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Species comes from the Latin word meaning "kind" or "appearance".
A species is a population of organisms that have the potential to interbreed with one another in
nature to produce viable, fertile offspring, but cannot produce viable, fertile offspring with
members of another species.
he emphasis is reproductive isolation.
Prezygotic and potzygotic !arrier
Prezygotic !arrier prevent mating between species or hinder the fertili!ation of ova if
members of different species mate.
". Ha!itat io"ation# live in the same localit$ but in different habitats, e.g. primaril$ a%uatic
while the other mostl$ terrestrial.
2. Be#a$iora" io"ation# differences in courtship or life st$le.
&. Te%pora" io"ation# reproductive period occurs at different time of the $ear.
4. &ec#anica" io"ation# the anatom$ prevents mating.
'. Ga%etic io"ation# gamete recognition is based on the presence of specific molecules
on the coats around the egg, which adhere onl$ to complementar$ molecules in the
Potzygotic !arrier prevent the h$brid !$gote to develop into a viable, fertile adult.
". Red'ced #y!rid $ia!i"ity# h$brid !$gote dies in the earl$ stages of development or fails to
reach se(ual maturit$.
2. Red'ced #y!rid (erti"ity# h$brid does not produce functional gametes.
&. Hy!rid !rea)do*n# offspring of h$brids fail to produce functional gametes or do not reach
se(ual maturit$.
he biological species concept cannot be applied to fossils or to organisms that reproduce onl$
A"ternate de(inition
he eco"ogica" pecie concept defines the species in terms of its ecological role in the
environment, its nic#e in the environment.
)t includes species that reproduce ase(uall$.
he p"'ra"itic pecie concept states that the factors that define a species var$.
)n some cases, reproductive isolation is a useful concept. )n other cases ecological niche is
he %orp#o"ogica" pecie concept is commonl$ used to distinguish specie. )t uses
appearance and structures to separate species.
he genea"ogica" pecie concepts defines a species as a group of organisms with a uni%ue
genetic histor$.
Speciation is the evolution of a new species from an ancestral population.
,- A""opatric peciation occurs when one population becomes geographicall$ isolated from the
rest of the species and subse%uentl$ diverges.
)t is the most common method of speciation.
Animal species use it almost e(clusivel$.
*enetic drift and natural selection act on the gene pool.
*enetic drift tends to result in rapid changes in allele fre%uencies in small isolated
he chances of allopatric speciation increase if the population is small and isolated.
Adapti$e radiation occurs in groups of islands +archipelagos, where several species evolved
from a single common ancestral population, and occup$ different ecological niches.
-ecoloni!ation of the first island leads to several closel$ related species living
together but occup$ing different niches, e. g. *alapagos finches.
2. Sy%patric peciation occurs in the same ph$sical location.
)t is common in plants ver$ unclear in animals.
Po"yp"oidy is a ma.or factor on plant evolution.
Spontaneous doubling of chromosomes before meiosis has been documented in plants and
a few animal species.
An a'topo"yp"oid is a pol$ploid that has an e(tra set of chromosomes all derived from a
single species. he offspring ma$ be viable and fertile.
/hen pol$ploid$ occurs in con.unction with h$bridi!ation is called a""opo"yp"oidy. wo
species contribute to the making of the h$brid.
0oubling of chromosomes +pol$ploid$, follows h$bridi!ation of two species.
A""opo"yp"oid are reproductivel$ isolated from both parents. he$ have different number of
1an$ of our food plants are pol$ploids.
S$mpatric speciation occurs in animals but it is not well understood.
)t relies on genetic mechanisms other than pol$ploid.
1utations and behavior are probabl$ important. See page 475, mate selection in cichlids.
2ther mechanisms at pla$ could be change in habitat, food source or other resource not used
b$ the parent population.
-eproductive isolation breaks down in h$brid !ones.
Hy!rid zone are areas of geographical overlap where interbreeding occurs.
3$brid !ones are usuall$ narrow presumabl$ because the h$brids are not well adapted to either
parental environment.
4aleontologists rarel$ find fossils that show a gradual transition from one species to the ne(t.
5ew species appear in the fossil record rather abruptl$.
According to this model, there are long periods of tai +e%uilibrium, when no evolution occurs,
punctuated or interrupted b$ short periods of rapid speciation possibl$ triggered b$ changes in
the environment.
6uestions the idea that the fossil record is as incomplete as it is initiall$ appeared.
Allopatric and s$mpatric speciation can occur in ver$ short time.
)t accounts for the abrupt appearance of new species in the fossil record.
ransitional forms are absent for the most part.
Gra'da"i% proposes that evolution occurs continuall$ over long periods of time.
4opulations graduall$ diverge from one another b$ the accumulation of adaptive
characteristics in each population.
)t is rarel$ observed in the fossil record because most organisms decompose without a
here are transitional forms
&icroe$o"'tion is a change over the generations in a population7s allele fre%uencies, mainl$ b$
genetic drift and natural selection.
1inor evolutionar$ events over a short period of time.
Speciation occurs when a population becomes reproductivel$ isolated from the ancestral one.
1acroevolution refers to ma.or evolutionar$ events viewed from the point of view of the
geological time record.
1acroevolution includes the appearance of evolutionar$ novelties, which are so great that the
new species are assigned to new genera or higher ta(onomic categories.
)t refers to dramatic changes that occur over long time spans in evolution.
8. g. Appearance of wings with feathers in the evolution of birds from reptile.
8volutionar$ novelties can arise b$ the gradual refinement of e(isting structures for new
9suall$ the evolutionar$ novelties are derived from pree(isting structures called
4readaptations pla$ed a role in the life of the species but changed to fulfil another role.
8. g. Air bladder of fishes became the lungs of amphibians.
Structures that develop in one conte(t and become modified for a different function
are called e1aptation.
Slight genetic changes in regulator$ genes can cause dramatic changes in the phenot$pe.
-egulator$ mutations can have significant developmental effects and probabl$ account for
important differences among various groups.
E$o2de$o refers to the interface of evolutionar$ biolog$ and how organisms develop.
*enes that control development pla$ a ma.or role in evolution.
he varied rate of growth of different parts of the bod$ is called a""o%etric gro*t#.
Changes in allometric growth results in changes in the shape of an organism.
8volution that results from allometric growth is an e(ample of #eteroc#rony.
8volutionar$ change in the rate and timing of evolutionar$ events.
-etention of .uvenile characteristics, paedo%orp#oi, allows the organism to live in an
environment different from its ancestors.
he rate of reproductive development accelerates compared to somatic development.
8. g. the gills found in some adult salamanders allows them to live and reproduce in
3omeotic genes determine where bod$ parts are going to appear, e. g. legs, fins, antennae.
he products of one class of homeotic genes called 3o( genes provide positional information in
an animal embr$o.
his information about position prompts cells to develop into structures appropriate for a
particular location.
Ho1 %'tation and t#e appearance o( $erte!rate
". A h$pothesis proposes that a duplication of 3o( genes in invertebrates occurred about '2:
million $ears ago and set the stage for the development of the earl$ vertebrates, e. g.
appearance of the backbone.
2. A second duplication about 42' million $ears ago allowed for greater comple(it$ like the
appearance of limbs.
&. he invertebrate and vertebrate 3o( genes appear in the same linear order on
chromosomes and the$ direct the se%uential development of the same bod$ regions. he
vertebrate 3o( comple( appears to be homologous to the single 3o( cluster in
Changes in developmental d$namics, both temporal and spatial, pla$ed a role in
E$o"'tionary trend
he fossil record reveals trends in evolution of man$ species, e. g. trend towards larger si!e,
single toe, etc.
he appearance of a trend is the product of species selection.
he species that endure the longest and produces the largest number of daughter species,
determine the direction of ma.or evolutionar$ trends.
here is no intrinsic drive toward a preordained condition. 8volution is the result of the
interaction between organisms and their present environment.