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C Cr ri it ti iq qu ue e o of f M Mo on nt te es ss so or ri i M Me et th ho od d: :
In the early 1900s, Italian educator and physician Maria Montessori
developed an innovative teaching methodology for children that left an
indelible mark on education curricula throughout the world. Montessori
education is a sensory-based pedagogy that is based on the belief that children
learn at their own pace through manipulation of objects.
Studies show that Montessori students tend to achieve at a greater rate
than students in traditional programs; however, critics say that the method is
insufficiently standardized, and its efficacy has not been deeply evaluated
(The
Montessori Method, December 28, 2010)
.
A wide range of conflicting criticisms have been leveled at the
Montessori Method. Some parents believe the Montessori environment leaves
the children too free while others see the Montessori Method as stifling to
creativity. Some see Montessori schools as elitist prep schools for preschoolers


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while others question Montessori teaching priorities, and decry children
spending time on such menial tasks as washing tables or arranging flowers.
Some parents are put off by what they view to be Montessori teachers'
unusual manners: some may appear too subdued, others too stern, none of
them necessarily praising or teaching the children in a conventional manner
(K12
academics, December 21, 2010)
.
Many opponents argue that the Montessori Method cannot be accepted
as a legitimate pedagogy due to the lack of standardized concepts and training
methods. However, Montessori educators argue that although students may
choose to work alone, they are allowed to interact with their peers about
different topics during the activities. Other critics describe the Montessori
Method as mechanistic, cold, too academic, and as not meeting the
developmentally appropriate needs of the child.
Although the Montessori Method has been largely embraced in the
United States, its pedagogical principles have never been formally accepted by
administrators and policymakers in traditional/mainstream school systems.
Due to its lack of academic assessment, it is largely neglected by scholars. The
dearth of empirical data in the field prevents researchers from drawing
accurate conclusions about the validity of the method. However, the success


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and growth of Montessori in this country to this point has been achieved with
almost no assistance from the government and the educational establishment .
Programs are also restricted due to the lack of trained Montessori
professionals, the costs of implementing and maintaining new programs and
the reluctance of administrators to embrace an ideology that deviates so far
from traditional subject-based pedagogy. Other limitations result from Maria
Montessoris belief that that she was the only person who was qualified to
train other Montessori educators, and that learning tools must be limited to
the original objects she designed. Despite these limitations, Montessori
programs continue to flourish in all levels of private and public schools systems
in the United States and abroad.
In Montessori classroom concepts, such as textbooks, grades, exams,
punishment, rewards, and homework, are rarely embraced or applied. Unlike
traditional methods of instruction, the progressive approach focuses on
cooperation rather than competition and personal growth rather than peer
evaluation.
Research indicated that Montessori students performed well on
standardized tests and demonstrated higher levels of learning than their peers


9
when tested later in life. Recent empirical data suggested that some young
Montessori children were able to master reading and writing before age sex.
Furthermore, a comprehensive evaluation of middle school programs in the
U.S. showed that, Montessori students reported greater affect, potency,
intrinsic motivation, flow experience and undivided interest while engaged in
activities during school
(The Montessori Method, December 28, 2010)
.
C Cr ri it ti iq qu ue e o of f M Mo on nt te es ss so or ri i M Me et th ho od d b by y B Be eh ha av vi io or ra al l T Th he eo or ry y: :
M Mo on nt te es ss so or ri i P Pr ri in nc ci ip pl le es s: :
One underlying premise of the Montessori Method is that each child
possesses an inner power that motivates them to seek out specific activities
and interactions. The purpose of the classroom was to create a prepared
environment where the student was free to discover and advance his or her
unique power while disciplined enough to stay focused on a specific series of
tasks. With this progressive approach, learning becomes a complex process of
making sense of new information through reflection and interaction .Rather
than sitting through a traditional collective lesson; students achieve what
Montessori referred to as auto-education by working independently under


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the direction of a pedagogic apparatus of their choice
(The Montessori Method,
December 28, 2010)
.
W Wh hi il le e B Be eh ha av vi io or ra al l T Th he eo or ry y P Pr ri in nc ci ip pl le es s a ar re e: :
1. Behavior that is positively reinforced will reoccur; intermittent
reinforcement is particularly effective.
2. Information should be presented in small amounts so that responses can be
reinforced (shaping).
3. Reinforcements will generalize across similar stimuli (stimulus
generalization) producing secondary conditioning.
Behavioral theories support a number of different approaches to
teaching. Almost all of them fall under the general category of "direct" or
"teacher-centered" instruction. The approaches include tutorials, drill and
practice, behavioral simulations, and programmed instruction. An approach
that combines all these teaching strategies into one "system" is called an
"integrated learning system".



11
The theory of B.F. Skinner is based upon the idea that learning is a
function of change in overt behavior. Changes in behavior are the result of an
individual's response to events (stimuli) that occur in the environment .When a
particular Stimulus-Response (S-R) pattern is reinforced (rewarded), the
individual is conditioned to respond.
Reinforcement is the key element in Skinner's S-R theory. A reinforce is
anything that strengthens the desired response. It could be verbal praise, a
good grade or a feeling of increased accomplishment or satisfaction. The
theory also covers negative reinforcement, any stimulus that results in the
increased frequency of a response when it is withdrawn (different from
aversive stimuli, punishment, which result in reduced responses). A great deal
of attention was given to schedules of reinforcement (e.g. interval versus ratio)
and their effects on establishing and maintaining behavior .
Learning as a process focuses on what happens when the learning takes
place. Explanations of what happens constitute learning theories. A learning
theory is an attempt to describe how people and animals learn; thereby
helping us understands the inherently complex process of learning. Learning
theories have two chief values according to Hill. One is in providing us with
vocabulary and a conceptual framework for interpreting the examples of


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learning that we observe. The other is in suggesting where to look for solutions
to practical problems. The theories do not give us solutions, but they do direct
our attention to those variables that are crucial in finding solutions.
Behaviorism focuses only on the objectively observable aspects of
learning. In essence, three basic assumptions are held to be true. First, learning
is manifested by a change in behavior. Second, the environment shapes
behavior. And third, the principles of contiguity (how close in time two events
must be for a bond to be formed) and reinforcement (any means of increasing
the likelihood that an event will be repeated) are central to explaining the
learning process. For behaviorism, learning is the acquisition of new behavior
through conditioning.
Operant conditioning where there is reinforcement of the behavior by a
reward or a punishment. The theory of operant conditioning was developed by
B.F. Skinner and is known as Radical Behaviorism. The word operant refers to
the way in which behavior operates on the environment. Briefly, a behavior
may result either in reinforcement, which increases the likelihood of the
behavior recurring, or punishment, which decreases the likelihood of the
behavior recurring. It is important to note that, a punishment is not considered
to be applicable if it does not result in the reduction of the behavior, and so


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the terms punishment and reinforcement are determined as a result of the
actions. Within this framework, behaviorists are particularly interested in
measurable changes in behavior
(Operant Conditioning, B.F. Skinner, December 21, 2010)
.
In behaviorist theory a child's mind is a "blank slate" or an "empty
vessel" to be gradually filled by the environment. Whereas Montessori
believed that children were not a blank slate and that the traditional learning
methods such as recitation, memorization and conditioning failed to develop
necessary life skills and individual abilities
(The Montessori Method, December 28, 2010)
.
C Cr ri it ti iq qu ue e o of f M Mo on nt te es ss so or ri i M Me et th ho od d b by y C Co og gn ni it ti iv ve e D De ev ve el lo op pm me en nt t: :
Piaget's theory of cognitive development is a comprehensive theory
about the nature and development of human intelligence first developed by
Jean Piaget. It is primarily known as a developmental stage theory, but in fact,
it deals with the nature of knowledge itself and how humans come gradually to
acquire it, construct it, and use it. Moreover, Piaget claims the idea that
cognitive development is at the centre of human organism and language is
contingent on cognitive development Cognitive theories look beyond behavior
to explain brain-based learning
(Wikipedia, December 27, 2010)
.


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According to Montessori, from birth to age 3 the child learns primarily
through the unconscious absorbent mind. During education in the first three
years, Montessori believed that it was necessary for the parents to develop in
the role of unobtrusive educator; there to protect and guide without infringing
on the childs right to self-discovery
(The Montessori Method, December 28, 2010)
. This mental
ability allows children to learn many concepts . The Cognitive Development
theory holds that mental growth is the most important element in children's
development
(Trawick- Smith, 2006)
. But Montessori observed that effective teaching
styles required the establishment of a sensory rich environment that offered
interactive yet independent learning opportunities. In this educational
playground" children could choose from a variety of developmental activities
that promoted learning by doing. Montessori believed that it was necessary to
train the senses before training the mind
(The Montessori Method, December 28, 2010)
.
Montessori exaggerated to emphasize the importance of caring for the
senses, sight and hearing said that the senses are the basis of mental
development windows of knowledge. Montessori neglected the development
of imagination in its educational programs because they are very stressed on
the senses
(K12 academics, December 21, 2010)
.
Piaget's theory Learning process = assimilation + accommodation


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Through studying the field of education Piaget focused on
accommodation and assimilation. Assimilation, one of two processes coined by
Jean Piaget, describes how humans perceive and adapt to new information. It
is the process of taking ones environment and new information and fitting it
into pre-existing cognitive schemas. Assimilation occurs when humans are
faced with new or unfamiliar information and refer to previously learned
information in order to make sense of it. Accommodation, unlike assimilation
is the process of taking ones environment and new information, and altering
ones pre-existing schemas in order to fit in the new information
(Wikipedia, December
27, 2010)
.
In Montessoris method students were able to teach themselves through
critical interaction in a prepared environment containing interconnected
tasks which gradually required higher levels of cognitive thought .which means
freedom for self- directed ,allow children to choose their own activities This
freedom allows children to follow their inner guidance for self-directed
learning. Children are grouped in mixed ages and abilities based on three to
six-year increments such as 0-3, 3-6, 6-12, 15- 12 and 15-18
(The Montessori Method,
December 28, 2010)
.


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B Bu ut t C Co og gn ni it ti iv ve e t th he eo or ry y s st ta ag ge es s a ar re e: :


C Cr ri it ti iq qu ue e o of f M Mo on nt te es ss so or ri i M Me et th ho od d b by y S So oc ci io oc cu ul lt tu ur ra al l t th he eo or ry y: :
Vygotsky's socio-cultural theory is widely cited by educators even today,
as they formulate plans on how to get the most from students, challenging
them to reach their highest potential. Vygoysky's belief that social interaction
leads not only to increased levels of knowledge, but that it actually changes a
child's thoughts and behaviors. Since it is the goal of parents and educators
alike to help children become high achievers. In another word, Sociocultural
theory that holds thinking and learning are highly influenced by social
interaction, language, and culture
(Kid's development, December 21, 2010)
.
In Montessori schools, students spend the majority of their time
participating in different sessions of uninterrupted activities that last


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approximately three hours. These projects consist of independent and group
problem-solving tasks and other sensory activities related to math, science,
language, history, geography, art, music and nature
(The Montessori Method, December 28,
2010)
. Montessori Method and Sociocultural theory both goals are for children
to learn to solve problems independently.
Vygotsky believed that learning begins at birth and continues
throughout all of life. One of the most important ways that advancements in
development are achieved is through what Vygotsky called "the zone of
proximal development." Vygotsky described ZPD as "...the distance between
the actual development levels as determined by independent solving problem
and the level of potential development as determined through problem solving
under adult guidance (Scaffolding) or in collaboration with more capable peers
(Kid's development, December 21, 2010)
.
Also, Montessori Method focuses on cooperation. Students between the
ages of 6-18 are required to complete a series of small group tasks in their
surrounding communities as well as the classroom. During this age grouping,
children are expected to explore a wider world and develop rational problem
solving, cooperative social relations, imagination, aesthetics, and complex
cultural knowledge in order to reconstruct themselves as social beings and


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humanistic explorers, real-world problem solvers, and rational seekers of
justice"
(The Montessori Method, December 28, 2010)
.
C Cr ri it ti iq qu ue e o of f M Mo on nt te es ss so or ri i M Me et th ho od d b by y H Hu um ma an ni is st ti ic c t th he eo or ry y: :
Humanistic theory is based upon the idea that everyone has the
potential to make a contribution to society and be a good and likeable person,
if their needs are fulfilled. Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers led the humanistic
theory movement and it was Maslow who developed the "pyramid of needs"
(Hub pages, December 22, 2010)
. Also, in Montessori method based the idea that all
children have inherent inner directive from nature that guide their true normal
development.
Maslow believed that fulfilling the needs in the correct order would
allow individuals to become self actualized, fully able persons. So only after the
basic physiological needs such as food, shelter, warmth are met can
individuals move on to the next stages; the need to feel secure, to be loved
and accepted etc.
It adopts a holistic approach to human existence through investigations
of meaning, values, freedom, tragedy, personal responsibility, human


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potential, spirituality, and self-actualization . Self-help is also included in
humanistic psychology
(Wikipedia, December 29, 2010)
.
As one concept of Montessori Method is that each child possesses an
inner power that motivates them to seek out specific activities and
interactions. The purpose of the classroom was to create a prepared
environment where the student was free to discover and advance his or her
unique power while disciplined enough to stay focused on a specific series of
tasks. Montessori teachers introduce materials with a brief lesson and
demonstration and then passively guide the audience through a period of
student-centered inquiry. The objective of the instructor is to motivate
students, allowing them to develop confidence and inner discipline so that
there is less and less of a need to intervene as the child develops. So
Montessori Method entitles children to become self actualized, fully able
persons
(The Montessori Method, December 28, 2010)
.
C Cr ri it ti iq qu ue e o of f M Mo on nt te es ss so or ri i M Me et th ho od d b by y P Ps sy yc ch ho oa an na al ly yt ti ic c t th he eo or ry y: :
A theory that holds that emotional development is influenced by
tensions between internal desires and impulses and the demands of the
outside world .In Psychoanalytic theory learning = developing self- regulation


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(Trawick- Smith, 2006)
, but in Montessori Method is that each child possesses an inner
power that motivates them to seek out specific activities and interactions. The
purpose of the classroom was to create a prepared environment where the
student was free to discover and advance his or her unique power while
disciplined enough to stay focused on a specific series of tasks. With this
progressive approach, learning becomes
(The Montessori Method, December 28, 2010)
.
Major psychoanalysts referenced in psychoanalytic theory include
Sigmund Freud. Freud claims personality develops through resolving conflicts
between pressures from inner and outer world.

Freud perspective

Id
Instinctual drives and desires
(primarily sexual)
Present at birth

Ego
Rational self that regulates Id
Develops throughout
childhood

Superego
Cultural values and mores
(conscience)
End of childhood

(Trawick- Smith, 2006)

Whereas in Montessori Method thereis no conflict between inner and outer
world.



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C Cr ri it ti iq qu ue e o of f M Mo on nt te es ss so or ri i M Me et th ho od d b by y E Ec co ol lo og gi ic ca al l s sy ys st te em ms s t th he eo or ry y: :
This theory looks at a childs development within the context of the
system of relationships that form his or her environment. Bronfenbrenners
theory defines complex layers of environment, each having an effect on a
childs development. Changes or conflict in any one layer will ripple throughout
other layers. To study a childs development then, we must look not only at the
child and her immediate environment, but also at the interaction of the larger
environment as well.
Ecological
SYSTEM

INSTITUTIONS

Microsystem
Direct: family, school, day care center, pediatrician, church,
playground

Mesosystem
Interconnections among people and institutions in microsystem

Exosystem
Indirect: Extended family, family friends, legal system,
workplace, mass media

Macrosystem

Values, attitudes, laws, customs of society or culture
(Trawick- Smith, 2006)

Montessori Method doesn't divide the influences of environment on the
children development as Bronfenbrenner did, but it involved them indirect
through educational playground in the centre care children could choose
from a variety of developmental activities that promoted learning by doing.


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Also students in Montessori' school interact with other students and teachers
in the class sharing experiences which effect on a childs development .in
home with family and friends in neighborhood
(The Montessori Method, December 28, 2010)
.
Some critics argue that Collective social activities do not occupy a
prominent place in the curriculum of Montessori as the approach is based on
taking into account the psychological aspects more than the social aspects.
According to the ecological theory, if the relationships in the immediate
microsystem break down, the child will not have the tools to explore other
parts of his environment. Children looking for the affirmations that should be
present in the child/parent (or child/other important adult) relationship look
for attention in inappropriate places. This theory has dire implications for the
practice of teaching. Knowing about the breakdown occurring within childrens
homes, it necessary for schools and teachers to provide stable, long-term
relationships. Yet, Bronfenbrenner believes that the primary relationship needs
to be with someone who can provide a sense of caring that is meant to last a
lifetime. This relationship must be fostered by a person or people within the
immediate sphere of the childs influence. Schools and teachers fulfill an
important secondary role, but cannot provide the complexity of interaction
that can be provided by primary adults.


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While In Montessori schools, students spend the majority of their time
participating in different sessions of uninterrupted activities that last
approximately three hours. These projects consist of independent and group
problem-solving tasks and other sensory activities related to math, science,
language, history, geography, art, music and nature. The integrated curriculum
follows accept of breaking difficult tasks down into a series of simple steps that
can be gradually achieved by the patient. During the rehabilitation process,
patients are also encouraged to identify their strengths and interests by
participating in a variety of enriching activities that model the traditional
Montessori classroom. The primary role of a Montessori educator is to
carefully observe while creating a cooperative and supportive setting that is
well organized and aesthetically pleasing to the learners. The teacher performs
the overseer role by directing the spontaneous" actions of the students.
According to Montessori, education is not something which the teacher does,
but rather a natural process which develops spontaneously in the human being
(The Montessori Method, December 28, 2010)
.
Despite the many criticisms that were directed to this method of
education has spread in all countries of the world as it was to many
amendments in the games and the means and regularity "and the best
conclusion to this situation is the comment that said Kalpaturk (Kilpatric) on


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the efforts of Maria after a comprehensive study, he said," I made Montessori
of itself the best example of what should be the mother in the home and
educator in the kindergarten, and teacher in elementary school, including
confirmed from the faces of the adoption of the child itself and limited
intervention in its affairs on the narrower borders and shortened the time of
the lesson, which raises the longing and pay the boredom and draws attention
is paid to work and calls for Iqbal and published in the school develop a normal
life tendencies and capabilities. ". John Dewey said, "Every game from Games
Montessori obscure the difficulty of the difficulties which require a child to
overcome them". As if Dewey defends Maria and stresses that its approach to
innovation and solve practical cares and problems.
C Ch ha al ll le en ng gi in ng g o of f M Mo on nt te es ss so or ri i M Me et th ho od d: :
Montessori classroom has about 30 students or more which needs
teacher to direct them when they are going through their free choose activities
and that may will put more pressure and stress to motivate all of them.
Moreover, each group of students in Montessori classroom is based to collect
students who have same interest instead of their abilities, so there are
individual variations in the skills which might affect young children's learning.


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Teachers in Montessori school have responsibility to send child's
portfolio during specific time in year to parents to evaluate and that need to
provide clear and specific information that fit with child's success from
observing students
(The Montessori Method, December 28, 2010)
.
Furthermore, students don't use to respect their teacher because they
are use to work together and helping each other
( EduQnA, December 28, 2010)
.
Montessori based her belief from observation Italian children and
designed her materials to fit them and she use different materials to reflect
their local environment. That means there are changes in the materials when
other cultures want to use her ideas and that for sure has difficulties
(Swaraj,
December 28, 2010)
.

There is a challenging when the students transfer from Montessori
school to traditional classroom because in traditional school, the students use
to memorize the facts and concepts, in contrast, Montessori's students are
independent thinkers and they learn by their nurture
(The international Montessori council,
September 19, 2006 )
.
The children who are in Montessori school do what they want because
they use to have freedom to choose what they prefer and that will be difficult
for parents to deal with them
( Montessori for all, December 28, 2010)
.


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S So ol lu ut ti io on ns s: :
All over the world, Montessori materials should be suitable with local
environment that children live in and fit with culture. In addition, the most
important elements in Montessori school is providing trained-Montessori
teachers
(Montessori FAQ's, December 28, 2010)
.
When student move from Montessori school to traditional one, they
should consider the differences between them and let students to adjust with
that new situation by using their abilities with help from the teacher.
In the case of Montessori classroom, it should be more comfortable
and let student to move freely, so the class should has large stances. Also, we
need to decrease the number of students in each class to make the
observation essay for the teacher and to provide more clear information about
student's abilities which included in the children's file.
D De eb ba at te es s: :
Sense training: Montessori strongly believed in the formal training of
senses but the modern psychology said there no need for special training
because the senses develop with whole mind.


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Imagination: In this case, Montessori didn't focus on imagination and
she emphasized realities only. Imagination is developed through stories on
reading time which is necessary to improve inventive talent of a student.
The didactic apparatus in Montessori school is costly and most school in
developing countries cannot have the same which limit Montessori school
from expanding and growing. Also, it is difficult to have trained teachers who
are significant observer and directress in developing countries like India.
In biological individuality: Every child, as Montessori believes, has his
power and ability but she didn't point out his feeling or character or
temperament which shapes one's individuality
(Mohanty et al., 1996)
.
Unfortunately, there are some school use the word'' Montessori'' which
aren't use Montessori method, so many parents who want their children to
learn by Montessori method register in these schools because this word is not
trademarked or has formal licensed
(Vammus, December 28, 2010)
.
Many argue to accept Montessori Method because it has a lack in
standardized concepts. About 5,000 schools in USA use Montessori ideas, only
20% of them are associated with an official Montessori governing and 60% are
associated institutions that provide assistance in curriculum. Moreover, many
opponents see that a Montessori program is too academic and cold and isn't


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linking with developmentally needs of the students
(The Montessori Method, December 28,
2010)
.
This method doesn't provide opportunities for ''learning to learn''.
Because each activity has own goal to achieve and they learn after they finish
it, so the learning process is restricted instead developed. Although there is
motivation to learn as Montessori believes, but this method doesn't allow to
the student to reach higher levels of thinking or complex ideas. Another
debate says that didactic materials limited both creativity and innovation
because Montessori designed materials to promote self-correcting, so that
don't allow children to use his own way of manipulating the materials.
In intelligent: Montessori had belief that intelligence is inherited in
children. However, recent research proved that human has multiple
intelligences that are learnable and enhance in several ways such as linguistic,
musical and mathematical
(Swaraj, December 28, 2010)
.
Montessori points out that that no need of punishment and rewards to
encourage children to learn, but both rewards and punishment have their
benefits to adjust behaviours and nurture is not enough to do that specially in
the group that has infants and toddlers
(Montessori world, December 28, 2010)
.




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A Ad da ap pt ta at ti io on n t to o l lo oc ca al l l le ev ve el l ( (O Om ma an ni i S So oc ci ie et ty y) ): :
Here in Oman, there are few Montessori schools or even class in the
public school because most of schools in Oman follow traditional method as
way to teach the students. There is day care in Muscat and it is called National
Nursery Montessori. Their program is for children who are 1.5 to 6 years old
(National Nursery Montessori, December 28, 2010)
.

This school is too expensive and not all people in Oman can put their
children in it. Also, this school is in Muscat only, so the children on the others
regions cannot be there. Moreover, there is a special class in the Early
Intervention Centre to aid children with special needs by using Montessori
Method. But there are no high schools that provide Montessori materials.
On the other hand, there is no serious plan to apply Montessori ideas in
the public or private schools because there are needs to adapt the materials to
fit with the local environment and children needs in Oman. Also, there is no
wide awareness of Montessori Method in Omani society because there is no
committee or programs that specialize in introducing Montessori beliefs.
When the ministry of education decide to apply Montessori Method in
schools, it needs to change the curriculums and design the classes and divide
them in sections and each section has its learning purpose. The ministry should


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consider using didactic equipments that are appropriate for Montessori
Method and Omani values and student's needs. In addition, the ministry
should provide courses to train the Montessori-teachers because there are no
trained Omani teachers that are professional in directness and observations.
All that demanding comes after well planned plans.
S Su ug gg ge es st ti io on ns s: :
There are important suggestions for parents, teachers, administrator
and policy makers.
*For parents:
1- Supporting your children by providing most enjoyable Montessori's
materials at home especially when they learn practical life activities such as
cleaning and meal preparation or wearing their shoes.
2- Trying to visit your children at Montessori school and observe them to know
their abilities.
3- Be awareness to evaluate your child's file when the teacher sends it.
4-Interact in right way when children come from the school and provide
educational toy that develop creativity sense.


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5- Be sure that the school that you register your child in is provide and apply
Montessori materials and ideas in teaching because the name'' Montessori'
' is not protected.
6- Let to children to move and choose freely and teach them independence.
7- Talk with child and ask him questions and respect what he says, so that
helps them to learn communication which he needs in Montessori
classroom to communicate and work together with his peers.
8- Participate in Montessori parenting group to get more knowledge.
* For teachers:
1- Having the abilities to observe children during they do their free-choose
activities and knowing how to direct the children when they need a help.
2- Provide clear and specific information about child skills in his file which is
sending to the parents in period time of the year.
3- Advice the parents to use Montessori materials at their home to aid child
development and also to come to the school to be know about their child
abilities and successes. Also, provide to them advices to go and participate
in Montessori parenting groups.
4- Attending to the courses that are special in training teachers who work on
Montessori schools and know all new news about that subject.


32
5-as you can, avoid interrupting when the child focus in the activity that is in
his or her hand.
6- Having knowledge about each child's developmentally needs and introduce
to him appropriate activities that assist him.
* For administrator:
1-Providing courses to the teachers to improve their abilities which will
benefits for learning process in the schools.
2- The ministry should provide Montessori materials in the school which
applying Montessori ideas because they are too expensive.
3- Providing programs that introduce and tell people about Montessori
Method in education and also introduce school facilities.
4- Provide inspectors that observe the school which using Montessori Method
and observe the curriculums that the school follows and know what the
school needs to assist it.
5- Providing a place where Montessori parenting groups can meet to discuss
their problems or their ideas to improve school programs.



33
* For policy makers:
1-Opening Montessori class in public schools to assist both teachers and
students in the learning process.
2- Devoting money to assist the ministry in providing Montessori materials to
the schools which need them and to organize courses to train teachers.
3- Organizing conferences relate to Montessori Method and how can apply this
method in local environment and trying to get benefits from the countries
that have successful experiments in that side.
4- Having laws about using the word'' Montessori '' in the schools.
5- Expanding Montessori schools in all places and don't limited them in one
place.
6- Providing good individual living style that assist families to provide
Montessori educational environment at home.