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For students on the following Course:
MA International Business & Management

Semester 1 2013-14
Module Handbook

Module leader
Dr Rebecca Yi Wang

Table of contents

1. Introduction p.2
2. Module team and contact details p.2
3. Module aims p.3
4. Learning outcomes p.3
5. Indicative syllabus content p.4
6. Teaching and learning methods p.4
7. Blackboard module site p.5
8. Link to 20 credit Project module p.5
9. Submission of project topic form p.6
10. Assessment p.6
11. Module plan: sessions and submission information p.14
12. Schedule p.16
13. Reading list p.18


1. Introduction

The Research Methods (RM) module aims to develop your knowledge and
competence of the research process and the application of research methods in the
area of Business and Management. It covers qualitative and quantitative research
methods and considers the contexts within which different methods are useful and
how they should be applied in practice. It focuses on research design, data collection
and analysis, and the presentation of findings.

This preparatory module is intended to complement more specialised course-specific
modules offered by Westminster Business School and dovetails with your Project
module, through which you will submit an independent 20 credit project.

The RM module runs in both semester 1 and semester 2. It consists of an overview of
methodology, literature review, qualitative and quantitative data collection and data
analysis. The module plan and weekly schedule in this guide have more information
about the lectures and seminars.

2. Module Team and Contact Details

Dr Rebecca Yi Wang

Email wangyi@wmin.ac.uk
Office C183
Extension 66737
Office hour please email to arrange a meeting

Dr Kleopatra Konstantoulaki

Email K.Konstantoulaki@wmin.ac.uk
Office M119
Office hour please email to arrange a meeting

Richard West

Email westr02@wmin.ac.uk
Office M123
Office hour please email to arrange a meeting


3. Module Aims

The purpose of this module is to develop students knowledge of effective and
academic research design at masters level and provide guidance on the purpose and
design of literature reviews; strategies of research problem definition and ethical
considerations. Equally, the module aims to ensure students have an advanced
understanding of how the range of qualitative and quantitative approaches can be
most appropriately applied in business and management (sub) contexts; and to
develop students ability to identify/collect and analyse relevant data and literature
sources and reference them appropriately. Finally, to help students apply this
knowledge and establish the most effectual research design and method for their
project, and write a successful research proposal.

4. Learning Outcomes

On successful completion of this module, students should be able to:

LO1 demonstrate a critical awareness of the different business and management
research methodologies, design and methods and different paradigms on which they
are based;
LO2 appreciate the need to draw upon academic and practitioner literature to
support and justify the selection of appropriate research question(s), research design,
methods, and analysis;

LO3 critically evaluate the range of data and information collection and analysis
methods that are used within business and management in general and their project
subject specialism in particular, and make informed decisions about their relevance for
different purposes;

LO4 understand the research and supervision process and the responsibilities of
student and supervisor, including research ethics considerations;

LO5 draw upon academic and practitioner literature to support and justify the
selection of appropriate research question(s), research design, methods, and analysis;

LO6 write a research proposal that outlines and evaluates the most appropriate
research design and method(s) to investigate the chosen research question(s);

LO7 structure and produce a research proposal that demonstrates a writing style
appropriate to the business and management discipline and to an acceptable standard
of written Business English.


5. Indicative Syllabus Content

- Process of research topic/problem definition.
- Research design the immediate ontological and epistemological issues.
- Major types of research design in business and management and implications
for data collection and analysis. Appreciation of variation in dominant method
of enquiry and discourse within business and management sub-disciplines or
- Reviewing literature, using library resources, Harvard standard referencing.
- Research ethics.
- Main methods of qualitative and quantitative data collection (including primary
and secondary data).
- Main methods of qualitative and quantitative analysis including use of specific
software packages.
- Researching within organisations: access issues and managing client
- Presentation of findings.
- Project management: managing research; time management; communication
with supervisor; writing up.
- Allocation of supervisor to support the preparation of the research proposal.
- Preparing the research proposal document.

6. Teaching and Learning Methods

The module is planned as a combination of lectures, smaller interactive sessions,
individual meetings, and some intensive workshops employing a range of methods
suited to the different learning objectives. The lectures will only provide an outline of
the topics. Students are expected to participate fully in all sessions and supplement
their learning with additional reading in the main textbook and additional resources on

It is essential that students read widely around the basic programme. A list of
recommended further reading is included in section 12 below. This is indicative only
and the student may wish to make his/her own selection. Handouts and other
teaching materials will also be made available. Please note that to complete this
module successfully it is imperative to undertake further reading in addition to the
recommended texts. The lectures, seminars and group activities can only introduce
you to the subject; private study is also required.

Maximising your learning from this module
In UK higher education, you as the student take primary responsibility for your own
learning. So-called contact time involving interaction with, or supervision from,
teaching and associated staff is there to help shape and guide your studies. It may be
used to introduce new ideas and equip you with certain knowledge or skills,
demonstrate practical skills for you to practise independently, offer guidance on
project work, or to provide personalised feedback. It may be face-to-face or mediated

through other channels. Alongside contact time, your private or independent study
is very significant. This is the time that you spend learning without direct supervision
from, or contact with a member of staff and this makes up the bulk of your studies. It is
likely to include background reading, preparation for seminars or tutorials, follow-up
work, wider practice, the completion of assignments, revision, and so on. This
independent study may have been structured for you as a key part of your learning, or
it may be additional study you choose to undertake to improve your learning. (Based in
part on: QAA (2011) Contact hours: a guide for students. p.2).

Activity type Category Student learning and
teaching hours*
Lecture Scheduled 10 hours
Seminar Scheduled 15 hours
Tutorial Scheduled 1 hour
Project supervisor Scheduled 2 hours
Practical Classes and workshops Scheduled 3 hours
Fieldwork Scheduled 24 hours (Residential
External visits Scheduled 15 hours (communicating/
contacting potential
organisations for
Total Scheduled 70 hours
Assessment Independent 60 hours
Independent study Independent 70 hours
Total student learning and teaching
200 hours

7. Blackboard Module Site

The module Blackboard site will have further important module information. Please
access it regularly for announcements, module information, research resources and
assessment information. Please note that it is your responsibility to download and
bring the relevant materials to lectures and seminars. You will also be required to
submit your coursework electronically via Blackboard under submit coursework menu
option. The e-copy of the assignment will be checked for plagiarism via Turnitin. To
access Blackboard, go to the university homepage: www.westminster.ac.uk; sign in
[top right corner] and click on the Blackboard under the Applications menu.

8. Link to your Project Module

The research methods (RM) module is a separate module from the Project module, but
they are interlinked: RM is a prerequisite for the project module and you are required
to get a minimum of 50% for your research proposal. Your research proposal is 100%

of the module mark and it will be marked by your project supervisor. Your proposal
should form a major part of your project dissertation.

9. Submission of Project Topic Form (PTF)

Deadline Thursday 12 December 2013

As part of your Project Module you will be assigned a Project Supervisor who will
support you in the process of your project submission, which is an independent piece
of research. In order to be able to allocate you a project supervisor broadly relevant to
your project topic, we ask you to submit a Project Topic Form by clicking the following
link on the Blackboard:


While not assessed, submission is essential for the allocation of your supervisor. Any
delay in submission will result in an automatic delay of your supervisor allocation. The
contact details of your project supervisor will be published on the Blackboard under
Project Supervisor Allocation menu as well as on SRS web in January 2014. This is
when your Research Methods module ends and Project Module starts.

10. Assessment

Assessment Methods and Weighting

Type of assessment Weighting % Qualifying mark/set %

Project proposal


as per standard PG

Summary: The overall assessment mark for the module is based solely on your
coursework (weight: 100%). The overall pass mark for the module is 50% minimum.
Your Project Proposal will be marked by your allocated Project Supervisor. You should
be able to meet with your allocated supervisor before you submit your proposal.

Word count: 3000 - 3,500 words maximum (excluding references and title page).

Deadline: by 13:00 on Thursday 27 February 2014 via the module Blackboard site.

Proposal feedback:
You will receive feedback on your proposal via your project supervisor. Three to four
weeks after the submission of your coursework, you will have the opportunity to
arrange a meeting with your project supervisor to discuss your project proposal. The
onus is on you to arrange that meeting. By the time of this meeting, the project

proposal is marked/second marked and the mark will be available. This mark remains
provisional until it is confirmed by the relevant subject board. Your confirmed
coursework mark will be available on your SRS web record after the relevant subject

The written feedback on your coursework will be made available
via online feedback written on your e-copy of the coursework, retrievable via the
TurnitinUK submission menu on the module Blackboard site,
via a typed coursework feedback sheet given to you in e-copy or hard copy via your

10.1 Submission of Coursework

Unless explicitly stated otherwise in writing by the module leader, all coursework on
this module is submitted via Blackboard only. It will automatically be scanned through
a text matching system (designed to check for possible plagiarism).
- DO NOT attach a CA1 form or any other form of cover sheet;
- YOU MUST include your name and student ID on the first page of your
- The coursework should be submitted through ONE electronic copy;
- File Format: MICROSOFT WORD;
- Line spacing: 1.5 line spacing.

To submit your assignment:
- Log on to Blackboard at http://learning.westminster.ac.uk;
- Go to the relevant module Blackboard site;
- Click on the Submit Coursework link in the navigation menu on the left-hand
side, as advised by the module teaching team;
- Click on the link for the relevant assignment;
- Follow the instructions.

Finance holds.
If on the due date you have a finance hold on your student account, you may not be
able to access Blackboard to be able to submit electronically. If this is the case, you
may be able to submit a paper copy to the Registry. Assignments submitted this way
will ONLY be accepted if it is clear that you have a finance hold on the due date. The
penalties for late submission will still apply.
You will be given details by the module teaching team about how and when you will
receive your marks and feedback on your work.

It is a requirement that you submit your work in this way. All coursework must be
submitted by 1.00 p.m. (13.00) UK time on the due date.

If you submit your coursework late but within 24 hours or one working day of the
specified deadline, 10% of the overall marks available for that element of assessment

will be deducted, as a penalty for late submission, except for work which is marked
in the range 50 59%, in which case the mark will be capped at the pass mark (50%).

If you submit your coursework more than 24 hours or more than one working day
after the specified deadline you will be given a mark of zero for the work in question.

The Universitys mitigating circumstances procedures relating to the non-submission
or late submission of coursework apply to all coursework.

In order to avoid any potential technical problems or difficulties with networks and
software, you are strongly encouraged to submit your work well in advance of the due
10.2 Assignment Brief

Topic/Title of your Project proposal:

The Project Proposal is based on the research topic you submitted on the Project Topic
Form (PTF).

Structure and Contents of your Project Proposal:

The Project Proposal is an outline of your intended Project, providing information on
the What, Why, How conceptually and How practically
of your research idea. It will
effectively be an introduction, a literature review and will include an outline of your
research method/methodology.
The purpose is to show the reader you have managed to arrange your broad Project
research ideas into a logical account of research intention; and that these plans are
justifiable and achievable. It requires you to think clearly about your research
objectives, research methods and relevant literature.
Proposals should comprise the following areas:
- Title
- Introduction/context/research area
- Literature review
- Research questions/objectives or hypotheses
- Research design (methodology and methods)
- Data collection and analysis
- Time line/Gantt chart
- Resource requirements
- Conclusion/limitations, including an identification of contingency plans,
where relevant
- WBS student research ethics consideration form
- References

See Watson (1994) in Bryman & Bell (2007: p.89).

Detailed outline:

i. Title of your Project Proposal: Reflect as accurately as possible the content of your
ii. Introduction to the research: context-background
This section should describe the area you will be investigating and explain the rationale
and the context for your research plans. Explain why you are interested in the research
topic, and why it is worthwhile. You should provide sufficient background information
on the issues you want to research for the reader to be able to understand the rest of
your Project as well as its value. If you focus on an organisation you should provide
enough organisational information to put your research plans into context.
iii. Review of the literature
This should be presented under a separate heading. Through this review, you show
that you have acquired knowledge about the literature that relates to your research
area and identify the research/gaps, which your research relates to. It is not intended
as a near-finished comprehensive critical analysis of the literature at this stage. In the
Project Proposal, provide an identification of themes from academic and other
relevant recent and/or historically important literature, which acts as the basis for your
intended study and, most importantly, clarify where your intended study fits into this
It is important that you include key relevant literature, with references to key texts and
especially refereed journal articles (RJA). Normally we would expect 10-12 references
of RJAs at least. If this is not relevant in your field, indicate why.
iv. Specific research questions
Here or at the end of the literature review section, clarify the link between the
previous research done in your field of interest, and your research focus.
Specific research questions: this may be one overall question or a number of key
questions that the research will address. If suitable, you could add research objectives
which make it clear to the reader exactly what is being planned by the proposed
research: identifying what is to be analysed, and to what purpose. Your questions and
objectives should provide sufficient scope for a project of this size, but also be
achievable within the resources available to you. They should not be vague or too
general and should be leading to observable outcomes.
The research questions and objectives will be used by the reader to judge the rest of
your proposal, so make sure that your proposed research design, data collection and
analysis fit with these.

The guidance on each element of the structure and content of the project proposal is
summarized from Bryman & Bell (2011) and Saunders and Lewis (2012).


If relevant and suitable, the research questions could be formulated as hypotheses.

- Please refer to Punch (2006) for more guidance on hypotheses.
- Blooms taxonomy of verbs to identify more masters level active verbs you could
use as part of your research questions.

v. Research design, methodology, and method
This refers to an overall view of the methodology, design and methods chosen to
answer your research questions and achieve your research objectives, as well as a
justification of these choices.
- Provide information and justification for the methodology and research design you
propose. Methodology refers to the broad approach you plan to take issues such as
positivism or interpretivism; inductive or deductive; qualitative or quantitative or
mixed methods; etc. You also need to outline and justify your research design: for
instance, case study; cross-sectional survey; action research; ethnographic study, etc.
If relevant, it should also detail particular areas your research will focus on, such as
sectors of industry, regions, organizations and the characteristics of your research
- Data/information requirements: Identify from your research questions, objectives or
hypothesis, what main data or information you will need to acquire to be able to
answer these. If no empirical data is needed, make this clear.
vi. Data collection and analysis
Data collection and analysis: Provide details of the way in which you intend to collect
these data: for instance investigation of secondary data, interviews, focus groups,
observation, document analysis, or a combination, and the way you intend to analyse
these data.
It is essential to explain why you have chosen this approach, and reflect upon whether
this is the most effective way to answer your research questions.
Be as precise as possible. For instance: regarding secondary data, specify the exact
data sources you intend to use; for questionnaires specify the distribution, population,
sample size, likely response rate; for interviews specify interview population, intended
interview duration and way of analysis etcetera. Refer to ethical good practice such as
referring to the use of consent forms and participant info sheets when relevant.
vii. Reflecting on resources
Reflect on data availability: provide clear information on access to the data
collected/used: have you made sure all necessary data is available to you? If relevant,
do you have the agreement of essential people to use certain data or conduct
interviews? Is your Project agreed with the organisation you focus on if this is
necessary? Is your survey response rate likely to be satisfactory?
Reflect on time resources: a rough schedule of the tasks to complete between the

submission of the Project Proposal and the submission of the Project, through a GANTT
Other resources you may want to reflect on may include skills or software necessary to
collect or analyse data.
viii. Conclusion, limitations, including an identification of contingency plans, where
Conclusion includes a brief overview of expected outcomes.
Especially if access to (parts of) the data is still uncertain, reflect on possible alternative
ways to collect data to answer the research question.

ix. WBS student research ethics consideration form
You need to submit the WBS student research ethics consideration form at the same
time as your proposal. The actual form will be made available to you in October,
alongside guidance of submission.
x. List of references
All references should be in Harvard standard, in the text and in the list. For guidance
on this, please download the Westminster University guidance:

10.3 A general guide to grading
Above 80 per cent (Distinction)
Publishable quality of work, an outstanding report/ answer in every regard, with
exceptional command of the material. Nothing more could reasonably be expected of
the student within the constraints under which work was prepared.
70 79 per cent (Distinction)
An excellent answer with a high level of critical analysis, where literature has been
challenged and/or evaluated. Excellent referencing and evidence of a wide knowledge
of the subject; sound and original conclusions and high quality presentation.
60 69 per cent (Merit)
A sound answer showing good knowledge of the subject and displaying a well-rounded
and critical understanding of the issues involved. However, analysis of the key issues
could be better.
50 59 per cent (Pass)
The answer tends to be more descriptive than analytical and, whilst the information is

provided, it is not always relevant or integrated effectively into the answer. A basic
understanding of the subject is, however, still shown but there is a need for more
critical discussion.
40 49 per cent (Fail - Resubmit)
Some information and relevant discussion but the approach is muddled or incomplete.
Whilst some elements are provided, the basic knowledge revealed is insufficient.
However, in some cases, a pass standard could be reached with relatively slight
improvement. In others, fundamental aspects of the question may be missed or major
areas of the subject may be absent with no indication of a real grasp of the issues
Below 40% (Fail Retake module)
Failure to understand the assignment. The work provides little relevant information
and is unstructured and often irrelevant.

10.4 Assessment Rationale

This module supports you in the development of your research knowledge and skills;
alongside the relationship with your Project Supervisor, where the emphasis is on the
development of a focused piece of work, which is highly subject-specific. Therefore,
whilst there is a need here to focus assessment on your understanding of academic
research development, it is important to make sure that you:
- have a breadth of critical understanding across a range of methodological
approaches to research design, collection and analysis;
- can demonstrate a critical evaluation as well as an application of the taught
aspects of the research methods module through an individual project
proposal justifying full description of appropriate methods and techniques
for the project. There is a need to focus on and provide formal feedback on
the academic standard and viability of the students project proposal at an
early stage in the project development.
Therefore, the totality of assessment in this module is through the student research
project proposal, which must address the entire module learning outcomes.
During the run of this module, the student is assigned an individual project supervisor
who provides guidance in the development of the project proposal and in the further
development of the masters student project itself. The latter is not part of this
module, but part of the subject specific project module.

10.5 Assessment Criteria

The students project proposal assesses students on the extent to which they are able

i. demonstrate advanced understanding of the elements which are important in
business and management including research design and process; review of
literature; data identification/collection and analysis; presentation of analysis,
providing clear reasons for choices made.
ii. demonstrate critical evaluation and application of the business and
management research knowledge through their own research project proposal
in which they:
- identify, define and justify research objectives which are both worthy of
and capable of investigation within the resources and time available;
- provide an initial review of academic/practitioner literature relevant to
their research that places their work into context of work already
- design a methodology of enquiry appropriate to their proposed investigation
and taking account of the contextual ethical considerations;
- identify specific research questions, propositions and/or hypotheses to guide
the investigation;
- determine, and justify, data and information collection methods along with
initial strategies for data analysis;
- appreciate the likely limitations of their study and determine contingency
- demonstrate familiarity with the seminal theories, frameworks and authors,
and the ability to reference according to the Harvard standard and cite from
such work.

10.6 Checklist

- Appropriate and clear background, context for the research.
- An initial review of literature relevant to the research that places the
proposed research into context of work already published.
- Clarification and suitability of research questions, to guide the investigation.
- Outline and justification of research methodology and design: appropriate
to the proposed Investigation.
- Outline and justification of data required; data collection methods; taking
account of ethical considerations.
- Reflection on resources, the likely limitations of the study and determine
contingency plans;
- Extent to which all parts of the research proposal fit together.
- Viability of the research proposal: worthy and capable of investigation
within the resources and time available.
- Reference according to the Harvard standard, in text and in list.
- A writing style appropriate for a Masters level project.
- Ethics consideration confirmation included.


11. Module Plan: Sessions and Submission Information

Learning week Session topic Hours Venue
26 September
Introduction to module

Seminar: considering possible topics
Lecture 16:30-17:30
Seminar 17:30-19:00
Lecture: CG28
3 October
Identifying the research topic

Seminar: formulating and clarifying the
research topic
Lecture 16:30-17:30
Seminar 17:30-19:00
Lecture: CG28
10 October

Research Methodology
Qualitative and quantitative research

Seminar: case study
Lecture 16:30-17:30
Seminar 17:30-19:00
Lecture: CG28
17 October

Literature review

Seminar: case study
Lecture 16:30-17:30
Seminar 17:30-19:00
Lecture: CG28
24 October

Qualitative data collection and analysis

Seminar : interview techniques
Lecture 16:30-17:30
Seminar 17:30-19:00
Lecture: CG28
31 October

Individual drop-in surgery with staff
members: deciding research topic and
presenting a list of literature to be
Appointments Staff office
7 November

Quantitative data collection and analysis

Seminar : questionnaire design
Lecture 16:30-17:30
Seminar 17:30-19:00
Lecture: CG28
14 November

SPSS lecture and practice

Lecture 16:30-17:30
Seminar 17:30-19:00
21 November

Proposal writing

Seminar: what is a good proposal?
Lecture 16:30-17:30
Seminar 17:30-19:00
Lecture: CG28
28 November

Review and practice
Lecture 16:30-17:30
Seminar 17:30-19:00
Lecture: CG28

5 December

Proposal presentation
Lecture 16:30-17:30
Seminar 17:30-19:00
Lecture: CG28
12 December
Individual drop-in surgery with staff
members: research topic and proposal
Staff office

Submission information
12 December
Submit topic
January 2014 Allocation of your project supervisor
27 February
Submit proposal
March 2014 Mark submitted by supervisor
March 2014 Mark released to students
29 April 2014 Resubmission, if necessary

12. Schedule

Introduction and identifying the research topic

Relevant core textbook chapter 2

This session provides an overview of the module and practical information.

Focus of the session: generate ideas and explore sources that will help you to
choose a suitable research topic and identify the attributes of a good research

Research methodology: qualitative and quantitative research

Relevant core textbook chapters 4 and 6

This session will give a brief introduction to research philosophical perspectives
and approaches to research (qualitative; quantitative; mixed methods) as well as
research ethics.

Focus of the session: distinguish between deductive and inductive research
approaches and their respective advantages and disadvantages.

Seminar: case study

Literature review

Relevant core textbook chapter 3

This session will explore the importance of a critical literature review; using
advanced scholarship and theory; and searching for relevant literature.

Focus of the session: discuss the development of critical analysis and building
arguments and substantiation as a necessary condition for successful research.

Seminar on reviewing literature will provide a practical approach to this topic.

Qualitative data collection and analysis

Relevant core textbook chapters 9,10,13

This session will consider various qualitative data collection and analysis
strategies and assesses the context within which these may be effective.
Focus of the session:

Qualitative methods of data collection (primary and secondary): interview
techniques, observations and focus groups. Qualitative methods of analysis:
recording and transcribing of qualitative data; grounded theory, interpretation
and presentation; qualitative software analysis packages, for example, Nvivo 9.

Seminar: in-depth interview techniques as a method of data collection for
qualitative research which aims to highlight some of the potential problems
when organising interviews and analysing the data.

Quantitative data collection and analysis

Relevant core textbook chapters 11, 12

This session considers various quantitative data collection and analysis strategies
and assesses the context within which these may be effective.

Focus of the session:
Quantitative methods of data collection (primary and secondary): questionnaire
design and sampling methods. Quantitative methods of data analysis, for
example, hypothesis testing, t-test, correlation, etc.

Seminar: questionnaire design, highlighting some of the most common mistakes
and good practice when building a survey questionnaire.

Proposal writing

Relevant core textbook chapter 14

This session will be organised to discuss good practice in research proposal
writing and relevant research methodology. The presentation of findings in your
final project will also be discussed.

Seminar: identify and discuss good practice through marking various proposal

Individual drop-in meetings

You can make an appointment to see your seminar tutor to ask questions
concerning the choice of your project topic, and the proposal writing. It is
important that you prepare for this meeting, reflecting on possible project
topics/research questions, and have questions ready to ask the member of the
module team. It is not supposed to be a joint brainstorming session.


13. Reading List

Core textbook
Saunders, N.K., Lewis, P. and Thornhill, A. (2012), Research Methods for Business
Students, 6
edition, Pearson.
Online student resources:
The online student resources include chapter overviews and chapter exercises,
multiple-choice questions for revision, case studies, data sets, student interviews, a
research project guide and further web links.

Supplementary reading
Blumberg, B., Cooper, D.R. and Schindler, P.S. (2005), Business Research Methods,
McGraw Hill.
Bryman, A. and Bell, E. (2011), Business Research Methods, 3
edition, Oxford: Oxford
University Press.
Creswell, J.W. (2003), Research Design - Qualitative, Quantitative and Mixed methods
Approaches, 2
Edition, Sage Publications.
Denzin, N.K. and Lincoln, Y. (eds.) (2005), The SAGE Handbook of Qualitative Research,
SAGE Publications.
Easterby-Smith, M., Thorpe, R. and Jackson, P. (2012), Management Research, 4

edition, Sage Publications.
Fisher, C. (2010), Researching and Writing a Dissertation: An Essential Guide for
Business Students, 3
edition, Financial Times/ Prentice Hall.
Grix, J. (2004), The Foundations of Research, Palgrave Study Guides.
Hardy, M. and Bryman, A. (2004), Handbook of Data Analysis, Sage Publications.
Punch, K.F. (2012), Developing Effective Research Proposals, 2
edition, Sage
Sage University Papers Series in Quantitative Applications in the Social Sciences, Lewis-
Beck M.S. (Series editor), London.
Silverman, D. (2006), Interpreting Qualitative Data - Methods for Analyzing Talk, Text
and Interaction, 3
edition, Sage Publications.

Travers, M. (2001), Qualitative Research through Case Studies, Sage Publications.
Wisker, G. (2001), The Postgraduate Research Handbook, Palgrave Study Guides.