1. Prove or disprove: A − (B ∩ C) = (A − B) ∪ (A − C). Ans: True, since A − ( B ∩ C ) = A ∩ B ∩ C = A ∩ ( B ∪ C ) = ( A ∩ B ) ∪ ( A ∩ C ) = ( A − B ) ∪ ( A − C ) .
2. Prove that A ∩ B
= A ∪ B
by giving a containment proof (that is, prove that the left
side is a subset of the right side and that the right side is a subset of the left side).
Ans: A ∩ B ⊆ A ∪ B : Let 
x ∈ A ∩ B 
. ∴ x ∉ A ∩ B, ∴ x ∉ A or 
x ∉ B, 
∴ x ∈ A 
or 

x ∈ B, 
∴ x ∈ A ∪ B 
. Reversing the steps shows that A ∪ B ⊆ A ∩ B 
. 

Prove 
A ∩ B = A ∪ B 
by giving an element table proof. 

Ans: The columns for A ∩ B have the value 1. and A ∪ 
B match: each entry is 0 if and only if A and B 
Page 22
6.
Prove that A ∩ (B ∪ C) = (A ∩ B) ∪ (A ∩ C) by giving a containment proof (that is,
prove that the left side is a subset of the right side and that the right side is a subset of the
left side). 

Ans: 
A ∩ (B ∪ C) ⊆ (A ∩ B) ∪ (A ∩ C): Let x ∈ A ∩ (B ∪ C). ∴ x ∈ A and x ∈ B ∪ C, 
∴ x ∈ A and x ∈ B, or x ∈ A and x ∈ C, ∴ x ∈ (A ∩ B) ∪ (A ∩ C). Reversing the
steps gives the opposite containment.
7. Prove that A ∩ (B ∪ C) = (A ∩ B) ∪ (A ∩ C) by giving an element table proof. Ans: Each set has the same values in the element table: the value is 1 if and only if A has
the value 1 and either B or C has the value 1.
8. Prove that A ∩ (B ∪ C) = (A ∩ B) ∪ (A ∩ C) by giving a proof using logical equivalence.
A 
∩ 
( 
B 
∪ 
C 
) 
= { 
x 
 
x 
∈ 
A ∩ ( B 
∪ C ) } 

= { 
x 
 
x 
∈ 
A ∧ x ∈ 
( B ∪ C 
) 
} 

= { 
x 
 
x 
∈ 
A ∧ ( x 
∈ B ∨ x 
∈ 
C ) 
} 

Ans: 
= { 
x 
 
( x 
∈ 
A ∧ x 
∈ B ) ∨ ( 
x 
∈ 
A 
∧ 
x 
∈ 
C ) 
} 

= { 
x 
 
x 
∈ 
A ∩ B 
∨ x ∈ A 
∩ 
C } 

= { 
x 
 
x 
∈ 
( 
A ∩∪∩ B ) ( A 
C 
) } 

= 
( 
A 
∩ 
B 
) 
∪ ( A 
∩ C ) 
9. Prove that A ∩ (B ∪ C) = (A ∩ B) ∪ (A ∩ C) by giving a Venn diagram proof. Ans:
Page 23
10.
Prove or disprove: if A, B, and C are sets, then A − (B ∩ C) = (A − B) ∩ (A − C).
Ans: False. For example, let A = {1,2}, B = {1}, C = {2}.
11. Prove or disprove A ⊕ (B ⊕ C) = (A ⊕ B) ⊕ C. Ans: True, using either a membership table or a containment proof, for example.
Use the following to answer questions 1215:
Use a Venn diagram to determine which relationship, ⊆, =, ⊇, is true for the pair of sets.
12. A ∪ B,
A ∪ (B − A).
Ans:
=.
13. (A ∪ B) ∩ C.
A ∪ (B ∩ C),
Ans: ⊇.
14. (A − B) ∪ (A − C), Ans:
=.
A − (B ∩ C).
15. (A − C) − (B − C), Ans: ⊆.
A − B.
Use the following to answer questions 1620:
In the questions below determine whether the given set is the power set of some set. If the set is
a power set, give the set of which it is a power set.
16. {∅,{∅},{a},{{a}},{{{a}}},{∅,a},{∅,{a}},{∅,{{a}}},{a,{a}},{a,{{a}}},{{a},{{a}}},
{∅,a,{a}},{∅,a,{{a}}},{∅,{a},{{a}}},{a,{a},{{a}}},{∅,a,{a},{{a}}}}.
Ans: Yes {∅,a,{a},{{a}}}.
17. {∅,{a}}.
Ans: Yes, {a}.
18. {∅,{a},{∅,a}}.
Ans: No, it lacks {∅}.
19. {∅,{a},{∅},{a,∅}}.
Ans: Yes, {{a,∅}}.
20. {∅,{a,∅}}.
Ans: No, it lacks {a} and {∅}.
Page 24
21. Prove that S ∪ T = S ∩ T
for all sets S and T.
Ans:
Since S ∪ T = S ∩ T
(De Morgan's law), the complements are equal.
Use the following to answer questions 2233:
In the questions below mark each statement TRUE or FALSE. Assume that the statement
applies to all sets.
22. A − (B − C) = (A − B) − C. Ans: False
23. (A − C) − (B − C) = A − B. Ans: False
24. A ∪ (B ∩ C) = (A ∪ B) ∩ (A ∪ C).
Ans: True 



Ans: False 


. 
Ans: True 



Ans: False 



Ans: False 
29. If A ∩ B = A ∪ B, then A = B. Ans: True
30. If A ⊕ B = A, then B = A. Ans: False
31. There is a set A such that  P(A)  = 12. Ans: False
32. A ⊕ A = A. Ans: False
33. Find three subsets of {1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9} such that the intersection of any two has size 2 and the intersection of all three has size 1. Ans: For example, {1,2,3}, {2,3,4}, {1,3,4}.
Page 25
+∞ 

− 1/ 
i 
, 1 / i 
_{]} 
. 

i = 1 

Ans: [1,1]. 

+∞ 
1 

1 
− 
i 
, 1 ). 

i = 1 

Ans: ∅. 

+∞ 
1 

1 
− 
i 
, 
1 ]. 

i = 1 

Ans: {1}. 

+∞ 

Find _{∪} (

). 

i = 1 

Ans: ∅. 
38. Suppose U = {1, 2, ...
,
9}, A = all multiples of 2, B = all multiples of 3, and C = {3, 4, 5,
6, 7}. Find C  (B  A).
Use the following to answer questions 4043:
In the questions below suppose A = {x,y} and B = {x,{x}}. Mark the statement TRUE or
FALSE
40. x ⊆ B. Ans: False
41. ∅ ∈ P(B). Ans: True
42. {x} ⊆ A − B.
Ans: False
43.  P(A)  = 4. Ans: True
Page 26
Use the following to answer questions 4451:
In the questions below suppose A = {a,b,c}. Mark the statement TRUE or FALSE.
44. {b,c} ∈ P(A).
Ans: True
45. {{a}} ⊆ P(A).
Ans: True
46. ∅ ⊆ A. Ans: True
47. {∅} ⊆ P(A).
Ans: True
48. ∅ ⊆ A × A. Ans: True
49. {a,c} ∈ A.
Ans: True
50. {a,b} ∈ A × A.
Ans: False
51. (c,c) ∈ A × A. Ans: True
Use the following to answer questions 5259:
In the questions below suppose A = {1,2,3,4,5}. Mark the statement TRUE or FALSE.
52. {1} ∈ P(A).
Ans: True
53. {{3}} ⊆ P(A).
Ans: True
54. ∅ ⊆ A. Ans: True
55. {∅} ⊆ P(A).
Ans: True
Page 27
56. ∅ ⊆ P(A). Ans: True
57. {2,4} ∈ A × A.
Ans: False
58. {∅} ∈ P(A).
Ans: False
59. (1,1) ∈ A × A. Ans: True
Use the following to answer questions 6062:
In the questions below suppose the following are fuzzy sets:
F = {0.7Ann,0.1Bill,0.8Fran,0.3Olive,0.5Tom},
R = {0.4Ann,0.9Bill,0.9Fran,0.6Olive,0.7Tom}.
60. Find F
and R
.
Ans:
F = {0.3 Ann, 0.9 Bill , 0.2 Fran, 0.7 Olive, 0.5 Tom} ,
R = {0.6 Ann, 0.1 Bill , 0.1 Fran,
0.4
Olive,
0.3 Tom}
61. Find F ∪ R. Ans: {0.7Ann,0.9Bill,0.9Fran,0.6Olive,0.7Tom}.
62. Find F ∩ R. Ans: {0.4Ann,0.1Bill,0.8Fran,0.3Olive,0.5Tom}.
Use the following to answer questions 6372:
In the questions below, suppose A = {a,b,c} and B = {b,{c}}. Mark the statement TRUE or
FALSE
63. c ∈ A − B. Ans: True
64.  P(A × B)  = 64. Ans: True
65. ∅ ∈ P(B). Ans: True
66. B ⊆ A. Ans: False
Page 28
67. {c} ⊆ B.
Ans: False
68. {a,b} ∈ A × A.
Ans: False
69. {b,c} ∈ P(A).
Ans: True
70. {b,{c}} ∈ P(B).
Ans: True
71. ∅ ⊆ A × A. Ans: True
72. {{{c}}} ⊆ P(B).
Ans: True
Use the following to answer questions 7385:
In the questions below determine whether the set is finite or infinite. If the set is finite, find its
size.
73. {x  x ∈ Z and x ^{2} < 10}.
Ans:
7.
74. P({a,b,c,d}), where P denotes the power set. Ans: 16.
75. {1,3,5,7,…}.
Ans: Infinite.
76. A × B, where A = {1,2,3,4,5} and B = {1,2,3}. Ans: 15.
77. {x  x ∈ N and 9x ^{2} − 1 = 0}.
Ans:
0.
78. P(A), where A is the power set of {a,b,c}. Ans: 256.
79. A × B, where A = {a,b,c} and B = ∅. Ans:
0.
Page 29
80.
{x  x ∈ N and 4x ^{2} − 8 = 0}.
Ans:
0.
81. {x  x ∈ Z and x ^{2} = 2}.
Ans:
0.
82. P(A), where A = P({1,2}). Ans: 16.
83. {1,10,100,1000,…}.
Ans: Infinite.
84. S × T, where S = {a,b,c} and T = {1,2,3,4,5}. Ans: 15.
85. {x  x ∈ Z and x ^{2} < 8}.
Ans:
5.
86. Prove that between every two rational numbers a/b and c/d (a) there is a rational number.
(b) there are an infinite number of rational numbers.
Ans:
(a) Assume ^{a} ≤
c
b
d
. Then
a
b
+
d
a
c
ad
+
bc
c
≤
=
≤
b
2
2
bd
d
.
(b) Assume ^{a}
b
^{c}
d
<
. Let m _{1} be the midpoint of
a
c
b
,
d
. For i > 1 let m _{i} be the
midpoint of
a
b
,
m
i
−
1
.
.
87. Prove that there is no smallest positive rational number.
Ans: If 0 
a 
, then 0 
aaa 
a 

< 
< 
< 
< 
< 
< 

… 
. 

b 
432 b b 
b 
b 
Use the following to answer questions 8896:
In the questions below determine whether the rule describes a function with the given domain
and codomain.
88. f : N → N where
f ( n ) =
.
Ans: Not a function; f(2) is not an integer.
89. h : R → R where h ( x ) =
.
Ans: Function.
Page 30
90. g : N → N where g(n) = any integer > n. Ans: Not a function; g(1) has more than one value.
91. F : R → R where
F
(
x
)
1
=
x
−
5
.
Ans: Not a function; F(5) not defined.
92. F : Z → R where Ans: Function.
F
(
x
)
1
=
2
x
−
5
.
93. F : Z → Z where
F
(
x
)
1
=
2
x
−
5
.
Ans: Not a function; F(1) not an integer.
94. G : R → R where G
(
x
)
x
+
2
x
−
=
if
1 if
x
x
≥
≤
4
0
Ans: Not a function; the cases overlap. For example, G(1) is equal to both 3 and 0.
95. f : R → R where
f
(
x
)
x
x
2
−
if
1 if
x ≤
2
x
≥
4
Ans: Not a function; f(3) not defined.
96. G : Q → Q where G(p/q) = q. Ans: Not a function; f(1/2) = 2 and f(2/4) = 4.
97. Give an example of a function f : Z → Z that is 11 and not onto Z.
Ans: f(n) = 2n. 




n 


Ans: f ( n ) = 2 .


_{} − 
2 
n 
if 
n 
≤ 
0 

Ans: 
f 
( 
n 
) = 


2 
n 
− 
1 if 
x 
> 0 
Page 31
100. Give an example of a function f : N → Z that is both 11 and onto Z.
102. Give an example of a function f : N → Z that is onto Z and not 11. Ans:
f
(
n
)
n odd
n even.
103. Suppose f : N → N has the rule f(n) = 4n + 1. Determine whether f is 11. Ans: Yes.
104. Suppose f : N → N has the rule f(n) = 4n + 1. Determine whether f is onto N. Ans: No.
105. Suppose f : Z → Z has the rule f(n) = 3n ^{2} − 1. Determine whether f is 11. Ans: No.
106. Suppose f : Z → Z has the rule f(n) = 3n − 1. Determine whether f is onto Z. Ans: No.
107. Suppose f : N → N has the rule f(n) = 3n ^{2} − 1. Determine whether f is 11. Ans: Yes.
108. Suppose f : N → N has the rule f(n) = 4n ^{2} + 1. Determine whether f is onto N. Ans: No.
Page 32
109. Suppose f : R → R where f(x) = x/2.
(a) Draw the graph of f.
(b) Is f 11?
(b) 
No. 
(c) 
No. 






Ans: (a) {0,1,2,3} 

(b) 
[6,12). 


is the position of a 1 bit in the bit string S. 

Ans: No; there may be no 1 bits or more than one 1 bit. 



is the number of 0 bits in S. 

Ans: Yes. 



is the largest integer i such that the ith bit of S is 0 and f(S) = 1 when S is the empty string 

(the string with no bits). 

Ans: No; f not defined for the string of all 1's, for example S = 11111. 











Ans: (a) {−3,−1,0,2,9}. 

(b) 
{0,2,9,21,41}. 
(c) 
{0,41,114,443}. 
(d) 
{2,72,333,914}. 
Page 33
115.
Suppose f : R → Z where f(x) = 2x − 1.
(a) Draw the graph of f.
(b) Is f 11? (Explain)
(c) Is f onto Z? (Explain)
Ans: (a)
116. Suppose f : R → Z where f(x) = 2x − 1.
(a) If A = {x  1 ≤ x ≤ 4}, find f(A).
(b) If B = {3,4,5,6,7}, find f(B).
(c) If C = {−9,−8}, find f ^{−}^{1} (C).
(d) If D = {0.4,0.5,0.6}, find f ^{−}^{1} (D).
Ans:
117. Suppose g : R → R where
(a) Draw the graph of g.
(b) Is g 11?
(c) Is g onto R?
Ans: (a)
Page 34
118. Suppose g : R → R where
g
(
x
)
^{=}
x
− 1
2
^{.}
(a) If S = {x  1 ≤ x ≤ 6}, find g(S).
(b) If T = {2}, find g ^{−}^{1} (T).
Ans: (a) {0,1,2}.
(b) [5,7).
119. Show that x = − − x. Ans:
Let n = x, so that n − 1 < x ≤ n. Multiplying by −1 yields −n + 1 > −x ≥ −n, which
means that −n = − x.
120. Prove or disprove: For all positive real numbers x and y, x ⋅ y ≤ x ⋅ y. Ans:
False: x = y = 1.5.
121. Prove or disprove: For all positive real numbers x and y, x ⋅ y ≤ x ⋅ y. Ans:
True: x
≤ x
,
; therefore
xy ≤ _{} x
y
_{}
least as great as xy, then _{}
xy ≤ x
y
^{.}
; since _{} x
y _{}
is an integer at
122. Suppose g : A → B and f : B → C where A = {1,2,3,4}, B = {a,b,c}, C = {2,7,10}, and f and g are defined by g = {(1,b),(2,a),(3,a),(4,b)} and f = {(a,10),(b,7),(c,2)}. Find f g. Ans: {(1,7),(2,10),(3,10),(4,7)}.
123. Suppose g : A → B and f : B → C where A = {1,2,3,4}, B = {a,b,c}, C = {2,7,10}, and f and g are defined by g = {(1,b),(2,a),(3,a),(4,b)} and f = {(a,10),(b,7),(c,2)}. Find f ^{−}^{1} . Ans: {(2,c),(7,b),(10,a)}.
Use the following to answer questions 124127:
In the questions below suppose g : A → B and f : B → C where A = B = C = {1,2,3,4}, g =
{(1,4),(2,1),(3,1),(4,2)} and f = {(1,3),(2,2),(3,4),(4,2)}.
124. Find f g. Ans: {(1,2),(2,3),(3,3),(4,2)}.
125. Find g f. Ans: {(1,1),(2,1),(3,2),(4,1)}.
126. Find g g. Ans: {(1,2),(2,4),(3,4),(4,1)}.
Page 35
127. Find g (g g). Ans: {(1,1),(2,2),(3,2),(4,4)}.
Use the following to answer questions 128131:
In the questions below suppose g : A → B and f : B → C where A = {1,2,3,4}, B = {a,b,c}, C =
{2,8,10}, and g and f are defined by g = {(1,b),(2,a),(3,b),(4,a)} and f = {(a,8),(b,10),(c,2)}.
128. Find f g. Ans: {(1,10),(2,8),(3,10),(4,8)}.
129. Find f ^{−}^{1} . Ans: {(2,c),(8,a),(10,b)}.
130. Find f f ^{−}^{1} . Ans: {(2,2),(8,8),(10,10)}.
131. Explain why g ^{−}^{1} is not a function. Ans: g ^{−}^{1} (a) is equal to both 2 and 4.
Use the following to answer questions 132133:
In the questions below suppose g : A → B and f : B → C where A = {a,b,c,d}, B = {1,2,3}, C =
{2,3,6,8}, and g and f are defined by g = {(a,2),(b,1),(c,3),(d,2)} and f = {(1,8),(2,3),(3,2)}.
132. Find f g. Ans: {(a,3),(b,8),(c,2),(d,3)}.
133. Find f ^{−}^{1} . Ans: {(2,3),(3,2),(8,1)}.
134. For any function f : A → B, define a new function g : P(A) → P(B) as follows: for every S ⊆ A, g(S) = {f(x)  x ∈ S}. Prove that f is onto if and only if g is onto. Ans:
Suppose f is onto. Let T ∈ P(B) and let S = {x ∈ A  f(x) ∈ T}. Then g(S) = T, and g
is onto. If f is not onto B, let y ∈ B − f(A). Then there is no subset S of A such that
g(S) = {y}.
Use the following to answer questions 135139:
In the questions below find the inverse of the function f or else explain why the function has no
inverse.
Page 36
135.
f : Z → Z where f(x) = x mod 10.
Ans: f ^{−}^{1} (10) does not exist.
136. f : A → B where A = {a,b,c}, B = {1,2,3} and f = {(a,2),(b,1),(c,3)}.
Ans: {(1,b),(2,a),(3,c)}.
137. f : R → R where f(x) = 3x − 5.
Ans:
f
−
1
(
x
) =
5 + x
3
.
138. f : R → R where f(x) = 2x.
Ans:
f
− 1
(
1
2
)
does not exist. 

x 
 2 
if 
x 
+ 1 if 
139. f : Z → Z where f(x) = {
x
x
≥
5
≤
4.
Ans: f ^{−}^{1} (5) is not a single value.
140. Suppose g : A → B and f : B → C, where f g is 11 and g is 11. Must f be 11? Ans: No.
141. Suppose g : A → B and f : B → C, where f g is 11 and f is 11. Must g be 11?
Ans: Yes. 



rule for f. 

Ans: 
f(x) = x + 5. 
Use the following to answer questions 143147:
In the questions below for each partial function, determine its domain, codomain, domain of
definition, set of values for which it is undefined or if it is a total function:
143. f : Z → R where f(n) = 1/n.
Ans:
Z, R, Z − {0}, {0}.
144. f : Z → Z where f(n) = n/2.
Ans: Z, Z, Z, total function.
145. f : Z × Z → Q where f(m,n) = m/n.
Ans:
Z × Z, Q, Z × (Z − {0}), Z × {0}.
Page 37
146. f : Z × Z → Z where f(m,n) = mn.
Ans:
Z × Z, Z, Z × Z, total function.
147. f : Z × Z → Z where f(m,n) = m −