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En. No.

: 090330131025 Sikuli Script



MGITER/ CO/2011 P age | iv
TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page No.

Acknowledgement ii
Abstract iii
1. Introduction 01
2. How it Works ? 02
2.1. Sikuli: Seeing Pixels 02
2.2. User Interface For Taking Screenshots 02
2.3. Editor for Writing Sikuli Scripts 03
3. Functions 04
3.1. For Handling Application 04
3.2. To Interacting with User 04
3.3. For General Setting & Information 07
3.4. Other Inportant Function 08
4. Extensions 10
4.1. How to Download 10
4.2. How to Develop an Extension 11
4.3. How to Test an Extension 12
5. Working Procedure 13
6. Application & Example 15
6.1. Application of Sikuli Script 15
6.2. Example of Sikuli Script 15
7. Evaluation of Sikuli Script 20
7.1. Evaluation 20
7.2. Testability Analysis 21
7.3. Reusability Analysis 21
8. Limitation 22
9. Future Development 23
10. Summary & Conclusion 24
11. Who is Using ? 25
12. References 26


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INTRODUCTION

Until the 1980s, using a computer program means memorizing a lot of
commands and typing them in a line at a time, only to get lines of text back. The
graphical user interface, or GUI, changed that. By representing programs, program
functions, and data as two-dimensional images like icons, buttons and windows
the GUI made intuitive and spatial what had been memory intensive and laborious.


any easier for computer programmers. Underlying GUI components is a lot of
computer code, and usually, building or customizing a program, or getting different
Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Lab hope to change that, with a system
that allows people to write programs using screen shots of GUIs. Ultimately, the
system could allow casual computer users to create their own programs without
having to master a programming language.

Researchers at the University of Maryland and Massachusetts Institute of
Technology have developed a screen-capture based scripting environment that could
signal a new programming paradigm that leverages the graphical interface as a sort of
API. The Sikuli system lets users with minimal programming experience use GUI
screen shots to create scripts that interact with applications. Ultimately, it will open
opportunities to develop scripts that touch multiple applications without requiring any
understanding of the underlying programs APIs

In human-to-human communication, asking for information about tangible
objects can be naturally accomplished by making direct visual references to them.....
For example, to instruct a mover to put a lamp on top of a nightstand, we would say,
put this over there while pointing to and respectively.

Likewise, in human-to-computer communication, finding information or
issuing commands involving GUI elements can be accomplished naturally by making
direct visual reference to them.

Sikuli allows user or programmer to make direct Visual reference to GUI
elements. To search a documentation database about a GUI element, a user can draw
a Rectangle around it and take a Screenshot as a query. Similarly, to automate
interactions with a GUI element, a programmer can insert screenshots directly into a
script statement and specify what keyboard or mouse action to invoke when this
element is seen on screen.
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HOW IT WORKS

2.1 Sikuli: Seeing Pixels

Sikuli's greatest value is its generality, "If it has pixels that Sikuli can see,
and then it's open to automation". The technique is open to any application with a
GUI that can display on a Windows, Mac, or Linux desktop. Users have already been
apply it to not just desktop applications, but also Web pages, video games, mobile
phone apps (running in a simulator or using a remote connection between the desktop
and the phone), and applications from other platforms running in a virtual machine.

2.2 User Interface for Taking Screenshots

Sikuli Search allows a user to select a region of interest on the screen,
submit the image in the region as a query to the search engine, and browse the search
results. To specify the region of interest, a user presses a hot-key to switch to Sikuli
Search mode and begins to drag out a rubber-band rectangle around it. Users do not
need to fit the rectangle perfectly around a GUI element since screenshot
representation scheme allows inexact match. After the rectangle is drawn, a search
button appears next to it, which submits the image in the rectangle as a query to the
search engine and opens a web browser to display the results.

annotation interface allows a user to save screenshots with
custom annotations that can be looked up using screenshots. To save a screenshot of a
GUI element, the user draws a rectangle around it to capture its screenshot to save in
the visual index. The user then enters the annotation to be linked to the screenshot.
Optionally, the user can mark a specific part of the GUI element (e.g., a button in a
dialog box) to which the annotation is directed.

(Example: Taking Screenshot)










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2.3 Editor for writing Sikuli scripts:


(Fig: Sikuli Editor)

They developed an editor to help users write visual scripts (Above Fig). To
take a screenshot of a GUI element to add to a script, a user can click on the camera
button (a) in the toolbar to enter the screen capture mode. The editor hides itself
automatically to reveal the desktop underneath and the user can draw a rectangle
around an element to capture its screenshot. The captured image can be embedded in
any statement and displayed as an inline image.

The editor also provides code completion. When the user types a command,
the editor automatically displays the corresponding command template to remind the
user what arguments to supply. For example, when the user types find, the editor will
expand the command. The user can click on the camera button to capture a screenshot
to be the argument for this find() statement. Alternatively, the user can load an
existing image file from disk (b), or type the filename or URL of an image, and the
editor automatically loads it and displays it as a thumbnail. The editor also allows the
user to specify an arbitrary region of screen to confine the search to that region (c).
Finally, the user can press the execute button (d) and the editor will be hidden and the
script will be executed.







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FUNCTIONS

3.1 Handling Applications

closeApp - exit - openApp - run switchApp

3.1.1 openApp( application )
application: The name of an application (case-insensitive) that can be found in the
environment variable PATH, or be the full path to an application (Windows: use double
backslash \\ for the path separator.)
Opens the application application and brings it to the front most.
openApp( "cmd. exe") # Wi ndows: f ound t hr ough PATH
openApp( "c: \ \ Pr ogr amFi l es\ \ Mozi l l a Fi r ef ox\ \ f i r ef ox. exe" ) #
wi ndows: f ul l pat h speci f i ed
openApp( "Saf ar i ") # Mac: opens Saf ar i

3.1.2 switchApp( application )
application: The name of an application (case-insensitive).
Switches to application application and brings it to the front most. If the application is not
running, it will be launched by openApp().
swi t chApp( " cmd. exe" ) # Wi ndows: swi t ches t o open command pr ompt or
st ar t s one
swi t chApp( " c: \ \ Pr ogr amFi l es\ \ Mozi l l a Fi r ef ox\ \ f i r ef ox. exe") #
wi ndows: opens a new br owser wi ndow ! ! ( si nce t ext cannot be f ound
i n t he wi ndow t i t l e)
swi t chApp( " mozi l l a f i r ef ox" ) # wi ndows: swi t ches t o t he f r ont most
open br owser wi ndow ( no wi ndow open: does not hi ng ! ! )
swi t chApp( " Saf ar i " ) # Mac: swi t ches t o Saf ar i or st ar t s i t

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3.1.3 closeApp( application )
application: The name of an application (case-insensitive).
Closes the given application application. It does nothing if no opened window (Windows) or
running app (Mac) can be found.
Note: On Windows: see note with switchApp(). The whole application owning the matching
window will be closed.
closeApp("cmd.exe") #Windows: closes an open command prompt
closeApp("c:\\Program Files\\Mozilla Firefox\\firefox.exe") #windows: does nothing, since
text cannot be found in the window title
closeApp("mozilla firefox") #windows: stops firefox including all its windows
closeApp("Safari") #Mac: closes Safari including all its windows

3.1.4 run( command )
command: a command, that can be run from the command line.
Executes the command command. The script waits for completion.
3.1.5 exit ()
Stops the script gracefully at this point.











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3.2 Interacting with the User
popup - input
3.2.1 popup( text )
text: a string that is used as a message
Displays a dialog box with an Ok button and text as message. The script waits for the user to
click Ok.
popup( "Hel l o Wor l d! \ nHave f un wi t h Si kul i ! " ) # \ n
can br eak a l i ne.


3.2.2 input( [text] )
text: a string that is used as a message. If omitted, it is left blank.
Displays a dialog box with an input field, a Cancel button, an OK button and text as message.
The script waits for the user to click either Cancel or Ok.











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3.3 General Information and Settings

getBundlePath - setBundlePath setShowActions

3.3.1 setBundlePath( path-to-a-folder )
path-to-a-folder a fully qualified path to a folder containing your images used for finding
patterns. Windows: use double backslashes.
Sets the path for searching images in all Sikuli Script methods. Sikuli IDE sets this
automatically to the path of the folder where it saves the script (.sikuli). Therefore, you
should use this function only if you really know what you are doing. Using it generally
means that you would like to take care of your captured images by yourself.
3.3.2 getBundlePath()
returns: a string containing a fully qualified path to a folder containing your images used for
finding patterns. Note: Sikuli IDE sets this automatically to the path of the folder where it
saves the script (.sikuli). You may use this function if, for example, to package your private
files together with the script or to access the picture files in the .sikuli bundles for other
purposes. Sikuli only gives you to access to the path name, so you may need other python
modules for I/O or other purposes.
3.3.3 setShowActions( False | True )
If set to True, when a script is run, Sikuli shows a visual effect on the spot where the action
will take place before executing actions (e.g. click, dragDrop, type, etc) for about 2 seconds .
The default setting is False.










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3.4 Other Important Function

Find Pattern Action Region

3.4.1 Find

The find () function locates a particular GUI element to interact with. It takes a visual pattern
that specifies the element appearance, searches the whole screen or part of the screen, and
returns regions matching this pattern or false if no such region can be found.

For example, find ( ) returns regions containing a Word document icon.

3.4.2 Pattern

The Pattern class is an abstraction for visual patterns. A pattern object can be created from an
image or a string of text. When created from an image, the computer vision algorithm
described earlier is used to find matching screen regions. When created from a string, OCR is
used to find screen regions matching the text of the string.

An image-based pattern object has four methods for tuning how general or specific the
desired matches must be:

exact(): Require matches to be identical to the given search pattern pixel-by-pixel.
similar(float similarity): Allow matches that are somewhat different from the given pattern.
A similarity threshold between 0 and 1 specifies how similar the matching regions must be
(1.0 =exact).
anyColor(): Allow matches with different colors than the given pattern.
anySize(): Allow matches of a different size than the given pattern.

Each method produces a new pattern, so they can be chained together. For example,


Pattern( ).similar(0.8).anyColor().anySize()


Matches screen regions that are 80% similar to of any size and of any color composition.
Note that these pattern methods can impact the computational cost of the search;
The more general the pattern, the longer it takes to find it.









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3.4.3 Action

The action commands specify what keyword and/or mouse events to be issued to the center
of a region found by find(). The set of commands currently supported in our API are:

click(Region), doubleClick(Region): These two commands issue mouse-click events
to the center of a target region. For example, click( ) performs a single click on the
first close button found on the screen. Modifier keys such as Ctrl and Command can
be passed as a second argument.

dragDrop(Region target, Region destination): This command drags the element in
the center of a target region and drops it in the center of a destination region. For
example, dragDrop( , ) drags a word icon and drops it in the recycle bin.

type(Region target, String text): This command enters a given text in a target region
by sending keystrokes to its center. For example, type( ,UIST)
types the UIST in the Google search box.



3.4.4 Region

The Region class provides an abstraction for the screen region(s) returned by the find()
function matching a given visual pattern. Its attributes are x and y coordinates, height, width,
and similarity score. Typically, a Region object represents the top match, for example,
r =find( ) finds the region most similar to and assigns it to the variable r. When used
in conjunction with an iterative statement, a Region object represents an array of matches.

For example, for r in find( ) iterates through an array of matching regions and the
programmer can specify what operations to perform on each region represented by r. Another
use of a Region object is to constrain the search to a particular region instead of the entire
screen. For example,

find( ).find( ) constrains the search space of the second find() for the ok
button to only the region occupied by the dialog box returned by the first find().










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EXTENSIONS

4.1 How to Download and use:
The download of an extension is supported by the IDE through the menu Tools > Extensions.
You get a popup, that lists the available and already installed extensions and allows to
download new packages or updates for installed ones.
This popup shows a new package not yet installed:

If you need more information about the features of the extension, just click More Info - this
will open the related documentation from the web in a browser window.
If you want to install the extension, just click the Install... button. The package will be
downloaded and added to your extensions repository.
This popup shows an installed package:

If a new version would be available at that time, the Install... button would be active again,
showing the new version number. Now you could click and download the new version.
How to Use an Extension
To use the features of an installed extension in one of your scripts, just say from extension-
name import *. For an usage example read Sikuli Guide.
For information about features, usage and API use menu Tools -> Extensions -> More
Info in the IDE.




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4.2 How to develop an extension
The source structure of an extension named extension-name looks like this:
J ava
- or g/ com
- - your - or gani zat i on- or - company
- - - ext ensi on- name
- - - - your Cl ass1. j ava
- - - - your Cl ass2. j ava
- - - - . . . . mor e cl asses
pyt hon
- ext ensi on- name
- - __i ni t __. py
- - ext ensi on- name. py
The final structure of a JAR (filename extension-name-X.Y where X.Y is the version
string) looks like this:
or g/ com
- your - or gani zat i on- or - company
- - ext ensi on- name
- - - your Cl ass1. cl ass
- - - your Cl ass2. cl ass
- - - . . . . mor e cl asses
ext ensi on- name
- __i ni t __. py
- ext ensi on- name. py
META- I NF
- MANI FEST. MF
The file __init__.py contains at least from extension-name import * to avoid one
qualification level. So in a script you might either use:
i mpor t ext ensi on- name
ext ensi on- name. f unct i onXYZ( )
or:
f r omext ensi on- name i mpor t *
f unct i onXYZ( )
The second case requires more investment in a naming convention, that avoids naming
conflicts.
The file extension-name.py contains the classes and methods, that represent the API, that one
might use in a Sikuli script.
As an example you may take the source of the extension Sikuli Guide



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4.3 How to test extension

directory or in the same .sikuli folder as your test script. The J AR file should not have a
version number in its file name, e.g. extension-name.jar. Because Sikuli starts to search
extensions in the .sikuli folder of the running script and then in the Sikuli extensions folder, it
is usually a good idea to put your developing extensions in the .sikuli folder of your test
script.
Another option is to use the load() function with an absolute path to your extension-
name.jar. If this fails, Sikuli goes on searching in the current .sikuli folder and then in the
Sikuli extensions folder. If load() succeeds, it returns True and puts absolute-path-to-your-
extension-name.jar into sys.path, so you can use import extension-name afterwards.


























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WORKING PROCEDURE

5.1 How it Work ?


(Fig. Working of Sikuli Script)

Saving
.sikuli (Recognized as source code and opened in editor)
Consists of python file (.py) and all (.png) images used.
Also creates (.html) file for easy web sharing.
Executing
.skl (Executable script, zipped .sikuli directory)
Recognized and run without opening IDE
org.python.util.PythonInterpreter Created
Headers passed to handle J ython
Execution of .py code


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J ava Library Core
J ava.awt.Robot: Keyboard & Mouse handling
C++Engine: Image pattern recognition
J ython Encapsulation
End-User commands
Python (J ython) Interpreter in a Java Runtime Environment.
Scope: Static
Memory Management / Variables & Bindings:
Heap Dynamic All objects and data structures
Handled by Interpreter, no user control
Malloc(), realloc(), free() etc. can be called by importing C library but results
in mixed calls between C allocator & Python memory manager
Garbage Collection:
Reference Count
Data Types & Type Checking
No Type checking, data types exist but pointers are changed freely
Methods can require a specific type and are checked then
Comments
# This is a comment in Python








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APPLICTION

6.1 Application of Sikuli Script
Sikuli Script can be used to Execute Repeated task like, changing System Setting
every time user login to System or doing one type of work every day. Sikuli script can also
be use as Monitoring for particular event to accrue on screen & to run specific task when that
event accrue. Last but not least, Sikuli script can Performe every task which a user can do on
his computer, the condition is just that, particular task must have pixel that Sikuli can sees!!
Because if it has pixel, it is ready to Automate by Sikuli Script....

6.2 Sikuli Script Examples
We present six example scripts to demonstrate the basic features of Sikuli Script. For
convenience in Python programming, we introduce two variables: find.region and
find.regions, that respectively cache the top region and all the regions returned by the last call
to find. While each script can be executed alone, it can also be integrated into a larger Python
script that contains calls to other Python libraries and/or more complex logic statements.

6.2.1 Minimizing All Active Windows
6.2.2 Deleting Documents of Multiple Types
6.2.3 Tracking Bus Movement
6.2.4 Navigating a Map
6.2.5 Responding to Message Boxes Automatically
6.2.6 Monitoring a Baby









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EXAMPLES

6.2.1 Minimizing All Active Windows:

This script minimizes all active windows by calling find repeatedly in a while loop (1) and
calling click on each minimize button found (2), until no more can be found.

6.2.2 Deleting Documents of Multiple Types:

This script deletes all visible Office files (Words, Excel, PowerPoint) by moving them to the
recycle bin. First, it defines a function recycleAll() to find all icons matching the pattern of a
given file type and move them to the recycle bin (1-3). Since icons may appear in various
sizes depending on the view setting, anySize is used to find icons of other sizes (2). A for
loop iterates through all matching regions and calls dragDrop to move each match to the
recycle bin (3). Next, an array is created to hold the patterns of the three Office file types (4)
and recycleAll() is called on each pattern (5-6) to delete the files. This example demonstrates
Si ability to define reusable functions, treat visual patterns as variables, perform
fuzzy matching (anySize), and interact with built-in types (array).



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6.2.3 Tracking Bus Movement:

This script tracks bus movement in the context of a GPSbased bus tracking application.
Suppose a user wishes to be notified when a bus is just around the corner so that the user can
head out and catch the bus. First, the script identifies the region corresponding to the street
corner (1). Then, it enters a while loop and tries to find the bus marker inside the region
every 60 seconds (2-3). Notice that about 30% of the marker is occupied by the background
that may change as the maker moves. Thus, the similar pattern modifier is used to look for a
target 70% similar to the given pattern. Once such target is found, a popup will be shown to
notify the user the bus is arriving (4). This example demonstrates Sikuli Scripts with
everyday tasks.

6.2.4 Navigating a Map:

This script automatically navigates east to Houston following Interstate 10 on the map (by
dragging the map to the left). A while loop repeatedly looks for the Interstate 10 symbol and
checks if a string Houston appears nearby (1). Each time the string is not found, the position
100 pixels to the left of the Interstate 10 symbol is calculated and the map is dragged to that
position (3), which in effect moves the map to the east. This movement continues until the
Interstate 10 can no longer be found or Houston is reached.







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6.2.5 Responding to Message Boxes Automatically:


This script generates automatic responses to a predefined set of message boxes. A screenshot
of each message box is stored in a visual dictionary d as a key and the image of the button to
automatically press is stored as a value. A large number of message boxes and desired
responses are defined in this way (1-100). Suppose the win32gui library is imported (101) to
provide the function getActiveWindow(), which is called periodically (102) to obtain the
handle to the active window (103). Then, we take a screenshot by calling getScreenshot()
(104) and check if it is a key of d (105). If so, this window must be one of the message boxes
specified earlier. To generate an automatic response, the relevant button image is extracted
from d (106) and the region inside the active window matching the button image is found
and clicked (107). This example shows Sikuli Script can interact with any Python library to
accomplish tasks neither can do it alone.








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6.2.6 Monitoring a Baby:

This script demonstrates how visual scripting can go beyond the realm of desktop to interact
with the physical world. The purpose of this script is to monitor for baby rollover through a
webcam that streams video to the screen. A
Forehead .By periodically checking if the marker is present (1- 2), the script can detect baby
rollover when the marker is absent and issue notification (3).

















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EVALUTION OF SIKULI SCRIPT




7.1 Evaluation:

To evaluate Sikuli Test, we performed testability analysis how diverse the visual behavior
GUI testers can test automatically, and reusability analysis how likely testers can reuse a
test script as a GUI evolves.

7.2 Testability Analysis:

We performed testability analysis on a diverse set of visual behavior. Each visual behavior
can be defined as a pairing of a GUI widget and a visual effect rendered on it. We considered
27 common widgets (e.g., button, check box, slider, etc.) and 25 visual effects.
(e.g., ppearance, highlight, focus, etc.). Out of the 675 possible pairings, we identified 368 to
be valid, excluding those that are improbable (e.g., scrollbar +font changing). We began the
analysis by applying Sikuli Test to test the visual behavior exhibited by four real GUI
applications (i.e., 1: Capivara, 2: jEdit, 3: DrJ ava, and 4: System Preferences on Mac OS X).
Table 1 summarizes the result of the testability analysis. Each cell corresponds to a visual
behavior. Out of 368 valid visual behaviors, 139 (indicated by the number of the application
used to be tested) are empirically testable, visual behavior was found in the four applications
and could be tested; 181 (indicated by a triangle ") are theoretically testable, visual behavior
was not found in the four applications but could be inferred from the testability of other
imilar visual behavior; and 48 (indicated not testable.

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In addition to these valid visual behaviors, there are 307 rarely paired improbable visual
As can be seen, the majority of the valid visual behavior
considered in this analysis can be tested by Sikuli Test. However, complex visual behavior
such as those involving animations (i.e., fading, animation) are currently not testable, which
topic for future work.

7.3 Reusability Analysis:

We performed reusability analysis of test scripts based on two real GUI applications:
Capivara, a file synchronization tool, and jEdit, a rich-text editor. These two applications
were selected from SourceForge.net with two criteria: it must have GUI, and it must have at
least 5 major releases available for download.
































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LIMITATIONS

Sikuli Script has only two Limitation, which are...
1. Theme variations: Many users prefer a personalized appearance theme with
different colors, fonts, and desktop backgrounds, which may pose challenges
to a screenshot search engine. Possible solutions would be to tinker with the
image-matching algorithm to make it robust to theme variation or to provide a
utility to temporarily switch to the default theme whenever users wish to
search for screenshots. UI automation is less affected by theme variations
when users write scripts to run on their own machines. However, sharing
scripts across different themes may be difficult. Possible solutions would be to
derive a conversion function to map patterns between themes or to require
users to normalize the execution environment by switching to the default
theme when writing sharable scripts.

2. Visibility constraints: Currently, Sikuli Script operates only in the visible
screen space and thus is not applicable toinvisible GUI elements, such as
those hidden underneath other windows, in another tab, or scrolled out of
view. One solution would be to automate scrolling or tab switching actions to
bring the GUI elements into view to interact with it visually. Another solution
would resort to platform- or application-specific techniques to obtain the full
contents of windows and scrolling panes, regardless of their visibility.













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FUTURE DEVELOPMENT

To automate scrolling or tab switching actions to bring the GUI elements
into view to interact with it visually


fast and accurate OCR on screen


Accessibility API integration



















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SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION

Platform Independence:
Works on ANY GUI that can be displayed on Windows/Linux/Mac
Virtual machines
Remote desktop
Mobile simulators: Android, iPhone
Web: Flash, HTML+J avascript

Program Against UI:
Sikuli programs are written against the user interface instead of an API



UI: visible, familiar, always exists
API: faster, probably more stable

Readability of test cases:
The semantic gap between the test scripts and the test tasks automated by the
scripts is small. It is easy to read a test script and understand what GUI feature
the script is designed to test.















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WHO IS USING ?























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REFERENCES

http://sikuli.org
http://blog.sikuli.org/
http://hcc.cc.gatech.edu/documents/
http://twitter.com/#!/sikuli
http://groups.csail.mit.edu/uid/sikuli/
http://sikuli.csail.mit.edu/demo.shtml
http://downloadsquad.switched.com/2010/01/30/sikuli-uses-screen-shots-
to-run-scripts-is-amazing/
http://www.makeuseof.com/tag/create-automation-scripts-easily-
screenshots/
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