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PNNL-SA-57500

Load Component Database of Household


Appliances and Small Office Equipment
Ning Lu, Yulong Xie, and Zhenyu Huang

Francis Puyleart and Steve Yang

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

Bonneville Power Administration

Abstract This paper discusses the development of a load


component database for household appliances and office
equipment. To develop more accurate load models at both the
transmission and distribution levels, a better understanding of the
behaviors of home appliances and office equipment associated
with the variations of the power system voltage becomes more and
more critical. The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) has
performed a series of voltage tests against home appliances and
office equipment since 2005. Since 2006, researchers at Pacific
Northwest National Laboratory have collaborated with BPA
personnel and developed a load component database based on the
appliance testing results to facilitate load modeling work for the
Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC). In this paper,
the testing procedure and results are first presented. Then, the
load model parameters are derived and grouped.
Recommendations are given for aggregating the individual
appliance models to the feeder level, the models of which are used
for distribution and transmission level studies.
Index Termsload models, appliance testing, power system
simulation.

I. INTRODUCTION
Load modeling is critical for power system stability study,
because stable operation of a power system depends on the
ability to continuously match the electrical output of generating
units to the electrical load on the system [1]. The modeling of
load is complicated because:
The number of appliance and equipment level loads is
very large.
The load characteristics of individual appliance and
equipment are diverse.
The capacity, duty cycle, and response to voltage and
frequency changes of each individual load are
different.
The exact load composition is difficult to estimate.
A better understanding of individual load characteristics will
This work is supported by Bonneville Power Administration under Contract
DE-AC05-76RL01830. Ning Lu, Yulong Xie, and Zhenyu Huang are with the
Energy Science and Technology Division, Pacific Northwest National
Laboratory, P.O. Box 999, MSIN: K5-20, Richland, WA - 99352, USA (e-mails:
ning.lu@pnl.gov, yulong.xie@pnl.gov, zhenyu.huang@pnl.gov). Steve Yang and
Francis Puyleart are with the Transmission Business Line, Bonneville Power
Administration, Vancouver, WA. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is
operated for the U.S. Department of Energy by Battelle Memorial Institute.

2008 IEEE.

lay a solid foundation to classify loads and then, group loads


with similar characteristics together. After that, a sensitivity
study on the aggregated load model can be performed to
determine the uncertainty caused by the variation of the load
composition of the individual distribution feeders.
Traditionally, the load models are classified into two broad
categories: static models and dynamic models [1]. Exponential
and polynomial model (ZIP) models are commonly used in
static load models, in which cases the response of the loads to
voltage and frequency changes is very fast and the steady state
of the response is reached very quickly. Dynamic load models
account for the dynamics of load components.
To make reasonable simplification of the aggregated load at
bulk power delivery points, it is essential to understand the
individual load characteristics. Prior to this research, there was
literature published regarding laboratory measurements and
models of modern loads [2][3]. However, these experiments
were conducted in the mid 1990s. With the advance of
technology, power electronic control devices were widely
applied to home appliance and office equipment. The load
characteristics under voltage and frequency disturbances have
changed significantly since then. Therefore, it is necessary to
update the previous database with new load model parameters
and add new models for unrepresented home appliances and
office equipment. Note that the testing conducted so far has
not included industrial load.
The paper is organized as follows. Section II introduces the
testing setup. Section III describes derivation of the model
parameters. Load model aggregation is discussed in Section
IV. Section V provides conclusion.
II. TESTING SETUPS
The appliance tests were performed in a BPA facility in
Vancouver, WA. To complete all of the tests required, a test
bed was setup as described below and in the literature [4].
1) Power Converter
A power source that regulates voltage between 0 to 132 V
and allows a current output of up to 50 A was used to power the
dish washer, washer, refrigerator, dryer, oven, and range. The
frequency can be varied between 45 and 500 Hz. The voltage
source required by the power converter is three-phase wye 480
VAC (line-to-line). Two of the three-phase outputs were used to
replicate typical house voltage. An executable code created in
LabView allows the power converter to be controlled by

PNNL-SA-57500

signals generated with MATLAB on a laptop.


2) User Interface
For an easy and safe user interface, a mock wall was created
with typical house circuit protection. A three-wire cable (+120
VAC, neutral, and -120 VAC) was run from the power converter
source to three separate 50A/50mV shunt current transformers
(CT). Source voltage measurements were taken from the
power converter source side of each shunt CT. These two
measurements provide an electrical whole system view of the
tests. From the shunt CTs, another three wire cable was run to
a 120/240V and 100A household load center. Two service
breakers were installed: one 120V/20A and the other
240V/30A. From the load center, one 240V/30A outlet and
one 120V/20A outlet were mounted to the mock wall so typical
120V/20A or 240V/30A plugs could be used.
3) Testing Scenarios
To study both the steady state and dynamic characteristics of
the appliances, the following tests were preformed: voltage
oscillation, voltage rampup, voltage rampdown and voltage
sag. Sample source voltage are shown in Figure 1. Because the
inertia of motors used in most household appliances and office
equipment are small, their response to voltage changes are very
fast. Voltage rampdown cases are, therefore, used to develop
the static load model. The voltage oscillation cases are used to
verify the performance of the static model, and the sag cases
are used to verify whether the model performance is
satisfactory when the system undergoes an abrupt change.
In the next section, the testing results are discussed, and the
derived model parameters are presented.

V
Q

(a)

(b)
Figure 2: (a) The time series plot of a voltage rampdown case,
(b) The PV and QV curves generated from the voltage
rampdown case.
The static load model is represented by ZIP models [2]:
_

P = P0 ( p1 V 2 + p2 V + p3 )
_
2

Q = Q0 ( q1 V + q2 V + q3 )
_

V
V0
where P0 and Q0 are the initial real and reactive power values,
V =

Figure 1: Sample testing signals


III. ZIP MODEL PARAMETERS DERIVATION
A static load model expresses the characteristics of the load
at any instant of time as algebraic functions of the bus voltage
magnitude and frequency at that instant [4]. This paper
focuses on developing the static load model using the testing
results obtained by 60 second voltage rampdown tests, as
shown in Figure 2.

when V is 1, and (p1, p2, p3) and (q1, q2, q3) are the coefficients
defining the proportion of each component. Curve fitting is
used to derive the model parameters from the real power versus
voltage (PV) curves and the reactive power versus voltage
(QV) curves. If motor stalling phenomena were observed for
motor type loads such as refrigerators, the loads were
represented by the single-phase motor model, the parameter
derivation of which is not discussed in this report. Please refer
to reference [4] for details.
The following home appliances have been tested: a washer, a
dryer, an oven, a range, a refrigerator, a dish washer, a

PNNL-SA-57500

Real Power

A Complete Table of ZIP Parameters


Appliance

S0
V(V) (VA)

Vmin
(pu)

Pf

Figure 3: The testing results: PV and QV curves (For


dishwasher there are three operation modes: Heat and Dry,
Normal Wash, Pot and Pan)

Reactive Power (p.u.)

computer with a CRT or LCD monitor, and a heavy duty fan


used for ventilation in household and small business.
The lighting loads tested are listed below:
Light #1: A fluorescent light uses two 48' T-8 32 W or
T-12 40 W, instant-on electronic ballast.
Light #2: A fluorescent light uses two 48' T-8 32 Watt
or T-12 40 Watt, Instant-on, no flicker Electronic
Ballast.
Light #3: A compact fluorescent light, 100 W light
output, 120 V, 60 Hz, 23 Watt, 0.33 A.
Light #4: A compact fluorescent light, 75 W light
output, 120 V, 60 Hz, 19 Watt, 0.295 A, contains
mercury.
Light #5: A compact fluorescent light, 75 Watt light
output, 120 V, 60 Hz, 20 W, 0.289 A.
Light #6: A halogen light, 120 V, 100 W.
Light #7: A conventional light bulb, 120 V, 100 W.
The ZIP model parameters derived from the testing results
are shown in Table 1. The PV and QV curves of the appliance
measurements and the modeling are shown in Figure 4 through
Figure 9. Note that if the reactive power of a device is less than
0.1 p.u., its ZIP parameters for reactive power calculation are
considered to be zero to simplify the ZIP model.
As shown in Figure 9, the PV and QV curves of refrigerators
and clothes washers are hard to model using a single ZIP
models. We therefore put them into the compressor type load
category, which will be addressed together with our air
conditioner performance modeling studies.

1
0.8
0.6

Dishwasher (HD)
Dishwasher (NW)
Dishwasher (PP)
Dryer
Oven
Range

0.4
Q
0.2

Reactive Power

0
Z

DishWasher_HD

120

500

0.99

0.95

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

DishWasher_NW

120

600

1.00

0.99

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

DishWasher_PP

120

685

1.00

1.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.2

0.4
0.6
0.8
Voltage (p.u.)

0.00

240 4900

1.00

56

1.02

0.00

0.00

0.10

0.00

240 3050

1.00

0.99

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

RANGE

240 4100

1.00

0.97

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

FAN - speed 1

120

145

0.97

0.87

0.14

-0.01

0.11

0.16

-0.01

FAN - speed 2

120

145

0.96

0.74

0.27

-0.02

0.03

0.28

-0.02

FAN - speed 3

120

187

0.94

0.39

0.66

-0.05

-0.10

0.46

-0.03

FAN - speed 3B

120

187

0.95

0.45

0.57

-0.04

-0.03

0.34

-0.02

Halogen_100W

120

100

1.00

0.66

0.39

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

LightBulb_100W

120

100

1.00

0.64

0.40

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

CompFluore_19W

120

19

0.91

14

-0.42

1.50

-0.06

0.66

-1.16

0.06

CompFluore_23W

120

23

0.90

23

-0.28

1.35

-0.05

0.58

-1.11

1.2

0.00

OVEN

0.05

CompFluore_20W

120

18

0.91

17

-0.30

1.36

-0.05

0.60

-1.08

0.04

Fluore_T8_32W

120

56

0.86

12

0.35

0.72

-0.04

0.28

-0.90

0.03

Fluore_T12_40W

120

50

0.88

10

0.34

0.71

-0.03

0.20

-0.76

120

61

0.93

10

-0.03

1.10

-0.05

0.32

-0.75

0.03

Fluore_T12_40W

120

52

0.94

10

0.06

0.97

-0.03

0.24

-0.60

0.02

CRT

120

225

1.00

60

0.00

0.00

1.00

0.00

0.00

0.15

LCD

120

150

1.00

60

0.00

0.00

1.00

0.00

0.00

0.15

ClothesWasher

120

Refrigerator

120

Measurement
Model

0.8
0.6
Q

0.4
0.2
0
-0.2
0

0.2

0.4
0.6
voltage (V)

0.8

0.02

Fluore_T8_32W

Power

DRYER

Figure 4: The PV and QV curves (modeling results)

compressor type load (constant torque load)

Table 1: ZIP model parameters of the appliances tested

Figure 5: The PV and QV curves of the fan at different speeds

PNNL-SA-57500

(a)
Figure 6: The PV and QV curves of halogen and light bulbs
1.5

Power

Measurement
Model

0.5

0
Q
-0.5
-1
0

(b)
0.2

0.4
0.6
voltage (V)

0.8

Figure 9: (a) The PV and QV curves for refrigerator, (b) the PV


and QV curves for clothes washers.

Figure 7: The PV and QV curves of all fluorescent lights tested


IV. ZIP LOAD AGGREGATION

1.2

In power system load modeling, aggregated load models


representing the group behavior of the individual load
components rather than accurate individual appliance models
per se are needed. Therefore, parameters of the aggregate ZIP
load model are calculated as the weighted average of the
respective ZIP parameters of the n load components in the
group, which can be represented as

Power

0.8
0.6
0.4
Q

0.2

ZIPagg =

j ZIPj

j =1

0
-0.2
0

P
1

0.2

0.4
0.6
voltage (V)

0.8

Figure 8: The PV and QV curves of CRT and LCD monitors

In the above equation, ZIP is substituted by p1 to p3 and q1 to q3


of the ZIP model. j is KVAj/KVAagg. The aggregated ZIP
model parameters are represented as:
1
k=
p1agg + p 2 agg + p3agg
_

Pagg = P0 ( kp1agg V 2 + kp2 agg V + kp3 agg )


_

Qagg = Q0 (kq1agg V 2 + kq2 agg V + kq3 agg )


_

V =

V
V0

PNNL-SA-57500

where k is an adjustment factor to guarantee that the aggregated


power is also 1 p.u. when voltage is 1 p.u..

commercial and industrial load components, can be updated.


REFERENCES

1.2
Ture P agg curve

Real Power (pu)

1
0.8
0.6

[1]

P agg Curve (with k)

[2]

P agg Curve (without k)

Ture Q agg curve


Qagg Curve (with k)
Qagg Curve (without k)

[3]

0.4
0.2

[4]

Q
0
-0.2
0

0.2

0.4
0.6
voltage (pu)

0.8

Figure 10: The aggregated P and Q curves


Observations on the aggregated ZIP load model include:
In general, using weighted average, one can obtain
a satisfactory representation of the aggregated ZIP
load model.
Some loads start to drop off when voltage is below
0.5 and the aggregated curve will not be able to
reflect this phenomena.
For some load, the drop off is permanent; for
example, some computer load will shut off.
Therefore, when system voltage recovers, the
aggregated ZIP load model will fail to represent the
load.
V. CONCLUSIONS
In this paper, household appliances and office equipment
testing results and their derived ZIP model parameters have
been presented. From the load characteristics under different
testing conditions such as voltage sags, ramps, and oscillations,
one can reach the following conclusions:
Small motor loads with no stalling issues or loads with
large ratios of resistive to inductive consumption can
be grouped as a constant impedance load. Examples
include fans, ovens, dish washers, and dryers (Z type
loads).
Loads using power electronic conversion devices as
power supplies, such as computers and monitors,
behave as a constant power load (P type loads). These
loads will be taken off line by under voltage protection
devices when the voltage drops below a threshold
around 0.5 p.u.
Motor loads having stalling issues usually carry
mechanical loads with constant torque. These loads
require different models for their running state and
stalling state because their real and reactive power
will change dramatically when motors stall.
Therefore, it is not appropriate to represent them as
ZIP models.
Future work will be focused on frequency testing and testing
industry motors and electronic drives so that the entire load
component database, which includes the residential,

[5]

P. Kunder, Power System Stability and Control, McGraw-Hill, New York,


1993.
IEEE Task Force on load representation for dynamic performance,
Bibliography on load models for power flow and dynamic performance
simulation, IEEE Trans. on Power Systems, vol. 10, pp. 523538, Feb.
1995.
L.M. Hajagos and B. Danai, Laboratory measurements and models of
modern loads and their effect on voltage stability studies, IEEE Trans. On
Power Systems, vol. 13, pp. 584 592, May 1998.
F. Puyleart, Development and Analysis of Dynamic Modeling of a
Residential Air Conditioner Compressor Motor for use in Power Grid
Studies, MSEE Thesis, College of Graduate Studies, University of Idaho,
2006.
IEEE Task Force on load representation for dynamic performance, Load
Representation for Dynamic Performance Analysis, IEEE Trans. On
Power Systems, vol. 8, pp. 472-482, May 1993.

Ning Lu (M98-SM05) received her B.S.E.E. from Harbin Institute of


Technology, Harbin, China, in 1993, and her M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in electric
power engineering from Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York, in
1999 and 2002, respectively. Her research interests are in the modeling and
analyzing power system load behaviors and modeling the Solid Oxide Fuel Cell
performances. Currently, she is a senior research engineer with the Energy and
Environment Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA.
She was with Shenyang Electric Power Survey and Design Institute from 1993 to
1998.
Yulong Xie received his B.S. degree in chemistry from Xiangtan University,
Xiangtan, China, in 1983, and his M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in chemometrics from
Hunan University, Changsha, China, in 1988 and 1993, respectively. His research
interest is on the application of multivariate statistical analysis, data mining,
chemometrics, stochastic simulation, spatial statistics and optimization in a
variety of scientific fields. Currently, he is a senior research scientist with the
Environmental Sustainability S&T Division, Pacific Northwest National
Laboratory, Richland, WA.
Zhenyu Huang (M'01-SM05) received his B. Eng. from Huazhong University
of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China, and Ph.D. from Tsinghua University,
Beijing, China, in 1994 and 1999 respectively. From 1998 to 2002, he conducted
research at the University of Alberta and McGill University as a post-doctoral
fellow, and at the University of Hong Kong. He is currently a senior research
engineer at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA. His
research interests include power system stability and control, high-performance
computing applications, and power system signal processing.
Francis R. Puyleart (S99 - M03) received a Bachelors
of Science in Electrical Engineering (Cum Laude) from
the University of Portland, Portland, OR in 2003 and a
Masters of Science in Electrical Engineering from the
University of Idaho, Moscow, ID in 2006. He is an
electrical engineer for Bonneville Power Administration,
working with Technical Operations. Primary research
interests include load modeling, high voltage electronics
and generator modeling. He is a registered PE in the state of Washington.
Steve Yang received his M.S. degree in Electrical Engineering from Portland
State University in 2002. Mr. Yang is with Bonneville Power Administration
where his responsibilities include test and measurement systems, generator
performance monitoring and model validation, equipment testing. Mr. Yang led
the end-use equipment testing program at BPA. He is a member of WECC
Modeling and Validation Work Group and WECC Load Modeling Task Force.