Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 5

Analysis of Chinese Natural Gas Interchangeability Predicted by Weaver

Indices
Zhi-Guang Chen
1, a
, Chao-Kui Qin
2,b
, Yang-Jun Zhang
3,c
, Ju Qiu
4,d

College of Mechanical Engineering, Tongi !ni"er#i$%, &hanghai 2'''(2, China
a
chen)higuang*$ongi+edu+cn,
b
c,-in*$ongi+edu+cn,
c
)%$ongi*1.3+co/,
d
ufel-*1.3+co/
Keywords: na$ural ga#0 12G0 in$erchangeabili$%0 3ea"er 4ndice#0 4nco/5le$e Co/bu#$ion0 1if$ing
Abstract: Many cities in China are being supplied with natural gases from different sources including
PNGs (Pipeline Natural Gas) and LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas), critical attention should be paid to
natural gas interchangeability problems !n this paper, the applicability of "ea#er !ndices for Chinese
natural gas interchangeability prediction has been discussed $%periment with &' sets of domestic gas
appliances and && natural gases about &(' test conditions has been done to analy)e the
interchangeability !t can conclude from e%periment results that some sources of natural gas cannot be
interchangeable, and "ea#er !ndices isn*t totally suitable to predict lifting and incomplete
combustion performance for Chinese natural gas interchangeability !t suggests the limits of
!ncomplete Combustion J
I
should be changed into J
I
+,,- and Lifting J
L
to J
L
.,/0
Introduction
Gas interchangeability is not a new concept 1&234 !n the &/5,2',6s a considerable amount of wor7
was completed particularly in the 89: and $urope ;his wor7 was triggered by the need for step
changes from a manufactured (town) gas to natural gas <owe#er, interchangeability has come
increasingly to the fore o#er the past ten years due to the increase in cross2border transport of gas, and
more particularly the rapidly de#eloping world mar7et in liquefied natural gas (LNG) 1=254
!n China, it used to predict the interchangeability of multi2source natural gas by !nde% methods,
including :G: !ndices and "ea#er !ndices "ea#er !ndices were put forward by $lmer > "ea#er in
&/0& which is based on the e%perience and e%periment data of :G: research, including si% indices?
<eat >ate (J
H
), Primary :ir >atio (J
A
), @lashbac7 (J
F
), Lifting (J
L
), !ncomplete Combustion (J
I
) and
Aellow tipping (J
Y
) Primary :ir >atio (J
A
) is an inde% of interchangeability with respect to air supply
@lashbac7 (J
F
) is a proposed inde% for flashbac7 @or gases that are e%actly interchangeable with
respect to flashbac7, J
F
B, <eat >ate (J
H
) is an inde% of interchangeability with respect to rate at
which heat is produced @or gases e%actly interchangeable in this respect, J
H
B& !ncomplete
Combustion (J
I
) is a proposed inde% for incomplete combustion @or gases e%actly interchangeable in
this respect, J
I
B, Lifting (J
L
) is a proposed inde% of interchangeability with respect to lifting @or
gases that are e%actly interchangeable in this respect, J
L
B& Aellow tipping (J
Y
) is a proposed inde%
for interchangeability with respect to yellow tips @or gases that are e%actly interchangeable in this
respect, J
Y
B,1'2/4
Nowadays with increasingly import of LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas) in China, more and more
cities will meet the situation of multi2source natural gas !f only using "ea#er !ndices &/0& to predict
interchangeability and control gas quality, it seemed to cause serious interchange problems 9o it*s
necessary to study the applicability of "ea#er !ndices &/0& in predicting interchangeability for
Chinese urban natural gas
!n this paper, ta7ing Guangdong pro#ince as an e%ample, &' sets of gas appliances of different
brands were selected as representati#es to e%perimentally in#estigate the interchangeability of &&
7inds of natural gases including PNG (Pipeline Natural Gas) and LNG in Guangdong mar7ets
Comparing with the e%periment results and "ea#er !ndices prediction, applicability and Cudgments of
"ea#er !ndices to predict Chinese natural gas interchangeability has been done
Advanced Materials Research Vols. 724-725 (2013) pp 1017-1020
Online available since 2013/Aug/16 at www.scientific.net
(2013) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland
doi:10.4028/www.scientific.net/AMR.724-725.1017
All rights reserved. No part of contents of this paper may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means without the written permission of TTP,
www.ttp.net. (ID: 148.247.69.12, CINVESTAV IPN, Mexico, Mexico-13/03/14,21:30:53)

Material and Methods
Gas Appliances and Gas Sources. 9ince 3,,5 the Dapeng LNG ;erminals operating, Guangdong
has proposed && 7inds of natural gas including LNG, PNG and offshore natural gas !t is not a#ailable
to get LNG and natural gas from different sources in the laboratory, so all the natural gases used were
blended by pure single gas with PNG, ensuring the e%periment mi%tures ha#e the same wobbe inde%,
combustion potential and single component as the target gas &' sets of gas appliances of different
brands, including 9quare2, circular2(round2) and rotating slot types of ports were selected as
representati#es for gas appliances a#ailable in Guangdong mar7ets Eefore e%periment, initial
adCustments for all gas appliances were made by means of carefully setting the primary air shutters
under Aue%i LNG3 whose "obbe !nde% is about 5,F of all the other gases according :G: flame
code, to achie#e bright inner cones and moderate height of flames :fterwards performance responses
of all &' sets of appliances were measured under && gases according to Chinese national standard GE
&5-&,23,,' (Domestic gas coo7ing appliances) with the air shutters of all the sampled appliances
remaining unchanged
Experimental Equipment. ;he e%periment equipment is mainly including two parts? gas blending
facilities and gas appliance testing rig
;he gas blending system includes mi%ing pure single gas with PNG to get the target gas replacing
natural gas from different sources During e%periment, pure single gas and PNG metered by using the
same gas meter entered a 0m
=
wet storage tan7 alternati#ely ;he mi%ed gases were stirred by a
built2in fan within the tan7 to ensure all components uniformly mi%ed Gas samples were analy)ed by
a gas chromatography at proper inter#al :nalysis results show that the wobbe inde% de#iations of
mi% gas from that of target gases is less than &F, and components remain stable Gas appliance testing
rig was built according to Chinese national standards GE&5-&,23,,' 82shape pressure gauge and a
mercury thermometer together with a gas meter were used to meter flow rates of PNG and other single
gases
Interchangeability prediction. !n this paper, method of "ea#er !ndices was used to predict the
interchangeability between Aue%i LNG3 as the reference gas and the other ten 7inds of natural gases
as the substitute gases ;he prediction results are shown in ;able&
;hrough the "ea#er indices prediction, e%cept two 7inds of lean natural gases, 9ichuan natural gas
and <ui)hou offshore gas will cause the change of heat input :ll the gas appliances will not appear
combustion problems !t means that all natural gases can be interchangeable with Aue%i LNG3 by the
prediction of "ea#er !ndices theoretically
;able & Prediction results of "ea#er !ndices
Index J
A
J
H
J
F
J
L
J
Y
J
I

Limit ,(,&3, ,/0&,0 +,35 .,5- +,=, +,,0
;ur7menistan Gas ,/0/' ,/0/- ,,=0= ,/=/0 2,,5(= 2,,-03
9ichuan Natural Gas ,/=/5 ,/=/3 ,,-'0 ,/,-( 2,&-30 2,,'5-
<ui)hou offshore Gas ,/-(, ,/-(3 ,,5&& ,/=', 2,,-== 2,,-//
Dapeng LNG &,=&3 &,=&& 2,,=&' &,-=0 ,,/,' ,,-,/
Auedong LNG ,//3' ,//3- 2,,,=- ,/'/3 2,,03- 2,,&0'
Liwan offshore Gas &,&00 &,&-/ 2,,3&0 &,&0' ,&30/ ,,==5
Ghuhai Lean LNG ,/(35 ,/(33 ,,,03 ,/5=( 2,,'3( 2,,3'(
Ghuhai >ich LNG &,==5 &,==- 2,,='= &,-=( ,&,&5 ,,--'
Aue%i LNG& ,/'-( ,/'-= ,,,(5 ,/-(' 2,,//( 2,,=/5
&3;2, ,/(0& ,/(-5 2,,,&( ,/53( 2,,/(0 2,,=&&
Results and Discussion
During the e%periment, it was found that no flash2bac7 and yellow2tipping for all the gas appliances,
so it is mainly to discuss lifting and incomplete combustion of "ea#er !ndices
1018 Applied Energy Technology

omparison !ith " emission and #ea$er index J
I
. !n the e%periment, it ta7es a gas emission
sample at point outside the appliance abo#e the burner ;he most difficult aspect of measuring CH is
that se#eral of the appliance burners burn with high e%cess air or that the sample gas is composed of a
high percent of air !n order to compare #alues for samples with different dilution percentages of air,
the CH #alues are corrected to a standard #alue ;he units for CH is ppm or parts per million in the
sample ;he change of CH emission with the gas composition doesn*t follow any regular pattern, but
the #alues of the most samples are under 0,,ppm !n GE&5-&,23,,' it prescribed that CH emission
(air2free) must not be higher than 0,,ppm :ccording to the responses of &' 7inds of gas appliances in
&& 7inds of natural gases, the statistics of gas appliances which are qualified on CH emission are
shown in figure & ;he percentage of gas appliance which is qualified on CH emission is under (,F
during Dapeng LNG, Ghuhai rich LNG and Ghuhai lean LNG as the substitute gas, and others are
abo#e (,F

@igure & 9tatistics of qualified appliances on CH emission and the #alue of J
I

@rom the definition of interchangeability based on NGCI 134, it is reasonable to belie#e that if the
percentage of gas appliance which is qualified on CH emission is e%ceed (,F, it will not cause
materially increasing air pollutant emissions, and it is li7e to consider that the substitute gases can be
interchangeable 9o it will cause CH emission problem when Dapeng LNG, Ghuhai rich LNG and
Ghuhai lean LNG as the substitute gases interchange with Aue%i LNG3;he !ncomplete Combustion
J
I
of Ghuhai rich LNG and Dapeng LNG is ,,--' and ,,-,/, both of them are in the limit range and
will not cause materially increasing CH emissions during natural gases interchanging, according to
"ea#er !ndices with the J
I
+,,0, which is conflict with the e%perimental results
Comparing with the prediction results of !ncomplete Combustion J
I
and the test results, it can
conclude? "ea#er !ndices can*t be totally suitable when it*s used to predict incomplete combustion
for Chinese urban natural gas interchangeability ;he prediction results will basically consistent with
the test results, if the limit of !ncomplete Combustion J
I
is changed into J
I
+,,-
omparison !ith %i&ting and #ea$er index J
L
. :ccording to Chinese national standard GE
&5-&,23,,', it can be determined lifting with more than one2third fire holes are flame out after &0
seconds from igniting the main burner on cold condition ;esting lifting flame of the &' 7inds of gas
appliances with different substitute gases, the results is shown in figure 3

@igure3 9tatistics of lifting gas appliances and the #alue of J
L

@rom figure 3, the percentage of gas appliance lifting is o#er &0F with no less than = of &' gas
appliances flameout during 9ichuan Natural Gas, <ui)hou offshore Gas, ;ur7menistan Gas and
Aue%i LNG& as the substitute gas, and the number of lifting gas appliances is 3 for Ghuhai Lean LNG
and &3;2, PNG with percentage of &&(F, none gas appliance lifting for other target gas !t is
Advanced Materials Research Vols. 724-725 1019

reasonable to belie#e that it will not cause materially changing performance on lifting and substitute
gases can be interchangeable with the rate of gas appliance flameout under &0F!t means with Aue%i
LNG3, the four 7inds of natural gases, 9ichuan Natural Gas, <ui)hou offshore Gas, ;ur7menistan
Gas and Aue%i LNG&, cannot be interchangeable "ith the "ea#er inde% J
L
.,5-, all prediction
results are in the limit range with Lifting inde% J
L
is more than ,/, it means that "ea#er Lifting inde%
predicts all the substitute gases will not cause lifting flame which is conflict with the e%perimental test
Comparing with the prediction results of Lifting J
L
and the test results, the prediction results will
basically consistent with the test results, if the limit of Lifting J
L
is changed into J
L
.,/0
onclusion
$%periment with &' sets of gas appliances under && 7inds of natural gases about &(' test conditions
has been done to analy)e the interchangeability Comparing with the e%periment results and "ea#er
!ndices prediction, it can conclude? ;he Ghuhai rich LNG and Dapeng LNG cannot be
interchangeable with Aue%i LNG3 under the "ea#er !ndices J
I
, while 9ichuan Natural Gas, <ui)hou
offshore Gas, ;ur7menistan Gas and Aue%i LNG& cannot be interchangeable under Lifting (J
L
)
"ea#er !ndices cannot be totally suitable when it is used to predict lifting and incomplete combustion
performance for Chinese urban natural gas interchangeability :ccording to e%perimental result the
limits of !ncomplete Combustion J
I
, should be changed into J
I
+,,- and Lifting J
L
to J
L
.,/0
;here is no systematic research on gas interchangeability in China, it mainly rely on $urope and
:merican methods which is not totally suitable to predict Chinese urban natural gas
interchangeability ;herefore, it*s necessary to organi)e rele#ant departments to do a systematic and
scientific research to conclude a series of prediction methods for Chinese urban natural gas
interchangeability and control methods for gas quality
Ac'no!ledgements
;his wor7 was supported by China Postdoctoral 9cience @oundation (3,&3M03,/=&)
Re&erences
1&4 NGCI !nterchangeability "or7 Group, J"hite Paper on Natural Gas !nterchangeability and
Non2Combustion $nd 8seJ 3,,0 3
134 AouCia Li 8rban Gas, no,(, pp -2&', 3,&& (!n Chinese)
1=4 $nnis, CK, LL Eotros and D $ngler JHn the Difference between 89 $%ample 9upply Gases,
$uropean Limit Gases, and their >especti#e !nterchangeability !ndicesJ :G:2Hperations
ConferenceMEiennial $%hibition, 3,,/
1-4 >ossbach, $H, <yman, 9!, J!nterchangeability? "hat !t Means, Catalog No NL,N<,3,3,
&/'(J :merican Gas :ssociation, :rlington, O: &/'(
104 <alchu72<arrington >, "ilson > J:G: Eulletin =5 and "ea#er !nterchangeability Methods?
Aesterday*s >esearch and ;oday*s ChallengesJ :G: Gas Hperations Conference, 3,,50
154 <arsha, P ;, $delman, > E, and @rance, D <, JCatalogue of $%isting !nterchangeability
Prediction Methods, @inal >eport P Phase !!, G>!2(,Q,,3&J Gas >esearch !nstitute, &/(,
1'4 AouCia Li 8rban Gasno,&, pp =2&5, 3,&, (!n Chinese)
1(4 AouCia Li 8rban Gasno,=,pp52&,, 3,,( (!n Chinese)
1/4 ;ongCi 8ni#ersity JGas Combustion and :pplicationJ China architecture Mbuilding press,
9hanghai,pp3&32333, 3,,,
1020 Applied Energy Technology
Applied Energy Technology
10.4028/www.scientific.net/AMR.724-725


Analysis of Chinese Natural Gas Interchangeability Predicted by Weaver Indices
10.4028/www.scientific.net/AMR.724-725.1017