used in both the SIOs and the transponder cards. This leads to further savings
in spare parts.
The utilization of colored interfaces in existing or new SDH networks enables
DWDM and optical networking implementation without having to add
transponders in series to the SDH interfaces. When DWDM functionality is
added to the network, an SIO card with a noncolored laser can be upgraded to a
colored SIO. This simple procedure further increases savings.
Table 7-3: SDH service cards
Card Service
interface
Balanced/
Unbalanced
(75 /120 )
Single/
Double/Q
uad slot
Ports
per
card
Minimal
required
slot
capacity
Optical/
Electrical
XDM-100 product line
SAM1_4e STM-1 75 single 4 1.25G electrical
SAM1_4o
SAM1_4oB
STM-1 --- single 4 1.25G optical
SIM1_4e STM-1 75 single 4 1.25G electrical
SIM1_4o
SIM1_4oB
STM-1 --- single 4 1.25G optical
SIM1_8 STM-1 --- single 8 1.25G electrical/
optical
SAM4_2 STM-4 --- single 2 1.25G optical
MSPP Components and Service Cards XDM General Description

7-6 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D00

Card Service
interface
Balanced/
Unbalanced
(75 /120 )
Single/
Double/Q
uad slot
Ports
per
card
Minimal
required
slot
capacity
Optical/
Electrical
SIM4_2 STM-4 --- single 2 1.25G optical
SIM4_4 STM-4 --- single 4 2.5G optical
SAM16_1
SAM16_1B
STM-16 --- single 1 2.5G optical
SIM16_1 STM-16 --- single 1 2.5G optical
SIM16_4 STM-16 --- quad 4 10G optical
SIM64_XFP STM-64 --- quad 1 10G optical
XDM-1000 product line
SIO1&4
SIO1&4M
STM-1 75 single 16 2.5G electrical/
optical
SIO1&4
SIO1&4M
STM-4 --- single 4 2.5G optical
SIO1&4B STM-1 75 single 16/32* 2.5G/5G/
10G
electrical/
optical
SIO1&4B STM-4 --- single 4/16 2.5G/5G/
10G
optical
SIO16
SIO16M
STM-16 --- single 2 2.5G optical
SIO64
SIO64M
STM-64 --- double 1 5G optical
SIO164 STM-16 --- single 4 10G optical
SIO164 STM-64 --- single 1 10G optical
* Via CCP module and SFP.
XDM General Description MSPP Components and Service Cards

417006-2002-0H3-D00 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 7-7

Aurora-G GbE Encryptor Card
To overcome hostile interception of data and information, military,
government, Utelco, finance organizations, and other enterprises invest major
efforts to increase their network security. Encrypting information running over
fiber is considered the highest level of security a network operator can achieve
for protecting against external threats.
The Aurora-G Ethernet Security card protects every frame sent over a Layer 2
Ethernet network. Any frame not encrypted with the correct key or modified in
any way is rejected.
The Aurora-G is designed for the XDM-1000 product line, utilizing a single
platform slot to encrypt Ethernet traffic at a GbE rate for a single encrypted
port, thereby replacing expensive standalone encryption units. Each card has
two GbE SFPs, one for plain text and one for secure text. Integrating
encryption functionality into the XDM reduces network complexity, lowers
operational expenses through integrated management tools, and reduces
CAPEX by lowering the total cost of ownership, since it requires less power
and less space.
In a typical deployment, Aurora-G cards are installed in pairs. Each appliance
establishes a secure connection with the other. Once a card pair is deployed, a
secure tunnel is created over the open (unsecured) network. This secure tunnel
prevents unauthorized viewing of the data, prevents unauthorized modification
of the data in transit, and prevents data transmission by unauthorized sources.

Figure 7-1: Aurora-G in P2P Ethernet over DWDM configuration
MSPP Components and Service Cards XDM General Description

7-8 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D00

The Aurora-G card supports P2P Ethernet over DWDM, interfacing smoothly,
for example, with the CMBR25_2, the CMBR10D, and transponder cards.
The card employs hardware encryption for the entire Ethernet frame as well as
Layer 3 protocol protection, including IPv4, IPv6, IPX, and others. The
Aurora-G uses the strongest encryption method available, AES-256, rendering
cryptanalysis virtually impossible. Keys are managed remotely through the IKE
protocol. The Aurora-G card is FIPS 140-2 Level 2 compliant.
ATS Service Matrix for 3G
Cellular Networks
The XDM ATS card is an ATM switch designed specifically to address the
requirements of 3G cellular networks. It is a single-slot card that can be
inserted into any platform in the XDM-1000 product line.
In a typical ATS card application, VC-12s arriving from Node Bs are
concentrated into VC-4s, which are then transported to the RNC or to the next
concentration level. The ATS can also terminate and rebuild traffic into larger
IMA groups to optimally use the transmission infrastructure. This regrouping
capability, illustrated in the following figure, is useful, for example, in cases of
limited capacity at the RAN, such as limited leased-line services or radio SDH
service.

Figure 7-2: XDM ATM approach
The ATS card does not have any physical ports. All ports are logical, and
derive from the matrix core. The ATS supports up to two ATM STM-1s/VC-4s
and up to 125 ATM E1s. Any XDM I/O interface can serve as a physical port
for the ATS.
XDM General Description MSPP Components and Service Cards

417006-2002-0H3-D00 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 7-9

The connection between the physical ports and the ATS logical ports is
established dynamically by configuring XC (HLXC and XIO), as shown in the
following figure:

Figure 7-3: ATS ports

Connectivity to Any Physical Port, E1/IMA or
STM-1/VC-4
Because the connection between physical and logical ports is established by
configuring the SDH XCs, it is possible to assign any E1, or E1 mapped to a
VC-12 port, to any logical E1 port, or any STM-1/VC-4 to any logical
STM-1/VC-4 port, while maintaining full ATM service assignment flexibility
for ATM UNI or IMA. ATM processing can also be bypassed when not
required. The following examples illustrate some of the possible configuration
options for ATS ports:
Each individual E1 port in the PIO2_84 cards can be assigned to any ATM
service, including IMA. This means that the ATS can combine any set of
E1 ports, including those residing on different PIOs, into one IMA group,
eliminating any need for port reservations.
Any E1 mapped to VC-12 from any PIO or SIO card can be assigned to any
ATM service. All SDH interfaces can also be accessed as channeled
interfaces.
Each individual STM-1 port (of the maximum 16 available on each STM-1
card) can be assigned to any ATM service.
Any VC-4 from any SDH card can be assigned to any ATM service. For
example, VC-4 ATM can be accessed from STM-4, STM-16, and STM-64
SDH payloads.
MSPP Components and Service Cards XDM General Description

7-10 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D00

There is no difference between the access side and the network side. All
physical ports can be assigned the same capabilities.
UNI/NNI can be configured separately for each port.
VC-4 streams that do not require further ATM processing may bypass the
ATS, thereby realizing tremendous cost savings.
I/O Protection Modules
In a protected service, the service availability is essentially determined by the
two endpoints of the service at the tributary cards. Since each endpoint
inevitably consists of a single card, this introduces a Single Point of Failure
(SPOF) to the service. No matter how much redundancy and protection is built
into the system design, the individual endpoint remains the single most
vulnerable point in the network.
Providing hardware protection at the two endpoints dramatically increases the
service availability and enhances the quality of service provided. For electrical
tributaries, the XDM features a 1:N protection scheme with one standby card
protecting several working service cards. The 1:N design is an efficient
approach through which you choose the amount of resources held in reserve,
providing added value by enabling you to select a level of protection tailored to
your network requirements.
In the XDM-100 product line, hardware protection is provided through the
TPU, which holds up to four TPMs. Depending on the module configuration,
each TPM protects one or more PIM and SIM modules. Immediately upon
detection of a faulty PIM or SIM component, the MXC automatically activates
the appropriate switching relay, providing immediate protection. The following
table lists TPM module options.
Table 7-4: TPM options
Module type Protected
I/O module pairs
Protection
scheme
Single-slot modules
TPM2_1 PIM2_21
PIM2_21F
1:1
TPMH_1 PIM345_3,
SIM1_4e
1:1
Double-slot modules
TPM2_3
PIM2_21
PIM2_21F
1:3
Triple-slot modules
TPM2_63_2 PIM2_63 1:2
XDM General Description MSPP Components and Service Cards

417006-2002-0H3-D00 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 7-11

The following figure illustrates a typical 1:4 protection scheme:

Figure 7-4: TPM protection - four groups of 1:1
For a detailed list of TPM configuration options, refer to the XDM-100
Technical Specifications.
In the XDM-1000 product line, hardware protection is provided through an
internal mechanism via the backplane. The same 1:N protection scheme is
used, offering a choice of up to 1:10 I/O protection. Hardware protection for
the electrical modules is implemented automatically in the XDM-1000 product
line through the CCP modules. One extra I/O module is held in reserve to
protect up to 10 working I/O modules.
MSPP Components and Service Cards XDM General Description

7-12 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D00

Simplified SDH Trail Movement
The SDH advanced service cards support a convenient trail shift capability that
enables operators to transfer SDH links (STMx) from one slot to another within
the same platform. All SDH link configurations and XCs are preserved. SDH
links are moved to a new service card by an onsite ECI Telecom technical
team, with no interruption in service, leaving the original service card free for
other use or for upgrading, depending on operator preferences.
The ability to easily move SDH links to a different service card allows
operators to allocate their platform slots more efficiently. More important, the
'move trails' feature allows operators to replace their current cards with
higher-capacity cards and increase bandwidth as needed, based on service
demand, with no interruption to service and no need to add extra platforms for
more slots. For example, the move trails feature would allow operators to
increase the line rate from STM-16 (2.5 Gbps) to STM-64 (10 Gbps), simply
by switching the STM-16 trails in a single movement to one STM-64 link. Note
that link trails must be moved simultaneously on both sides of the link.
The 'move trails' feature is a valuable maintenance tool for deployed XDM
networks that wish to expand and deliver more services. This tool simplifies
management activity, eliminating the high risk usually intrinsic to trail
reconfiguration.


417006-2002-0H3-D00 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 8-1

In this chapter:
Introduction.....................................................................................................8-1
Standardizing the Control Plane: ASTN/ASON, GMPLS,
and UNI/E-NNI Standards...............................................................................8-2
ASON/GMPLS in the XDM Family...............................................................8-5
Optical Control Plane Architecture.................................................................8-7
Control Plane Functionalities..........................................................................8-9
Protection and Restoration.............................................................................8-12

Introduction
ECIs innovative networking framework enables carriers to reduce CAPEX and
OPEX by efficiently planning and operating intelligent optical networks using
ASON architecture and GMPLS protocols.
Through the power of ASON/GMPLS, the XDM provides automatic discovery
capabilities that help carriers reduce OPEX significantly. The XDMs
distributed dynamic routing capability allows for rapid cost-effective addition
of new nodes and additional bandwidth, without the extensive offline
operations required today. The XDMs variety of bandwidth-efficient
protection and restoration schemes work with the complete set of ring, mesh,
and point-to-point network topologies. Protection modes include linear MSP,
fast mesh restoration, SNCP, and MS-SPRing.
The XDM ASON/GMPLS implementation is based on emerging standards
from ITU, IETF, and OIF, as well as advanced distributed control plane
architectures, as explained in this chapter.
8
ASON in the XDM
ASON in the XDM XDM General Description

8-2 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D00

Standardizing the Control Plane:
ASTN/ASON, GMPLS, and
UNI/E-NNI Standards
The need for intelligent optical networking in carrier networks triggered an
ongoing effort by leading standardization bodies, including the ITU-T, IETF,
and OIF, towards a unified control plane architecture. By adopting proven
protocols and approaches, a unified architecture standard would enable the
development of a new generation of transmission networks. These new
networks would enable fast provisioning and restoration along multiple carrier
domains using infrastructure from multiple vendors.
Understanding the Standards
The ITU-T focuses on the switched transport control plane, developing the
ASTN umbrella of specifications. The set of ASTN standards includes the
ASON architecture, as well as multiple generic and specific standards
addressing issues such as call connection management (signaling), discovery
and link management, routing, and other topics.

Figure 8-1: Control plane architecture
XDM General Description ASON in the XDM

417006-2002-0H3-D00 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 8-3

The IETF has defined the well-known GMPLS architecture and protocols,
extending MPLS for circuit-switching as well as other non-IP-based systems.
GMPLS protocols include signaling protocols (RSVP-TE), routing protocols
(OSPF-TE), and others. The GMPLS protocols enable advanced switching
platforms such as the XDM to add intelligence by integrating a control plane.
The OIF focuses on integration and interoperability issues by defining the
user-to-network interface (UNI) and the external network-to-network interface
(E-NNI). These standards cover the gaps between ASON and GMPLS
architectures, enabling a smoother integration of carrier networks.
Understanding the Layers
The network is composed of the following layers:
Transport Plane: Responsible for transporting services, including
switching and multiplexing. The transport layer is implemented from an
assembly of intelligent components and subsystems that make up the
switching elements and line systems. The transport layer also includes
gateways for service adaptation.
Control Plane: The enabler for mesh restoration and intelligent optical
networking. The control plane consists of individual processors (control
plane instances) running control plane software and using a communication
channel to create an overlay plane that controls the switching elements. The
control plane is mainly responsible for restoring failed connections, for
which it establishes, releases, and supervises connections. A signaling
communication network (SCN) supports control plane instances by
providing the communication channel necessary for its operation.
Management Plane: With the introduction of the control plane, the
management layer is expanded to accommodate the operations,
administration, maintenance, and provisioning (OAM&P) of control
plane-related functionalities. Components of the control plane are modeled
as managed entities within the management plane, fitting into the existing
OAM architecture to minimize disruption to existing operational
procedures.
ASON in the XDM XDM General Description

8-4 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D00

Understanding the Interfaces
The network works with the following interfaces:
I-NNI: The internal network-to-network interface (I-NNI) is a bidirectional
signaling interface between control plane instances within the same routing
domain. Complete topology and routing information is exchanged using the
OSPF-TE routing protocol over I-NNI, and connection requests are
propagated across the control plane using RSVP-TE signaling protocol.
Routing and signaling traffic is carried over the SCN. The signaling design
complies with ITU-T G.7713 and ITU-T G.7713.2, and routing with ITU-T
G.7715 and ITU-T G.7715.1.
E-NNI: The external network-to-network interface (E-NNI) is a
bidirectional signaling interface between different routing and
administrative domains. E-NNI is a key enabler for rapid delivery of
services that span across multiple domains. The E-NNI interface passes
reachability and domain level routing information only (not complete
routing information as does I-NNI). It is a UNI-like interface with some
NNI functions for exchanging address and topology summaries. The
RSVP-TE protocol is used for E-NNI protocol.
UNI: The user-to-network interface (UNI) allows a client to signal for an
optical connection to be set up or torn down. The UNI is used by client
systems like routers. It is also used by elements of a higher layer transport
network to request an optical connection or modify the service attributes.
No topology or routing information is exchanged over UNI. OIF-UNI 1.0
R2 is used for this interface.
NMI: The network-to-management interface (NMI) handles the
interactions between the management layer and the control plane.
XDM General Description ASON in the XDM

417006-2002-0H3-D00 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 8-5


Figure 8-2: Control plane interfaces

ASON/GMPLS in the XDM Family
The XDM family's ASON control plane architecture offers intelligent services
in new and existing XDM transport networks. Adding a GMPLS control plane
enhances XDM networks by adding restoration to sub-50 msec protection
schemes and automated service provisioning. Other capabilities supported by
the XDM architecture contribute to increased CAPEX and reduced OPEX. The
XDM control plane architecture, protocols, and functionalities are described
here.
The ASON-XDM family solution is based on the Add-On concept, adding
unique capabilities to existing and new networks .The XDM supports seamless
integration of NEs to dynamic E2E ASON-based applications.
The XDM provides an integrated solution of high- and low-order VC-12/3/4
switching capabilities, with capacities ranging from 30 Gbps on the XDM-100
up to 120 Gbps on XDM-1000 shelves. With multiple line cards per shelf and
bit rates ranging from E1 up to STM-64, as well as Layer 1 and Layer 2
MPLS/Ethernet over SDH, XDM is an ideal platform for metro-edge,
metro-core, and regional networks, capable of implementing both ring-based
and extremely efficient meshed networks.
ASON in the XDM XDM General Description

8-6 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D00


Figure 8-3: ASON-XDM family portfolio

XDM General Description ASON in the XDM

417006-2002-0H3-D00 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 8-7

Optical Control Plane
Architecture
The XDM architecture is fully ASON-compliant (ITU-T G.8080) and
completely interoperative with other vendor equipment, including systems that
do not have Optical Control Plane technology. The following figure illustrates
a high-level view of the XDM's ASON architecture. It consists of three layers
or planes:
Transport plane
Control plane
Management plane

Figure 8-4: Three-layered ASON architecture in the XDM

ASON in the XDM XDM General Description

8-8 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D00

Transport Plane
The transport plane represents the switching equipment. This is the layer
responsible for carrying the client payload between endpoints of a connection
(trail) over any number of NEs, including switching and multiplexing services.
The transport layer is composed of the intelligent components and subsystems
that make up switching elements and line systems. The transport layer also
includes gateways for service adaptation. Note that legacy transmission
networks use the management plane for provisioning and operation (FCAPS)
of NEs in the transport plane.
With XDM, the transport layer is the XDM shelf itself. Among other
value-added features, the nonblocking lower order cross connect capabilities of
XDM (the largest LO switch on the market today) is a key asset for carriers in
metro networks in general, and in meshed networks in particular. Since both
TDM traffic and Ethernet-over-SDH services are usually generated at VC-12
granularity, the XDM nonblocking solution enables carriers to provision
services between any two endpoints without the limitations that exist when
going through a HO trunk layer. This simplifies the planning and provisioning
stage as well as improving effective line utilization.
XDM also offers state-of-the-art built-in CWDM and DWDM layers. Equipped
with the latest ROADM technology and full-range tunable lasers, XDM further
simplifies carrier networks by integrating two transmission layers into a single
shelf, with a single network management system. The XDM's integrated layers
offer networks far more flexibility than legacy WDM networks.
The XDM transport plane also implements two capabilities critical for ASON
architecture implementation. These are Automatic Discovery and DCN, both
compliant with ASON standards, as explained in the following section.
Control Plane
The control plane is the layer that enables mesh restoration and intelligent
optical networking. The control plane in XDM networks consists of individual
processors (control plane instances) within each and every XDM NE.
The control plane uses standard protocols to implement the various ASON
architecture roles. The control plane software interoperates with the transport
plane via a Connection Control Interface (CCI), and control plane processors
are interconnected with an I-NNI interface over a dedicated DCN (inband or
outband). The interface towards client equipment is implemented over UNI
where, as E-NNI, it is used to expand enabled connections over other domains
(other carriers, other layers, or third party equipment). A dedicated NMI is used
as interface between the control plane and NMS.
XDM General Description ASON in the XDM

417006-2002-0H3-D00 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 8-9

The control plane in the XDM is implemented through a dedicated ASON
Control Plane (ACP) card, available in the following versions:
ACP1000: Designed for XDM-500 and XDM-1000 shelves; installed in
any CCP slot.
ACP100: Designed for XDM-100 and XDM-300 shelves; installed in any
I/O slot.
Each XDM shelf may be equipped with 2 ACP cards for 1:1 protection,
preventing a single point of failure.
The control plane in XDM implements OIF based on GMPLS standards,
as well as I-NNI, E-NNI, UNI, and MNI as defined by ITU-T ASON
standards.

Management Plane
The management layer, ECI's field-proven LightSoft NMS, provides full
FCAPS support, including fault, configuration, administration, performance,
and security management of the network. This approach is also further
extended when ASON is used to create an intelligent network.
Control Plane Functionalities
Signaling Communications Network (SCN)
In an ASON-based network with a distributed control plane where each NE has
his own ASON card, signaling communication between NEs is a critical issue.
Moreover, when a failure occurs, no restoration is performed. High reliability is
therefore required to always maintain live management connections between
the NEs. The SCN is a data communication channel that enables
communication between ACP cards. Operators may implement the DCN both
in-band and out-of-band, as follows:
SDH IP-DCC in the XDM
Clear Channel (DCC encapsulated into a VC-12)
External DCN through ACP Ethernet port
The SC channel, whether in- or out-of-band, can be implemented with existing
SDH links between the ASON domain NEs.
ASON in the XDM XDM General Description

8-10 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D00

Auto-discovery
XDM auto-discovery supports resource and link management. The
auto-discovery design complies with ITU-T G.7714 and ITU-T G.7714.1. The
following levels of auto-discovery are supported:
XDM Self-discovery: NE self-discovery is handled by XDM shelves at the
transport layer, as in any XDM-based SDH network. Upon NE
commissioning, the NE automatically detects installed circuit packs and
software configuration, initializing the circuit packs to default settings. The
NE continuously monitors the state and attributes of its local facilities. The
NE reports the local facility characteristics and port attributes to the ACP
card, which, in turn, updates the local XDM topology database.
Adjacency Discovery: In adjacency discovery, an individual NE
automatically detects logical and physical connectivity to neighboring NEs
(link adjacency) on a per-port basis, through the simple exchange of unique
interface identifiers (auto-discovery tags). This identifier exchange is done
in-fiber, over the J 0 byte. The use of J 1 is also allowed when it is not
possible to use J 0.
An auto-discovery identifier is exchanged on each optical interface. Once
validated and accepted by the network operator, the adjacency information
is sent to the control plane for analysis (peer/neighbor discovery) and to the
management plane. Adjacency discovery complies with ITU-T G.7714.
The XDM continuously monitors link adjacency as long as the interface is
configured. Mismatches and topology changes are reported to the control
plane and the management system.
Network Topology Discovery: The control plane itself uses OSPF for
control plane and network architecture discovery. Each ACP learns the
network topology and builds its topology database. The routing
mechanisms use this information in automated route computation.
Ultimately, each control plane instance holds a complete, identical view of
the network topology and resources.
The XDM control plane bundles ports and facilities with the same link
attributes into a single link bundle. Link bundling is an efficient way to
distribute link information for multiple links at the same time. This
approach supports a scalable architecture for large networks.

XDM General Description ASON in the XDM

417006-2002-0H3-D00 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 8-11

Routing
XDM routing is responsible for network topology and resource discovery, and
for automatic route computation. XDM routing complies with ITU-T G.7715
and ITU-T G.7715.1.
The XDM uses a distributed link state routing protocol, OSPF-TE, for
automatic discovery of network topology and resources and to maintain a local
topology database on each control plane instance. Each ACP is responsible for
discovering its neighboring NEs and the links that connect them. The ACP then
advertises the identities of its adjacent neighbors and the cost/weight of each
link. This link information is advertised among control plane instances through
periodic exchange of link state packets. Thus, each ACP is armed with a
dynamic map of the network topology and resources. With this information, the
ACP is able to compute routes to any destination.
Both implicit and explicit path determination are supported at call creation.
Implicit calls are calls for which only the source and destination points are
specified for the connection(s), along with other service attributes (i.e., rate,
granularity, CoS, and so on).
Explicit calls are calls for which the route is specified by the LightSoft NMS.
This explicit route specification is passed on to the control plane. With explicit
routing, the control plane does not do any route calculation. Note that an
explicit call may benefit from the dynamic connection management capabilities
of the control plane by using precalculated mesh restoration.
Signaling
Optical signaling provides the underlying mechanism for dynamic call and
connection management. The signaling mechanisms handle connection
requests, such as connection creation or restoration. The signaling design
complies with ITU-T G.7713.2 and GMPLS RSVP-TE.
Once a route is determined by the ACP of the source node, signaling is used to
set the connection. Label request messages are sent from source node to the
destination node. Notification message receipts sent from the destination node
to the source node are used by each ACP along the way to set the local cross
connect that services the entire connection E2E.
Two connection types may be supported:
Soft permanent connection (SPC): Optical connection requested by
LightSoft, on behalf of client devices.
Switched connection (SC): Optical connection requested directly by the
client at the network edge.
ASON in the XDM XDM General Description

8-12 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D00

Management and Operation
LightSoft is today's NMS for all XDM families. With Corba north- and
southbound interfaces, LightSoft implements MTNM architecture. LightSoft
interoperates with EMS-XDM as well as other ECI and third party EMS
systems to complete the management system in large networks.
LightSoft works in conjunction with EMS-XDM to deliver a full FCAPS suite.
LightSoft ensures consistency between network resources and the carrier's
internal database, in addition to other features related to fault reporting,
accounting, PM, and security.
When LightSoft works together with EMS-XDM, it acts as the management
system of the control plane. The role of LightSoft is to prepare configuration
data that enables the control plane, acting as a real-time tool, to set up and tear
down services, as well as preserve them in the event of network failures.
Traffic engineering tools are one such application; they provide the right
configuration parameters for optimal distributed routing decisions. Once
correctly configured, the control plane is able to operate even if LightSoft is
unavailable. On the other hand, LightSoft is capable of overriding the control
plane if necessary. For example, faulty resources may be hidden from the
control plane, enabling the operator to repair them.
Protection and Restoration
The unique value proposition of ASON for carriers is the ability to improve
existing network resiliency by introducing the well-known restoration approach
of IP networks. With restoration, the network itself monitors services and
restores them in the event of failure. Service re-establishment in case of failure
has been a key feature of SDH-based transmission networks, which offer
service protection in less than 50 msec. SDH technology defines various shared
and dedicated protection schemes. Over the years, these protection schemes
have proven to be highly reliable. They have managed to achieve multivendor
interoperability, and have paved the way to SDH technology becoming the
most reliable transmission technology available.
The high reliability of SDH is achieved through the allocation of networking
assets for protection. Linear protection schemes, such as MSP 1+1, use a
dedicated standby line. MS-SPRing uses 50% of the ring capacity for
protection. Path protection, which is suitable for mesh topologies, uses 50% of
the overall network bandwidth by duplicating all traffic at its origin.
Adding ASON to SDH-based networks brings added benefits without affecting
the already superior performance of SDH today. With ASON, the control plane
is capable of restoring services in case of multiple failures in the network.
Furthermore, network capacity is utilized more efficiently by sharing protection
resources.
XDM General Description ASON in the XDM

417006-2002-0H3-D00 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 8-13

XDM architecture supports differentiated CoS. Supporting a range of
protection schemes allows network planners to balance protection switching
time and dedicated resources. For mission-critical services, the XDM provides
distributed restoration mechanisms with 50 msec service recovery and
dedicated protection. For less critical services, distributed shared mesh
restoration schemes can be implemented. For efficient use of installed
resources, pre-emptible services can be established using the protecting
resources.
Multiple Protection Schemes
The XDM control plane supports the coexistence of multiple protection and
restoration schemes. The XDM control plane introduces new restoration
schemes, as well as combined protection/restoration solutions, as follows:
1++ (1+1 Forever): Similar to path protection with SNCP, where a
failed path is restored by the control plane to prepare for the next possible
failure. A sub-50 msec restoration time is kept for any number of failures,
as long as a restoration path is found for the failed connection. This is an
extension of the traditional 1+1 path protection, where failure in the main
or protection path results in the restoration of the failed path. Restoration is
in addition to protection at the SDH layer, which continues to be performed
in less than 50 msec. Note that this protection scheme is the most
bandwidth-consuming as traffic is duplicated at all times
ASON in the XDM XDM General Description

8-14 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D00


Figure 8-5: 1++ protection
XDM General Description ASON in the XDM

417006-2002-0H3-D00 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 8-15

1+R (Mesh/Shred Restoration): Reroute restoration (1+R). Dynamic
restoration enables shared protection with prioritization. This protection
scheme is an extension of unprotected trails, where failure in the path
results in restoration of the trail in a new path. The unused traffic may be
used for low priority traffic at all times.
In a variation of 1+R, preplanned shared protection enables shared
protection with prioritization. Preplanned priority reacts faster than
dynamic restoration as the processing time is performed in advance

Figure 8-6: 1+R protection
1+1 path protection
Unprotected
ASON in the XDM XDM General Description

8-16 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D00

Path Computation
The protection and restoration capabilities of links and the shared risk link
groups (SRLG) associated with links can also be advertised by the routing
protocols. Based on the LightSoft physical layer, SRLG constrains the
information and capabilities provided by the GMPLS routing and signaling
protocols. The routing constraints defined for hops, fiber distance, link cost,
and SRLG may lead to different service path calculations, depending on the
constraints. The path computation algorithm Constrained Shortest Path First
(CSPF) can select disjoint paths based on link, node, or SRLG diversity.




417006-2002-0H3-D00 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 9-1

In this chapter:
Routing and Forwarding Functionality............................................................9-1
Digital Communication Channel (DCC) .........................................................9-2
Optical Supervisory Channel (OSC) .............................................................9-10
General Communications Channel (GCC)....................................................9-11
Communications Module..............................................................................9-12

Routing and Forwarding
Functionality
The routing and forwarding capabilities of the XDM platforms have grown to
match the requirements of the deployed networks. Initially, a LAN Emulation
scheme was implemented, suitable for small and mid-size networks. Later,
LAN Emulation was extended with static routing, which permitted an increase
in the size and complexity of the managed networks. The current version
incorporates standard OSPF dynamic routing, suitable for larger networks and
including a richer set of features for network communication management.
9
Network Communication
Control
Network Communication Control XDM General Description

9-2 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D00

In the XDM platforms, the main control processor subsystem is responsible for
communication with external NEs and management stations. Communication
with other SDH NEs is via the DCC in each SDH link; communication with
C/DWDM elements is via the OSC or inband GCC. An Ethernet interface is
used to communicate with the EMS-XDM. The controller subsystem can also
communicate with a desktop or laptop PC-based LCT-XDM (on page 11-21)
via a serial interface or Ethernet. It also provides alarm outputs and OW
support. Some of these network communication components and their
functionality are described in this chapter.
Digital Communication Channel
(DCC)
DCC with LAN Emulation and Static Routing
When working with LAN Emulation and static routing, all DCCs terminated at
the XDM are associated into a single IP interface. An IP address and mask are
assigned to the DCC IP interface. This IP address also serves as the host IP
address. From an IP point of view this is a network interface, making all IP
addresses in the masked subnetwork direct neighbors.
The gateway interface, when it exists, serves as a second IP interface. The
XDM management entity is the host, situated at the router. An additional IP
address is assigned to the gateway interface if this is used. The router operates
with a straightforward routing table. The DCC IP interface is the default route.
Packet encapsulation and IP forwarding over the gateway are both standard,
based on the routing table. Standard Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) is also
supported over this interface. A special encapsulation of the IP packets is used
over the DCCs. This encapsulation includes the fields required for operation of
the flooding mechanism.
In this approach, the networks are structured in ring configurations.
Management traffic travels to the NE through these rings, arriving from both
directions. One of the packets is automatically discarded. The advantage of this
approach is that in case of link or node failure, traffic will still reach the NE,
providing resiliency for management communications. Nevertheless, this is a
less-than-optimal approach, since transmission of all packets over all links is
inefficient from the perspective of link utilization.
XDM General Description Network Communication Control

417006-2002-0H3-D00 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 9-3

When networks are more complex than single rings, flooding of all packets
over all DCC interfaces becomes unacceptably inefficient. For this reason, the
basic LAN Emulation scheme was extended with static routing, where multiple
(up to 64) IP interfaces can be defined for the DCC channels. Each DCC
channel must be assigned to one and only one of these IP interfaces. A packet
initially forwarded over one such IP interface is transmitted over all the DCC
channels connected to that interface. On reception, a packet whose destination
does not appear in the routing table is forwarded over the other channels in the
interface.
Static routing is suited to multiple interworking rings, with the routing defined
at the interworking points of these rings. Nevertheless, static routing does not
support gateway protection when the Carrier Access Data Communication
Network (DCN) consists of routers.
DCC with PPP
When LAN Emulation is not used, the preferred approach is to use a standard
encapsulation method to promote interoperability with other vendor equipment.
The XDM implements the prevalent encapsulation scheme for IP on P2P links -
Point to Point Protocol (PPP), as required by the ITU standard G.7712.
This protocol has a component which negotiates some of the encapsulation
parameters before the link endpoints. The XDM implementation fully supports
PPP with the basic encapsulation format. One advantage of PPP when
compared to LAN Emulation is the reduced encapsulation overhead. The PPP
overhead is 6 bytes per frame, whereas the LAN Emulation overhead is
14 bytes per frame.
DCC with Dynamic OSPF
A DCC enables operators to integrate several platforms with their own
workstations and to pass this management traffic through the XDM. In
addition, the controller subsystem provides 64 kbps and (N x 64) kbps trail
capability for transporting management data, transporting the DCC channels of
external devices, or for other external DCN purposes. The operator sets up an
IPbased DCN to carry IP packets between the management stations and the
NEs. The DCN is composed of Embedded Communication Channels (ECC)
supported by the equipment itself and an External DCN supported by standard
data equipment. The ECCs supported by the XDM are described in Embedded
Communication Channels (on page 9-7).
Network Communication Control XDM General Description

9-4 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D00

The XDM performs IP forwarding between all network interfaces, including
DCC and Ethernet gateway management interfaces. It implements dynamic
OSPF routing over these network interfaces to automatically determine the
routing table. OSPF can be configured for any subset of these network
interfaces and supports:
P2P and broadcast interfaces
Up to four OSPF areas
Address summarization
Support for Area Border Router (ABR) functionality
Support for Autonomous System Border Router functionality (ASBR),
including redistribution of static routes
Support of a loopback address as a router ID
Configuration of HELLO protocol parameters
Support of "passive" interfaces to allow distribution of routes to attached
devices
OSPF support includes PPP encapsulation of IP packets with HDLC framing
over RS-DCC, MS-DCC, and "Clear Channel" communication channels as
defined in ITU G.7712. OSPF functionality enables a wide range of DCN
configurations, adds resiliency to management communications between NEs
and the management stations, and reduces the DCC load, for a significant
improvement in management performance and NE capacity.
Under dynamic DCC routing, NEs ping each other through the available DCC
interfaces and build their own routing tables. Working with dynamic routing
tables that respond to real-time circumstances simplifies DCC planning and
maintenance, and reduces the DCC load by making it unnecessary to reserve
DCC protection paths in advance. There is also no need to plan DCC rings,
since dynamic DCC routing enables NEs to automatically set up new routes if
existing ones fail.
Support is also provided for legacy LAN Emulation encapsulation and static
routing for packet routing and forwarding in the embedded component of the
DCN. The XDM enables interworking between NEs working in OSPF/PPP
mode and NEs working in the legacy LAN Emulation mode, with full software
configurability between all communication modes. The XDM supports
unnumbered IP interfaces on DCCs with PPP encapsulation to avoid any need
for assigning and configuring IP addresses for each interface.
XDM General Description Network Communication Control

417006-2002-0H3-D00 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 9-5

The encapsulation type is configurable on a DCC-by-DCC basis. In networks
composed entirely of XDM elements, migration of all NEs and links to
OSPF/PPP is a natural step, leading to a natural improvement in the DCN's
resilience and capacity. In mixed networks, a migration path must be planned
that takes into account the capabilities of the current network equipment. For
example, a network may consist of an XDM core that can be migrated directly
to OSPF/PPP. This core may work with subtending rings that continue to
operate using LAN Emulation.
DCN Network Illustration
The following figure illustrates a network that includes a combination of XDM
and legacy equipment working with several different DCN methods, including:
DCC with LAN Emulation
DCC with OSPF
Ethernet mode OSPF
DCN OSPF (towards the XDM gateways)
Network Communication Control XDM General Description

9-6 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D00

The XDM smoothly integrates multiple DCN modes, with a single XDM able
to function in different DCN modes with different network components. For
example, the XDM icon highlighted and outlined in red in the following figure
maintains a direct link to and communicates with three different network
components working in three different modes: DCC with LAN Emulation,
DCC with OSPF, and DCN OSPF.

Figure 9-1: Integrating a variety of DCN schemes

XDM General Description Network Communication Control

417006-2002-0H3-D00 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 9-7

Embedded Communication Channels
The XDM supports a full range of routing and forwarding functionalities
through a choice of the most appropriate of the following communication
channels:
DCC Routing
Clear Channel
External DCCs
OSC
DCC routing features
The XDM SDH links between NEs support two standard ECCs:
RS-DCC at 192,000 Bps, generally used for communicating with other
RS-DCC terminating equipment
MS-DCC at 576,000 Bps, generally used for communicating with other
NEs
The XDM is fully compliant with applicable industry standards, enabling it to
operate with any combination of non-ECI Telecom NEs. Its DCC transparency
feature enables the transfer of any vendors management traffic. As a result,
you can deploy XDM in any vendor's fiber transport network at both the SDH
and optical layers while continuing to manage other equipment. Up to 64 DCC
channels are supported.
The DCC routing feature provides full connectivity of management traffic
between any vendor's elements. This allows the routing/cross connecting of a
DCC stream from any STM-1 to any other STM-1, while utilizing effective IP
routing schemes. This provides intelligent nonflooding routing of ECI
Telecom's DCC.
Clear Channel
When an XDM network is interconnected with equipment from other vendors,
the XDM management may not be able to use the embedded communication
channels provided by the other vendor. For example, the other equipment may
not support IP packet forwarding. Nevertheless, the XDM supports a complete
range of alternate communication methods, enabling full interoperability with
external vendor equipment, despite the limitations that may be imposed.
Network Communication Control XDM General Description

9-8 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D00

In one approach, management traffic may be carried on a regular VC-12
crossing the external network, using external equipment. The XDM-100, for
example, can do this internally, through a Clear Channel termination that
operates in an identical fashion to the RS-DCC/MS-DCC termination. The
Clear Channel feature is implemented when DCC management information
must pass through an external subnetwork that does not support the transport of
transparent DCC channels. To manage remote ECI Telecom equipment through
other vendor subnetworks, DCC channels are transported over 2 Mbps (VC-12)
trails.

Figure 9-2: DCC to VC-12 Clear Channel conversion
An alternative to the built-in Clear Channel feature is to convert the
management data to E1 and back again using an external converter. The
management information of the DCC channels is converted to VC-12 format
by the CPU and is connected to spare channels of E1/PDH cards. After the
VC-12 trail crosses the external subnetwork and reaches the ECI Telecom
subnetwork, the CPU of the far XDM retrieves the information from the
payload of the VC-12 trail.
XDM General Description Network Communication Control

417006-2002-0H3-D00 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 9-9

External DCCs
In some cases, the XDM network must interconnect with NEs that cannot
support interworking at the DCC network level. In this situation the XDM
equipment may have to carry the foreign management communication in a
virtual 'Transparent DCC' over embedded communications without mixing it
with its own management communications. This may occur, for example, when
one provider must transparently transport the management communications of
another provider over its network, or with NEs that are managed using OSI
protocols over the DCCs rather than IP-based protocols. This transparency is
valuable, for example, in CoC multivendor networks where the XDM platforms
enable connectivity between the different vendor islands.
The external DCC channel and external DCC XC features of the XDM support
this requirement. RS and MS objects in SDH data cards contain external DCC
bytes used to implement the transparent DCC feature. This feature enables you
to use the XDM network to transparently route the management channel of an
external vendor, independent of the payload routing. Using the EMS-XDM XC
subsystem, you can create XCs on external DCC objects that specify how the
management channel is routed via the NE.

Figure 9-3: Point-to-point DCC transparency

Network Communication Control XDM General Description

9-10 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D00

Optical Supervisory Channel
(OSC)
The XDM supports a range of OSCs for WDM link management when the data
channels themselves do not include embedded communication channels or if
there are no channel drops, as at an in-line amplifier site. The OSC is used as a
communication channel to enable the EMS-XDM (on page 11-12) to
communicate with and control the XDM. It operates at either 1510 nm or
1310 nm, at a rate of 155 Mbps or 2 Mbps, thus integrating high capacity
without interfering with the optical channels that operate in the 1550 nm range
(C band). The OSC is integrated into the MECP. As the XDM fully integrates
the smart optical layer with the SDH and OTN layers, the DCC/GCC
management channels can be used when available.
The various MECPs support:
Short spans (1310 nm) with optional OW
Long spans (1510 nm) with optional OW
Extended spans (1510 nm) with optional OW
Raman amplifier applications - safety mechanism
XDM General Description Network Communication Control

417006-2002-0H3-D00 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 9-11

General Communications
Channel (GCC)
The XDM supports in-band management utilizing the GCC incorporated in
CHTR-based OTN transponders and combiners. The GCC enables remote
management of equipment at any site where optical channels are dropped. This
can increase margins and extend distances of optical links, as OSC filters are
eliminated. The GCC provides the same basic features as the DCC detailed in
the preceding sections.
The XDM fully integrates the GCC with the DCC and OSC channels, thus
providing the operator with the flexibility to choose the most appropriate
management channel. Operators can even mix the different channels in a
network or even in the same shelf. This is illustrated in the following figure.

Figure 9-4: Integrating communication channels

Network Communication Control XDM General Description

9-12 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D00

Communications Module
All XDM shelf configurations work with a communications module, featuring:
Electrical interface connectors that are integrated into the I/O modules,
saving the need for separate electrical interface modules
Easy routing of external management interfaces
A monitoring system for acceptance test purposes
Hot insertion of cards and modules to support quick maintenance and repair
activities, without affecting traffic
In the XDM-1000 product line, the platforms work with the MECP. In the
XDM-100 product line, the platforms work with the ECU.


NOTE: For detailed information about card and module
variants and system specifications, refer to XDM System
Specifications.

MECP
The MECP connects the management, OHA, and OW interfaces to the active
xMCP card. The physical management connections are provided by the
External Connection Board (ECB) located above the MECP.
The MECP supports standard OW as well as a special voice channel over the
DCC when using VoIP and a special router. This feature enables external calls
from outside the network to a particular site. In addition, the MECP generates
system alarms and activates indicators, for example software downloads,
restarts, configurations, and so on.
In pure optical networks and inline amplifier sites, various MECP versions are
available to support OSC operation at 1510 nm or 1310 nm, with maximum
reach ranging from 85 Km to over 200 Km.
XDM General Description Network Communication Control

417006-2002-0H3-D00 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 9-13

ECU
In the XDM-100 product line, the ECU provides the physical interface between
the XDM and external management and clock devices. The ECU connects
management, alarms, and overhead access interfaces to the active MXC. It also
provides the physical connections for these interfaces.
Two types of ECU cards are available for the XDM: ECU (regular) and ECU-F
(enhanced).
The ECU-F supports the following management and alarm interfaces and
functions:
Ethernet interface to LightSoft and EMS-XDM
Ethernet hub for multiple NE connections
Serial (RS-232) interface for LCT-XDM (on page 11-21)
Synchronization inputs and outputs (T3/T4)
Alarm severity outputs (Critical, Major, Minor, Warning)
External alarm outputs and inputs (SCSI D-connector)
Alarm Cut Off (ACO)
Operation and alarm LEDs
Selection and display of traffic interfaces for monitoring purposes
Monitor interface for STM-1 ports
Laser activation during ALS, for maintenance purposes
Multiplexer reset
Hold-up capacitors
Lamp test activation
OW functionality
The ECU card supports all functions provided by the ECU-F except for
Ethernet expansion to hub, monitoring points, holdup capacitors, and alarms
in/out.

Network Communication Control XDM General Description

9-14 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D00



417006-2002-0H3-D00 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 10-1

In this chapter:
Overview.......................................................................................................10-1
SDH Path Protection Schemes......................................................................10-2
SDH Line Protection.....................................................................................10-6
Traffic Protection and Restoration.................................................................10-9
Optical Layer Protection..............................................................................10-12
Equipment Protection..................................................................................10-14

Overview
The XDM features proven redundancy mechanisms to ensure the complete
integrity of all traffic transfers. System protection schemes offer highly reliable
trail protection arrangements and equipment duplication on all units. The
platform supports protection schemes at the line and service levels.
10
XDM Protection and
Restoration Mechanisms
XDM Protection and Restoration
Mechanisms
XDM General Description

10-2 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D00

SDH Path Protection Schemes
The XDM features path protection over mesh and SubNetwork Connection
Protection (SNCP).
SNCP
SNCP provides independent trail protection for individual subnetworks
connected to the XDM, thus enhancing reliability against multiple failures.
When implemented in dual-node interconnections, SNCP, combined with the
drop-and-continue capability of the XDM, is even more powerful against
multifailure conditions in mesh topologies. By integrating SNCP into the
XDM, operators achieve superior traffic availability figures. SNCP is therefore
extremely important for leased lines or other traffic requiring superior SLA
availability.
SNCP switching functions automatically in the XDM without operator
intervention or path redefinition. The result is an exceptionally fast protection
switching time of less than 30 msec, with typical switching time taking only a
few milliseconds. Protection switching is performed in a distributed way in the
service cards.
A major SNCP advantage is its flexibility. SNCP is topology-independent and
can be implemented in ring, chain, star, mesh, and hybrid topologies. It can be
implemented with platforms from other vendors, enabling the creation of a ring
where traffic originating from other ADMs is fully protected.
Leased lines are provided through single-link connections. In the event of
failure, leased-line traffic is protected by SNCP switching at the service
termination point.
XDM General Description XDM Protection and Restoration
Mechanisms

417006-2002-0H3-D00 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 10-3

In typical multi-ring or mesh networks, the SNCP drop-and-continue
functionality provides better traffic reliability and link redundancy in the event
of a site failure. In these networks, four ADMs are typically required to enable
this functionality (see the following figure showing only one direction).

Figure 10-1: Typical SNCP-protected network sites
XDM Protection and Restoration
Mechanisms
XDM General Description

10-4 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D00

Having the XDM function as a multi-ADM enables the number of elements to
be reduced to just two (one per site). This results in better service availability
and reliability, as well as a reduction in floor space and equipment costs (see
the following figure).

Figure 10-2: SNCP-protected XDM sites
XDM General Description XDM Protection and Restoration
Mechanisms

417006-2002-0H3-D00 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 10-5

The XDM supports SNCP at all STM-n levels (STM-1 to STM-64) and for all
VC objects, as follows:
Any VC-4 in any STM-n
Any VC-4nc in any STM-n
Any VC-3 in any VC-4 in any STM-n
Any VC-12 in any VC-4 in any STM-n
The XDM supports the following SNCP types:
SNCP/I SNC protection switching due to TU-AIS, AU-AIS, TU-LOP, or
AU-LOP events
SNCP/N SNC protection switching due to TU-AIS, AU-AIS, TU-LOP, or
AU-LOP events, and any other path overhead alarms (signal label
mismatch, path trace error, EBER)
The XDM enables users to set EBER thresholds for BER and Signal
Degradation (SD) conditions. The SNCP function is complemented by the user
option to set the hold-off time for switching (0-10 sec in 100 msec intervals)
and the Wait-to-Restore (WTR) time (1-30 minutes), in accordance with
applicable standards.
The EMS-XDM enables both automatic and manual switch-to-protection and
protection-lockout commands. When an automatic switch occurs, notification
is sent to the subnetwork management station. The status of the selectors and
the subnetwork connections is displayed in the EMS-XDM window.
Revertive SNCP
XDM platforms support revertive SNCP starting from V6.2 of the system.
When the system is protected by regular SNCP, it uses the protection path in
the event a failure is detected in the main path, and does not revert to the main
path even after it recovers. The protected path may incorporate links that are
more expensive and less reliable (for instance, leased lines).
Revertive SNCP is useful when the user has a preferred path for traffic and can
switch back to the main path after recovery. The user can now define the
operating mode as Revertive or nonrevertive SNCP, giving him a higher degree
of flexibility.
XDM Protection and Restoration
Mechanisms
XDM General Description

10-6 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D00

The system provides several parameters to ensure that the failed (main) path is
stable and reliable before reverting to it after a fault condition. Most of these
are user-configured, including:
Wait to Restore (WTR): The period of time after which a failed unit is
faultfree and can be considered as available again by the protection
processes.
Wait to Switch (WTS): Factory-defined timer issued to prevent excessive
switching events in a nonstable condition. This timer disables switching to
protection path for X minutes if Y or more switches occurred in a period of
time of Z seconds.
Hold-off time: Useful for interworking of protection schemes and
provisioned on an individual equipment basis. The failure condition is
monitored at the end of the hold-off time before switching to the protection
path.
Switch time: Traffic switch operating as quickly as possible. The target
time is 50 msec.
SDH Line Protection
The XDM incorporates two independent MS protection mechanisms:
Linear Linear Multiplex Section Protection (MSP):
MSP 1+1 unidirectional
MSP 1+1 bidirectional
Ring Multiplex Section Shared Protection Ring (MS-SPRing)
MSP
MSP is designed to protect single optical links. This protection is most suitable
for appendage TM/star links or for four-fiber links in chain topologies.
The XDM supports MSP in all optical line cards (STM-1, STM-4, STM-16,
and STM-64). MSP 1+1 unidirectional and bidirectional modes are supported.
MSP 1+1 is implemented between two SDH interfaces (working and
protection) of the same bitrate that communicate with two interfaces on another
platform. As with SNCP and path protection, in MSP mode the XDM provides
protection for both fiber and hardware faults.
XDM General Description XDM Protection and Restoration
Mechanisms

417006-2002-0H3-D00 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 10-7

The following figure shows a four-fiber star XDM with all links protected. This
ensures uninterrupted service even in the case of a double fault. The XDM
automatically performs MSP switching within 50 msec.

Figure 10-3: MSP protection modes

MS-SPRing
In addition to SNCP protection that may also be implemented in mesh
topologies, the XDM supports MS-SPRing that provides bandwidth advantages
for selected ring-based traffic patterns.
Two-fiber MS-SPRing supports any 2.5 Gbps and/or 10 Gbps rings closed by
the XDM via SIO16/SIO64 cards, in compliance with applicable ITU-T
standards. This is fully automatic and performed in less than 50 msec.
MS-SPRing can support low-order traffic arriving at the nodes in the same way
it does high-order traffic. LO traffic support on MS-SPRing is unique to XDM
as it is a genuine MSPP.
In MS-SPRing modes, the STM-n signal is divided into working and protection
capacity per MS. In case of a failure in one MS of the ring, the protection
capacity loops back the affected traffic at both ends of the faulty MS. The
XDM supports the full squelching protocol to prevent traffic misconnections in
cases of failure at isolated nodes. Trails to be dropped at such nodes are muted
to prevent their being delivered to the wrong destination.
MS-SPRing is particularly beneficial in ring applications with uniform or
adjacent traffic patterns, as it offers significant capacity advantages compared
to other protection schemes.
The following figure shows an XDM in a two-fiber MS-SPRing. In this
configuration, two fibers are connected between each site. Each fiber delivers
50% of the active and 50% of the shared protection traffic. For example, in an
STM-16 ring, 8 VC-4s are active and 8 VC-4s are reserved for shared
protection.
XDM Protection and Restoration
Mechanisms
XDM General Description

10-8 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D00

In the event of a fiber cut between sites A and D, traffic is transported through
sites B and C on the black portion of the counterclockwise fiber. The switch in
traffic is triggered by the APS protocol that transmits control signals over the
K1 and K2 bytes in the fiber from site D to site A.

Figure 10-4: Two-fiber protection
Extra traffic capability is also supported, enabling users to use the protecting
VC-4s to carry extra traffic that is dropped in case of a failure in the protected
VC-4s. Thus, the total capacity of the ring is used, provided there are no
network failures. The extra traffic itself is, of course, not protected.
Nonpreemptive Unprotected Traffic (NUT) is also supported. NUT refers to
unprotected traffic carried on channels with MS-SPRing MSP protection
switching mechanism that is disabled for certain working channels and their
corresponding protection. It allows the users to implement the MS-SPRing in a
smaller group of AU-4s enabling better BW efficiency. Traffic carried on these
channels is unprotected MS-SPRing and nonpreemptive, but can be protected
using other protection schemes.
XDM General Description XDM Protection and Restoration
Mechanisms

417006-2002-0H3-D00 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 10-9

Dual-node interconnection with MS-SPRing
When the working and protection fiber pairs travel in separate ducts, two rings
can be connected via a dual link over two different nodes. This enables the
network to overcome multiple failures like fiber cuts or node failures, so
improving traffic availability in the network.
Integration of low-order SNCP and
MS-SPRing
The XDM can simultaneously close MS-SPRing-protected metro-core rings
and SNCP-protected edge-access rings within the same NE. LO traffic can be
transported directly from multiple edge-access rings to the metro-core ring
transparently, without external XCs or mediation equipment. This reduces floor
space and costs, and improves site reliability.
Traffic Protection and
Restoration
The XDM provides protection for internal traffic paths. All traffic is fully
redundant within the shelf, and is routed via separate traffic paths and hardware
units. In case of equipment or line failure, traffic protection switching takes
place within 8-12 msec.
The XDM supports mesh and ring traffic protection and restoration. The
restoration mechanism ensures traffic rerouting in the event of a major
contingency. Telecom operators may define their own major contingencies
based on individual operating parameters. Traffic restoration time is generally
dependent on network complexity and traffic load.
For more information about the traffic restoration feature, see the LightSoft
General Description and the EMS-XDM User Manual.
XDM Protection and Restoration
Mechanisms
XDM General Description

10-10 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D00

Ethernet Traffic Protection
With XDM, the operator benefits from an extensive mixture of protection
schemes balancing bandwidth usage with service restoration time, enabling a
customer-tailored optimization between cost and performance.
Ethernet traffic protection is a combination of SDH protection schemes and
RSTP-based restoration. SDH protection schemes are used to protect each
individual EoS trail, connecting every two EoS (WAN) ports on any data card.
RSTP, which is initially used for loop resolution purposes on Provider Bridge
cards (MCS5 and EISMB cards), may also provide a means of protection in
case of link failure (such as fiber cut) and NE failure (such as data card failure).
SDH protection schemes - ranging from unprotected trails, which use the
minimum amount of traffic through SNCP for 1+1 protection, and up to
MS-SPRing, which is the most effective means of ring protection. XDM
data cards fully exploit the extensive flexibility of its SDH capabilities to
offer the most effective means of protection in any case.
RSTP initially used as a loop resolution protocol in MCS5 and EISMB
based Provider Bridge networks. At the same time, RSTP provides means
of restoration to traffic failures. Although RSTP convergence time is much
shorter than STP, it is still slower than SDH protection. For that reason,
RSTP may be used as a second line of defense, restoring services in case
of card failure, while relying on the SDH <50 msec protection as the first
line of defense, providing much faster protection in the more likely event
of fiber failures.
Diversely routed VCG with LCAS protection - with this type of
protection scheme, each VC in the VCG is routed via a different SDH path.
If some of the VCs fail to reach their destination due to a failure in the
SDH network, the LCAS mechanism re-establishes the EoS with the
remaining VCs, enabling service to continue at a lower effective capacity.
This scheme provides protection for part of the capacity without using extra
capacity for protection. By offering LCAS-based service, the operator
provides a guaranteed and best effort service without allocating any extra
bandwidth or resources for protection, thereby enabling a more flexible and
efficient cost structure.
XDM General Description XDM Protection and Restoration
Mechanisms

417006-2002-0H3-D00 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 10-11

The following figure shows a typical mixture of protection schemes in a typical
metro network, which mixes EPL services at the access layer with shared
Provider Bridge network at the core. The use of DIO cards enables operators to
offer the most cost-effective access technology, while the shared Provider
Bridge networks at the edge and metro-core offer the benefits of shared
infrastructure and MP2MP services.

Figure 10-5: Protection schemes in a typical metro network

Bandwidth scaling protection for Ethernet
traffic
The XDM enables GbE traffic processed by DIO cards to be scaled to
accommodate traffic conditions (for example, a link failure). This provides
protection similar to that provided by the LCAS protocol. The DIO cards
automatically decrease the capacity of the Ethernet link if one or more of the
VC-4s fails. The capacity automatically increases after the network fault is
repaired.
The same protection method is applicable to traffic processed by the EIS and
EISMB. For EIS cards, the granularity of the protection method depends on the
type of SDH container (VC-3s or VC-4s) in use.
XDM Protection and Restoration
Mechanisms
XDM General Description

10-12 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D00

Optical Layer Protection
Protection is of the utmost importance in the high-capacity traffic transmitted
through WDM systems. The XDM features two types of optical protection
schemes - Optical CHannel (OCH) protection and Optical Multiplex Section
Protection (OMSP) or line protection.
OCH
The XDM provides OCH protection very similar to its path protection
mechanism. By using double transponder/combiner cards with built-in OCH
units, a dual-traffic path goes around the ring and is received by both the main
transponder/combiner and the protection transponder/combiner. Both perform
continuous PM to ensure channel integrity.
If PM on the main transponder/combiner does not indicate a problem, a
message is sent through the backplane to the protection transponder/combiner
for it to shut down its laser to the client, thereby ensuring transmission to the
client from only one transponder/combiner (the main). Protection switching to
the protection transponder/combiner occurs automatically when a failure is
detected by the main transponder/combiner.
The protected channels in the following figure are user-selected.

Figure 10-6: Example of OCH protection scheme
OCH protection is currently the most popular optical protection method for the
optical layer. The mechanism transports each optical channel in two directions,
clockwise and counterclockwise. The shortest path is defined as the main or
working channel; the longer path as the protection channel.
XDM General Description XDM Protection and Restoration
Mechanisms

417006-2002-0H3-D00 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 10-13

The main benefit of OCH protection is its ability to separately choose the
shortest path as the working path for each channel. There are no dedicated
working and protection fibers. Each fiber carries traffic with both working and
protection signals in a single direction.
The OCH 1+1 protection scheme provides separate protection for each channel.
For SDH and GbE, protection switching is based on OM parameters. For
nonstandard bitrate protection, switching is based on LOS and LOD
parameters. The switch-to-protection mode is automatic when a malfunction is
detected in a single channel. This is very convenient, as users can choose the
channels for protection and the main or protection paths. Switch-to-protection
time in the OCH 1+1 protection scheme is less than 5 msec.
OMSP
The XDM features Optical Multiplex Section Protection (OMSP) and provides
line protection for P2P optical links. In the event of a fiber cut, an optical
switch within the OMSP card automatically switches traffic to the protection
fiber.
This low-cost approach protects all DWDM channels simultaneously without
hardware redundancy. OMSP protection operates independently of data rates,
protocols, or number of channels. OMSP also provides protection for future
upgrades when additional DWDM channels are added to the network.

Figure 10-7: Line protection

XDM Protection and Restoration
Mechanisms
XDM General Description

10-14 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D00

Equipment Protection
The XDM's high-level reliability is achieved through comprehensive
equipment redundancy on all units. Automatic protection switching is initiated
by a robust internal BIT diagnostic system.
Common Unit
The XDM provides 1+1 and 1:1 protection of the power supply and FCU.
Traffic Unit (I/O Card)
The XDM provides 1:N (N =1-10) protection to all PDH and SDH electrical
interfaces, and hardware protection to all SDH optical interfaces via a
simulation of two times MSP (1+1).
The XDM's robust architecture permits full 1:N protection for all bitrates in a
flexible manner and simultaneously for E1, E3, DS-3, and STM-1. In addition,
the shelf provides card protection flexibility; that is, any protection card can be
inserted into any slot.
Data cards also offer 1:1 hardware protection. By installing a backup data card,
all services and card functionalities are backed up on the standby card. Optical
interfaces are duplicated using splitter/coupler devices (Y-fibers or dedicated
splitter modules) and electrical interfaces are protected using an external
switch.


417006-2002-0H3-D00 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 11-1

In this chapter:
Overview.......................................................................................................11-1
Layered Architecture.....................................................................................11-2
Client/Server Architecture.............................................................................11-3
Integration with Other Products....................................................................11-3
LightSoft Network Manager..........................................................................11-3
EMS-XDM..................................................................................................11-12
LCT-XDM...................................................................................................11-21

Overview
ECI Telecom Transport Networking Division's powerful network management
suite, LightSoft, adopts a management concept and design that uses layered
architecture, in accordance with applicable standards. LightSoft controls
multiple transmission technologies; each technology is represented as a layer,
such as wavelength, SDH, and Ethernet/MPLS, in addition to the physical
layers like fibers and equipment.
11
Management
Management XDM General Description

11-2 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D00

Layered Architecture
ECI Telecom's management concept is designed using a layered architecture in
accordance with applicable standards. Separate management layers make up
the management structure. The lowest level, the NE Layer (NEL), constitutes
the embedded agent software of the NEs. The second layer, the Element
Management Layer (EML), controls many individual NEs, while the third
layer, the Network Management Layer (NML), controls the main network
management functions.

Figure 11-1: ECI Telecom's layered architecture management concept
In this scheme, LightSoft functions at the NML, while the EMS-XDM
functions at the EML. A northbound interface can connect either the
EMS-XDM or LightSoft to your Operations Support System (OSS).
In addition, the XDM features the LCT-XDM application, providing fast easy
connectivity to the NE and enabling access to installation, configuration, and
management functions. For more information, refer to LCT-XDM (on page
11-21).
XDM General Description Management

417006-2002-0H3-D00 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 11-3

Client/Server Architecture
LightSoft network manager implements an advanced client/server software
architecture that supports a large number of processes. The network manager
server can be run on either single or multiple workstations. This distributed
architecture enables you to scale easily. The multiconfigurator feature of
LightSoft gives each operator the means to initiate sessions and manage the
network simultaneously, either in whole or in part.
Integration with Other Products
The XDM has been designed to smoothly integrate with networks that are not
based on ECI Telecom products. This enables you to build real-world
multivendor networks that ensure the free flow of management information
between SDH and other complimentary access, radio, and switching products.
LightSoft Network Manager
LightSoft's network manager is a multidimensional network management
system managing the complete family of element management systems (EMSs)
offered by ECI Telecom. LightSoft enables you to assume full control of all
equipment in your network, including:
XDM transport platform
BroadGate family of multiservice products for access applications
Entire SYNCOM multiplexer family at the STM-1, STM-4, and
STM-16 layers
Other third-party equipment
Management XDM General Description

11-4 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D00

LightSoft is a unified NMS that provisions, monitors, and controls all network
layers, enabling you to manage multiple technology layers (SDH, data, and
optical) independently of the physical layer. This offers on-demand service
provisioning, pinpoint bandwidth allocation, and dramatic reductions in the
equipment and operating costs that multiple management systems often require.
It does this by providing all facets of network management, netwide, from a
single platform. Management features include configuration, fault
management, performance management, administrative procedures,
maintenance operations, and security control. Within one integrated
management system, LightSoft's network manager enables you to fully control
all of your NEs regardless of their manufacturer, and view the complete
network at a glance. With LightSoft's network manager, multiple operators can
simultaneously configure the network while preventing any configuration
conflicts.
Management Interfaces
LightSoft's network manager supports an open CORBA-based interface both
north and southbound for managing or being managed by third-party
applications. The EMS-XDM also supports the same interface, northbound.
The interface, which supports alarms, configuration, provisioning, and security,
complies with the Multi-Technology Network Management (MTNM)
information model being developed by the TeleManagement Forum (TMF), a
consortium of all major telecom equipment vendors. In addition, the LightSoft
network manager and the EMS-XDM supports a number of conventional
interfaces, such as export of current alarms via FTP, import/export of XCs/NE
and shelf configurations, retrieval of daily performance files, and database
access via SQL. An MTNM to SNMP gateway is also available for sending
alarms from the network manager or EMS to an application that can handle
SNMP traps.
XDM General Description Management

417006-2002-0H3-D00 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 11-5

Graphic User Interface
Both LightSoft's network manager and the EMS-XDM user interfaces provide
a powerful yet easy-to-use tool for managing your network. A single
user-friendly GUI combines security, configuration, maintenance, and
performance management tools with fault handling, E2E trail definition, and
fail-safe database backups for uninterrupted and reliable network operation.
The network manager user interface features an outstanding advance in
topology map design - multilayer topology views. These views enable you to
display the topology of each technology layer independently of the topology of
the physical layer.

Figure 11-2: LightSoft main window

Management XDM General Description

11-6 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D00

Topology Management
LightSoft allows network administrators to commission and configure
equipment in local and remote subnetworks across the deployment. NEs can be
deployed in a wide range of topologies, including single or multiple rings with
appendages, or chains and composite topologies like mesh, incorporating
terminal multiplexers. Users move intuitively from an overall survey of the
network landscape to detailed status and control views of any NE, transmission
level, system card, or trail.
This application enables you to manage NEs at multiple levels. It distinguishes
between the NEs or MEs (Managed Elements) that make up the network, and
the logical elements (LEs) that these MEs represent. An ME designates a piece
of equipment, like a shelf, whereas the LE is a technology-oriented
representation of the various physical elements in the network. You can
customize these elements by splitting them. For example, different icons on the
map may represent different ports belonging to a single NE.
This unique distinction enables true multidimensional network management by
allowing operators to:
Focus on MEs when creating and deleting NEs (physical layer)
Focus separately on the ports available at each technology level (for
example, SDH, optical, or data) when managing trails (technology layer)
Whenever an ME is added to the network at the physical layer of LightSoft, an
LE is automatically projected into the relevant technology layer, as shown in
the topology view in the interface. If an ME contains ports that belong to
multiple technologies, as is the case with XDM shelves, LEs are created at each
technology layer containing only the ports relevant to that layer. Nested groups
are supported and can be defined differently in the various layers.
XDM General Description Management

417006-2002-0H3-D00 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 11-7

Trail Configuration
LightSoft provides powerful trail configuration tools. A detailed definition of
through and local XCs gives administrators precise control of the system
structure, guaranteeing uninterrupted services and maximized use of
bandwidth. In addition to manual trail routing, the patent-pending path-finding
algorithm searches for and selects optimal E2E primary and protection paths
across complex topologies. Optimization criteria are user-defined and may
include such parameters as number of nodes, link cost, distance, shared risk
(such as common ducts), and so on. A powerful trail synchronization function
polls the entire network, keeping the LightSoft trail database up to date.
LightSoft also provides numerous protection and traffic reconfiguration
schemes in case of service disruption. The system provides full traffic
restoration via contingency traffic plans.
The LightSoft advanced trail management functions allow you to create, delete,
and modify SDH trails, and to acquire optical and data services from the
network.
DWDM trails management
LightSoft enables you to upload, label, and display existing optical trails from
the optical layer. This form of "bottom-up" provisioning is suited to optical
equipment that does not support tunable lasers, and ensures that the application
has all the required trail information that was provisioned at the fiber level.
LightSoft takes advantage of the XDM sublambda grooming capabilities for
the efficient utilization of DWDM wavelengths. This capability provides a
form of "top-down" optical trail provisioning by creating XCs between optical
endpoints at the SDH level.
SDH trails management
For XDM NEs, LightSoft supports both virtual and contiguous concatenation
for the transport and cross connection of VC-4 signals. This is used for
high-bitrate Ethernet services that require transport of payloads exceeding a
single VC-4 capacity. Concatenation associates multiple VCs together,
resulting in a combined capacity that can be used as a single container across
which bit sequence integrity is maintained.
Highly sensitive data networks can rely on LightSofts link protection
capabilities supporting a variety of schemes, including MSP 1+1, MS-SPRing,
and several advanced bridge protection options.
Management XDM General Description

11-8 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D00

MPLS tunnel management
MPLS LSP is used to tunnel a customers Ethernet traffic through the SP's
network. LightSoft provides E2E provisioning of MPLS tunnels, an essential
component of overall service management. LightSoft enables initial bandwidth
allocation for MPLS tunnels by building MPLS over Transport (MoT) trails.
MoT trail top-down provisioning is accomplished in the same manner as with
SDH trails.
It may be desirable to protect a tunnel against failure of a link or node along the
tunnel path. LightSoft enables configuration of the MCS protection mechanism
known as FRR. With FRR, a backup LSP (Bypass tunnel) is predefined,
enabling traffic to be routed around a failed network link or node. The rerouted
traffic is sent to a downstream MCS, where the bypass path merges with the
original path of the protected tunnel.
A complete set of TE and QoS parameters is provided for each tunnel and each
MPLS network. The networks and tunnels are all supported by advanced QoS
mechanisms implemented by the underlying managed network equipment.
Both P2P and multicast-efficient P2MP tunnels are supported by LightSoft.
Ethernet services management
LightSoft provides network operators with the E2E and top-down provisioning
capabilities of carrier class Ethernet services. LightSoft enables XDM NEs to
provide various types of Ethernet Layer 1 and Layer 2 services. All cards use
VCG trails with VC-12/3/4 granularity, with the appropriate bandwidth
allocation, as the physical layer for any Ethernet service type. Each interface is
configured separately to provide maximum flexibility. For example, in an
MPLS network, a customers Ethernet traffic is transported over MPLS tunnels
that can be either shared or dedicated per customer. The supported services are
P2P (VPWS), MP2MP (VPLS), Hub & Spoke (partial VPLS), and
IPTV-oriented services carried efficiently by P2MP MPLS tunnels, all of
which utilize advanced QoS and TE mechanisms.
Ethernet services are provided in one of the following configurations.
Layer 1 P2P Ethernet Virtual Circuits (EVCs): This service is a Layer 1
P2P service between a pair of Layer 1 Ethernet ports over an SDH trail.
Ethernet is mapped to virtual concatenation of SDH containers, creating
transparent P2P service. Bandwidth allocation can be full or partial with no
traffic-affecting changes.
Layer 2 P2P EVCs: A Layer 2 P2P EVC associates exactly two UNIs. A
service implemented by VPWS on an MPLS network is a Layer 2 P2P
EVC, with Ethernet service traffic shared among many customers.
XDM General Description Management

417006-2002-0H3-D00 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 11-9

P2MP EVCs: In a P2MP EVC, each service endpoint is either a hub or a
spoke. Hub & Spoke service includes anywhere from one to four hubs.
Packets are delivered from spoke to hub and from hub to spoke. No packets
are delivered directly between two spokes. This type of service is only
supported when all endpoints are on a single MPLS network.
Rooted Multipoint (Rooted MP) EVCs: In a rooted MP EVC, a service
endpoint is either a root or a leaf. Packets are delivered from roots to leaves
and from leaves back to roots. Typically, this service is used for multicast
service between a single root and multiple leaves. In an MPLS network,
this service is implemented by configuring a P2MP multicast tunnel
between the root and all leaves. This is used for IPTV or E-Learning
services.
MP2MP EVCs: In standard MP2MP service, frames from each service
endpoint can be delivered to any other endpoint or can be multicast to a set
of multiple endpoints. A service implemented by VPLS on an MPLS
network is a Layer 2 MP2MP EVC.
Ethernet aggregation over DWDM: Several Ethernet ports are
aggregated to one STM-16 wavelength creating a transparent service.
Bandwidth allocation can be full or partial, with no traffic-affecting
changes.
Policer Profiles encapsulate all relevant bandwidth parameters used by Ethernet
services.
Fault Management
LightSoft simplifies real-time status monitoring of the network and its
elements. The main window uses color-coded icons to show equipment status
at a glance. Customizable alarm listings, alarm counters, and alarm audio and
visual indicators, all updated in real time, are displayed in the main window.
Administrators can acknowledge alarms from the Current Alarms list, post
"sticky note"-type messages (User Notes) to other network personnel, and
customize their own alarm filters. They can click any element in the network to
open status windows listing the alarms for each object, including NEs, cards,
and physical ports.
With the advanced rule-based Alarm Correlation add-on, LightSoft's network
manager is a powerful tool for root cause and service affecting analysis.
LightSoft enables the user to quickly pinpoint the fault, fix it, or bypass it,
ensuring minimal service downtime.
The LightSoft fault management system is fully integrated and includes alarms
for all managed NEs, regardless of the layer (physical, SDH, data, or optical)
on view.
Management XDM General Description

11-10 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D00

GUI Cut-Through
LightSoft's network manager uses a process called GUI cut-through to invoke
EMS functions without launching the EMS-XDM. You can:
Set, change, and propagate NE attributes
Configure shelves and cards
Change alarm severities
Set NE timing sources
Activate performance management functions on NEs
Perform maintenance functions on NEs or their objects
Redundancy and Security
LightSoft provides a full range of support features to keep your network
running smoothly and protect it from unauthorized and malicious use.
Redundancy
LightSoft provides a fully field-proven redundancy mechanism called Remote
Database Replication (RDR) that provides full network management backup
capabilities. RDR ensures system continuity by maintaining a comprehensive
and complete backup copy of the current network configuration. LightSoft and
EMS-XDM use duplicate management hardware, with one station serving as
the active site (primary server) and the other as the standby site (backup server
and mirror). One standby site can act as a backup for multiple stations (1:N)
running LightSoft, and various EMSs.
All the databases in the active site (NMS and EMS) are periodically duplicated
and transmitted over a direct link to the standby site. To make the backup
process efficient, only changes made since the last replication are included.
Should a failure occur in the active site, the operator quickly switches over to
the standby site and resumes management of the network within minutes. The
LightSoft and EMS-XDM databases' signature feature intelligently updates the
standby site with all NE configuration data that has changed since the last
replication.
XDM General Description Management

417006-2002-0H3-D00 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 11-11

Security functions
LightSoft provides two main types of security functions:
User security
System security
User security controls the persons having access to the system (user groups),
which operations these users can perform (capability profiles), and the elements
of the network on which these operations can be performed (domains). In
LightSoft all users are assigned to user groups, each of which is then paired
with a capability profile and a defined number of domains. Users in a particular
user group can perform only those functions provided for by their capability
profile assigned to the group, and only on those domains assigned to the group.
LightSoft enables you to divide a network into many different VPNs, each one
having its own capability profile. This method provides each client with the
appropriate level of operational control, without infringing on the security
needs of any other client.
Passwords, user action logs, and an optional keyboard lock feature are used to
further ensure system security and integrity.
Management XDM General Description

11-12 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D00

EMS-XDM
The EMS-XDM provides full-feature XDM support. It functions at the EML in
the TMN scheme and can operate directly under LightSoft. It has been
designed as an open system in compliance with the CORBA MTNM standard.
The EMS-XDM may be co-located in the same platform, operate as a
standalone application, or integrated in a non-ECI Telecom NMS or TMN
umbrella system. It can control scores of XDM NEs at a time, and supports a
wide range of management functions, including alarms, configuration,
inventory, provisioning, and security management.

Figure 11-3: XDM-1000 shelf view as displayed in EMS-XDM
The EMS-XDM supports multiple technologies, including:
SDH and PDH
Optics
Data: ATM, Layer 1 and Layer 2 Ethernet, MPLS
XDM General Description Management

417006-2002-0H3-D00 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 11-13

The EMS-XDM's user-centric design has produced a clear, intuitive graphic
user interface that simplifies network management. NEs can be viewed from
three perspectives; a clear graphic representation of the network map, a
hierarchical tree topology that enables easy Any-to-Any navigation to any NE
or network component, including direct access to shelf and card, and a shelf
view that enables simple management per shelf through a single
context-sensitive configuration window.

Figure 11-4: EMS: three network perspectives

Alarm Management
As in LightSoft, current alarms are displayed in the Current Alarms window.
An alarms log keeps track of past alarms. A network-wide alarm counter is
included in the system. Alarms are color-coded, enabling quick and easy
viewing of the status of any alarm. Alarm management functions include
filtering, sorting, severity assignment, printing, and exporting via FTP.
Using the EMS-XDM, network administrators can assign severity levels to
individual alarm parameters in specific NEs. This means that remote NEs can
screen out low-level alarms, while the network administrator analyzes
LightSoft prefiltered and sorted daily alarm logs.
Management XDM General Description

11-14 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D00

Performance Management
Administrators can use EMS-XDM to access current performance data for each
XDM NE (including optical objects) and trail/circuit, recorded over 15-minute
or 24-hour intervals, detailed per termination point, and sorted by logging time.
Performance data is available in both tabular and chart form. This information
is useful in troubleshooting NEs, and in optimizing QoS.
EMS-XDM provides default performance parameters and threshold levels in
compliance with accepted ITU-T standards. These parameters and thresholds
can be configured to suit individual applications.
The XDM supports all standard SDH PM counters (for example, BBE, SES,
and UAS) for the different signal levels (for example, MS, VC-12/3/4); GFP
counters (for example, a comprehensive set of block counters); data counters
(for example Ethernet Rx/Tx octets, Rx/Tx frames, broadcast and unicast
packets, multicast and IGMP packets); policer counters, MPLS counters, and
more. Each counter has a user-configurable default threshold.
PM data is collected and stored by EMS-XDM in a performance log. The
expanded PM collection capabilities of EMS-XDM allow you to:
Define PM collection groups and their characteristics.
Define PM counter thresholds and assign performance profiles to objects.
View historical performance data for XDM transmission objects.
Manually collect PM data for all cross-connect endpoints on a card.
Display and use PM logs and other types of logs.
Obtain and display PM history reports for optical objects.
XDM General Description Management

417006-2002-0H3-D00 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 11-15

Configuration and Inventory Management
The EMS-XDM enables you to configure the XDM down to the shelf level,
and to take shelf inventory. You can define the hardware protection
configurations and perform PM and maintenance actions on endpoints.
Inventory is displayed via an easy-to-use tree-like structure that displays the
cards and serial numbers.
Activities supported by the EMS-XDM include:
Assigning slots
Setting NE timing sources
Configuring NE IP routing tables
Performing maintenance actions on equipment
Modifying NE or internal object attributes
Modifying alarm severities or PM thresholds
Provisioning
A graphic display of the XCs makes editing easy. Simply point and click at
cards and endpoints and then activate them. For additional ease of use, the
cross-connection window is intuitive. Mass provisioning is possible via batch
files or an activate series.
Management XDM General Description

11-16 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D00

Ethernet Flows, VSIs, and MPLS Tunnels
With the EMS-XDM, you can configure MPLS tunnels as well as
Ethernet/VPLS services. Activities supported by the EMS-XDM include:
Provisioning and monitoring MPLS tunnel segments for Ethernet
service, also known as MPLS cross-connects (MPLS XCs). A fully
functional traffic-engineered MPLS tunnel can be formed by provisioning
the ingress (head), transit, and egress (tail) MPLS segments along the
tunnel path. This includes tunnel QoS associations, FRR protection, OAM
for tunnel connectivity verification, and more.
Provisioning and monitoring VPLS Virtual Service Instances (VSIs).
This is an Ethernet bridge/switch instance, binding an Ethernet service
endpoint, including all service parameters, to MPLS. A fully functional
VPLS service can be formed by configuring its representative VSIs on the
provider edge endpoint cards, where the customer connects through
Ethernet ports. This includes VLAN to VSI associations, 802.1p to CoS
mappings, per-VPN policing, VSI to MPLS tunnel binding, and more.
Provisioning and monitoring Ethernet services. This provisioning is
accomplished through a mechanism similar to the VPLS implementation,
with no binding to MPLS tunnels.
XDM General Description Management

417006-2002-0H3-D00 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 11-17

Optic-Centric Management
The EMS-XDM emphasizes excellent intuitive graphic management of the
optical layer through the following features.
The Functional Node (FuN) feature enables users to view, manage, and monitor
optical sites (and connections between cards/sites in the same network) from a
functional perspective. It presents a logical view of the complete optical site, as
opposed to the Shelf View's equipment-centric view.
The FuN Topology Map (FTM) enables users to build optical networks using
intuitive graphic icons and an easy drag-and-drop process. The FTM works
with an intuitive logical map similar to the 'As Built' documentation.
Events and alarms are visible for all network components using the familiar
ECI color coding. This enables a constant awareness and understanding of the
network status without distracting the operator or dividing the operator's
attention between two different status and information windows. The FTM also
streamlines operations by providing direct access to the card configuration
screens from the main FTM window.

Figure 11-5: FTM topology map
Management XDM General Description

11-18 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D00

Automatic links discovery is another useful FTM feature. After FTM map
generation, a single click automatically generates all OCH links and uploads
the links to LightSoft's network manager.
The enhanced APC, also known as PELES, provides complete optical chain
power control and equalization. The EMS-XDM monitors optical links from
end to end and analyzes the true cause of variations in optical power at all
power control elements in the link. PELES features include:
Monitoring the current power levels and channel status, with
Detection of changes in span loss.
Measurement of actual link attenuation.
Per-span information regarding active channels passing through a
power control element.
Displaying the monitoring data in a convenient, easy to read table.
Automatic calculation of all necessary optical link parameters in case of an
event, including:
Calculation of the actual Number of Channels (NOCs) that are present
at the input of a power control element.
Calculation of the actual Number of Amplifiers (NOAs) and the precise
Average Gain of previous amplifiers (AVGpas).
Calculation of the required gain at each amplifier.
Updating the physical NEs with all necessary changes in card
configuration, through power control activation (by setting tracking to ON).
DCC Cross Connections
The Data Communications Channel (DCC) enables management of the SDH
network through a communications channel embedded in the SDH overhead
bytes. In these networks, management systems communicate with remote NEs
through the overhead bytes in the SDH links. The DCC can be assigned to RS
or MS objects. Using the cross-connect subsystem, you can create DCC cross
connections that specify how the management channel is routed via the NE.
Another option is external DCC cross connections, whereby RS and MS
objects in the SIO cards contain external DCC bytes that can be used to
implement the transparent DCC feature. Using this feature, the XDM network
transparently routes the management channel of an external vendor,
independent of the payload routing.
XDM General Description Management

417006-2002-0H3-D00 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 11-19

OSPF
The EMS-XDM supports DCC functionality with dynamic OSPF routing. The
XDM implements dynamic OSPF routing over the network interfaces to
automatically determine the routing table. OSPF support includes PPP
encapsulation of IP packets with HDLC framing over RS-DCC, MS-DCC, and
"Clear Channel" communication channels as defined in ITU G.7712. Support is
also provided for legacy LAN Emulation encapsulation, with full software
configurability between all communication modes.
The EMS-XDM can work with a combination of XDM and legacy equipment
working with several different DCN methods, including:
DCC with LAN Emulation
DCC with OSPF
Ethernet mode OSPF
DCN OSPF (towards the XDM gateways)
The XDM smoothly integrates multiple DCN modes, with a single XDM able
to function in different DCN modes with different network components. For
more information, refer to Network Communication Control (on page 9-1).
Security Management
The EMS-XDM provides a fully customizable security hierarchy. Users can
partition NEs by group, and limit user access to specific groups. The individual
NEs may be configured with embedded passwords to protect them from
unauthorized LCT-XDM access. Only the administrator can view and change
the passwords. For surveillance purposes, a detailed user action log is included.
Interfaces and Management Transparency
The EMS-XDM supports a CORBA-based northbound interface. See
Management Interfaces (on page 11-4) for more details. As the EMS-XDM has
been designed as an open system, XDM elements can be managed through any
standard compliant NMS.
In addition, it is possible to export current alarms via FTP, retrieve daily
endpoint performance files, import/export XCs, assign slots via batch files,
report card inventory, and access the database via SQL.
Management XDM General Description

11-20 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D00

Autodiscovery
The EMS-XDM supports the following autodiscovery capabilities:
Automatic card assignment
Automatic NE recognition
Automatic topology discovery
The automatic card assignment feature operates both in manual and automatic
mode. When activated in automatic mode, cards and modules inserted into
managed NEs in the field are automatically recognized by the EMS-XDM and
assigned as a background task according to user-defined tables. Alternatively,
this feature can be applied manually to selected NEs. The end result is the
same: operators no longer need to assign each card or module, as physical
insertion triggers this action automatically.
With the automatic NE recognition feature, each NE automatically appears on
the screen, eliminating the need to create it manually. New NEs are
automatically transferred to LightSoft or any other NMS via the CORBA
interface.
The automatic topology discovery feature is based on a new implementation of
the J 0 byte. When activated, SIO-to-SIO or Optical Supervisory Channel
(OSC) bidirectional links (in SDH networks) are automatically identified by the
EMS-XDM and uploaded to the NMS layer via the MTNM interface. LightSoft
automatically displays such links when managing EMS-XDM, eliminating the
need to manually define topology links at the NMS level. In addition, an
EMS-level list of links is provided for viewing and deleting automatically
created links.
XDM General Description Management

417006-2002-0H3-D00 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 11-21

LCT-XDM
The LCT-XDM is a PC-based installation, maintenance, commissioning, and
configuration tool for field technicians. It provides rapid direct connection to
deployed NEs using a standard simple serial interface. The LCT-XDM is
version-independent because the necessary software is embedded in the NE
itself. For smaller networks that include fewer XDM platforms, the LCT-XDM
can be used as a more economical standalone EMS that includes a current
alarm window, NE database backup and restore capabilities, and current PM
and TCA configuration.
LCT-XDM supports all the functionality required by a technician arriving at a
site: full installation, NE commissioning (including slot assignment, IP routing,
and DCC ports configuration), and full definition of cross connections, flows,
and troubleshooting. The system provides the user with a clear view and
control of NE internals, cards and objects, status, and configuration. Access
from the LCT-XDM is password-protected to ensure that only authorized
personnel can access the field-installed equipment.

Figure 11-6: LCT-XDM shelf view


Management XDM General Description

11-22 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D00




417006-2002-0H3-D00 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 12-1

In this chapter:
Overview.......................................................................................................12-1
Short MTTR..................................................................................................12-2
Built-In Test (BIT).........................................................................................12-2
Alarms System...............................................................................................12-3
Troubleshooting.............................................................................................12-4

Overview
The XDM is a fully redundant all-in-one system that eliminates and replaces
interconnections and cables with a few ultra-reliable optical connections in a
self-contained integrated package. As a result, the XDM inherently provides
high reliability.
Operating features and benefits of the XDM include:
Redundancy of all subsystems and optional switchover to protection,
offering the operator uninterrupted service.
Comprehensive alarms system, detecting and reporting transmission and
equipment malfunctions.
Loopback capabilities on the transmission interfaces and a sophisticated
BIT feature facilitating quick and accurate fault location, thereby
minimizing MTTR.
Maintenance configuration functions controlled by the management
system; any management function performed at the EMS level can be
performed at the NMS level via LightSoft.

12
Maintenance
Maintenance XDM General Description

12-2 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D00


NOTE: All installation instructions, technical specifications,
restrictions, and safety warnings are provided in the XDM
Installation and Maintenance Manuals. Refer to these manuals
for specific instructions before beginning any XDM platform
installation.

Short MTTR
XDM features ensure a minimum MTTR, minimizing the probability of service
interruptions:
Internal diagnostic capability and automatic switchover to protection
equipment
Automatic PM and BIT mechanism for fast and accurate fault isolation
Efficient fault location at the element, card, and component levels
Replacement of cards and modules under power
Remote diagnostics activation and control by the EMS-XDM
Remote installation of new software versions through management
interfaces with minimum effect on traffic
Built-In Test (BIT)
The BIT hardware and its related software assist in the identification of any
faulty card in the system. The BIT outputs provide:
Fault detection
Maintenance alarms
Redundancy switching
System reset
Bypass (when applicable)
Management reports
On-card dedicated test circuits implement the BIT procedure under the control
of an integrated software package.
XDM General Description Maintenance

417006-2002-0H3-D00 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 12-3

The xMCP cards perform the BIT procedures on all signal paths and buses. The
xMCPs also monitor the slave processors on the other XDM cards by means of
test messages.
A BIT program is automatically activated after the XDM is switched on. It is
performed for both the initialization and normal operation phases. The operator
can stop or restart its execution from LightSoft.
BIT testing covers general tests, including card presence tests and periodic
sanity checks of I/O card processors. It also covers traffic path tests, xMCP
environment tests, data tests, and more. The BIT detects traffic-affecting
failures as well as failures in other system cards, including invisible failures in
nonoperating redundant cards.
Alarms System
Alarms generated by the XDM are classified as:
Transmission alarms associated with a malfunction of any transmission
path. The XDM supports a full set of alarms in compliance with applicable
standards.
Timing alarms associated with a malfunction of any XDM timing source.
Equipment alarms associated with any hardware malfunction.
The network administrator assigns severity levels to each alarm type:
Critical always requires immediate attention.
Major gives notice that attention is required, but does not require
attention outside normal working hours.
Minor does not require attention after normal hours.
Warning malfunction warning or unreleased maintenance action.
In addition to the management interfaces listed above, additional optional
means can be provided for alarms control and display:
Local displays, including LEDs that indicate malfunctions of specific
plug-in units or transmission paths
Alarm contacts, delivering critical, major, minor, and warning alarm
indications to the station alarm bus
Rack alarm buzzer with station acknowledgment mechanism
Maintenance XDM General Description

12-4 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D00

Alarm server, delivering network aggregated alarms from LightSoft to the
operator's Central Monitoring Station (CMS)
Alarm inputs from in-station devices (such as security sensors, fire
detectors, external monitoring equipment) and other in-station
telecommunication equipment (like flexible multiplexers and DWDM
units)
Troubleshooting
In the event of an alarm, troubleshooting procedures are used to determine the
severity and location of the problem and the appropriate alarm-clearing
procedure.
Alarms are handled first by severity and then by type. In order of priority,
alarm types are:
Equipment alarms
Transmission alarms
Timing alarms
Each card is a standalone unit. By adopting ECI Telecom Transport
Networking Division's modular system concept, the customer's planning and
maintenance personnel achieve flexible and efficient operation. By following a
simple procedure, maintenance personnel can quickly replace faulty cards or
other assemblies. Faulty units are then sent/shipped for repair to the assigned
ECI Telecom Customer Support Center. The easy maintenance concept of the
XDM allows the user to perform these repairs and test actions:
Connecting or disconnecting cable fibers to or from the XDM
Removing or inserting any cards in the XDM cards cage when power is on
Connecting or disconnecting power cable(s) to or from the system
Performing system test procedures
Removing or inserting I/O modules
Removing or inserting optical modules


417006-2002-0H3-D00 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary A-1

1. Af-phy-0064.000 ATM Forum E1 Physical Layer Interface.
2. Af-phy-0086.000 ATM Forum IMA V1.0.
3. Af-phy-0086.001 ATM Forum IMA V1.1.
4. Af-phy-00121.00 ATM Forum Traffic Management Specifications
V4.1.
5. ANSI T1.105-2001 Synchronous Optical Network (SONET) - Basic
Description including Multiplex Structure, Rates, and Formats.
6. BS ISO/IEC-3309 Information Technology Telecommunications and
Information Exchange between Systems High-Level Data Link Control
(HDLC) Procedures Frame Structure.
7. BS ISO/IEC-9595, Information Technology Open Systems
Interconnection Common Management Information Services.
8. EN- 60950-1 ed1 (2001/10) Electrical Safety.
9. ETS 300 386 (2003/01) Electromagnetic compatibility and Radio
spectrum Matters (ERM); Telecommunication network equipment;
Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) requirements.
10. ETS 300 132 -2 (2003/03) Environmental Engineering (EE); Power
Supply Interface at the Input to Telecommunications Equipment.
11. ETSI ETR 114 Functional Architecture of SDH Transport Networks.
12. ETSI EN 300 019-1-1 (2003/04) Environmental Engineering (EE);
Environmental Conditions and Environmental Tests for
Telecommunications Equipment; Storage.
13. ETSI EN 300 019-1-2 (2003/04) Environmental Engineering (EE);
Environmental Conditions and Environmental Tests for
Telecommunications Equipment; Transportation.
A
Reference Documents
Reference Documents XDM General Description

A-2 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D00

14. ETSI EN 300 019-1-2 (2004/07) Environmental Engineering (EE);
Environmental Conditions and Environmental Tests for
Telecommunications Equipment; Stationary use at weather protected
location.
15. FTZ 1 TR9 (2002/06) - Deutsche Telekom A.G. EMC Requirements.
16. GR-1089-CORE (2006/06) Electromagnetic Compatibility and
Electrical Safety Generic Criteria for Network Telecommunications
Equipment.
17. GR-1209-CORE (2001/03) Generic Requirements for Passive Optical
Components.
18. GR-1230-CORE SONET Bidirectional Line-Switched Ring Equipment
Generic Criteria.
19. GR-1312-CORE (1999/04) Generic Requirements for Optical Fiber
Amplifiers and Proprietary Dense Wavelength-Division Multiplexed
Systems.
20. GR-1400-CORE SONET Dual-Fed Unidirectional Path Switched Ring
(UPSR) Equipment Generic Criteria.
21. GR-253-CORE (2000/09) Synchronous Optical Network (SONET)
Transport Systems: Common Generic Criteria.
22. GR-383-CORE COMMON LANGUAGEEquipment Codes
(CLEI Codes) Generic Requirements for Bar Code Labels.
23. GR-63-CORE (2006/03) Network Equipment Building System
(NEBS) Requirements: Physical Protection.
24. IEC-68 Environmental Testing.
25. IEC 917 Modular Order for the Development of Mechanical Structures
for Electronic Equipment Practices.
26. IEC 60825-1 (2001/08): Safety of Laser Products Part 1: Equipment
Classification, Requirements, and User Guide.
27. IEC 60825-2 (2000/05): Safety of Laser Products Part 2: Safety of
Optical Fiber Communication System.
28. IEEE 802.1ad - IEEE Standard for Local and metropolitan area
networksVirtual Bridged Local Area NetworksRevision
Amendment 4: Provider Bridges.
29. IEEE 802.1D - IEEE standard for local and metropolitan area
networks--Media access control (MAC) Bridges (Incorporates IEEE
802.1t-2001 and IEEE 802.1w).
XDM General Description Reference Documents

417006-2002-0H3-D00 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary A-3

30. IEEE 802.1P - Traffic Class Expediting and Dynamic Multicast
Filtering.
31. IEEE 802.1Q - Virtual Bridged Local Area NetworksRevision.
32. IEEE 802.1w - Rapid Reconfiguration of Spanning Tree.
33. IEEE 802.3-2005 - Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision
Detection (CSMA/CD) Access Method and Physical Layer
Specifications.
34. IEEE 802.3ad Link Aggregation.
35. IEEE 802.3ah Ethernet in the First Mile (Link OAM).
36. IEEE 802.3x Full Duplex Operation and Flow Control Protocol.
37. IETF, RFC-1493 Definition of Managed Objects for Bridges.
38. IETF, RFC-1643 - Ethernet-like Interfaces.
39. IETF, RFC-1662 PPP in HDLC-Life Framing.
40. IETF, RFC-1757 - Remote Network Monitoring Management
Information Base.
41. IETF, RFC-2108 Definitions of Managed Objects for IEEE 802.3
Repeater Devices using SMIv2.
42. IETF, RFC 2401 Security Architecture for the Internet Protocol.
43. IETF, RFC 2409 Internet Key Exchange Protocol (IKE).
44. IETF, RFC-2615 PPP over SONET/SDH.
45. IETF, RFC-2665 Definitions of Managed Objects for the Ethernet-like
Interface Types.
46. IETF, RFC-2674 - Bridge MIB with VLAN/Traffic Classes/Multicast
Extensions.
47. IETF, RFC-2702 - Requirements for Traffic Engineering Over MPLS.
48. IETF, RFC-2737 Entity MIB (Version 2).
49. IETF, RFC-2819 Remote Network Monitoring Management
Information Base.
Reference Documents XDM General Description

A-4 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D00

50. IETF, RFC-2863 - Interfaces Group MIB.
51. IETF, RFC-3031 - Multiprotocol Label Switching Architecture.
52. IETF, RFC-3032 - MPLS Label Stack Encoding.
53. IETF, RFC-3270 - Multi-Protocol Label Switching (MPLS) Support of
Differentiated Services.
54. IETF, RFC-3443 - Time To Live (TTL) Processing in Multi-Protocol
Label Switching (MPLS) Networks.
55. IETF, RFC-3812 - Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) Traffic
Engineering (TE) Management Information Base (MIB).
56. IETF, RFC-3813 - Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) Label
Switching Router (LSR) Management Information Base (MIB).
57. IETF,RFC-3916 - Requirements for Pseudo-Wire Emulation
Edge-to-Edge (PWE3).
58. IETF, RFC-3985 - Pseudo Wire Emulation Edge-to-Edge (PWE3)
Architecture.
59. IETF, RFC-4090 - Fast Reroute Extensions to RSVP-TE for LSP
Tunnels.
60. IETF, RFC-4125 - Maximum Allocation Bandwidth Constraints Model
for Diffserv-aware MPLS Traffic Engineering.
61. IETF, RFC-4126 - Max Allocation with Reservation Bandwidth
Constraints Model for Diffserv-aware MPLS Traffic Engineering &
Performance Comparisons.
62. IETF, RFC-4379 - Detecting Multi-Protocol Label Switched (MPLS)
Data Plane Failures.
63. IETF, RFC-4448 - Encapsulation Methods for Transport of Ethernet over
MPLS Networks.
64. IETF Drafts:
a. Martini encapsulation, draft-martini-l2circuit-encap-mpls.
b. VPLS draft, draft-ietf-l2vpn-vpls-ldp.
c. draft-ietf-pwe3-ethernet-encap.
d. draft-sajassi-l2vpn-vpls-multicast-congruency.
e. draft-ietf-l2vpn-vpls-mcast-reqts.
XDM General Description Reference Documents

417006-2002-0H3-D00 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary A-5

f. draft-ietf-magma-snoop.
g. draft-ietf-mpls-rsvp-te-p2mp.
h. draft-vasseur-mpls-backup-computation.
65. ISO 9595, ISO 9596 CMISE Specification.
66. ITU-T Recommendation I.356 ATM Layer Cell Transfer Performance.
67. ITU-T Recommendation I.361 ATM Layer Specification.
68. ITU-T Recommendation I.371 Traffic Control and Congestion Control.
69. ITU-T Recommendation I.610 ATM Operation and Maintenance
Principles.
70. ITU-T Recommendation G.650 Definition and Test Methods for the
Relevant Parameters of Single-Mode Fibers.
71. ITU-T Recommendation G.651 (1998/02) Characteristics of a 50/125
m Multimode Graded Index Optical Fiber Cable.
72. ITU-T Recommendation G.652 (2006/05) Characteristics of a
Single-Mode Optical Fiber Cable.
73. ITU-T RecommendationG.653 (2003/12) Characteristics of a
Dispersion-Shifted Single-Mode Optical Fiber Cable.
74. ITU-T RecommendationG.654 (2004/06) Characteristics of a Cut-off
Shifted Single-Mode Optical Fiber Cable.
75. ITU-T Recommendation G.655 (2006/06) Characteristics of a
Non-Zero Dispersion Shifted Single-Mode Optical Fiber Cable.
76. ITU-T Recommendation G.661 (2006/03) Definition and Test Methods
for the Relevant Generic Parameters of Optical Amplifier Devices and
Subsystems.
77. ITU-T Recommendation G.662 (2005/07) Generic Characteristics of
Optical Fiber Amplifier Devices and Subsystems.
78. ITU-T Recommendation G.663 (2000/04) Application Related Aspects
of Optical Fiber Amplifier Devices and Subsystems.
79. ITU-T Recommendation G.664 (2006/03) Optical Safety Procedures
and Requirements for Optical Transport Systems.
80. ITU-T Recommendation G.671 (2005/01) Transmission
Characteristics of Passive Optical Components.
81. ITU-T Recommendation G.691 (2006/03) Optical Interfaces for Single
Channel SDH Systems with Optical Amplifiers and STM-64 Systems
(Draft).
Reference Documents XDM General Description

A-6 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D00

82. ITU-T Recommendation G.692 (1998/10) Optical Interfaces for
Multi-Channel Systems with Optical Amplifiers.
83. ITU-T Recommendation G.694.1 (2002/06) Spectral Grids for WDM
Applications: DWDM Frequency Grid.
84. ITU-T Recommendation G.694.2 (2003/12) Spectral Grids for WDM
Applications: CWDM Wavelength Grid.
85. ITU-T Recommendation G.695 (2005/01) Optical Interfaces for
Coarse Wavelength Division Multiplexing Applications.
86. ITU-T Recommendation G.703 (2001/11) Physical/Electrical
Characteristics of Hierarchical Digital Interfaces.
87. ITU-T Recommendation G.704 (1998/10) Synchronous Frame
Structures Used at 1544, 6312, 2048, 8448 and 44 736 kbps Hierarchical
Levels.
88. ITU-T Recommendation G.706 Frame Alignment and CRC Procedures
Relating to Basic Frame Structure Defined in Rec G.704.
89. ITU-T Recommendation G.707 Network Node Interface for the
Synchronous Digital Hierarchy.
90. ITU-T Recommendation G.709 Network Node Interface for OTN.
91. ITU-T Recommendation G.772 (1988/11) Protected Monitoring Points
Provided on Digital Transmission Systems.
92. ITU-T Recommendation G.774 & G774.n SDH Information Model.
93. ITU-T Recommendation G.781 Synchronization Layer Functions.
94. ITU-T Recommendation G.783 Characteristics of SDH Equipment
Functional Blocks.
95. ITU-T Recommendation G.784 Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH)
Management.
96. ITU-T Recommendation G.798 Characteristics of OTN Hierarchy
Equipment Functional Blocks.
97. ITU-T Recommendation G.803 Architectures of Transport Networks
based on the Synchronous Digital Hierarchy.
98. ITU-T Recommendation G.805 Generic Functional Architecture of
Transport Networks.
99. ITU-T Recommendation G.806 Characteristics of Transport
Equipment Description Methodology and Generic Functionality.
XDM General Description Reference Documents

417006-2002-0H3-D00 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary A-7

100. ITU-T Recommendation G.811 (1996/09) Timing Characteristics of
Primary Reference Clocks.
101. ITU-T Recommendation G.812 (2004/06) Timing Requirements of
Slave Clocks Suitable for Use as Node Clocks in Synchronization
Networks.
102. ITU-T Recommendation G.813 (2003/03) Timing Characteristics of
SDH Equipment Slave Clocks (SEC).
103. ITU-T Recommendation G.823 (2000/03) The Control of J itter and
Wander within Digital Networks Based on the 2048 kbit/s Hierarchy.
104. ITU-T Recommendation G.825 (2000/03) The Control of J itter and
Wander within Digital Networks Based on the SDH (Draft).
105. ITU-T Recommendation G.8251 (2001/11) The Control of J itter and
Wander within the Optical Transport Network (OTN).
106. ITU-T Recommendation G.826 Error Performance Parameters and
Objectives for International, Constant Bit Rate Digital Paths at or above
the Primary Rate.
107. ITU-T Recommendation G.828 Error Performance Parameters and
Objectives for International, Constant Bit Rate Synchronous Digital
Paths.
108. ITU-T Recommendation G.829 Error Performance Events for SDH
Multiplex and Regenerator Sections.
109. ITU-T Recommendation G.841 Types and Characteristics of SDH
Network Protection Architectures.
110. ITU-T Recommendation G.842 Inter-Working of SDH Protection
Architectures.
111. ITU-T Recommendation G.872 Architecture of Optical Transport
Networks.
112. ITU-T Recommendation G.874 Management Aspects of the Optical
Transport Network Element.
113. ITU-T Recommendation G.875 OTN Management Information Model
for the NE View.
114. ITU-T Recommendation G.957 (2006/03) Optical Interfaces for
Equipment and Systems relating to the Synchronous Digital Hierarchy.
115. ITU-T Recommendation G.959.1 (2006/03) Optical Transport
Network Physical Layer Interfaces.
116. ITU-T Recommendation G.975 Forward Error Correction for
Submarine Systems.
Reference Documents XDM General Description

A-8 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D00

117. ITU-T Recommendation G.7041 Generic Framing Procedure (GFP).
118. ITU-T Recommendation G.7042 Link Capacity Adjustment Scheme
(LCAS) for Virtual Concatenated Signals.
119. ITU-T Recommendation G.8010/Y.1306 - Architecture of Ethernet
Layer Networks.
120. ITU-T Recommendation G.8011/Y.1307 - Ethernet Services Framework.
121. ITU-T Recommendation G.8011.1/Y.1307.1 - Ethernet Private Line
Service.
122. ITU-T Recommendation G.8011.2/Y.1307.2 - Ethernet Virtual Private
Line Service.
123. ITU-T Recommendation G.8012/Y.1308 - Ethernet UNI and Ethernet
NNI.
124. ITU-T Recommendation Y.1710 - Requirements for Operation &
Maintenance functionality for MPLS networks.
125. ITU-T Recommendation Y.1711 - Operation & Maintenance mechanism
for MPLS networks.
126. ITU-T Recommendation M.3010 Principles for a Telecommunications
Management Network.
127. ITU-T Recommendation M.3100 Generic Network Information Model.
128. ITU-T Recommendation Q.821 Alarm Surveillance.
129. ITU-T Recommendation Q.822 Performance Monitoring.
130. ITU-T Recommendations X.217, X.227 ACSE Specification.
131. ITU-T Recommendations X.219, X.229 ROSE Specification.
132. ITU-T Recommendation X.721 Information Technology Open
Systems Interconnection Structure of Management Information:
Definition of Management Information.
133. MEF4 Metro Ethernet Network Architecture Framework Part 1: Generic
Framework.
134. MEF6 Metro Ethernet Services Definitions.
135. MEF7 EMS-NMS Information Model.
136. MEF9 Test Suite for Ethernet Services at the UNI.
137. MEF10 Ethernet Service Attributes.
138. MEF11 User Network Interface (UNI) Requirements and Framework.
XDM General Description Reference Documents

417006-2002-0H3-D00 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary A-9

139. MEF12 Metro Ethernet Network Architecture Framework Part 2:
Ethernet Services Layer.
140. MEF14 Test Suite for Ethernet Traffic Management.
141. NIST, FIPS PUB 197 Advanced Encryption Standard (AES).
142. NIST, FIPS 140-2 Security Requirements for Cryptographic Modules.
143. UL 60950 (2002/03): Safety of Information Technology Equipment.


Reference Documents XDM General Description

A-10 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D00



417006-2002-0H3-D00 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary B-1

1000BaseCX 1000 Mbps baseband Ethernet over shielded 150 W twinax cables at ranges up to
25 meters
1000BaseLX 1000 Mbps baseband Ethernet over two multimode or single mode optical fibers
using long wavelength lasers
1000BaseSX 1000 Mbps baseband Ethernet over two multimode optical fibers using short
wavelength lasers
1000BaseT 1000 Mbps baseband Ethernet over four CAT5 shielded twisted pair cables at
ranges up to 100 meters
(also known as Gigabit Ethernet GbE)
1000BaseX Generic name for 1000 Mbps Ethernet systems
100BaseT 100 Mbps baseband data transmission over twisted-pair copper wire
or
100 Mbps baseband Ethernet over twisted pair cables
(also known as Fast Ethernet FE)
10BaseT 10 Mbps baseband data transmission over twisted-pair copper wire
or
10 Mbps baseband Ethernet over twisted pair cables
10G LAN 10 GbE LAN Physical Layer Device (PHY)
2R Reshaping, Regenerating
3GPP 3
rd
Generation Partnership Program
3R Reshaping, Regenerating, Retiming
ABR Area Border Router
ACO Alarm Cut Off
ADM Add-and-Drop Multiplexer
ALS Automatic Laser Shutdown
AoC ADM on Card
APC Automatic Power Control
APD Avalanche PhotoDiode
ARP Address Resolution Protocol
ASBR Autonomous System Border Router
B
Glossary
Glossary XDM General Description

B-2 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D00

ASON All Switched Optical Network
ATM Asynchronous Transfer Mode
ATS ATM Traffic Switch
AVGpas Average Gain of previous amplifiers
AWG Array Waveguide Grating
B&S Broadcast & Select
BBE Background Block Error
BE Best Effort
BIT Built-In Test
BLSR Bidirectional Line Switched Ring
BoD Bandwidth on Demand
BPSR Bidirectional Path Switched Ring
BTS Base Transceiver System
C4I Command, Control, Communication, and Computer
CAC Connection Admission Control
CAPEX CAPital EXpenditure
CHTR Combiner and Transponder universal base card
CIR Committed Information Rate
CLE Customer Located Equipment
CLEC Competitive Local Exchange Carrier
CMN Customer Managed Network
CNM Customer Network Management
CoC Carrier of Carriers
CORBA Common Object Request Broker Architecture
CoS Class of Service
COTS Commercial Off-the-Shelf
CPE Customer Premises Equipment
CSF Client Signal Fail
CWDM Coarse Wavelength Division Multiplexing
DCC Digital Communication Channel
DCF Dispersion Compensating Fiber
DCM Dispersion Compensation Module
DCN Data Communication Network
DIO Data Input/Output card with FE and GbE interfaces
DoS Denial of Service
DS-3 Digital Signal Level 3 (44.736 Mbps)
DSLAM Digital Subscriber Line Access Multiplexer
DTMF Dual Tone MultiFrequency
DWDM Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing
XDM General Description Glossary

417006-2002-0H3-D00 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary B-3

DXC Digital Cross Connect
E1 European PDH digital signal level 1 (2.048 Mbps)
E2E End to End
E3 European PDH digital signal level 1 (34.368 Mbps)
EAH-VPLS Ethernet Access Hierarchy VPLS
EAPC Enhanced Automatic Power Control
ECB External Connection Board
ECC Embedded Communication Channels
ECM Everyplace Connection Manager
ECU External Connection Unit
EDFA Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifier
EFEC Enhanced Forward Error Correction
EIR Extended Information Rate
EIS Ethernet Interface and Switching Module
E-LAN Ethernet LAN
E-Line Ethernet Line
EML Element Management Layer
EMS Element Management System
EoS Ethernet over SDH
EOW Engineering OrderWire
EPL Ethernet Private Line
EPLAN Ethernet Private LAN
EPS Equipment Protection Switching
ESCON Enterprise Systems Connection
ETSI European Telecommunication Standards Institute
EVPL Ethernet Virtual Private Line
EVPLAN Ethernet Virtual Private LAN
FC Fiber Channel
FCU Fan Control Unit
FE Fast Ethernet
100BaseT Ethernet at 100 Mbps
FEC Forward Error Correction
FICON Fiber Connection
FMS Fixed to Mobile Substitution
FRR Fast ReRoute
FTM FuN Topology Map
FTP File Transfer Protocol
FuN Functional Node
Glossary XDM General Description

B-4 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D00

GbE Gigabit Ethernet
GCC General Communications Channel
GDS Government and Defense Solutions
GFP Generic Framing Protocol
GFP-F Framed Generic Framing Protocol
GFP-T Transparent Generic Framing Protocol
GGSN Gateway GPRS Support Node
GMPLS Generalized MultiProtocol Label Switching
GPRS General Packet Radio Service
GSM Global System for Mobile Communication
GUI Graphic User Interface
HDLC High Level Data Link Control
HLXC High-/Low-order Cross-Connect
HSI High Speed Internet
I/O Input/Output
ILEC Incumbent Local Exchange Carrier
IMA Inverse Multiplexing over ATM
INF Input Filter Unit
INFOSEC Information Security
IOC Independent Carrier
IOP Input/Output Protection
IP Internet Protocol
IPTV Internet Protocol Television
ISP Internet SP
ITU-T International Telecommunications Union-Telecommunication
IXC Interexchange Carriers
LAG Link Aggregation
LAN Local Area Network
LCAS Link Capacity Adjustment Scheme
LE Logical Element
LED Light Emitting Diode
LOF Loss of Frame
LOS Loss of Signal
LSP Label Switch Path
MCS MPLS Carrier-Class Switch
ME Managed Element
MECP Main Equipment Control Panel
MGW Media Gateway
MMF MultiMode Fiber
XDM General Description Glossary

417006-2002-0H3-D00 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary B-5

MoT MPLS over Transport
MP2MP MultiPoint to MultiPoint
MPLS MultiProtocol Lambda (Wavelength) Switching
MS Multiplex Section
MS-AIS Multiplex Section Alarm Indication Signal
MS-DCC Multiplexer Section Digital Communication Channel
MSC Mobile Switching Center
MSER Multi Service Edge Router
MSO Multiple Service Operators
MSP Multiplex Section Protection
MSP-L Linear Multiplex Section Protection
MSPP MultiService Provisioning Platform
MS-SPRing Multiplex Section Shared Protection Ring
MSTP MultiService Transport Platform
MTNM MultiTechnology Network Management
MTTR Mean Time To Repair
MXC Main Cross-Connect Control
NCW Network Centric Warfare
NE Network Element
NEL Network Element Layer
NG-SDH Next-Generation SDH
NH Next Hop
NIM Nonintrusive monitoring
NML Network Management Layer
NMS Network Management System
NNH Next Next Hop
NNI Network to Network Interface
NOA Number of Amplifiers
NOC Number of Channels
NPU Network Processor Unit
NUT Nonpreemptive Unprotected Traffic
NVM NonVolatile Memory
OADM Optical Add/Drop Multiplexer
OA&M, OAM Operations, Administration and Maintenance
OAM&P Operations, Administration, Maintenance, and Provisioning
OC Optical Carrier, SONET transmission speeds
OC-1 SONET Optical Carrier level 1, 51.84 Mbps
OC-3 SONET Optical Carrier level 3, 155.52 Mbps
Glossary XDM General Description

B-6 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D00

OC-12 SONET Optical Carrier level 12, 622.08 Mbps
OC-48 SONET Optical Carrier level 48, 2.5 Gbps (2488.32 Mbps)
OC-192 SONET Optical Carrier level 192, 10 Gbps (9953.28 Mbps)
OCH Optical Channel
OCHP Optical Channel Protection
OCU Optical CWDM Unit
OEO Optical-to-Electrical-to-Optical
OFA Optical Fiber Amplifier
OHA OverHead Access
OHU OverHead Unit
OMSP Optical Multiplexer Section Protection
OOB Out-of-Band
OPEX OPerational EXpenditure
OPM Optical Performance Monitoring
OSC Optical Supervisory Channel
OSI Open Systems Interconnection
OSNR Optical Signal-to-Noise Ratio
OSPF Open Shortest Path First
OSS Operations Support System
OTH Optical Transport Hierarchy
OTN Optical Transport Network
OTU Optical Transport Unit
O-VPN Optical Virtual Private Network
OW OrderWire channel
P2MP Point to Multi Point
P2P Point to Point
PABX Private Automatic Branch eXchange
PDH Plesiochronous Digital Hierarchy
PE Provider Edge
PELES Power Equalization for Lightwave Enabled Servers
PIM PDH I/O Module
PIN Packet Identification Number
PIO PDH Input/Output
PM Performance Monitoring
POP Point of Presence
POS Packet Over SDH
PPC Power per Channel
PPP Point to Point Protocol
PSFU Power Supply for the Fan Unit
XDM General Description Glossary

417006-2002-0H3-D00 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary B-7

PTT Postal Telegraph and Telephone
PW Pseudo-wire
QoS Quality of Service
RAN Radio Access Network or Remote Access Network
RDR Remote Database Replication
RMON Remote Network Monitoring
RNC Radio Network Controller
ROADM Reconfigurable Optical Add/Drop Multiplexing
ROI Return on Investment
ROPA Remote Optically Pumped Amplifier
RS-DCC Regenerator Section Digital Communication Channel
RSTP Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol
RZ Return to Zero
SAM SDH Aggregate Module
SAN Storage Area Network
SD Signal Degradation
SDH Synchronous Digital Hierarchy
SES Severed Error Second
SF Signal Failure
SFD Start of Frame Delimiter
SFP Small Form factor Pluggable module
SGSN Serving GPRS Support Node
SIM SDH I/O Module
SIO SDH Input/Output
SLA Service Level Agreement
SMF Single Mode Fiber
SNCP SubNetwork Connection Protection
SOH SDH Section Overhead
SP Service Provider
SPOF Single Point of Failure
SQL Structured Query Language
SRLG Shared Risk Link Group
SSM Synchronization Status Marker
STB Set-Top Box
STM Synchronous Transfer Mode
STM-1 Synchronous Transport Module 1, 155.52 Mbps
STM-4 Synchronous Transport Module 4, 622.08 Mbps
STM-4c Concatenated Transport Module 4, 622.08 Mbps.
STM-16 Synchronous Transport Module 16, 2488.32 Mbps
Glossary XDM General Description

B-8 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D00

STM-64 Synchronous Transport Module 64, 9953.28 Mbps
STS Synchronous Transport Signal
STS-1 Synchronous Transport Signal 1, 51.84 Mbps
STS-3 Synchronous Transport Signal 3, 155.52 Mbps
STS-12 Synchronous Transport Signal 12, 594.432 Mbps
STS-48 Synchronous Transport Signal 48, 2377.728 Mbps
TC Tributary Control
TCF Tributary Control and Fans
TDM Time Division Multiplexing
TE Traffic Engineering
TLS Transparent LAN Services
TM Terminal Multiplexer
TMF TeleManagement Forum
TMN Telecommunications Management Network
TMU TiMing Unit
TPM Tributary Protection Module
TPU Tributary Protection Unit
TSF Trail Signal Fail
TTM Time to Market
TVCXO Temperature Compensated Voltage Controlled Crystal Oscillator
UAS Unavailable Seconds
UMTS Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
UNI User to Network Interface
UPSR Unidirectional Path Switched Ring
Utelco Utility Companies
UTRAN UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access Network
VC Virtual Container
VC-12 Virtual Container 12, 2.048 Mbps (used on low order path)
VC-3 Virtual Container 3 (used on low order path)
VC-4 Virtual Container 4 (used on high order path)
VCAT Virtual Concatenated services
VCG VCAT Group
VDC Voltage Direct Current
VGA Variable Gain Amplifier
VLAN Virtual Local Area Network
VMUX Variable Mux
VOA Variable Optical Attenuator
VoD Video on Demand
VoIP Voice over Internet Protocol
XDM General Description Glossary

417006-2002-0H3-D00 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary B-9

V2oIP Voice and Video over Internet Protocol
VPLS Virtual Private LAN Service
VPN Virtual Private Network
VPWS Virtual Private Wire Service
VSI Virtual Switching Instance
WAN Wide Area Network
WC Wholesale Carrier
WDM Wavelength Division Multiplexing
WRED Weighted Random Early Discard
WSS Wavelength Selective Switch
WTR Wait to Restore
WTS Wait to Switch
XC Cross Connects
XFP 10 Gigabit Small Form-factor Pluggable module
xINF XDM Input Filter Units
XIO Matrix I/O
xMCP XDM Main Control Processor


Glossary XDM General Description

B-10 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D00



417006-2002-0H3-D00 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary I-1

3
3G networks 1-27, 2-14, 2-18, 7-8
A
A/B configuration 6-6
ADM 1-8, 1-24, 3-13, 4-16, 10-2
ADM/TM mode 1-8, 1-24
Aggregate modules 3-14, 4-5, 7-4
Alarm management 11-13
display 11-13
severity 11-13
Applications 2-1
backhaul services 2-9, 2-14
Carrier of Carriers 2-9
cellular 2-14
core networks 2-17
customer network management 2-29
customer types 2-1
data applications 7-4
DSLAM transport 2-3
enterprise Ethernet services 2-22
ILECs 2-3
ISP connectivity 5-10
leased-line services 2-27
metro-access 1-27, 4-14
military and government agencies
2-10
multiple service operators 2-7
Next Generation Networks (NGN)
1-1, 1-29, 6-4
SAN services 2-26
utility companies 2-5
wavelength services 1-11, 6-2
Wholesale Carriers 2-9
APS 3-12
Architecture 1-16, 1-24, 1-26, 2-18, 3-1
client/server 11-3
data layer 1-19, 7-1
layered 11-2
optical layer 6-1
square 3-12
TDM layer 1-24
ASIC 3-12
ATM 1-24, 1-29, 2-9, 2-14, 2-17, 2-18,
6-8, 7-1, 7-8
ATS 2-18, 7-8
Aurora-G 7-7
Autodiscovery 11-20
B
Backhaul services 2-9, 2-14
BTSs 2-14
Built-in Test (BIT) 10-14, 12-1, 12-2
C
CAPEX 1-14, 1-16, 1-29, 2-17, 2-18
Cards and modules 3-1, 6-1, 7-1
ATS 7-8
base cards 6-1, 6-8, 6-13, 6-21
colored SIO 7-5
combiner 6-13
data cards 5-28, 7-1, 7-4, 7-5
DCM, optical 6-28
DIO 5-6, 5-28
ECB 9-12
ECU 4-5, 4-6, 4-8, 9-12, 9-13
Index
Index XDM General Description

I-2 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D00

EIS 5-10, 5-25, 7-1
HLXC 3-5, 3-8, 3-12
MCS 5-10, 5-25, 7-1
MECP 9-10, 9-12
mux/demux, optical 4-6, 4-8, 4-13,
6-4
MXC 3-5, 3-8, 3-14
network power control plane, optical
1-18, 6-28, 11-17
OADM, optical 4-6, 4-8, 4-13, 6-6
OFA, optical 6-19
OMSP, optical 6-27, 10-12, 10-13
OPM, optical 6-24
optical cards and modules 4-13, 6-1
OSC, optical 4-8, 4-13, 9-10, 11-20
PIO 7-4
power feed 3-1, 3-15
ROADM 1-12, 6-2
SFP 3-10, 6-16, 7-1
SIO 7-5, 11-18, 11-20
transponders, optical 4-8, 6-1, 6-8,
10-12
XFP 6-16
XIO 3-13
xMCP 3-14, 9-12, 12-2
Carrier of Carriers 2-9
Cellular services 2-14
3G 2-14, 2-18, 7-1, 7-8
core 2-14, 2-17
FMS 2-14
GGSN 2-14
GPRS 2-14, 2-18
GSM 2-18
MSC 2-9, 2-14
RAN 2-14, 2-17, 7-8
RNC 2-14, 2-18, 7-8
SGSN 2-14
UMTS 2-14
CLEC 1-11, 2-1
Coarse Wavelength Division
Multiplexing, see CWDM 1-10,
1-30
CoC 2-9, 2-14
Combiners 4-8, 6-13, 10-12
Communication with external equipment
and management 9-1
Configuration and inventory management
11-15
Control and communication subsystem
3-2
built-in test (BIT) 12-2
communication with external
equipment and management 3-4,
9-1
HLXC functionality 3-12
internal control and processing 3-3
MXC functionality 3-14
timing and synchronization 3-5
XIO functionality 3-13
CORBA 11-12
CPE 2-20, 4-14
Cross-connect 3-2, 3-8
capacity 3-3, 3-8, 3-10, 3-12, 3-13,
3-14
control and communication functions
3-2
external communication 3-4, 9-1
functions 3-2, 3-8
grooming 1-24, 2-18
HLXC cards 3-12
internal control 3-3
matrix protection, upgrade, and
migration 1-27
MXC cards 3-14
XDM General Description Index

417006-2002-0H3-D00 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary I-3

shelf capacities 3-2, 3-8
timing and synchronization 3-5
unidirectional and bidirectional 10-6
XIO cards 3-13
Customer types 2-1
cellular operators 2-14
CoCs 2-9
government agencies 2-10
ILECs 2-3
ISPs 2-9, 5-10, 5-25
military agencies 2-10
MSOs 2-7
SAN service providers 2-26
utility companies 2-5
Cut-through process 11-10
CWDM 1-10, 1-11, 3-10, 4-6, 6-1
D
Data applications 7-4
Ethernet capabilities 1-19, 2-14
QoS 1-29, 2-22, 5-6
SLAs 2-1, 2-22, 5-10
Data services 1-8, 2-14, 2-25, 7-4
Database Signature feature 11-10
DCC 2-10, 3-2, 3-14, 9-1, 9-2, 9-3, 9-7,
9-9, 11-18
DCF 1-12
DCM 6-28
Dense Wavelength Division
Multiplexing, see DWDM 1-8, 1-16,
1-24, 1-29
Description 4-1
control, matrix, and I/O cards 3-12,
3-13, 3-14
converged MSPP/CWDM
configuration 4-6
MSPP configuration 4-5
pure CWDM configuration 4-8
redundant MSPP Configuration 4-5
shelf types 4-1
XDM-100 shelf layout 4-4
XDM-1000 shelf layout 4-18
XDM-200 shelf layout 4-8
XDM-2000 shelf layout 4-21
XDM-40 shelf layout 4-14
XDM-50 shelf layout 4-2
XDM-500 shelf layout 4-16
DIO 5-6, 5-28, 6-16, 10-10, 11-8
bandwidth scaling protection 10-11
DIOB 5-28
DIOM 5-6, 5-28
DIOM-04 5-28, 7-1
DIOM-08 5-28, 7-1
DIOM-40 5-28, 7-1
for GbE over SDH 5-6, 5-28
protection 10-10
DSLAM 2-1, 2-3
Dual Route Path Protection and
Unidirectional Path Switched Ring
(UPSR) 10-2
DWDM 1-8, 1-11, 1-14, 1-16, 1-24,
1-29, 2-14, 2-27, 6-1, 6-4, 6-19, 6-24
E
East/West configuration 1-12, 6-2, 6-6,
6-9
ECB 9-12
ECU card 4-2, 4-5, 4-6, 4-8, 9-12, 9-13
EDFA 1-12, 1-16, 6-19, 6-21, 6-23
EFEC 1-16, 3-13, 6-8, 6-9, 6-13, 7-5
EIS 5-10, 5-25, 6-16, 7-1
EIS 5-10, 5-25, 7-1
EIS2_14 5-25, 7-1
EIS2_8 5-25, 7-1
EIS8_8 5-25, 7-1
EISMB 5-10, 5-25, 7-1
Index XDM General Description

I-4 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D00

EISMB_804 5-25
EISMB_840 5-25, 7-1
Ethernet flows 11-16
Ethernet interfaces 5-31, 10-10,
11-8, 11-16
Ethernet traffic protection 10-10
Ethernet trails management 11-8
functionality 2-22, 5-25
Element Management Layer 11-2, 11-12
Element Management System, see EMS
11-3, 11-12
EML 6-9, 11-2, 11-12
EMS 3-3, 3-4, 3-5, 3-16, 9-1, 9-9, 9-13,
10-2, 11-3, 11-10, 11-12, 11-17,
11-20, 12-1, 12-2
EMS-XDM 3-3, 3-4, 3-5, 10-2, 10-9,
11-3
alarm management 11-13
auto-discovery 11-20
configuration and inventory
management 11-15
interfaces and management
transparency 11-19
performance management 11-14
provisioning 11-15
security management 11-19
Encryption 7-7
Engineering Orderwire 3-16
Enterprise Ethernet services 2-22
EPL 2-22, 5-6, 5-28, 10-10
EPLAN 2-22, 5-10
ESCON 2-26
Ethernet 1-19, 2-22, 5-6, 5-10, 5-25,
5-28, 5-31
cards 5-25, 5-28, 6-1, 7-1
flows 11-16
interfaces 5-31
traffic protection 10-10
trails management 11-8
Ethernet Interface and Switching Module,
see EIS 5-25, 7-1
Ethernet Protection/Rapid Spanning Tree
Protocol (RSTP) 5-10, 10-10
EVPL 1-14, 2-22, 5-25, 7-1, 11-16
EVPLAN 2-22, 7-1, 11-16
F
Fault management 11-9
FC 2-26, 3-10, 4-8, 6-13
FCU 4-2, 4-5, 4-6, 4-8, 4-14, 4-16, 4-18,
10-14
FE 1-19, 2-9, 3-10, 4-18, 5-10, 5-25,
5-28, 6-8, 6-16, 7-1, 11-8
FEC 1-16, 1-17, 2-22, 3-13, 6-8, 6-10,
6-13, 7-5
FICON 3-10, 4-8, 6-13
FuN functional node view 11-17
G
GbE 1-19, 2-9, 3-10, 4-8, 4-16, 4-18,
5-25, 5-28, 5-31, 6-8, 6-9, 6-13, 6-16,
7-1, 10-12, 11-8
traffic protection 10-10
trails management 11-8
GCC 1-17
H
HLXC 3-5, 3-12, 4-16, 4-18
HLXC192 3-12
HLXC384 3-12
HLXC768 3-12
I
I/O modules 3-10, 5-28, 7-1, 7-4, 7-5,
7-10
I/O traffic subsystem 3-10
data cards 5-25, 5-28, 7-1, 7-4, 7-5,
7-10
DIO (Data Input/Output) modules
5-6, 5-28, 7-1
XDM General Description Index

417006-2002-0H3-D00 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary I-5

EIS (Ethernet Interface and
Switching) modules 5-10, 5-25,
7-1
optical cards and modules 6-1
PIM (PDH Input/Output) modules
7-1, 7-4
PIO cards 7-1, 7-4
SAM (SDH Aggregate) modules
7-1, 7-5
SFPs/XFPs 6-16
SIM (SDH Input/Output) modules
7-1, 7-5
SIO cards 7-1, 7-5
ILEC 2-3
INFOSEC 2-10
Input Filter Unit (xINF) 3-14, 3-15, 4-2,
4-5, 4-8, 4-14, 4-16, 4-18
Integrated services 1-5, 1-26, 1-27,
1-30, 5-6
Interfaces and management transparency
1-16, 1-19, 2-22, 2-27, 5-28, 6-10,
6-13, 6-28, 9-7, 9-9, 10-9, 11-18,
11-19
Internal control and processing 3-2, 3-3
ISPs 2-9, 5-10, 5-25
ISP connectivity 5-10
ITU-T standards 1-17, 3-3, 3-4, 3-5,
3-10, 3-14, 5-6, 6-8, 6-23, 9-3, 11-14
L
Layered architecture 1-5, 1-16, 1-26,
11-2
LCAS 1-24, 2-22, 5-6, 5-28, 10-10,
10-11
Leased-Line services 2-27
LightSoft 11-3
autodiscovery 11-20
client/server architecture 11-3
cut-through 11-10
fault management 11-9
GbE trails management 11-8
management interfaces 11-4
redundancy 11-10
security 11-10, 11-11
topology management 11-6
trail configuration 11-7
user interface 11-5
Linear Multiplex Section Protection
(MSP-L) and Automatic Protection
Switch (APS) 10-6
Loss of Signal (LOS) 6-8, 10-12
M
Maintenance 12-1
alarm systems 12-3
BIT 12-2
short MTTR 12-2
troubleshooting 12-4
Managed elements 11-6
Management 11-1, 11-2
alarms 11-13
auto-discovery 11-20
client/server architecture 11-3
configuration 11-7, 11-15
DCC cross connections 11-18
DWDM trails 11-7
EML 11-12
EMS-XDM 11-12
Ethernet flows 11-16
Ethernet trails 11-8
fault 11-9
FuN 11-17
GUI cut-through 11-10
interfaces 11-5, 11-19
layered architecture 11-2
LCT-XDM 11-21
LightSoft network manager 11-3
PELES 11-17
Index XDM General Description

I-6 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D00

performance 11-14
power control, automatic 11-17
provisioning 11-15
redundancy 11-10
security 11-19
topology 11-6
transparency 11-19
MCS card 5-10, 5-25, 5-31, 6-16, 7-1,
10-10, 11-8, 11-16
ME 11-6
MECP 3-16, 4-14, 4-18, 9-10, 9-12
Metro-Access applications 1-10, 1-27,
4-8, 4-14
multi-rings 1-24, 2-14, 3-12, 5-10,
5-25, 7-1
point-to-point topologies 2-22, 3-16,
4-8, 5-6, 5-28, 6-20, 9-3, 11-8,
11-16
STM aggregation 1-14, 2-14, 2-18,
2-20, 7-4, 7-5
Modular architecture 1-27, 1-29, 2-18,
3-1
Modules
aggregate 7-4, 7-5
data 5-25, 5-28, 7-4, 7-5
I/O 3-10
matrix cores 3-12, 3-13, 3-14
mux/demux 4-6, 4-8, 4-13, 6-4
OADM/ROADM 4-6, 4-8, 4-13,
6-2, 6-6
OCU 4-8, 4-13
optical 4-13, 6-1, 10-12, 10-13
splitter/coupler 4-6, 4-8, 4-13, 10-10
MPLS 1-14, 2-14, 5-25
MSOs 2-7
MSP 10-6
MSPP 1-11, 1-14, 1-24, 1-29, 2-1, 4-5,
7-1, 10-7
MS-SPRing 5-10, 10-7
dual-node interconnection 10-9
low-order SNCP integration 10-9
MTNM 11-20
MTTR 6-10, 12-2
Multi-ADM 1-8, 1-24, 4-16, 10-2
Multiplex Section Protection (MSP) and
Line Protection 10-6
Mux/demux modules 4-6, 4-8, 4-13, 6-4
MXC card 3-14, 4-2, 4-8, 7-10, 9-13
N
NE 6-28, 11-3, 11-6, 11-8, 11-9, 11-10,
11-12
NE software and configuration
backup 3-2
Network Element Layer (NEL) 11-2
Network Management Layer 11-2
Network Management System, see NMS
11-3
NMS 11-3, 11-19, 11-20
O
OADM 4-6, 4-8, 4-13, 4-16, 4-18, 6-4,
6-6, 6-21, 6-24, 6-28
OCH protection 6-9, 6-10, 6-12, 10-12
OEO switching fabric 6-19, 6-21
OFA 6-19
MO_BAS 6-20
MO_PAS 6-20
OFA_M 6-21
OFA_R 6-23
OFA2 6-21
OHA 4-14, 4-16, 9-12
OMSP card 6-27, 10-12, 10-13
OPEX 1-1, 1-11, 1-12, 1-16, 1-29, 2-17,
2-18, 2-27, 6-2
OPM 6-1, 6-24
XDM General Description Index

417006-2002-0H3-D00 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary I-7

Optical cards and modules 4-13, 6-1
combiners 4-8, 6-13, 10-12
CWDM unit 4-13
DCM 6-28
mux/demux 4-13, 6-4
network power control plane 6-28
OADM 4-13, 6-6
OFA 6-19
OMSP 6-27, 10-13
OMTX 6-16
OPM 6-24
OSC 3-4, 4-8, 4-13, 6-6, 9-1, 9-10,
11-20
ROADM 6-2
SFP 6-16
transponders 4-8, 6-8, 10-10, 10-12
TRP10_2 6-9
TRP10_2B 6-9
TRP10_LAN 6-9
TRP25_2C 6-12
TRP25_4 6-10
TRP25_CT 6-10
TRP25_CTR 6-10
Optical layer protection 10-12
OCH 10-12
OMSP 10-13
OrderWire (OW) 3-16, 9-12
OSC 3-4, 4-8, 4-13, 6-4, 6-6, 6-23, 9-1,
9-10, 11-20
filter functionality 6-4, 6-6
OSPF 3-2, 3-4, 9-1, 9-3
OTN 1-11, 1-16, 1-17, 6-10, 6-13
P
PDH 2-9, 3-1, 6-8, 7-4, 10-14
PELES automatic power control 11-17
Performance Management (PM) 11-3,
11-10, 11-14
combiner feature 6-13
end-to-end 1-16
GbE 6-8
MTTR minimizer 12-2
OCHP operation basis 6-9, 6-12,
10-12
RMON-based 5-10
SDH 6-8, 7-4, 11-14
transponder feature 6-9
Physical description 4-1
card layouts 4-1
control, matrix, and I/O cards 3-1
converged MSPP/CWDM
configuration 4-6
expanded MSPP configuration (with
I/O protection) 4-4, 4-12
external connection unit (ECU) card
9-13
I/O and aggregate modules 7-1
main cross-connect and control
(MXC) card 3-1, 3-14
nonredundant MSPP configuration
4-5
optical modules 6-1
pure CWDM configuration 4-8
pure MSPP configuration 4-5
racks 4-1
redundant MSPP configuration 4-5
shelf configuration 4-1, 4-5
shelf types 1-10, 4-1
TC/TCF 4-12
TPM 7-10
TPU/OCU 4-12, 4-13
PIM (PDH Input/Output modules) 7-1,
7-4
PIM2_21 7-1, 7-4
PIM2_63 7-1, 7-4
PIM345_3 7-1, 7-4
Index XDM General Description

I-8 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D00

PIO 7-1, 7-4
POP 2-9, 4-18
Power feed 3-15
Protection and redundancy 10-1
APS 3-12, 10-6
bandwidth scaling 10-10, 10-11
DIO 5-28, 10-10, 10-11
EIS 10-10, 10-11
equipment 10-14
Ethernet traffic 10-10
LCAS 1-24, 5-28, 10-10
line 10-6
MS-SPRing 10-7
OMSP 6-27, 10-12, 10-13
optical channel (OCH) 10-12
optical layer 10-12
Path 10-2
PIO cards 7-4
power feed 3-15
SDH line 10-6
SDH path/circuit protection schemes
10-2
SNCP 10-2, 10-9
traffic protection and restoration
10-9
transponders 6-8, 6-9, 6-12
Provisioning 11-15
Q
QoS 1-29, 2-22, 5-10, 5-25, 11-8, 11-14
R
Racks 4-1
Raman 1-16, 6-19, 6-23
redundancy 1-12, 3-2, 3-3, 3-12, 3-15,
4-2, 4-5, 4-14, 7-10, 10-1, 10-2,
10-14, 11-10, 12-1, 12-2
Remote Database Replication (RDR)
11-10
RMON 5-10
ROADM 1-11, 1-12, 1-14, 6-2, 6-4,
6-21, 6-28
RSTP 5-10, 10-10
S
SAM (SDH aggregate modules) 7-1, 7-5
SAM1_4/eo 7-1, 7-5
SAM16_1o 7-1, 7-5
SAM4_2o 7-1, 7-5
SAN 1-24, 1-27, 2-1, 2-26, 6-8, 6-13
Scalability 1-27, 3-8, 3-12, 5-10, 6-28,
7-1
SDH 1-8, 1-19, 1-24, 3-12, 3-13, 4-5,
7-5
converged technologies 1-8, 1-19,
5-25, 5-28, 6-8, 6-13, 6-19
integration with other vendors 11-3
migration paths 1-24, 1-27, 1-29,
2-5, 2-14, 2-18
network integration 2-10, 3-10,
10-9, 11-3
Security management 11-19
Service Level Agreement (SLA) 2-22,
5-10, 10-2
Service providers, see customer types
2-1
SFF 6-16
SFP 3-10, 3-13, 5-10, 5-25, 5-28, 6-1,
6-10, 6-13, 6-16, 7-1, 7-5
Shelf configuration 4-1
OCU 4-13
shelf types 1-10, 4-1
TPU expansion shelf 4-12
XDM-100
basic MSPP shelf 4-5
XDM-1000 shelf 4-18
XDM-100H
converged MSPP/CWDM shelf
4-6
XDM General Description Index

417006-2002-0H3-D00 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary I-9

XDM-200 shelf 4-8
XDM-2000 shelf 4-21
XDM-40 shelf 4-14
XDM-500 shelf 4-16
SIM (SDH Input/Output modules) 7-1,
7-5
SIM1_4/eo 7-1, 7-5
SIM4_2o 7-1, 7-5
SIO 3-5, 6-16, 7-1, 7-5, 7-9, 11-18,
11-20
colored cards 7-5
SIO1&4 3-13, 7-1, 7-5
SIO16 3-13, 7-1, 7-5
SIO164 3-13, 7-1, 7-5
SIO64 7-1, 7-5
SNCP 10-2, 10-9
Specifications A-1
SubNetwork Connection Protection
(SNCP) 10-2
System characteristics 1-8, 1-11, 1-19,
1-24, 3-1
carrier-class MSPP/CWDM 1-14
data services 5-31
modular architecture 1-8
MSPP platform 1-24
MXC functionality 3-1, 3-2, 3-8,
3-14
TDM configuration options 1-24,
4-5
traffic I/O interface modules 3-10
System design 1-8, 1-26, 3-1
control and communication 3-2
data layer 7-1
functional layers 1-8
I/O and data traffic functions 3-10
optical layer 1-11, 6-1
TDM layer 1-24, 7-1
timing and synchronization 3-5
traffic/cross-connectivity 3-8
tributary protection unit 4-12
T
TDM services 1-8, 1-24, 2-14, 7-1
Timing and synchronization 3-5
alarms 12-3, 12-4
retiming functionality 7-4
transparency 6-13
TM 1-24
TMU 3-3, 3-5, 3-13, 3-14
Topology management 11-6
TPU I/O protection unit 4-12, 7-10
Traffic 3-8
aggregation 1-14, 2-9, 2-14, 3-10,
4-5, 7-1, 7-4, 7-5, 11-8
cellular 2-14
cross-connect functions 3-8
I/O subsystem 3-8, 3-10
irregular (bursty) 1-24
MXC matrix functions 3-8, 3-14
scalability 1-19, 1-27, 1-29, 3-8, 5-6,
5-10
topologies 1-5, 5-10, 11-20
transparency 1-16, 1-19, 2-22, 5-6,
5-28, 9-1, 10-9, 11-18, 11-19
Trail Configuration 11-7, 11-8
DWDM trail management 11-7
Ethernet trail management 11-8
Trails 11-7
DWDM trails 11-7
Ethernet 5-28, 11-8
management and configuration 11-5,
11-6, 11-7, 11-8, 11-14
optical 1-12
protection 10-1, 10-2
SDH 5-28
Index XDM General Description

I-10 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D00

Transparency 1-16, 1-19, 2-22, 2-27,
5-6, 5-28, 6-9, 6-10, 6-13, 6-28, 9-7,
9-9, 10-9, 11-8, 11-18, 11-19
Transponders 4-8, 6-8, 10-10, 10-12
TRP10_2 6-9
TRP10_2B 6-9
TRP10_LAN 6-9
TRP25_2C 6-12
TRP25_4 6-10
TRP25_CT 6-10
TRP25_CTR 6-10
Tributary Control and Fans Module 4-6,
4-8, 4-12
Tributary Protection Modules 4-6, 7-10
Tributary Protection Unit 4-6, 4-8, 4-12,
7-10
U
User interface 11-5
V
VMUX 6-4
VPLS/VPWS 1-14, 2-22, 5-10, 7-1
VPN 1-1, 1-29, 2-9, 2-14, 2-22, 2-25,
11-11
security 11-11
W
Wavelength services 1-8, 1-12, 1-17,
1-27, 4-13, 4-21, 6-1
X
XDM
ADM/TM mode 1-8, 1-24, 4-16
advantages 1-8, 1-10, 1-19, 1-24,
1-26, 1-27, 1-29, 5-10
alarms 11-13
applications 2-1
architecture 1-8, 1-24, 3-1, 3-12,
10-14, 11-2, 11-3
ATM support 1-24, 2-18, 6-8, 7-8
build-as-you-grow 1-10, 1-29, 3-8
capabilities 1-11, 1-19, 1-24, 2-1,
2-14, 10-2, 11-7
capacities 1-24, 2-14, 3-10, 4-1, 5-6,
5-10, 7-1, 10-11
cellular applications 2-14
communication subsystem 3-2, 3-4,
9-1
connectivity 1-8, 1-11, 1-26, 2-14,
11-2
consolidation 1-8
control subsystem 3-2, 3-3
convergence 1-8, 1-24, 1-26, 4-6,
7-1
cross connect 2-14, 3-8, 3-10, 3-12,
3-13, 3-14, 10-10, 11-4, 11-7,
11-14, 11-15, 11-18, 11-19, 11-21
customer types 2-1
data layer 7-1
equipment protection 7-10, 10-14
Ethernet services 5-6, 5-10, 5-31,
11-8, 11-16
full interoperability 2-22, 5-6, 5-10,
5-25, 5-28, 7-1, 9-3, 9-7, 9-9
grooming 1-24, 2-18, 4-18, 11-7
I/O traffic subsystem 3-8
integration 1-8, 2-14, 10-2, 10-9,
11-3, 11-9, 11-12
maintenance 4-8, 11-3, 11-5, 11-10,
11-15, 11-21, 12-1
management 2-14, 11-1, 11-3, 11-4,
11-5, 11-6, 11-7, 11-9, 11-12,
11-13, 11-14, 11-15, 11-16,
11-17, 11-19, 11-20
matrix cores 3-12, 3-13, 3-14
matrix protection and upgrade 3-12
metro-access applications 1-10,
1-27, 4-8, 4-14
migration path 1-1, 1-27, 1-29, 2-14,
5-6
XDM General Description Index

417006-2002-0H3-D00 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary I-11

MSPP and all-range WDM optics
convergence 1-8, 4-6
optical layer 1-11, 6-1
optical layer protection 10-12
platforms 1-10
power feed subsystem 3-15
power functionality 1-12, 1-18,
3-15, 4-5, 4-6, 4-8, 6-24, 6-28,
10-14, 11-17
protection, redundancy, and security
4-5, 10-1, 10-2, 10-6, 10-9, 10-10,
10-12, 10-14, 11-10
ROADM 6-2
savings 1-27, 1-29
scalability 1-10, 1-11, 1-19, 1-24,
1-29
shelf capacities 3-10, 7-1
system design 1-8, 3-1
TDM layer 1-24
timing and synchronization 3-5
traffic protection and restoration
10-1, 10-9, 10-10, 10-12, 10-14
XDM platforms 1-10, 4-1
basic MSPP configuration 4-5
cards and modules 3-1, 3-14, 4-13,
5-25, 5-28, 6-1, 6-16, 7-1, 7-4,
7-5, 7-8, 7-10, 9-12, 9-13
client/server architecture 11-3
combiners 4-8, 6-13, 10-12
common components 9-12
data cards and modules 3-14, 4-13,
5-25, 5-28, 6-16, 7-1, 7-4, 7-5,
7-8, 7-10, 9-13
DCM 6-28
DIO 5-6, 5-28
EIS 5-10, 5-25
engineering orderwire 3-16
features and benefits 1-10, 1-27, 1-
29
HLXC 3-8, 3-12
I/O modules 3-10, 7-1, 7-10
management 1-26, 11-1, 11-2, 11-3,
11-12, 11-21
MCS 5-10, 5-25
mux/demux modules 4-6, 4-8, 4-13,
6-4
MXC 3-8, 3-14
non-redundant shelf layout 4-5
OADM modules 4-6, 4-8, 4-13, 6-6
OFA 6-19, 6-20, 6-21, 6-23
OMSP 6-27
OPM 6-24
optical cards and modules 6-1
OSC 3-4, 4-13, 6-4, 6-23, 9-1, 9-10
physical description 4-1
PIO 7-4
pure CWDM configuration 4-8
rack layout 4-1
SFP/XFP 6-16
shelf layout 4-1, 4-2, 4-4, 4-8, 4-14,
4-16, 4-18, 4-21
SIO 7-5
specifications 4-1, 6-1, 7-1
splitter/coupler modules 4-6, 4-8,
4-13, 10-10, 10-14
traffic I/O interface modules 3-8,
3-10
transponders 4-8, 6-8, 6-9, 6-10,
6-12, 10-10, 10-12
XDM-100 4-4
XDM-1000 4-18
XDM-100H 4-6
XDM-200 4-8
XDM-2000 4-21
XDM-40 4-14
XDM-50 4-2
XDM-500 4-16
XIO 3-8, 3-13
Index XDM General Description

I-12 ECI Telecom Ltd. Proprietary 417006-2002-0H3-D00

XFP 6-9, 6-16, 7-5
xINF 3-15, 4-18
XIO 3-12, 3-13, 4-16
XIO192 3-12, 3-13
XIO384F 3-13
xMCP 3-3, 3-4, 4-14, 4-16, 4-18, 4-21,
9-12, 12-2