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This work instruction describes the activities associated with the construction of road
pavements using granular sub-base and aggregate base course materials, bituminous
base and /wearing course construction using hot mix asphalt concrete for roads and
construction of culvert and trenches. This document shall be read in conjunction with the
relevant Engineering Standards & drawings, Industry codes and any other additional
requirement as set forth by the client. Asphalt pavement shall be performed by a
specialist vendor having appropriate equipment for the work.


Project Manager: Ensures compliance by all parties to this procedure, QA/QC
manual, inspection plans, project specifications, drawing and
industry codes.

Site Engineer: Ensure compliance by all craftsmen to the requirement of
this work instruction, relevant Specifications and QC
Inspection requirement. Confirm the availability of all
resources necessary to complete the pavement construction
in a timely manner.

Civil Supervisor: Ensure the correct drawings; approved procedures
associated with the construction are available to all personnel
in charge of the work. Ensure that all submittals required by
the client were duly approved and issued for use. Confirm
construction materials are available and comply with the
project specification.

Quality Control Inspector: Monitor construction activities and verify compliance to client
specifications and inspection plans. Prepare daily QC records
and final acceptance documentation where required. Report
non-conformances, coordinate all inspection activities and
conduct periodic audit of documentation and verification


3.1 Source of material & Storage

All aggregates for use in the construction of the bituminous pavement shall be obtained
from approved sources and complying with the project specifications. QC Inspector shall

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ascertain the properties of all raw materials intended for incorporation into permanent
work, through appropriate certification.

The aggregate stockpile shall be prepared by clearing and smoothing and shall be hard
ground. The center of the storage area shall be elevated and sloped to the sides so as
to provide proper drainage of excess moisture. The material shall be stored in such a
way as to prevent segregation and coning to insure proper control of gradations and
moisture. All processed materials shall be tested and approved for use before being
stored or incorporated to permanent works.

3.2 Granular Subbase

This work shall include the furnishing, placing and preparation of the materials on the
road, the mixing of the various materials together and with water, the spreading,
compacting and finishing of the materials, the maintenance of the completed subbase
course and the dressing of shoulders and slopes.
This Work shall consist of furnishing and placing one or more courses of aggregate,
including binder soil if required, on a prepared subgrade in accordance with the
specifications, in conformity with the lines, grades, thicknesses and typical cross
sections shown on the drawings or established by the client.

1. All subbase material shall be free from dirt, organic matter, shale or other deleterious
matter and shall be of such quality that it will bind readily to form a firm, stable

2. The material for "Granular Subbase" shall conform to the requirements specified for
the class of subbase noted on the drawings.

3.2.1 Preparation of Subgrade

The formation of the subgrade will vary by either placing the "Granular Subbase" on the
roadway/parking area surface as previously constructed or by excavating sufficient
material from the roadway/parking area to form the shoulders and placing the "Granular
Subbase" on the subgrade obtained thereby. In either case the subgrade shall be
brought to the lines, grades, and typical section shown on the drawings for the bottom of
the "Granular Subbase."

All soft and yielding material or other portions of the subgrade, which will not compact
readily, when rolled or tamped, shall be removed, and all loose rock or boulders found in
the excavation shall be removed or broken off. All holes or depressions made by the
removal of material, as described above, shall be filled with approved material, and the
whole subgrade brought to line and grade and compacted to the density designated on
the drawings.

3.2.2 Spreading

Subbase aggregate shall be spread on the approved subgrade layers in a compactable
depth. Spreading shall be done by distributing the material to the required width and
loose thickness.

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The material shall be handled so as to avoid segregation. Segregated materials shall be
remixed until uniform. Suitable precautions shall be taken to prevent rutting of the
subgrade during the spreading of the subbase material.

3.2.3 Compaction

The moisture content of the subbase material shall be adjusted prior to compaction, by
watering or by drying out to that required maximum moisture content to obtain the
specified density.
The subbase aggregate shall be compacted using suitable compaction equipment
progressing gradually from the outside towards the center with each succeeding pass
uniformly overlapping the previous pass. Compaction shall continue until the entire
thickness of each layer is thoroughly and uniformly compacted to the specified density.
Consolidation shall be accompanied by sufficient blading to insure a smooth surface free
from ruts or ridges and having the proper section and crown.

Any areas inaccessible to normal compaction equipment shall be compacted by means
of mechanical tampers until satisfactory compaction is obtained.

If any layer of subbase material, or part thereof, is permitted to dry out after compaction,
or does not conform to the required density or finish rework, watered and re-compact the
material to the density specified, before the next layer of subbase or base course is
superimposed thereon.

The subbase shall be compacted to the thickness and cross section as shown on the
drawings and shall not vary by the permissible tolerances. All humps and depressions
and thickness deficiencies exceeding the specified tolerances shall be corrected by
removing the defective Work or by adding new material.

3.3 Aggregate Base Course

3.3.1 Subgrade Preparation

Prior to the delivery of materials for the base course, prepare the roadbed surface by
sprinkling, blading, rolling, and lightly scarifying where necessary, until the proper crown
is obtained.

In the process of shaping the roadbed, the originally compacted crust or top portion of
the roadbed shall be disturbed as little as possible.

When completed and ready for base course construction, the roadbed shall be well
compacted, smooth, hard and uniform, all irregularities having been bladed out and
rolled down.

At existing pavements the subgrade shall be excavated to such depth that the proper
thickness of base course may be constructed flush with the existing surface. The
transition from normal to special section shall be of sufficient length to present no abrupt

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or noticeable change of grade and shall be excavated in accordance with the grades
and lines shown on the drawings.

3.3.2 Maintenance of Subgrade

After the roadbed has been prepared, it shall be maintained true to cross section and
grade until the base course is completed. Sufficient drains shall be cut through
excavated material on the shoulders to drain the roadbed completely at all times. Drains
shall be cut through windrowed base course material at sufficient intervals to prevent
ponding of water and the windrowed material shall be moved when necessary to permit
the subgrade to dry.

3.3.3 Method of Construction.

Combining Aggregates and Water

Aggregates for base course shall be combined into a uniform mixture as per specified
grading requirements and water added before final placement of the material. When
binder is to be added, it may be combined with the aggregate base by thoroughly mixing
separate windrows of binder and aggregate base.

Spreading and Combining Aggregates

Aggregate for base courses shall be delivered to the roadbed as a uniform mixture and
shall be placed on the existing roadway, prepared subbase or prepared subgrade, as
the case may be, in a uniform layer including any binder that is to be blended on the
road. Spreading shall be done by distributing the material to the required width and
loose thickness.

The material shall be so handled, as to avoid segregation.

Immediately after placing, the base course material shall be compacted. The material
shall be compacted to a density of not less than that is specified requirements (See
Rolling shall be continued until the entire thickness of each layer is thoroughly and
uniformly compacted to the density specified.
Rolling shall be accompanied by sufficient blading in a manner to insure a smooth
surface, free from ruts or ridges and having the proper section and crown.
The surface of the finished base course will be tested with a three meter straight edge at
selected locations.
Prior to placing the succeeding layers of material, the top of the under layer shall be
made sufficiently moist to insure bond between the layers.

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The edges and edge slopes of the base course shall be bladed or otherwise dressed to
conform to the lines and dimensions shown on the drawings and present straight, neat
and workmanlike lines and slopes as free of loose material as practicable.
If after the base is compacted, any areas are above or below proper grade and true
elevations, such areas shall be loosened and after having had additional materials
added or excess material removed, as the case may require, shall be reconstructed as
described herein.
If after the base is compacted, any areas fail to meet the specified density and gradation
requirements, they shall be loosened or removed.

3.4 J ob Mix

The job mix shall be approved prior to production. The job-mix formula shall combine the
mineral aggregates and asphalt in such proportion as to produce a mixture conforming
to the project requirements. The gradation of the combined aggregate, including the
mineral filler shall be within the limits specified in the specification for the class of
bituminous course to be used. Any re-proportioning of aggregates, mineral filler and
asphalt to produce the final mix shall be within the range specified by the project

3.5 Bituminous Base Course

This Work shall consist of aggregate and bituminous material mixed in a central plant,
and spread and compacted on an approved, primed subgrade in accordance with the
specifications and in conformity with the lines, grades, thickness and typical cross
sections shown on the drawings.

Mineral aggregates for "Bituminous Base Course" shall consist of coarse aggregates,
fine aggregates, and filler material, if required.

Asphalt for "Bituminous Base Course" shall be petroleum asphalt cement, conforming to
the projects requirements.

Trucks used for hauling bituminous mixtures shall have tight, clean, smooth metal beds
which have been thinly coated with a suitable material to prevent the mixture from
adhering to the beds.

3.5.1 Preparation of Asphalt Cement

Asphalt cement shall be heated within a temperature range of 135 degrees C to 163
degrees C or as per project specification (see attachment) at the time of mixing. All
material reheated more than 42 degrees C above the maximum shown shall be
considered overheated and shall be rejected until the material can be resample and

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3.5.2 Preparation of Mineral Aggregates

Each aggregate ingredient shall be heated not more than 163 degree C or as specified
(see attachment) and dried. If the aggregates contain sufficient moisture to cause
foaming in the mixture or their temperature is in excess of 163 degrees C, they shall be
removed from the bins and returned to their respective stockpiles.

3.5.3 Preparation of Bituminous Mixture

Dried aggregate as specified for bituminous construction and prepared as prescribed
above shall be combined in the plant in the proportionate amounts as approved. Asphalt
cement shall be introduced into the mixture in the proportionate amount determined by
the job-mix formula.

3.5.4 Preparation of surfaces

When a new surface is constructed on an existing subgrade, base or bituminous surface,
the surface shall be cleaned of all foreign material and broomed free of dust.

In addition any loose, broken, or shattered bituminous material along the edges of the
existing surface shall be removed, and the exposed subgrade and a sufficient width of
the shoulder adjacent to the edge of the existing surface to receive the new bituminous
mixture shall be shaped, bladed, compacted and broomed to provide a uniform firm
subgrade for the new surface course.

3.5.5 Prime/Tack Coat

Prior to the placing of the bituminous mixture, when designated by the specification, a
prime coat shall be applied to the prepared subgrade, base or tack coat to the existing
bituminous surfaces using a pressure distributor at the specified rate and cured. The
spray bar and spray nozzle shall be adjusted and frequently checked so that uniform
distribution is insured.

If the surface is an earth surface or a water-bound base course or subbase, the cleaned
surface shall be given a light application of water and allowed to dry to a surface-dry
condition before the prime coat.

3.5.6 Placing of the Mixture

Hot bituminous mixtures shall be placed only when the air temperature is four (4)
degrees C or above and when the weather is not foggy or rainy and when the existing
surface is free from moisture.

Bituminous mixtures may be spread and finished true to crown and grade using a self
propelled paver. Manual paving shall be adopted where machine methods are

The automatically controlled paver shall spread the bituminous mixtures without tearing
the surface and shall strike a finish that is smooth, true to cross section, uniform in

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density and texture and free from hollows, transverse corrugations and other

The paver shall be operated at a speed which will give the best results for the type of
paver being used which coordinates satisfactorily with the rate of delivery of the mixture
to the paver.

All mixed material shall be delivered to the paver in time to permit completion of
spreading, finishing and compaction of the mixture during daylight hours.

All bituminous mixtures shall be delivered to the paver at a temperature between 139
degrees C to 163 degrees C or as specified (see attachment). Mixtures delivered to the
paver at lower temperatures shall be discarded.

The width of surface or top course placements shall conform to traffic lane edges as
shown on the drawings. Where successive layers are to be placed, the surface of the
existing layer shall be swept clean with a power broom, or by other means and a tack
coat applied.

3.5.7 Thickness Cores

Thickness determination shall be made from core drill by cutting samples from the
compacted mixture on the road (see attachment).

3.5.8 Compaction of Mixtures

After spreading and as soon as the mix conditions permit the rolling to be performed
without excessive shoving or tearing, the mixture shall be thoroughly and uniformly
compacted. Rollers shall be of the steel wheel and/or pneumatic-tire type and shall be
operated at speeds slow enough to avoid displacement of the bituminous mixture. The
wheels of the rolling equipment shall be kept wet to prevent the surface material from

3.5.9 J oints

J oints between old and new pavements or between successive days' work shall be
made so as to insure thorough and continuous bond between the old and new mixtures.

Transverse construction joints in previously laid material shall be constructed by cutting
the material back vertically for its full depth so as to expose a fresh surface.

Before placing the fresh mixture against a cut joint or against old pavement, the contact
surface shall be primed.

3.5.10 Surface Tolerances

The surface will be tested with a four (4) meter straightedge at selected locations and the
variations shall be in accordance with the project specifications. The thickness of the

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bituminous base will be determined by average caliper measurement of cores (see

3.6 Bituminous Wearing Course

This Work shall consist of the construction of bituminous concrete courses on an
approved, primed or tacked, base, subbase, subgrade, bridge deck, or concrete
pavement in accordance with the specifications and in conformity with the lines, grades,
thickness and typical cross sections shown on the approved construction drawings.

Preparation of mineral aggregates, asphalt, J ob mix, bituminous mixture, surface
preparation, placing, compaction and testing shall be similar to that of bituminous base
course described in the preceding sections as per appropriate specification applicable to
the project.

3.7 QC Records

The QC inspector should maintain daily record using the report form Asphalt Concrete
Paving of the entire days operations and progression of construction and should
become part of the permanent record of the project. Changes in materials, gradation,
methods, proportions, or conditions should be noted and tied into station location.


PRO/2/001 Project execution
PRO/4/001 Project Communication
PRO/4/002 Project Plan
FAB/4/005 Equipment Request
NCP/4/006 Quality Check List
PRO/4/004 Daily Report
FAB/4/004 Mixing Ratio
MR/4/008 Corrective and Preventive Action
CIM/2/001 Inspection Measuring & Test Equipments

Prepared by: ___________________________________________________________
QA/QC Manager (Name & Sign)

Date: __________________________________________________________________

Approved by: ____________________________________________________________
Business Development Manager (Name & Sign)

Date: __________________________________________________________________