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### Chapter 2

• 1. Prove or disprove: A (B C) = (A B) (A C). Ans: True, since A ( B C ) = A B C = A ( B C ) = ( A B ) ( A C ) = ( A B ) ( A C ) .

• 2. Prove that A B

= A B

by giving a containment proof (that is, prove that the left

side is a subset of the right side and that the right side is a subset of the left side).

 Ans: A ∩ B ⊆ A ∪ B : Let x ∈ A ∩ B . ∴ x ∉ A ∩ B, ∴ x ∉ A or x ∉ B, ∴ x ∈ A or x ∈ B, ∴ x ∈ A ∪ B . Reversing the steps shows that A ∪ B ⊆ A ∩ B . 3. that Prove A ∩ B = A ∪ B by giving an element table proof. Ans: The columns for A ∩ B have the value 1. and A ∪ B match: each entry is 0 if and only if A and B
4.
Prove that
A ∩ B = A ∪ B
by giving a proof using logical equivalence.
A
B
= {
x
|
x
A
B
}
= {
x
|
x
A
B
}
= {
x
| ¬
(
x
A
B
)
}
= {
x
| ¬
(
x
A
x
B
)
}
Ans:
.
= {
x
| ¬
(
x
A
)
∨ ¬
(
x
B
)
}
= {
x
|
x
A
x
B
}
= {
x
|
x
A
x
B
}
= {
x
|
x
A
B
} =
A
B
5.
Prove that A ∩ B = A ∪ B by giving a Venn diagram proof.
Ans:

Page 22

6.

Prove that A (B C) = (A B) (A C) by giving a containment proof (that is,

prove that the left side is a subset of the right side and that the right side is a subset of the

 left side). Ans: A ∩ (B ∪ C) ⊆ (A ∩ B) ∪ (A ∩ C): Let x ∈ A ∩ (B ∪ C). ∴ x ∈ A and x ∈ B ∪ C,

x A and x B, or x A and x C, ∴ x (A B) (A C). Reversing the

steps gives the opposite containment.

• 7. Prove that A (B C) = (A B) (A C) by giving an element table proof. Ans: Each set has the same values in the element table: the value is 1 if and only if A has

the value 1 and either B or C has the value 1.

• 8. Prove that A (B C) = (A B) (A C) by giving a proof using logical equivalence.

 A ∩ ( B ∪ C ) = { x | x ∈ A ∩ ( B ∪ C ) } = { x | x ∈ A ∧ x ∈ ( B ∪ C ) } = { x | x ∈ A ∧ ( x ∈ B ∨ x ∈ C ) } Ans: = { x | ( x ∈ A ∧ x ∈ B ) ∨ ( x ∈ A ∧ x ∈ C ) } = { x | x ∈ A ∩ B ∨ x ∈ A ∩ C } = { x | x ∈ ( A ∩∪∩ B ) ( A C ) } = ( A ∩ B ) ∪ ( A ∩ C )
• 9. Prove that A (B C) = (A B) (A C) by giving a Venn diagram proof. Ans:

Page 23

10.

Prove or disprove: if A, B, and C are sets, then A (B C) = (A B) (A C).

Ans: False. For example, let A = {1,2}, B = {1}, C = {2}.

• 11. Prove or disprove A (B C) = (A B) C. Ans: True, using either a membership table or a containment proof, for example.

Use the following to answer questions 12-15:

Use a Venn diagram to determine which relationship, , =, , is true for the pair of sets.

12. A B,

A (B A).

Ans:

=.

• 13. (A B) C.

A (B C),

Ans: .

• 14. (A B) (A C), Ans:

=.

A (B C).

• 15. (A C) (B C), Ans: .

A B.

Use the following to answer questions 16-20:

In the questions below determine whether the given set is the power set of some set. If the set is

a power set, give the set of which it is a power set.

• 16. {∅,{∅},{a},{{a}},{{{a}}},{∅,a},{∅,{a}},{∅,{{a}}},{a,{a}},{a,{{a}}},{{a},{{a}}},

{∅,a,{a}},{∅,a,{{a}}},{∅,{a},{{a}}},{a,{a},{{a}}},{∅,a,{a},{{a}}}}.

Ans: Yes {∅,a,{a},{{a}}}.

• 17. {∅,{a}}.

Ans: Yes, {a}.

• 18. {∅,{a},{∅,a}}.

Ans: No, it lacks {∅}.

• 19. {∅,{a},{∅},{a,∅}}.

Ans: Yes, {{a,∅}}.

20. {∅,{a,∅}}.

Ans: No, it lacks {a} and {∅}.

Page 24

• 21. Prove that S T = S T

for all sets S and T.

Ans:

Since S T = S T

(De Morgan's law), the complements are equal.

Use the following to answer questions 22-33:

In the questions below mark each statement TRUE or FALSE. Assume that the statement

applies to all sets.

• 22. A (B C) = (A B) C. Ans: False

• 23. (A C) (B C) = A B. Ans: False

• 24. A (B C) = (A B) (A C).

 Ans: True 25. A ∩ (B ∪ C) = (A ∪ B) ∩ (A ∪ C). Ans: False 26. A ∪ B ∪ A = A . Ans: True 27. If A ∪ C = B ∪ C, then A = B. Ans: False 28. If A ∩ C = B ∩ C, then A = B. Ans: False
• 29. If A B = A B, then A = B. Ans: True

• 30. If A B = A, then B = A. Ans: False

• 31. There is a set A such that | P(A) | = 12. Ans: False

• 32. A A = A. Ans: False

• 33. Find three subsets of {1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9} such that the intersection of any two has size 2 and the intersection of all three has size 1. Ans: For example, {1,2,3}, {2,3,4}, {1,3,4}.

Page 25

+∞

• 34. Find [

1/

i

, 1 /

i

### ]

.

i

= 1

Ans: [-1,1].

+∞

1

• 35. Find (

1

i

, 1 ).

i

=

1

Ans:

.

+∞

1

• 36. Find [

1

i

,

1 ].

i

=

1

Ans: {1}.

+∞

Find (

• 37. i ,

).

i

=

1

Ans:

.

• 38. Suppose U = {1, 2, ...

,

9}, A = all multiples of 2, B = all multiples of 3, and C = {3, 4, 5,

6, 7}. Find C - (B - A).

Ans: {4,5,6,7}.
39. Suppose S = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5}. Find
P S
(
) .
Ans: 32.

Use the following to answer questions 40-43:

In the questions below suppose A = {x,y} and B = {x,{x}}. Mark the statement TRUE or

FALSE

• 40. x B. Ans: False

• 41. ∅ ∈ P(B). Ans: True

• 42. {x} ⊆ A B.

Ans: False

• 43. | P(A) | = 4. Ans: True

Page 26

Use the following to answer questions 44-51:

In the questions below suppose A = {a,b,c}. Mark the statement TRUE or FALSE.

• 44. {b,c} ∈ P(A).

Ans: True

• 45. {{a}} P(A).

Ans: True

• 46. ∅ ⊆ A. Ans: True

• 47. {∅} P(A).

Ans: True

• 48. ∅ ⊆ A × A. Ans: True

• 49. {a,c} ∈ A.

Ans: True

• 50. {a,b} ∈ A × A.

Ans: False

• 51. (c,c) A × A. Ans: True

Use the following to answer questions 52-59:

In the questions below suppose A = {1,2,3,4,5}. Mark the statement TRUE or FALSE.

• 52. {1} ∈ P(A).

Ans: True

• 53. {{3}} P(A).

Ans: True

• 54. ∅ ⊆ A. Ans: True

• 55. {∅} P(A).

Ans: True

Page 27

• 56. ∅ ⊆ P(A). Ans: True

• 57. {2,4} ∈ A × A.

Ans: False

• 58. {∅} P(A).

Ans: False

• 59. (1,1) A × A. Ans: True

Use the following to answer questions 60-62:

In the questions below suppose the following are fuzzy sets:

F = {0.7Ann,0.1Bill,0.8Fran,0.3Olive,0.5Tom},

R = {0.4Ann,0.9Bill,0.9Fran,0.6Olive,0.7Tom}.

60. Find F

and R

.

Ans:

F = {0.3 Ann, 0.9 Bill , 0.2 Fran, 0.7 Olive, 0.5 Tom} ,

R = {0.6 Ann, 0.1 Bill , 0.1 Fran,

0.4

Olive,

0.3 Tom}

• 61. Find F R. Ans: {0.7Ann,0.9Bill,0.9Fran,0.6Olive,0.7Tom}.

• 62. Find F R. Ans: {0.4Ann,0.1Bill,0.8Fran,0.3Olive,0.5Tom}.

Use the following to answer questions 63-72:

In the questions below, suppose A = {a,b,c} and B = {b,{c}}. Mark the statement TRUE or

FALSE

• 63. c A B. Ans: True

• 64. | P(A × B) | = 64. Ans: True

• 65. ∅ ∈ P(B). Ans: True

• 66. B A. Ans: False

Page 28

• 67. {c} ⊆ B.

Ans: False

• 68. {a,b} ∈ A × A.

Ans: False

• 69. {b,c} ∈ P(A).

Ans: True

• 70. {b,{c}} ∈ P(B).

Ans: True

• 71. ∅ ⊆ A × A. Ans: True

• 72. {{{c}}} ⊆ P(B).

Ans: True

Use the following to answer questions 73-85:

In the questions below determine whether the set is finite or infinite. If the set is finite, find its

size.

• 73. {x | x Z and x 2 < 10}.

Ans:

7.

• 74. P({a,b,c,d}), where P denotes the power set. Ans: 16.

• 75. {1,3,5,7,}.

Ans: Infinite.

• 76. A × B, where A = {1,2,3,4,5} and B = {1,2,3}. Ans: 15.

• 77. {x | x N and 9x 2 1 = 0}.

Ans:

0.

• 78. P(A), where A is the power set of {a,b,c}. Ans: 256.

• 79. A × B, where A = {a,b,c} and B = ∅. Ans:

0.

Page 29

80.

{x | x N and 4x 2 8 = 0}.

Ans:

0.

• 81. {x | x Z and x 2 = 2}.

Ans:

0.

• 82. P(A), where A = P({1,2}). Ans: 16.

• 83. {1,10,100,1000,}.

Ans: Infinite.

• 84. S × T, where S = {a,b,c} and T = {1,2,3,4,5}. Ans: 15.

• 85. {x | x Z and x 2 < 8}.

Ans:

5.

• 86. Prove that between every two rational numbers a/b and c/d (a) there is a rational number.

(b) there are an infinite number of rational numbers.

Ans:

(a) Assume a

c

b

d

. Then

a

b

+

d

a

c

+

bc

c

=

b

2

2

bd

d

.

(b) Assume a

b

c

d

<

. Let m 1 be the midpoint of

a

c

b

,

d

. For i > 1 let m i be the

midpoint of

 

a

b

,

m

i

1

 

.

.

• 87. Prove that there is no smallest positive rational number.

 Ans: If 0 a , then 0 aaa a < < < < < < … . b 432 b b b b

Use the following to answer questions 88-96:

In the questions below determine whether the rule describes a function with the given domain

and codomain.

• 88. f : N N where

f ( n ) =

.

Ans: Not a function; f(2) is not an integer.

• 89. h : R R where h ( x ) =

• .

Ans: Function.

Page 30

• 90. g : N N where g(n) = any integer > n. Ans: Not a function; g(1) has more than one value.

• 91. F : R R where

F

(

x

)

1

=

x

5

.

Ans: Not a function; F(5) not defined.

• 92. F : Z R where Ans: Function.

F

(

x

)

1

=

2

x

5

.

• 93. F : Z Z where

F

(

x

)

1

=

2

x

5

.

Ans: Not a function; F(1) not an integer.

• 94. G : R R where G

(

x

)

x

+

2

x

= 

if

1 if

x

x

4

0

Ans: Not a function; the cases overlap. For example, G(1) is equal to both 3 and 0.

• 95. f : R R where

f

(

x

)

x

= 

x

2

if

1 if

x

2

x

4

Ans: Not a function; f(3) not defined.

• 96. G : Q Q where G(p/q) = q. Ans: Not a function; f(1/2) = 2 and f(2/4) = 4.

• 97. Give an example of a function f : Z Z that is 1-1 and not onto Z.

 Ans: f(n) = 2n. 98. Give an example of a function f : Z → Z that is onto Z but not 1-1.  n  Ans: f ( n ) =   2   . 99. Give an example of a function f : Z → N that is both 1-1 and onto N.  − 2 n if n ≤ 0 Ans: f ( n ) =   2 n − 1 if x > 0

Page 31

• 100. Give an example of a function f : N Z that is both 1-1 and onto Z.

 − n
,
n
even
2
Ans: f(n) =
2
n
+
1 ,
n
odd
2
101. Give an example of a function f : Z → N that is 1-1 and not onto N.
 −
2
n
,
n
0
Ans:
f
(
n
)
= 
2
n
+
1,
n
>
0
• 102. Give an example of a function f : N Z that is onto Z and not 1-1. Ans:

f

(

n

)

− n
,
2
= 
n -1
,
2

n odd

n even.

• 103. Suppose f : N N has the rule f(n) = 4n + 1. Determine whether f is 1-1. Ans: Yes.

• 104. Suppose f : N N has the rule f(n) = 4n + 1. Determine whether f is onto N. Ans: No.

• 105. Suppose f : Z Z has the rule f(n) = 3n 2 1. Determine whether f is 1-1. Ans: No.

• 106. Suppose f : Z Z has the rule f(n) = 3n 1. Determine whether f is onto Z. Ans: No.

• 107. Suppose f : N N has the rule f(n) = 3n 2 1. Determine whether f is 1-1. Ans: Yes.

• 108. Suppose f : N N has the rule f(n) = 4n 2 + 1. Determine whether f is onto N. Ans: No.

Page 32

• 109. Suppose f : R R where f(x) = x/2.

• (a) Draw the graph of f.

• (b) Is f 1-1?

(c) Is f onto R?
Ans: (a)
 (b) No. (c) No. 110. Suppose f : R → R where f(x) = x/2. (a) If S = {x | 1 ≤ x ≤ 6}, find f(S). (b) If T = {3,4,5}, find f −1 (T). Ans: (a) {0,1,2,3} (b) [6,12). 111. Determine whether f is a function from the set of all bit strings to the set of integers if f(S) is the position of a 1 bit in the bit string S. Ans: No; there may be no 1 bits or more than one 1 bit. 112. Determine whether f is a function from the set of all bit strings to the set of integers if f(S) is the number of 0 bits in S. Ans: Yes. 113. Determine whether f is a function from the set of all bit strings to the set of integers if f(S) is the largest integer i such that the ith bit of S is 0 and f(S) = 1 when S is the empty string (the string with no bits). Ans: No; f not defined for the string of all 1's, for example S = 11111. 114. Let f(x) = x 3 /3. Find f(S) if S is: (a) {−2,−1,0,1,2,3}. (b) {0,1,2,3,4,5}. (c) {1,5,7,11}. (d) {2,6,10,14}. Ans: (a) {−3,−1,0,2,9}. (b) {0,2,9,21,41}. (c) {0,41,114,443}. (d) {2,72,333,914}.

Page 33

115.

Suppose f : R Z where f(x) = 2x 1.

• (a) Draw the graph of f.

• (b) Is f 1-1? (Explain)

• (c) Is f onto Z? (Explain)

Ans: (a)

(b)
No.
(c)
Yes.
(a)
{1,2,3,4,5,6,7}.
(b)
{5,7,9,11,13}.
(c)
(−9/2,−7/2].
(d)
∅.
x
− 1
g
(
x
)
.
= 
2
(b)
No.
(c)
No.
• 116. Suppose f : R Z where f(x) = 2x 1.

• (a) If A = {x | 1 x 4}, find f(A).

• (b) If B = {3,4,5,6,7}, find f(B).

• (c) If C = {−9,−8}, find f 1 (C).

• (d) If D = {0.4,0.5,0.6}, find f 1 (D).

Ans:

• 117. Suppose g : R R where

• (a) Draw the graph of g.

• (b) Is g 1-1?

• (c) Is g onto R?

Ans: (a)

Page 34

• 118. Suppose g : R R where

g

(

x

)

=

x

1

2

.

• (a) If S = {x | 1 x 6}, find g(S).

• (b) If T = {2}, find g 1 (T).

Ans: (a) {0,1,2}.

(b) [5,7).

• 119. Show that x = − x. Ans:

Let n = x, so that n 1 < x n. Multiplying by 1 yields n + 1 > −x ≥ −n, which

means that n =  − x.

• 120. Prove or disprove: For all positive real numbers x and y, x y ≤ x ⋅ y. Ans:

False: x = y = 1.5.

• 121. Prove or disprove: For all positive real numbers x and y, x y ≤ x ⋅ y. Ans:

True: x

≤  x

,

y ≤ 
y 

; therefore

xy x

y

least as great as xy, then

xy  ≤  x

y

.

; since x

y

is an integer at

• 122. Suppose g : A B and f : B C where A = {1,2,3,4}, B = {a,b,c}, C = {2,7,10}, and f and g are defined by g = {(1,b),(2,a),(3,a),(4,b)} and f = {(a,10),(b,7),(c,2)}. Find f g. Ans: {(1,7),(2,10),(3,10),(4,7)}.

• 123. Suppose g : A B and f : B C where A = {1,2,3,4}, B = {a,b,c}, C = {2,7,10}, and f and g are defined by g = {(1,b),(2,a),(3,a),(4,b)} and f = {(a,10),(b,7),(c,2)}. Find f 1 . Ans: {(2,c),(7,b),(10,a)}.

Use the following to answer questions 124-127:

In the questions below suppose g : A B and f : B C where A = B = C = {1,2,3,4}, g =

{(1,4),(2,1),(3,1),(4,2)} and f = {(1,3),(2,2),(3,4),(4,2)}.

• 124. Find f g. Ans: {(1,2),(2,3),(3,3),(4,2)}.

• 125. Find g f. Ans: {(1,1),(2,1),(3,2),(4,1)}.

• 126. Find g g. Ans: {(1,2),(2,4),(3,4),(4,1)}.

Page 35

• 127. Find g (g g). Ans: {(1,1),(2,2),(3,2),(4,4)}.

Use the following to answer questions 128-131:

In the questions below suppose g : A B and f : B C where A = {1,2,3,4}, B = {a,b,c}, C =

{2,8,10}, and g and f are defined by g = {(1,b),(2,a),(3,b),(4,a)} and f = {(a,8),(b,10),(c,2)}.

• 128. Find f g. Ans: {(1,10),(2,8),(3,10),(4,8)}.

• 129. Find f 1 . Ans: {(2,c),(8,a),(10,b)}.

• 130. Find f f 1 . Ans: {(2,2),(8,8),(10,10)}.

• 131. Explain why g 1 is not a function. Ans: g 1 (a) is equal to both 2 and 4.

Use the following to answer questions 132-133:

In the questions below suppose g : A B and f : B C where A = {a,b,c,d}, B = {1,2,3}, C =

{2,3,6,8}, and g and f are defined by g = {(a,2),(b,1),(c,3),(d,2)} and f = {(1,8),(2,3),(3,2)}.

• 132. Find f g. Ans: {(a,3),(b,8),(c,2),(d,3)}.

• 133. Find f 1 . Ans: {(2,3),(3,2),(8,1)}.

• 134. For any function f : A B, define a new function g : P(A) P(B) as follows: for every S A, g(S) = {f(x) | x S}. Prove that f is onto if and only if g is onto. Ans:

Suppose f is onto. Let T P(B) and let S = {x A | f(x) T}. Then g(S) = T, and g

is onto. If f is not onto B, let y B f(A). Then there is no subset S of A such that

g(S) = {y}.

Use the following to answer questions 135-139:

In the questions below find the inverse of the function f or else explain why the function has no

inverse.

Page 36

135.

f : Z Z where f(x) = x mod 10.

Ans: f 1 (10) does not exist.

• 136. f : A B where A = {a,b,c}, B = {1,2,3} and f = {(a,2),(b,1),(c,3)}.

Ans: {(1,b),(2,a),(3,c)}.

• 137. f : R R where f(x) = 3x 5.

Ans:

f

1

(

x

) =

5 + x

3

.

• 138. f : R R where f(x) = 2x.

Ans:

f

1

(

1

2

)

 does not exist. x - 2 if x + 1 if
• 139. f : Z Z where f(x) = {

x

x

5

4.

Ans: f 1 (5) is not a single value.

• 140. Suppose g : A B and f : B C, where f g is 1-1 and g is 1-1. Must f be 1-1? Ans: No.

• 141. Suppose g : A B and f : B C, where f g is 1-1 and f is 1-1. Must g be 1-1?

 Ans: Yes. 142. Suppose f : R → R and g : R → R where g(x) = 2x + 1 and g f(x) = 2x + 11. Find the rule for f. Ans: f(x) = x + 5.

Use the following to answer questions 143-147:

In the questions below for each partial function, determine its domain, codomain, domain of

definition, set of values for which it is undefined or if it is a total function:

• 143. f : Z R where f(n) = 1/n.

Ans:

Z, R, Z − {0}, {0}.

• 144. f : Z Z where f(n) = n/2.

Ans: Z, Z, Z, total function.

• 145. f : Z × Z Q where f(m,n) = m/n.

Ans:

Z × Z, Q, Z × (Z − {0}), Z × {0}.

Page 37

• 146. f : Z × Z Z where f(m,n) = mn.

Ans:

Z × Z, Z, Z × Z, total function.

• 147. f : Z × Z Z where f(m,n) = m