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th
AMITY NATIONAL MOOT COURT COMPETITION 2014
IN THE INTERNATIONAL COURT OF JUSTICE
PEACE PALACE, THE HAGUE
NETHERLANDS
CASE CONCERNING THE INTENATIONAL CRIMINAL LAW

PROSECUTOR
APPLICANT
v.
MR. LUCANKA
RESPONDENT
ON SUMISSION TO THE INTERNATIONAL COURT OF JUSTICE
MEMORIAL for the APPLICANT
4
TALE OF CONTENTS
LIST OF ARE!IATIONS
ICC...................................................................................................International criminal court
ICTR.............................................................International criminal tribunal for Rwanda
ICT............................................International criminal tribunal for former u!o"la#ia
PTC......................................................................................................Pre$trial C%amber
ILC ................................................................................International Law Commi""ion
A"t. ........Article &unle"" ot%erwi"e noted' Art. de"i!nate" article" of t%e Rome Statute(
St#t$t% ..............................................Rome Statute of t%e International Criminal Court
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N'. .....................................................................................................................Number
(NP ...............................................................................................+awal National Part,
Ch#)*%" .........................................................................................Pre$Trial C%amber -
INDE+ OF AUTHORITIES
A. PRI.AR SO/RCES
I.INTERNATIONAL MATERIALS AND STATUTES
1. C%arter of t%e /nited Nation"' 014*........................................................................................04
2. STAT/TE O2 T3E INTERNATIONAL TRI4/NAL 2OR T3E 2OR.ER /5OSLA6IA
..................................................................................................................................................07
3. International Criminal Court Rule of Procedure and E#idence' 8998.....................................80
4. International Criminal Tribunal for t%e 2ormer u!o"la#ia Rule of Procedure and E#idence'
..................................................................................................................................................8:
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5. Con#ention on t%e Pre#ention and Puni"%ment of t%e Crime of 5enocide' 014;....................87
6. Rome Statute of International Criminal Court' 8998.............................................04' 07' 84' 81
II. JUDICIAL DECISIONS
1. Pro"ecutor #. Anto 2urund<i=a' >ud!ment' Ca"e No IT$1*$07?0$A &A@@eal" C%amber' 80 >ul,'
8999(. ...........................................................................................................................................
2. T%e Pro"ecutor #. Omar 3a""an A%mad Al 4a"%ir.' ICC$98?9*$90?91$08* &8900(.....................
3. Pro"ecutor #. Du"Ao Tadic' Deci"ion on t%e Defence .otion for Interlocutor, A@@eal on
>uri"diction' Ca"e No. IT$14$0$T B 4- &ICT A@@eal" C%amber' Oct. 8' 011*(. ........................
.SECONDARY SOURCES
I. OOKS AND TREATISES
1. SELECTED 4ASIC DOC/.ENTS RELATED TO ICC .ISCA.P'T3E 3A5/E' 8991..........:
2. SC3A4AS 'DILLIA. A.' AN INTRODUCTION TO ICC .CA.4RID5E /NI6ERSIT PRESS NED
ORC'8990...
7
3. SC3A4AS'DILLIA. 'GENOCIDE IN INTERNATIONAL LAW .Cambrid!e /ni#er"it, Pre""' 8999...08
4. D/NLAP'DILLIA.. 6' >O3N CARE AND R.>O3N PRITC3ARD ' INTERNATIONALHUMANITARIAN
LAW PROSPECTS .TRANSNATIONAL P/4LIS3ERS' 899-.............................................................08
II. ARTICLES AND JOURNALS
1. Abimbola A. Olowofo,eAu' Bias and the infored o!ser"er# a $a%% for a ret&rn to Go&'h' -;
&8( CA.4.L.>O/R. :;; &8991(....................................................................................................1
2. Ce#in >on 3eller' The Roe Stat&te in Co(arati"e Pers(e$ti"e) .elbourne Le!al Studie"
Re"earc% Pa@er no :79
III. INTERNET SOURCES
1. %tt@E??www.icc$c@i.int
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2. %tt@E??www.iccnow.or!
3. %tt@E??www.ict,.or!
4. %tt@E??www.un.or!
5. %tt@E??www.unictr.or!
6. %tt@E??www.we"tlawinternational.com
7. %tt@E??www.%iil.or!
8. %tt@E??www.""rn.com
9. %tt@E??www.il"a.or!
STATEMENT OF JURISDICTION
It i" %ereinafter mo"t re"@ectfull, "ubmitted t%at t%e @ro"ecutor of t%i" International Criminal Court
%a" t%e =uri"diction to eFerci"e t%i" @etition under Article 0:&a( of t%e Rome Statute of t%e
International Criminal Court' 8994. Article 0:&a( of t%e Statute "tate" a" follow" $
T%e Court "%all eFerci"e it" =uri"diction wit% re"@ect to a crime referred to in Article * in accordance
wit% t%e @ro#i"ion" of t%i" Statute ifE
&b( A "ituation in w%ic% one or more of "uc% crime" a@@ear" to %a#e been committed i" referred to t%e
Pro"ecutor b, a "tate @art, in accordance wit% Art. 04.
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STATEMENT OF FACTS
STATEMENT OF FACTS
I. Nara<lia !ot inde@endence" from t%e Euro@ean continent in late 0119".due to internal
di""en"ion' t%e #ariou" unified nation" could be attained. a" "tru!!le continue' a
liberal democratic Con"titution wa" ado@ted b, countr, and re"@on"ible !o#ernment
form b, a @o@ular #ote. 4ut "oon cou@ dGetat wa" arran!ed b, t%e militaril, win!" led
b, .r.lucanAa %ence become t%e @re"ident of t%e countr,. lucanAa defended t%e ri!%t
of t%e o#er t%e ma"auri tribe includin! conductin! of %ate "@eec%e"' confi"cation and
a@@ro@riation of t%eir @ro@ert,. Durin! re!ime of t%e !o#ernment made draconian
law" w%ic% @ro#ide" t%e tra@ for man, of it" citi<en H %ence creatin! animo"it,
amon! two !rou@".
II. T%e !rou@ of .r. lucanAa o@@o"ed H did not "in! t%e Rome "tatue of international
criminal court @re"umin! t%at it" %and tool of t%e Euro@ean H American ideolo!,. t%e
followin! "te@" H attracted tremendou" Pre""ure from t%e international communit,
to mend it" wa, and t%reatened wit% economic" and @olitical "anction e#en t%rou!%
t%e !o#ernment "till refu"ed to "in! and ratif, t%e rome "tatue of international criminal
court. In re@re""i#e @olicie" of united nation'na<olia faced b, i"olated from
international re!ime.it wa" alle!ed t%at t%e %aAa,u tribe wa" bein! "u@@orted b,
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!o#ernment and militaril, elite and al"o t%e al"o t%e of %aAa,u t%reatened t%e ma"uari
tribe wit% dire con"eIuence" in all form" of media. It wa" re@orted t%at %aAa,u tribe
wa" bein! "ecretl, funded b, t%e rulin! !o#ernment for carr,in! out a ","tematic and
meticulou" eFtermination of t%e ma"auri tribe.
III. Durin! t%e national rall, or!ani<ed b, ma"uari tribe. t%e leader to air !rie#ance. t%e
leader o@enl, talA about an eFi"tin! neFu" between t%e !o#ernment and %aAa,u tribe
and condemned t%en bot% for "u@@ortin! H "@on"orin! of #endetta. Reac%in! a out
breaA @oint durin! "@eec% re"ultin! in out breaAin! #iolation. In w%ic% %ou"e" of
ma"uari @eo@le were burnt H men' women and c%ildren were ma""acred on a lar!e
"cale and ma"auri women were %umiliated and ra@ed H t%eir c%ildren were forcibl,
tran"ferred and were ultimatel, re@orted a" mi""in!. T%e !o#ernment %o"@ital" were
carr,in! out o@eration" w%ic% @re#ented t%e birt% of male c%ildren amon! t%e ma"uari
tribe' t%e mo"t of t%e tra!ic incident wa" witne""ed in t%e @ro#ince of =a<ulu w%ere
t%e t%ou"and of ma"uari citi<en died due to a"@%,Fiation wit% toFic !a"e"' u"e for t%e
@roduction of dru!" and c%emical". t%e followin! "ector" wa" com@letel, controlled
b, t%e !o#ernment and it wa" alle!ed t%at t%i" wa" deliberate attem@t b, t%e
!o#ernment to wi@e t%e entire et%nic @o@ulation of ma"auri tribe. A" @er t%e re@ort of
t%e national in#e"ti!ation committee w%ic% wa" "et u@ and it wa" re@orted t%e national
cen"u" de@artment %a" leaAed t%e data w%ic% "%owed t%e %i!%e"t concentration of
ma"auri @eo@le in t%e entire countr, to t%e @rominent leader of %aAa,u tribe . t%e
alle!ed c%ar!e were o@@o"ed b, t%e !o#ernment and in#ol#ement t%at t%e artrocitie"
continued till 8904 and #iolence are a ru"e manufactured b, t%e ma"auri tribe it"elf
and create a "ituation of ci#il war and to@@le t%e !o#ernment.
I6. Peo@le become a #iolent w%en durin! %u!e demon"tration in t%e front of t%e @re"ident
.r. LucanAa official re"idence and w%en few !un"%ot" were failed' t%e @olice and
militar, of came down wit% %ea#, %and and mo"t of t%e ci#ilian" were !unned down
or i" be%eaded at t%e @re"ident official re"idence.
It wa" alle!ed t%at it wa" @eaceful a""embl, and it wa" "@ecific intent of t%e official
eFterminate t%e @eaceful crowd before%and. A" a re"ult ma"auri @eo@le were
","tematicall, Ailled all o#er t%e nation.
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T%e fir"t @re"ident election" "ince t%e cou@ were conducted in 8904 under t%e @re""ure
of t%e international communit, under t%e rullin! !o#ernment of t%e countr, under
w%ic% mr naAobi wa" "elected a P... and immediatel, "i!ned and ratified t%e rome
"tatute of international criminal court.
D%en t%e !o#ernment tried t%e former @re"ident and it wa" di"co#er t%at mo"t of t%e
=ud!e of t%e countr, lo,ali"t toward former @re"ident at t%e "ame time t%e current
!o#ernment %ad "ome @roblem in controllin! "ome of t%e rea"on w%ic% were
com@letel, in%abited b, t%e member of t%e %aAa,u tribe.
T%e current !o#ernment antici@atin! t%at t%e national trial would not%in! but a "%am.
T%e !o#t now referred to ICC under rome "tatute under art. 0: and %anded o#er t%e
document" "u!!e"tin! t%e e#ol#ement of former @re"ident in t%e ","tematic !enocide
a!ain"t t%e ma"auri tribe.
6. T%e @ro"ecutor of t%e ICC tooA co!ni<ance of t%e matter and initiated t%e
in#e"ti!ated. Later on @re$trial c%amber i""ued arre"t warrent in t%e name of mr.
LucanAa accu"ed %im of committin! act" of !enocide.
Sub"eIuent durin! t%e trial c%amber of t%e ICC' .r. LucanAa rai"ed i""ued re!ardin!
t%e =uri"diction of t%e court and alle!ed crime committed before 0 =ul, 8998 and
%ence ICC could not a@@l, it" =uri"diction re"@ecti#el, and al"o' %e wa" not tried
before t%e national tribunal and t%e eF%au"tion of t%e local remedie" rule wa" #iolated
and %ence %e did not @lead !uilt, a!ain"t t%e c%ar!e frame. T%e defence al"o rai"ed
t%e @ointed t%e durin! %i" re"i!n %e ne#er rectif, rome "tatute of international criminal
court and t%e new elected !o#t. Not a le!al !o#t. 4ecau"e it fail" on effecti#e control
te"t.
6I. .r. LucanAa wa" detained for t%ree mont%" wit%out Anowin! t%e c%ar!e" made
a!ain"t %im and wit%out bein! c%ar!ed and al"o %i" arre"t warrant wa" in En!li"%
lan!ua!e. Soon durin! t%e trial anot%er cou@ wa" arran!ed b, militar, win! and
wit%drew Na<olia from t%e Rome Statute of ICC
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STATEMENT OF ISSUES
I. D3ET3ER T3E ICC 3AS T3E >/RISDICTION TO TR T3E CASE A5AINST .R.
4ANC3A.
A. D3ET3ER T3E CRI.ES CO..ITTED 4 .R. L/CANCA ARE DIT3IN T3E
>/RISDICTION O2 T3E RO.E STAT/TE.
B. D3ET3ER' IN T3E LI53T O2 T3E PROTEST .ADE 4 T3E STATE O2 4ANC3/'
T3E CASE IS AD.ISSI4LE 4E2ORE T3E ICC.
II. D3ET3ER T3E ACC/SED IS 5/ILT O2 2OLLODIN5 CRI.ESE
A. CRI.E O2 5ENOCIDE /NDER ARTICLES -&a(' &b(' &c( AND 8*&:( &a(' &b( O2 T3E
RO.E STAT/TE.
B. CRI.ES A5AINST 3/.ANIT /NDER ARTICLES 7&0( &a(' &!( AND 8*&:( &b( O2
T3E RO.E STAT/TE
C. DAR CRI.ES /NDER ARTICLES ;&8( &b( &iF#iii( O2 T3E RO.E STAT/TE.
III. D3ET3ER T3E ARREST AND S/4SEJ/ENT TRANS2ER O2 .R. 4ANC3A TO ICC IS
LE5AL.
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SUMMARY OF ARGUMENTS
1. &HETHER THE ICC HAS THE JURISDICTION TO TRY THE CASE AGAINST MR.
ANCHA,
T%e ca"e i" under t%e =uri"diction of ICC. T%e ICC %a" =uri"diction o#er t%e ca"e a"
under Article 0:&a( of t%e Statute w%ic% "a, "tate @art, in accordance wit% Art. Can
refer an, ca"e to t%e @ro"ecutor in w%ic% one or more crime" a@@ear to %a#e been
committed w%ic% are enli"ted under Article * of t%e Rome Statute. T%e crime" w%ic%
%a#e been committed %ere b, .r. 4anc%a are t%e crime" enli"ted in t%e Article *
w%ic% are t%e followin!$
(a) T%e crime of 5enocide
(b) Crime" a!ain"t 3umanit,
(c) Dar crime"
Dit% re!ard to t%e @ara!ra@% 09 of t%e @reamble w%ic% "a," t%at and t%e Article 07&0(
w%ic% KICC e"tabli"%ed under t%i" "tatute "%all be com@limentar, to national criminal
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0:
=uri"diction"G' Article 0 reiterate" t%i" and Article 07&0( "tate" t%at a ca"e i"
inadmi""ible w%en it i" bein! in#e"ti!ated or @ro"ecuted b, a "tate t%at %a" =uri"diction
o#er it' or w%en t%e ca"e %a" alread, been in#e"ti!ated and t%e "tate %a" decided not to
@ro"ecute. In "uc% circum"tance" t%e court ma, onl, @roceed w%ere t%e State Ki"
unwillin! and unable !enuinel,G to in#e"ti!ate or @ro"ecute t%e ca"e. T%e @re"ent ca"e
of .r. LucanAa %a" ne#er been tried in t%e criminal court" of 4anc%u w%ic% maAe" t%e
inabilit, and unwillin!ne"" of t%e State to @ro"ecute .r. lucanAa. T%e State %a"
remained inacti#e in relation to t%at ca"e or wa" unwillin! or unable' wit%in t%e
meanin! of Article 07&l( &a( to &c(' 8 and : of t%e Statute. 3ence' t%i" ca"e i"
admi""ible before t%e ICC.
2. &HETHER THE ACCUSED IS GUILTY OF FOLLO&ING CRIMES- CRIME OF GENOCIDE,
CRIMES AGAINST HUMANITY, &AR CRIMES,
T%e %o"tilitie" between two tribe" reac%ed a breaAin! @oint w%en t%e leader of
ma"auri tribe or!ani<ed a national rall, to air t%eir !rie#ance". In t%i" rall,' t%e leader
o@enal, talAed about an eFi"tin! neFu" between t%e !o#t. and %aAa,u tribe. T%e
condemned t%e %aAa,u tribe and t%e !o#t. for "u@@ortin! and "@on"orin! t%e #endetta.
Later on ma"auri @eo@le %ou"e" were burnt men women and c%ildren were ma""acred
on a lar!e "cale and al"o %umiliated and ra@ed. .o"t ma"auri citi<en died due to t%e
a"@%,Fiation. /nder article -&b( of t%e rome "tatute .r. lucanAa Committed !enocide
b, cau"in! "eriou" bodil, or mental %arm to member" of eac% tar!et !rou@' under
Article -&b( of t%e Rome Statute' b, u"in! t%e "tate a@@aratu"' t%e Armed 2orce" to
cau"e "eriou" bodil, or mental %arm to member" of t%e"e !rou@" t%rou!% act" of ra@e'
ot%er form" of "eFual #iolence' torture and forcible di"@lacement of member" of t%e"e
!rou@"' wit% intent to de"tro, t%e !rou@" a" "uc%' in w%ole or in @art' in #iolation of
Art". -&b( and 8*&:( &b( of t%e Rome Statute.
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In accordance wit% Article 8*&:( &b(' a @er"on "%all be %eld liable for @uni"%ment if %e
order"' "olicit" or induce" "uc% a crime w%ic% in fact occur" or i" attem@ted
commi""ion and includin! @ro#idin! t%e mean" for it" commi""ion of t%e re!ion.
6iolation of t%e Article ;&8( &b( &F#iii( of t%e Statute b, intentionall, directin! em@lo,in!
a"@%,Fiation !a" w%ic% a" t%e u"e of toFic !a" u"ed for t%e @roduction of dru!" and c%emical
and ma"auri citi<en died due to t%e a"@%,Fiation.
3. &HETHER THE ARREST AND SUSE.UENT TRANSFER OF MR. ANCHA TO ICC IS
LEGAL,
The new democratc !o"ernment #nder $rme mn%ter &A'(BI) mmedate*+
%!ned and rat,ed the -ome %tat#e o, ICC the !o"ernment now ben! a %tate
$art+ to the -ome %tat#te) re,erred the ca%e to the $ro%ec#tor o, the ICC #nder
art. 13 o, the -ome %tat#te o, the ICC and handed o"er the entre doc#ment
whch %#!!e%ted *#can.a/% n"o*"ement n the %+%tematc !enocde a!an%t the
0a%a#r trbe. The $ro%ec#tor o, ICC too. co!n1ance o, the matter and ntated
an n"e%t!ated #nder art. 53 o, ICC. 2e rece"ed e"dence and doc#ment% ,rom
the %tate% and %#bmtted t% re$ort to the $re tra* chamber. The $re3tra* chamber
%%#ed arre%t warrant n the name 0r. 4#can.a acc#%n! hm o, commttn! act o,
!enocde #nder art.6 o, -ome %tat#te o, ICC and re5#e%ted to %#rrender 0r.
4#can.a to the ICC.
Article *;&a( of t%e "tatute "tate" t%at LAt an* tie after the initiation of an
in"esti'ation) the Pre+Tria% Cha!er sha%%) on the a((%i$ation of the Prose$&tor) iss&e
a ,arrant of arrest of a (erson if) ha"in' e-ained the a((%i$ation and the e"iden$e
or other inforation s&!itted !* the Prose$&tor) it is satisfied that# There are
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reasona!%e 'ro&nds to !e%ie"e that the (erson has $oitted a $rie ,ithin the
.&risdi$tion of the Co&rt./
T%e crime" w%ic% .r. LucanAa %a" committed and t%erefore i" to be tried for are 5enocide
under Article -&a( &b( &c( of t%e Rome Statute' Dar crime" under t%e Article ; and Crime"
a!ain"t %umanit, under Article 7 of t%e Rome Statute' %ence are com@letel, wit%in t%e
=uri"diction of t%e court. T%e"e fact" alon! wit% ot%er" w%ic% %a#e been di"cu""ed are relied
u@on for t%e @ur@o"e" of e"tabli"%in! bot% rea"onable !round" to belie#e t%at .r. lucanAa %a"
committed crime" wit%in t%e =uri"diction of t%e Court @ur"uant to Article *;&0( &a( of t%e
Rome Statute and t%e nece""it, of %i" arre"t @ur"uant to Article *;&0( &b( of t%e Rome Statute.
3ence' t%e arre"t and "ub"eIuent tran"fer of .r. 4anc%a to ICC i" le!al.
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&RITTEN PLEADINGS
1. &h%th%" th% ICC h#/ 0$"1/213t1'4 #42 #2)1//1*151t6 t' t"6 th% 3#/% #7#14/t S.+.
#43h#,
T%e ICC %a" =uri"diction o#er t%e ca"e a" under Article 0:&a(
0
of t%e Statute w%ic% "a,"
"tate @art, in accordance wit% article$04 can refer an, ca"e to t%e @ro"ecutor in w%ic% one
or more crime" a@@ear to %a#e been committed w%ic% are enli"ted under Article *
8
of t%e
1 Rome Statute of t%e International Criminal Court' %tt@E??www8.o%c%r.or!?en!li"%?law?criminalcourt.%tm.
acce""ed 2ebruar,'8904
2 I!id.)
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Rome Statute. T%e crime" w%ic% %a#e been committed %ere b, .r. 4anc%a are t%e crime"
enli"ted in t%e Article * w%ic% are t%e followin!$
(d) T%e crime of 5enocide
(e) Crime" a!ain"t 3umanit,
(,) Dar crime"
1.1 &h%th%" th% 3"1)%/ 3'))1tt%2 *6 M".5$3#48# #"% 91th14 th% 0$"1/213t1'4 ': th%
R')% St#t$t%$
T%e 014; Con#ention on t%e Pre#ention and Puni"%ment of t%e Crime of 5enocide &article
8(
:
define" !enocide a" Lan, of t%e followin! act" committed wit% intent to de"tro,' in w%ole
or in @art' a national' et%nical' racial or reli!iou" !rou@ M includin!E
&a( Cillin! member" of t%e !rou@N
&b( Cau"in! "eriou" bodil, or mental %arm to member" of t%e !rou@N
&c( Deliberatel, inflictin! on t%e !rou@ condition" of life calculated to brin! about
it" @%,"ical de"truction in w%ole or in @artN
All "uc% act" are #iolation" of %uman ri!%t"' and ma, al"o be crime" a!ain"t %umanit,
or war crime"' de@endin! on t%e conteFt in w%ic% t%e, were committed. T%e
Con#ention confirm" t%at !enocide' w%et%er committed in time of @eace or war' i" a
crime under international law w%ic% @artie" to t%e Con#ention undertaAe Lto @re#ent
and to @uni"%M &article 0(. A" it i" a @art of international cu"tomar, law' t%e
Con#ention i" con"idered a@@licable in all countrie"' irre"@ecti#e of w%et%er t%e, %a#e
"i!ned or ratified it. D%ere !enocide doe" occur' t%e International Criminal Court'
w%ic% i" "e@arate and inde@endent from t%e /N' i" em@owered to in#e"ti!ate and
@ro"ecute t%o"e mo"t re"@on"ible' if a State i" unwillin! or unable to eFerci"e
=uri"diction o#er alle!ed @er@etrator".
4
3 Con#ention on t%e Pre#ention and Puni"%ment of t%e Crime of 5enocide' Ado@ted b, Re"olution 8-9 &III( A
of t%e /.N. 5eneral A""embl, on 1 December 014;. Entr, into forceE 08 >anuar, 01*0.
4 /nited Nation"' LPre#ent in! 5enocide and .a"" At rociti e"E A /nited Nation" ","tem$wide
endea#our'M /nited Nation" Deb"ite' %tt@E??www.un.or!?en?@re#ent!enocide?ad#i"er?un)role."%tml. acce""ed
2ebruar, 8904.
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&RITTEN SUMISSION ON EHALF OF THE CLAIMANT
0;
T%e Article 01&0(
*
of t%e Statute reIuire" t%e C%amber to "ati"f, it"elf t%at an, ca"e
brou!%t before it fall" wit%in t%e =uri"diction of t%e Court w%ic% read" a"$ T%e Court
"%all "ati"f, it"elf t%at it %a" =uri"diction in an, ca"e brou!%t before it. T%e Court ma,'
on it" own motion' determine t%e admi""ibilit, of a ca"e in accordance wit% article 07
-
In t%e ca"e of T%e Pro"ecutor #. Omar 3a""an A%mad Al$4a"%ir
7
' it wa" laid down b,
T%e ICC$
LTo fall wit%in t%e CourtO" =uri"diction' a crime mu"t meet t%e followin! t%ree
condition"E it mu"t be one of t%e crime" mentioned in article * of t%e Statute' t%at i" to
"a,' t%e crime of !enocide' crime" a!ain"t %umanit, and war crime"N t%e crime mu"t
%a#e been committed wit%in t%e time @eriod laid down in article 00 of t%e StatuteN and
t%e crime" mu"t meet one of t%e two alternati#e condition" de"cribed in article 08 of
t%e Statute
;
P...Q
article 08 &8(
1
doe" not a@@l, w%ere a "ituation i" referred to t%e Court b, t%e Securit,
Council actin! under C%a@ter 6II of t%e C%arter' @ur"uant to article 0:&b( of t%e
5 S&(ra note 0
- Rome Statute' art. 07
0.3a#in! re!ard to @ara!ra@% 09 of t%e Preamble and article 0' t%e Court "%all determine t%at a ca"e i"
inadmi""ible w%ereE &a( T%e ca"e i" bein! in#e"ti!ated or @ro"ecuted b, a State w%ic% %a" =uri"diction o#er it'
unle"" t%e State i" unwillin! or unable !enuinel, to carr, out t%e in#e"ti!ation or @ro"ecutionN &b( T%e ca"e %a"
been in#e"ti!ated b, a State w%ic% %a" =uri"diction o#er it and t%e State %a" decided not to @ro"ecute t%e @er"on
concerned' unle"" t%e deci"ion re"ulted from t%e unwillin!ne"" or inabilit, of t%e State !enuinel, to @ro"ecuteN
&c( T%e @er"on concerned %a" alread, been tried for conduct w%ic% i" t%e "ub=ect of t%e com@laint' and a trial b,
t%e Court i" not @ermitted under article 89' @ara!ra@% :N &d( T%e ca"e i" not of "ufficient !ra#it, to =u"tif, furt%er
action b, t%e Court.
8. In order to determine unwillin!ne"" in a @articular ca"e' t%e Court "%all con"ider' %a#in! re!ard to t%e
@rinci@le" of due @roce"" reco!ni<ed b, international law' w%et%er one or more of t%e followin! eFi"t' a"
a@@licableE &a(T%e @roceedin!" were or are bein! undertaAen or t%e national deci"ion wa" made for t%e @ur@o"e
of "%ieldin! t%e @er"on concerned from criminal re"@on"ibilit, for crime" wit%in t%e =uri"diction of t%e Court
referred to in article *N &b( T%ere %a" been an un=u"tified dela, in t%e @roceedin!" w%ic% in t%e circum"tance" i"
incon"i"tent wit% an intent to brin! t%e @er"on concerned to =u"ticeN &c( T%e @roceedin!" were not or are not
bein! conducted inde@endentl, or im@artiall,' and t%e, were or are bein! conducted in a manner w%ic%' in t%e
circum"tance"' i" incon"i"tent wit% an intent to brin! t%e @er"on concerned to =u"tice.
:. In order to determine inabilit, in a @articular ca"e' t%e Court "%all con"ider w%et%er' due to a total or
"ub"tantial colla@"e or una#ailabilit, of it" national =udicial ","tem' t%e State i" unable to obtain t%e
accu"ed or t%e nece""ar, e#idence and te"timon, or ot%erwi"e unable to carr, out it" @roceedin!".

7 The 6ro%ec#tor ". (mar 2a%%an Ahmad A* Ba%hr.) ICC$98?9*$90?91$08* (2711).
8ICC$Ol?94$lOl$tEN' @ara. ;*.
9 S&(ra note 0.
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&RITTEN SUMISSION ON EHALF OF THE CLAIMANT
01
Statute. T%u"' t%e Court ma,' w%ere a "ituation i" referred to it b, t%e Securit,
Council' eFerci"e =uri"diction o#er crime" committed in t%e territor, of State" w%ic%
are not Part, to t%e Statute and b, national" of State" not Part, to t%e Statute.
09
1. In relation to t%e =uri"diction ratione ateriae
11
' t%e "aid conduct" !i#e ri"e to !enocide'
crime" a!ain"t %umanit, under Article *&0(&a(
12
of t%e Rome Statute in"ofar a" t%e,$

i. Dere @art of a wide"@read or ","tematic attacA directed a!ain"t t%e ma"auri @o@ulation
of =a<ulu' w%ic% ma=orl, "tarted after a "@eec% alle!edl, !i#en b, .r. lucanAa.
ii. were not onl, intended to de"tro, a "ub"tantial @art of t%e ma"auri !rou@ a" "uc%' but
could b, t%em"el#e" effect "uc% de"truction or were at lea"t @art of a manife"t @attern of
"imilar conduct a!ain"t t%e tar!eted !rou@.
2. In relation to t%e =uri"diction ratione %o$i
13
and ratione te(oris
14
under Article 00
15
' t%e
Court recei#ed t%e referral to t%e @ro"ecuter b, a "tate @art, in accordance wit% "ec.04
@ur"uant to Article 0:&a( of t%e Statute. And on t%e 07 >ul,' 8991 t%e in#e"ti!ation b, and
t%e @ro"ecuter of ICC tooA co!ni<ance of t%e t%e office of Pro"ecutor %ad concluded and
an a@@lication for t%e i""uance of warrant wa" "ubmitted under Article *;&8( of t%e Rome
"tatute and t%e @ro"ecutor of ICC too. co!n1ance o, the matter and ntated an
n"e%t!aton #nder Artc*e 53 , ICC. 2e rece"ed e"dence and doc#ment% ,rom
the %tate and %#bmtted t% re$ort to the $re3tra* chamber. The 6re3tra* chamber
%%#ed arre%t warrant% n the name o, 0r.*#can.a acc#%n! hm o, commttn! act%
o, !enocde #nder Artc*e 6 o, the -ome %tat#te o, the ICC.
but a" "tated under t%e Article 0:&a( of t%e Rome "tatute "tate" t%at$
17 ICC$98?9*$90?97$l$Corr'@ara. 0-.
11 >uri"diction Ratione .ateriae' ot%erwi"e Anown a" "ub=ect$matter =uri"diction refer" to t%e courtO" aut%orit,
to decide a @articular ca"e. It i" t%e =uri"diction o#er t%e nature of t%e ca"e and t%e t,@e of relief "ou!%tN t%e
eFtent to w%ic% a court can rule on t%e conduct of @er"on" or t%e "tatu" of t%in!".
12 Office of t%e /nited Nation" 3i!% Commi""ioner for 3uman Ri!%t"' o%c%r web"ite'
%tt@E??www8.o%c%r.or!?en!li"%?law?criminalcourt.%tm. acce""ed 2ebruar,' 8900.
13 Territorial >uri"diction$Dutc% Ci#il Law'>uri"diction web"ite
%tt@E??www.dutc%ci#illaw.com?=uri"diction?le!al","tem988.%tm. acce""ed 2ebruar,' 8900.
14 I!id.)
15 0. T%e Court %a" =uri"diction onl, wit% re"@ect to crime" committed after t%e entr, into force of t%i" Statute.
8. If a State become" a Part, to t%i" Statute after it" entr, into force' t%e Court ma, eFerci"e it" =uri"diction onl,
wit% re"@ect to crime" committed after t%e entr, into force of t%i" Statute for t%at State' unle"" t%at State %a"
made a declaration under article 08' @ara!ra@% :.
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&RITTEN SUMISSION ON EHALF OF THE CLAIMANT
89
A sit&ation in ,hi$h one or ore of s&$h $ries a((ears to ha"e !een $oitted is
referred to the Prose$&tor !* the state (art* in a$$ordan$e ,ith arti$%e 01.
3. 2inall,'
1.2 &h%th%" th% ;"%/%4t 3#/% 1/ #2)1//1*5% *%:'"% th% ICC$
Dit% re!ard to t%e @ara!ra@% 09
t%
of t%e @reamble w%ic% "a," t%at and t%e Article 07&0(
0-

w%ic% KICC e"tabli"%ed under t%i" "tatute "%all be com@limentar, to national criminal
=uri"diction"G' Article 0
07
reiterate" t%i" and Article 07&0( "tate" t%at a ca"e i" inadmi""ible
w%en it i" bein! in#e"ti!ated or @ro"ecuted b, a "tate t%at %a" =uri"diction o#er it' or w%en
t%e ca"e %a" alread, been in#e"ti!ated and t%e "tate %a" decided not to @ro"ecute. In "uc%
circum"tance" t%e court ma, onl, @roceed w%ere t%e State Ki" unwillin! and unable
!enuinel,G to in#e"ti!ate or @ro"ecute t%e ca"e.
In t%i" &Al 4a"%irG" ca"e
0;
( re!ard' t%e C%amber %a" alread, %eld t%atE
P...Q t%e admi""ibilit, te"t of a ca"e ari"in! from t%e in#e"ti!ation of a "ituation %a" two
@art". T%e fir"t @art of t%e te"t relate" to national in#e"ti!ation"' @ro"ecution" and trial"
concernin! t%e ca"e at %and in"ofar a" "uc% ca"e would be admi""ible onl, if t%o"e
State" wit% =uri"diction o#er it %a#e remained inacti#e in relation to t%at ca"e or are
unwillin! or unable' wit%in t%e meanin! of article 07&l( &a( to &c(' 8 and : of t%e
thEm@%a"i<in! t%at t%e International Criminal Court e"tabli"%ed under t%i" Statute "%all be com@lementar, to
national criminal =uri"diction"
0- 0' 3a#in! re!ard to @ara!ra@% 09 of t%e Preamble and article 0' t%e Court "%all determine t%at a ca"e i"
inadmi""ible w%ereE &a( T%e ca"e i" bein! in#e"ti!ated or @ro"ecuted b, a State w%ic% %a" =uri"diction o#er it'
unle"" t%e State i" unwillin! or unable !enuinel, to carr, out t%e in#e"ti!ation or @ro"ecution &b( T%e ca"e %a"
been in#e"ti!ated b, a State w%ic% %a" =uri"diction o#er it and t%e State %a" decided not to @ro"ecute t%e @er"on
concerned' unle"" t%e deci"ion re"ulted from t%e unwillin!ne"" or inabilit, of t%e State !enuinel, to @ro"ecuteN
&c( T%e @er"on concerned %a" alread, been tried for conduct w%ic% i" t%e "ub=ect of t%e com@laint' and a trial b,
t%e Court i" not @ermitted under article 89' @ara!ra@% :N&d( T%e ca"e i" not of "ufficient !ra#it, to =u"tif, furt%er
action b, t%e Court.
17 An International Criminal Court &Rt%e CourtR( i" %ereb, e"tabli"%ed. It "%all be a @ermanent in"titution and
"%all %a#e t%e @ower to eFerci"e it" =uri"diction o#er @er"on" for t%e mo"t "eriou" crime" of international
concern' a" referred to in t%i" Statute' and "%all be com@lementar, to national criminal =uri"diction". T%e
=uri"diction and functionin! of t%e Court "%all be !o#erned b, t%e @ro#i"ion" of t%i" Statute.
18 S&(ra note 7.
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&RITTEN SUMISSION ON EHALF OF THE CLAIMANT
80
Statute. T%e "econd @art of t%e te"t refer" to t%e !ra#it, t%re"%old w%ic% an, ca"e mu"t
meet to be admi""ible before t%e Court
01
In it" 09 2ebruar, 899- Deci"ion' t%e C%amber @ut forward t%e onl, eFi"tin!
definition of article 07&l( &d( !ra#it, t%re"%old @ro#ided for to date in t%e
=uri"@rudence of t%e Court.
Accordin! to "uc% definitionE an, ca"e ari"in! from an in#e"ti!ation before t%e Court
will meet t%e !ra#it, t%re"%old @ro#ided for in article 07&l(&d( of t%e Statute
89
if t%e
followin! t%ree Iue"tion" can be an"wered affirmati#el,E
0. I" t%e conduct w%ic% i" t%e ob=ect of a ca"e ","tematic or lar!e "cale &due
con"ideration "%ould al"o be !i#en to t%e "ocial alarm cau"ed to t%e international
communit, b, t%e rele#ant t,@e of conduct(N
8. Con"iderin! t%e @o"ition of t%e rele#ant @er"on in t%e State entit,' or!ani<ation or
armed !rou@ to w%ic% %e belon!"' can it be con"idered t%at "uc% @er"on fall" wit%in
t%e cate!or, of mo"t "enior leader" of t%e "ituation under in#e"ti!ationSN and
:. Doe" t%e rele#ant @er"on fall wit%in t%e cate!or, of mo"t "enior leader" "u"@ected
of bein! mo"t re"@on"ible' con"iderin! &0( t%e role @la,ed b, t%e rele#ant @er"on
t%rou!% act" or omi""ion" w%en t%e State entitie"' or!ani"ation" or armed !rou@" to
w%ic% %e belon!" commit ","tematic or lar!e$"cale crime wit%in t%e =uri"diction of t%e
CourtN and &8( t%e role @la,ed b, "uc% State entitie"' or!ani"ation" or armed !rou@" in
t%e o#erall commi""ion of crime" wit%in t%e =uri"diction of t%e Court in t%e rele#ant
"ituationS
T%e @re"ent ca"e of .r. lucanAa %a" ne#er been tried in t%e criminal court" of Na<olia w%ic%
maAe" t%e inabilit, and unwillin!ne"" of t%e State to @ro"ecute .r. lucanAa. T%e State %a"
remained inacti#e in relation to t%at ca"e or wa" unwillin! or unable' wit%in t%e meanin! of
article 07&l( &a( to &c(' 8 and : of t%e Statute.
Accordin! to t%e definition !i#en b, t%e court in it" 2eb 899- deci"ion' t%ere are t%ree
!round" to be @ro#en affirmati#el, to declare t%e crime to be of enou!% !ra#it,$
() T%e conduct w%ic% i" t%e ob=ect of t%e ca"e "%ould be ","tematic and of lar!e "cale
enou!% t%at it create" a "ocial alarm for t%e international communit,. It wa" acce@ted
in Rome treat, t%at t%ere mu"t be a t%re"%old le#el of t%e !ra#it, of t%e in%uman act"
01 ICC$90?94$*89$AnF8' @ara". 81 and -4.
27 S&(ra )note 0
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&RITTEN SUMISSION ON EHALF OF THE CLAIMANT
88
to Iualif, a" crime" a!ain"t %umanit,. T%e two e""ential element" of t%e !ra#it, of
alle!ed act" are Lwide"@read and ","tematicG.
Kwide"@readG relate" to t%e "cale of an attacA a!ain"t a ci#ilian @o@ulation T not an
i"olated act but lar!e "cale action directed a!ain"t multi@le #ictim". KS,"tematicG' on
t%e ot%er %and' carrie" a connotation of @remeditation b, an or!ani<ed !rou@$ an
attacA carefull, @lanned and undertaAen a" @art of a common @olic,.
In t%e @re"ent ca"e of .r. lucanAa' t%e attacA" led b, .r. 4anc%a were a!ain"t t%e
ma"auri faction of t%e @o@ulation of =a<ulu. T%e w%ole !rou@ wa" affected b, t%e
murder"' bombin!"' torture' eFtortion and ra@e". T%e e#idence di"cu""ed @ro#ide"
!round" to belie#e t%at t%e attacA wa" bot% ","tematic' !i#en t%e im@robabilit, of t%e
random occurrence of t%e act"' a" well a" wide"@read' !i#en t%at t%e freIuent act"
were carried out wit% Lcon"iderable "eriou"ne"" and directed a!ain"t a lar!e number
of ci#ilian #ictim"M. T%e crime" carried out @ur"uant to or in furt%erance of an
or!ani"ational @olic, were wide"@read and ","tematic in"ofar a" t%e, were committed
b, an armed force wit% t%ou"and" of "oldier"' di"@er"ed t%rou!%out t%e 4anc%u area"'
and in eFecution of t%e order" i""ued b, t%e mr.lucanAaG" to@ leader.
3e eF@re""l, "tated t%at t%e "ituation brooA" no furt%er dela, and eFtreme "te@" need
to be taAen immediatel,.
T%e e#idence @ro#ide" !round" to belie#e t%at t%e mr. lucanAa @er@etrated a
multi@licit, of act" t%at were more t%an i"olated incident" or act" and t%at t%e
multi@licit, of act" were @art of t%e attacA. T%e %i!% incidence of deat% and in=ur,
amon! t%e ci#ilian #ictim" of armed attacA" wa" not a random occurrence.

() Con"iderin! t%e @o"ition of t%e rele#ant @er"on i.e. .r. lucanAa in t%e entit, of
Na<olia' armed !rou@ w%ic% wa" carr,in! out t%e attacA a!ain"t ma"auri wa"
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&RITTEN SUMISSION ON EHALF OF THE CLAIMANT
8:
com@letel, under t%e aut%orit, of .r. lucanAa owin! to t%e fact %e wa" t%e 3ead of
t%e State.
() .r. lucanAa wa" declared t%e %ead of t%e State of na<olia and leadin! an attacA of
"uc% a wide"@read and ","tematic "cale and t%e role @la,ed b, t%e arm, of t%e "tate
of na<olia wa" "o %einou" and !ra#e in nature t%at under t%e cate!or, of !enocide a"
"tated in Article -&a( of t%e Rome Statute w%ic% come under t%e =uri"diction of t%e
court.
2. &HETHER THE ACCUSED IS GUILTY OF FOLLO&ING CRIMES UNDER A"t. <=>2?
Pur"uant to Art. *;&8( of t%e Rome Statute' t%e Office of t%e Pro"ecutor %a" concluded t%at
t%ere are rea"onable !round" to belie#e t%at .r.lucanAa bear" criminal re"@on"ibilit, under
Art. 8*&:( &b( of t%e Rome Statute for t%e followin! crime"E
C'$4t 1
Att#38 #7#14/t %th413 #42 "#31#5 7"'$;/ 3'4/t1t$t147 G%4'312%
&Article -&a(' &b(' &c( and Article 8*&:(&a(' &b( of t%e Rome Statute(
1. 4efore t%e arre"t of .r.lucanAa' %e committed ' t%rou!% ot%er @er"on' !enocide of
ma"auri in na<olia. .a"auri @eo@le %ou"e" were burnt. .en' women and c%ildren
were ma""acred on a lar!e "cale . ma"auri women were %umiliated and ra@ed. T%e
c%ildren of t%e ma"auri tribe were forcible, tran"ferred and were ultimatel, re@orted
mi""in! al"o !un"%ot" were fired on t%e ma"urui crowd @eo@le at t%e re"ident official
re"idence and mo"t of t%e ci#ilian" were !unned down of i" %eaded at t%e @re"ident"
official re"idence and a" a domino effect' ma"auri @eo@le were ","tematicall, Ailled
all o#er t%e nation.
In t%e Rome Statute' t%e Article - read" a" T
L2or t%e @ur@o"e of t%i" Statute' R!enocideR mean" an, of t%e followin! act"
committed wit% intent to de"tro,' in w%ole or in @art' a national' et%nical' racial or
reli!iou" !rou@' a" "uc%E
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&RITTEN SUMISSION ON EHALF OF THE CLAIMANT
84
&a( Cillin! member" of t%e !rou@N
&b( Cau"in! "eriou" bodil, or mental %arm to member" of t%e !rou@N
&c( Deliberatel, inflictin! on t%e !rou@ condition" of life calculated to brin! about
it" @%,"ical de"truction in w%ole or in @artN
&d( Im@o"in! mea"ure" intended to @re#ent birt%" wit%in t%e !rou@NM
1. .r. lucanAa committed !enocide b, cau"in! "eriou" bodil, or mental %arm to
member" of eac% tar!et !rou@' under Article -&b( of t%e Rome Statute' b, u"in! t%e
"tate a@@aratu"' to cau"e "eriou" bodil, or mental %arm to member" of ma"auri
t%rou!% act" of ra@e' ot%er form" of "eFual #iolence' torture and forcible di"@lacement
of member" of t%e"e !rou@"' wit% intent to de"tro, t%e !rou@ a" "uc%' in w%ole or in
@art' in #iolation of Art". -&b( and 8*&:(&b( of t%e Rome Statute.
In Al 4a"%irG" =ud!ment
80
it wa" %eld t%at' Lt%e definition of t%e crime of !enocide in
article II of t%e Con#ention on t%e Pre#ention and Puni"%ment of t%e Crime of
5enocide of 014; &Rt%e 014; 5enocide Con#entionR( doe" not eF@re""l, reIuire an,
conteFtual element. T%e .a=orit, al"o note" t%at article 4 of t%e Statute of t%e
International Criminal Tribunal for t%e former u!o"la#ia &Rt%e ICTR( and article 8
of t%e Statute of t%e International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda &Rt%e ICTRR( %a#e
ado@ted t%e "ame definition of 5enocide a" t%e one @ro#ided for in article II of t%e
014; 5enocide Con#ention. And t%e definition of t%e crime of !enocide @ro#ided for
in article - of t%e Statute i" t%e "ame a" t%at included in article II of t%e 014;
5enocide Con#ention.M 3ence t%ere are no conteFtual element" to be @ro#en.
S@ecific element" w%ic% need to be @ro#en are two' w%ic% are common to t%e abo#e$
mentioned fi#e cate!orie" of !enocidal act" @ro#ided for in Article - of t%e StatuteE
&i( t%e #ictim" mu"t belon! to a @articular national' et%nic' racial or reli!iou"
!rou@Nand &ii( t%e @er@etrator mu"t act wit% t%e intent to de"tro, in w%ole or in @art
t%at @articular !rou@.
In t%e @re"ent ca"e' t%e #ictim" of t%e attacA belon!ed to t%e tribe of ma"auri
@articularl, includin! women w%o were ra@ed and tortured mentall, and @%,"icall,.
Two' @er@etrator i.e. .r. lucanAa acted wit% t%e intent to de"tro, in w%ole or in @art
t%e et%nic tribe of ma"arui. Se#eral ma"auri were rounded u@ on t%e ba"i" of %a#in!
21 The 6ro%ec#tor ". (mar 2a%%an Ahmad A* Ba%hr.) ICC$98?9*$90?91$08* (2711).
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&RITTEN SUMISSION ON EHALF OF THE CLAIMANT
8*
linA" wit% t%e alle!ed con"@irac, of remo#in! %im from t%e office. Out of t%e %undred
t%ou"and @eo@le w%o were brutall, murdered' almo"t ninet, @ercent were t%e ma"auri.
C'$4t 2
M$"2%" 3'4/t1t$t147 3"1)%/ #7#14/t h$)#41t6
&Article 7&0(&a( and Article 8*&:(&b( of t%e Rome Statute(
Pur"uant to Art. 7&0( of t%e Statute' a crime a!ain"t %umanit, i" con"tituted if t%e act"
%a#e been committed a" @art of a wide"@read or ","tematic attacA' directed toward"
t%e ci#ilian @o@ulation' wit% Anowled!e of t%e attacA. D%en t%e ma"auri @eo@le "ta!ed
a %u!e demon"tration in front of t%e @re"ident lucanAa official re"idence and blamed
t%e !o#t. for t%e outbreaA of t%e %o"tilitie". T%in!" become #iolent w%en few !un"%ot"
were fired and a" a re"ult t%e crowd !rew #iolent and tried to "torm t%e @re"ident
@alace. T%e @olice and militar, official came down wit% a %ea#, %and and mo"t of t%e
ci#ilian" were !unned down or i" be%eaded at t%e @re"idence re"idence @lace.
In Al 4a"%irG" ca"e' t%e C%amber %eld t%at'
Lin order to con"titute a crime a!ain"t %umanit,' Article 7&0( of t%e Statute al"o
reIuire" t%at t%e rele#ant act" of #iolence be committed wit% RAnowled!e of t%e
attacAR "uc% t%at t%e @er@etrator RAnew t%at t%e conduct wa" @art of or intended t%e
conduct to be @art of a wide"@read or ","tematic attacA a!ain"t a ci#ilian
@o@ulation.RM1; a" di"cu""ed in I""ue 0.
A" t%e C%amber %a" alread, %eld' "uc% Anowled!e "%ould Rnot be inter@reted a"
reIuirin! @roof t%at t%e @er@etrator %ad Anowled!e of all c%aracteri"tic" of t%e attacA
or t%e @reci"e detail" of t%e @lan or @olic, of t%e State or or!ani<ation.R11 On t%e
contrar,' t%i" C%amber %a" @re#iou"l, under"tood t%i" @%ra"e to mean t%at t%e
@er@etrator Anew t%at t%ere wa" an attacA on a ci#ilian @o@ulation' and t%at %i" or %er
act" were a @art of t%at attacA.099
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&RITTEN SUMISSION ON EHALF OF THE CLAIMANT
8-
C'$4t @
R#;% 3'4/t1t$t147 # ;#"t ': 3"1)%/ #7#14/t h$)#41t6
&Article 7&0( &!( and Article 8*&:( &b( of t%e Rome Statute(
Article 7 of t%e Rome Statute "tate"E
&0( 2or t%e @ur@o"e of t%i" Statute' Rcrime a!ain"t %umanit,R mean" an, of t%e
followin! act" w%en committed a" @art of a wide"@read or ","tematic attacA directed
a!ain"t an, ci#ilian @o@ulation' wit% Anowled!e of t%e attacAE
&!( Ra@e' "eFual "la#er,' enforced @ro"titution' forced @re!nanc,' enforced
"terili<ation' or an, ot%er form of "eFual #iolence of com@arable !ra#it,.
In accordance wit% Article 8*&:( &b(' a @er"on "%all be %eld liable for @uni"%ment if %e
order"' "olicit" or induce" "uc% a crime w%ic% in fact occur" or i" attem@ted. National
and international new"@a@er" re@orted com@laint" of women w%o claim to %a#e been
ra@ed b, "oldier" w%o confe""ed t%at t%eir action" were moti#ated b, a de"ire to
c%an!e t%e demo!ra@%ic condition of t%e re!ion.
2or t%e "ame Count' in t%e ca"e of Pro"ecutor 6. CalliFte .baru"%imanaE
L3a#in! anal,"ed t%e e#idence @re"ented b, t%e Pro"ecutor' t%e C%amber i" "ati"fied
t%at t%ere are rea"onable !round" to belie#e t%at a "erie" of attacA" wa" carried out b,
2DLR troo@" in t%e @eriod between >anuar, and Se@tember 8991 a!ain"t t%e ci#ilian
@o@ulation of t%e Nort% and Sout% Ci#u.M
C'$4t 4
&155:$5 8155147 3'4/t1t$t147 # ;#"t ': 9#" 3"1)%/
&Article ;&8(&a(&i(' Article ;&8( &a(&ii(' Article ;&8(&e(&i( and Article ;&8(&e(&#i( of t%e
Rome Statute(
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&RITTEN SUMISSION ON EHALF OF THE CLAIMANT
87
In t%e ca"e of Al 4a"%ir' t%e C%amber %ad alread, %eldE
P...Q accordin! to t%e Statute and t%e Element" of Crime"' t%e definition of
e#er, crime
wit%in t%e =uri"diction of t%e Court include" bot% conteFtual and "@ecific
element".
3ence' t%e C%amber will fir"t anal,<e w%et%er t%ere are rea"onable !round" to belie#e
t%at t%e conteFtual element" of t%e crime" alle!ed b, t%e Pro"ecution in t%e
Pro"ecution A@@lication are @re"ent' and onl, if t%e an"wer i" in t%e affirmati#e' will
turn it" attention to t%e Iue"tion a" to w%et%er t%ere are rea"onable !round" to belie#e
t%at t%e "@ecific element" of an, "uc% crime %a#e been met.
In t%i" re!ard' t%e C%amber ob"er#e" t%at article ;&8(&f( of t%e Statute' w%ic% define"
Rarmed conflict" not of an international c%aracterR for t%e @ur@o"e of article ;&8(&e( of
t%e Statute' "tate" t%atE
Para!ra@% 8 &e( a@@lie" to armed conflict" not of an international c%aracter and
t%u" doe" not a@@l, to "ituation" of internal di"turbance" and ten"ion"' "uc% a"
riot"' i"olated and "@oradic act" of #iolence or ot%er act" of a "imilar nature. It
a@@lie" to armed conflict" t%at taAe @lace in t%e territor, of a State w%ere t%ere
i" a @rotracted armed conflict between !o#ernmental aut%oritie" and or!ani<ed
armed !rou@" or between "uc% !rou@".
T%e C%amber %a" al"o %i!%li!%ted t%at article ;&8(&f( of t%e Statute maAe" reference to
R@rotracted armed conflict between P...Q or!ani<ed armed !rou@"R' and t%at' in t%e
#iew of t%e C%amber' t%i" focu"e" on t%e need for t%e or!ani"ed armed !rou@" in
Iue"tion to %a#e t%e abilit, to @lan and carr, out militar, o@eration" for a @rolon!ed
@eriod of time.
Armed conflict in t%e State of 4anc%u %ad "tarted in t%e mont% of No#ember' 899;'
and continued till A@ril 8991' la"tin! for a @eriod of almo"t "iF mont%".
Article ;&8(&a(&i( "tate"E
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&RITTEN SUMISSION ON EHALF OF THE CLAIMANT
8;
8. 2or t%e @ur@o"e of t%i" Statute' Lwar crime"M mean"E
&a( 5ra#e breac%e" of t%e 5ene#a Con#ention" of 08 Au!u"t 0141' namel,'
an, of t%e followin! act" a!ain"t @er"on" or @ro@ert, @rotected under t%e
@ro#i"ion" of t%e rele#ant 5ene#a Con#entionE
&i( Dillful Aillin!
In @re"ent ca"e @eo@le were brutall, murdered on account of #oicin! t%eir o@inion"
a!ain"t .r. lucanAa. 3e declared em@%aticall, t%at %e %ad no merc, for t%o"e w%o
betra,ed t%e cau"e of t%eir nation. 3e al"o !a#e be%eaded man, @eo@le in front of t%e
%i" official re"idence' clearl, @ro#in! t%at %e willfull, cau"ed t%e Aillin! of t%e
ma"auri @eo@le.
C'$4t <
>!1'5#t1'4 ': 5#9/ #;;513#*5% 14 14t%"4#t1'4#5 #")%2 3'4:513t 3'4/t1t$t147 9#"
3"1)%/?
&Article ;&8(&b(&F#iii( of t%e Rome Statute(
A" @er Article ; of t%e Statute'
&8( 2or t%e @ur@o"e of t%i" "tatute' Lwar crime"M mean"E
&b( Ot%er "eriou" #iolation" of t%e law" and cu"tom" a@@licable in
international armed conflict' wit%in t%e e"tabli"%ed frameworA of international
law' namel,' an, of t%e followin! act"E
&i( Intentionall, directin! attacA" a!ain"t t%e ci#ilian @o@ulation a"
"uc% or a!ain"t indi#idual ci#ilian" not taAin! direct @art in %o"tilitie"N
&iii( Dilfull, cau"in! !reat "ufferin!' or "eriou" in=ur, to bod, or
%ealt%N
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&RITTEN SUMISSION ON EHALF OF THE CLAIMANT
81
&i#( EFten"i#e de"truction and a@@ro@riation of @ro@ert, not =u"tified
b, militar, nece""it, and carried out unlawfull, and wantonl,N
Article ;&8(&b(&F#iii( of t%e Statute wa" #iolated b, 4anc%a b, intentionall,
Em@lo,in! a"@%,Fiation ' @oi"onou" or ot%er !a"e".
2. I/ #""%/t #42 /$*/%A$%4t t"#4/:%" ': M". 5$3#48# t' ICC 1/ 5%7#5,
After t%e Sate referrin! t%e "ituation in na<olia to t%e ICC and reIue"ted t%e ICC to
commence in#e"ti!ation in t%e ca"e' t%e ICC declared it" intention to "tart in#e"ti!ation in t%e
ca"e and after @ro@er in#e"ti!ation' t%e @ro"ecutor "ubmitted it" a@@lication to t%e @re$trial
c%amber for i""uance of arre"t warrant a!ain"t .r. lucanAa under Article *; of t%e Rome
Statute. Pur"uant to t%e a@@lication' t%e @retrail c%amber i""ued an arre"t warrant a!ain"t .r.
4anc%a and reIue"ted 5o!oli"tan to "urrender .r. lucanAa to t%e ICC.
Article *;&a( of t%e "tatute "tate" t%at LAt an* tie after the initiation of an in"esti'ation) the
Pre+Tria% Cha!er sha%%) on the a((%i$ation of the Prose$&tor) iss&e a ,arrant of arrest of a
(erson if) ha"in' e-ained the a((%i$ation and the e"iden$e or other inforation s&!itted
!* the Prose$&tor) it is satisfied that#
(a) There are reasona!%e 'ro&nds to !e%ie"e that the (erson has $oitted a $rie ,ithin
the .&risdi$tion of the Co&rt./
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&RITTEN SUMISSION ON EHALF OF THE CLAIMANT
:9
PRAYER
D%erefore in t%e li!%t of t%e Aut%oritie" cited' I""ue" @re"ented and written @leadin!"' t%i"
3onGble Trial c%amber of t%e court ma, be @lea"ed to ad=ud!e and declare t%atE$
I. T%e ICC %a" t%e com@lete =uri"diction to tr, t%e ca"e o#er .r. 4anc%a and t%e ca"e i"
admi""ible before t%e court.
II. Arre"t and "ub"eIuent tran"fer of .r. 4anc%a i" le!al.
III. .r. 4anc%a i" !uilt, of t%e followin! crime"
a) Crime of 5enocide under Article -&a( of t%e Rome Statute.
b) Crime a!ain"t 3umanit, under Article 7&0( &!(
c) Dar Crime" under Article ;&8( &b(&iF(
All of w%ic% i" re"@ectfull, "ubmitted
Sd?$
Coun"el" for t%e Claimant
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&RITTEN SUMISSION ON EHALF OF THE CLAIMANT