Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 11

PATANJALI'S YOGA APHORISMS

(Commentary by Swami Vivekananda)


CHAPTER II
CONCENTRATION: ITS PRACTICE
1. Mortification, study, and surrndrin! fruits of "or# to God ar ca$$d %riya&yo!a.
Thoe Samadhi with whi!h we ended o"r #at !ha$ter are very di%%i!"#t to attain& o we m"t take them "$
#ow#y' The %irt te$( the $re#iminary te$( i !a##ed )riya*yo+a' ,itera##y thi mean work( workin+ toward
-o+a' The or+an are the hore( the mind i the rein( the inte##e!t i the !harioteer( the o"# i the rider(
and the body i the !hariot' The mater o% the ho"eho#d( the )in+( the Se#% o% man( i ittin+ in thi !hariot'
I% the hore are very tron+ and do not obey the rein( i% the !harioteer( the inte##e!t( doe not know how to
!ontro# the hore( then the !hariot wi## !ome to +rie%' ."t i% the or+an( the hore( are we## !ontro##ed( and
i% the rein( the mind( i we## he#d in the hand o% the !harioteer( the inte##e!t( the !hariot rea!he the +oa#'
/hat i meant( there%ore( by thi morti%i!ation0 Ho#din+ the rein %irm#y whi#e +"idin+ the body and the
or+an& not #ettin+ them do anythin+ they #ike( b"t kee$in+ them both "nder $ro$er !ontro#' St"dy' /hat i
meant by t"dy in thi !ae0 No t"dy o% nove# or tory book( b"t t"dy o% thoe work whi!h tea!h the
#iberation o% the So"#' Then a+ain thi t"dy doe not mean !ontroveria# t"die at a##' The -o+i i "$$oed
to have %inihed hi $eriod o% !ontrovery' He ha had eno"+h o% that( and ha be!ome ati%ied' He on#y
t"die to inteni%y hi !onvi!tion' Vada and Siddhanta 1 thee are the two ort o% !ri$t"ra# know#ed+e 1
Vada (the ar+"mentative) and Siddhanta (the de!iive)' /hen a man i entire#y i+norant he take "$ the
%irt o% thee( the ar+"mentative %i+htin+( and reaonin+ $ro and !on& and when he ha %inihed that he
take "$ the Siddhanta( the de!iive( arrivin+ at a !on!#"ion' Sim$#y arrivin+ at thi !on!#"ion wi## not do'
It m"t be inteni%ied' .ook are in%inite in n"mber( and time i hort& there%ore the e!ret o% know#ed+e i
to take what i eentia#' Take that and try to #ive "$ to it' There i an o#d Indian #e+end that i% yo" $#a!e a
!"$ o% mi#k and water be%ore a Ra2a*Hama (wan)( he wi## take a## the mi#k and #eave the water' In that
way we ho"#d take what i o% va#"e in know#ed+e( and #eave the dro' Inte##e!t"a# +ymnati! are
ne!eary at %irt' /e m"t not +o b#ind#y into anythin+' The -o+i ha $aed the ar+"mentative tate( and
ha !ome to a !on!#"ion( whi!h i( #ike the ro!k( immovab#e' The on#y thin+ he now eek to do i to
inteni%y that !on!#"ion' 3o not ar+"e( he ay& i% one %or!e ar+"ment "$on yo"( be i#ent' 3o not anwer
any ar+"ment( b"t +o away !a#m#y( be!a"e ar+"ment on#y dit"rb the mind' The on#y thin+ ne!eary i to
train the inte##e!t( what i the "e o% dit"rbin+ it %or nothin+0 The inte##e!t i b"t a weak intr"ment( and
!an +ive " on#y know#ed+e #imited by the ene' The -o+i want to +o beyond the ene( there%ore
inte##e!t i o% no "e to him' He i !ertain o% thi and( there%ore( i i#ent( and doe not ar+"e' Every
ar+"ment throw hi mind o"t o% ba#an!e( !reate a dit"rban!e in the Chitta( and a dit"rban!e i a
drawba!k' Ar+"mentation and ear!hin+ o% the reaon are on#y by the way' There are m"!h hi+her thin+
beyond them' The who#e o% #i%e i not %or !hoo#boy %i+ht and debatin+ o!ietie' 4S"rrenderin+ the %r"it o%
work to 5od4 i to take to o"re#ve neither !redit nor b#ame( b"t to +ive "$ both to the ,ord and be at
$ea!e'
'. (It is for) t* +ractic of Sa,ad*i and ,ini,isin! t* +ain&-arin! o-structions.
6ot o% " make o"r mind #ike $oi#t !hi#dren( a##owin+ them to do whatever they want' There%ore it i
ne!eary that )riya*yo+a ho"#d be !ontant#y $ra!tied( in order to +ain !ontro# o% the mind( and brin+ it
into "b2e!tion' The obtr"!tion to -o+a arie %rom #a!k o% !ontro#( and !a"e " $ain' They !an on#y be
removed by denyin+ the mind( and ho#din+ it in !he!k( thro"+h the mean o% )riya*yo+a'
.. T* +ain&-arin! o-structions ar / i!noranc, !ois,, attac*,nt, a0rsion and c$in!in! to
Yoga Sutras of Patanjali (On Practice) http://www.yoga-age.com/sutras/pata2.html
1 of 11 4/11/2014 12:07 AM
$if.
Thee are the %ive $ain( the %ive%o#d tie that bind " down( o% whi!h i+noran!e i the !a"e and the other
%o"r it e%%e!t' It i the on#y !a"e o% a## o"r miery' /hat e#e !an make " mierab#e0 The nat"re o% the
So"# i eterna# b#i' /hat !an make it orrow%"# e7!e$t i+noran!e( ha##"!ination( de#"ion0 A## $ain o% the
So"# i im$#y de#"ion'
1. I!noranc is t* +roducti0 fi$d of a$$ t*s t*at fo$$o", "*t*r t*y ar dor,ant,
attnuatd, o0r+o"rd, or 2+andd.
I+noran!e i the !a"e o% e+oim( atta!hment( averion( and !#in+in+ to #i%e' Thee im$reion e7it in
di%%erent tate' They are ometime dormant' -o" o%ten hear the e7$reion 4inno!ent a a baby(4 yet in
the baby may be the tate o% a demon or o% a +od( whi!h wi## !ome o"t by de+ree' In the -o+i( thee
im$reion( the Samkara #e%t by $at a!tion( are atten"ated( that i( e7it in a very %ine tate( and he
!an !ontro# them( and not a##ow them to be!ome mani%et' 4Over$owered4 mean that ometime one et o%
im$reion i he#d down %or a whi#e by thoe that are tron+er( b"t they !ome o"t when that re$rein+
!a"e i removed' The #at tate i the 4e7$anded(4 when the Samkara( havin+ he#$%"# "rro"ndin+(
attain to a +reat a!tivity( either a +ood or evi#'
3. I!noranc is ta#in! t* non&trna$, t* i,+ur, t* +ainfu$, and t* non&S$f for t* trna$,
t* +ur, t* *a++y, and t* At,an or S$f (rs+cti0$y).
A## the di%%erent ort o% im$reion have one o"r!e( i+noran!e' /e have %irt to #earn what i+noran!e i'
A## o% " think( 4I am the body( and not the Se#%( the $"re( the e%%"#+ent( the ever b#i%"#(4 and that i
i+noran!e' /e think o% man( and ee man a body' Thi i the +reat de#"ion'
4. 5!ois, is t* idntification of t* sr "it* t* instru,nt of sin!.
The eer i rea##y the Se#%( the $"re one( the ever ho#y( the in%inite( the immorta#' Thi i the Se#% o% man'
And what are the intr"ment0 The Chitta or mind*t"%%( the ."ddhi or determinative %a!"#ty( the 6ana or
mind( and the Indriya or ene*or+an' Thee are the intr"ment %or him to ee the e7terna# wor#d( and
the identi%i!ation o% the Se#% with the intr"ment i what i !a##ed the i+noran!e o% e+oim' /e ay( 4I am
the mind(4 4I am tho"+ht(4 4I am an+ry(4 or 4I am ha$$y4' How !an we be an+ry and how !an we hate0 /e
ho"#d identi%y o"re#ve with the Se#% that !annot !han+e' I% It i "n!han+eab#e( how !an It be one moment
ha$$y( and one moment "nha$$y0 It i %orm#e( in%inite( omni$reent' /hat !an !han+e It 0 It i beyond a##
#aw' /hat !an a%%e!t it0 Nothin+ in the "nivere !an $rod"!e an e%%e!t on It' -et thro"+h i+noran!e( we
identi%y o"re#ve with the mind*t"%%( and think we %ee# $#ea"re or $ain'
6. Attac*,nt is t*at "*ic* d"$$s on +$asur.
/e %ind $#ea"re in !ertain thin+( and the mind #ike a !"rrent %#ow toward them& and thi %o##owin+ the
$#ea"re !entre( a it were( i what i !a##ed atta!hment' /e are never atta!hed where we do not %ind
$#ea"re' /e %ind $#ea"re in very 8"eer thin+ ometime( b"t the $rin!i$#e remain: wherever we %ind
$#ea"re( there we are atta!hed'
7. A0rsion is t*at "*ic* d"$$s on +ain.
That whi!h +ive " $ain we immediate#y eek to +et away %rom'
8. 9$o"in! t*rou!* its o"n natur, and sta-$is*d 0n in t* $arnd, is t* c$in!in! to $if.
Thi !#in+in+ to #i%e yo" ee mani%eted in every anima#' 9$on it many attem$t have been made to b"i#d the
theory o% a %"t"re #i%e( be!a"e men are o %ond o% #i%e that they deire a %"t"re #i%e a#o' O% !o"re it +oe
witho"t ayin+ that thi ar+"ment i witho"t m"!h va#"e( b"t the mot !"rio" $art o% it i( that( in /etern
!o"ntrie( the idea that thi !#in+in+ to #i%e indi!ate a $oibi#ity o% %"t"re #i%e a$$#ie on#y to men( b"t doe
not in!#"de anima#' In India thi !#in+in+ to #i%e ha been one o% the ar+"ment to $rove $at e7$erien!e
and e7iten!e' :or intan!e( i% it be tr"e that a## o"r know#ed+e ha !ome %rom e7$erien!e( then it i "re
that that whi!h we never e7$erien!ed we !annot ima+ine or "ndertand' A oon a !hi!ken are hat!hed
they be+in to $i!k "$ %ood' 6any time it ha been een( where d"!k have been hat!hed by hen( that( a
oon a they !ame o"t o% the e++ they %#ew to water( and the mother tho"+ht they wo"#d be drowned' I%
e7$erien!e be the on#y o"r!e o% know#ed+e( where did thee !hi!ken #earn to $i!k "$ %ood( or the d"!k#in+
that the water wa their nat"ra# e#ement0 I% yo" ay it i intin!t( it mean nothin+ 1 it i im$#y +ivin+ a
word( b"t i no e7$#anation' /hat i thi intin!t0 /e have many intin!t in o"re#ve' :or intan!e( mot
o% yo" #adie $#ay the $iano( and remember( when yo" %irt #earned( how !are%"##y yo" had to $"t yo"r
%in+er on the b#a!k and the white key( one a%ter the other( b"t now( a%ter #on+ year o% $ra!ti!e( yo" !an
ta#k with yo"r %riend whi#e yo"r %in+er $#ay me!hani!a##y' It ha be!ome intin!t' So with every work we
do& by $ra!ti!e it be!ome intin!t( it be!ome a"tomati!& b"t o %ar a we know( a## the !ae whi!h we now
re+ard a a"tomati! are de+enerated reaon' In the #an+"a+e o% the -o+i( intin!t i invo#ved reaon'
3i!rimination be!ome invo#ved( and +et to be a"tomati! Samkara' There%ore it i $er%e!t#y #o+i!a# to
Yoga Sutras of Patanjali (On Practice) http://www.yoga-age.com/sutras/pata2.html
2 of 11 4/11/2014 12:07 AM
think that a## we !a## intin!t in thi wor#d i im$#y invo#ved reaon' A reaon !annot !ome witho"t
e7$erien!e( a## intin!t i( there%ore( the re"#t o% $at e7$erien!e' Chi!ken %ear the hawk( and d"!k#in+
#ove the water& thee are both the re"#t o% $at e7$erien!e' Then the 8"etion i whether that e7$erien!e
be#on+ to a $arti!"#ar o"#( or to the body im$#y( whether thi e7$erien!e whi!h !ome to the d"!k i the
d"!k; %ore%ather; e7$erien!e( or the d"!k; own e7$erien!e' 6odern !ienti%i! men ho#d that it be#on+ to
the body( b"t the -o+i ho#d that it i the e7$erien!e o% the mind( tranmitted thro"+h the body' Thi i
!a##ed the theory o% rein!arnation'
/e have een that a## o"r know#ed+e( whether we !a## it $er!e$tion( or reaon( or intin!t( m"t !ome
thro"+h that one !hanne# !a##ed e7$erien!e( and a## that we now !a## intin!t i the re"#t o% $at e7$erien!e(
de+enerated into intin!t and that intin!t re+enerate into reaon a+ain' So on thro"+ho"t the "nivere(
and "$on thi ha been b"i#t one o% the !hie% ar+"ment %or rein!arnation in India' The re!"rrin+
e7$erien!e o% vario" %ear( in !o"re o% time( $rod"!e thi !#in+in+ to #i%e' That i why the !hi#d i
intin!tive#y a%raid( be!a"e the $at e7$erien!e o% $ain i there in it' Even in the mot #earned men( who
know that thi body wi## +o( and who ay 4never mind( we have had h"ndred o% bodie( the o"# !annot die4
1 even in them( with a## their inte##e!t"a# !onvi!tion( we ti## %ind thi !#in+in+ on to #i%e' /hy i thi
!#in+in+ to #i%e0 /e have een that it ha be!ome intin!tive' In the $y!ho#o+i!a# #an+"a+e o% the -o+i it
ha be!ome a Samkara' The Samkara( %ine and hidden( are #ee$in+ in the Chitta' A## thi $at
e7$erien!e o% death( a## that whi!h we !a## intin!t( i e7$erien!e be!ome "b!on!io"' It #ive in the Chitta(
and i not ina!tive( b"t i workin+ "nderneath'
The Chitta*Vritti( the mind*wave( whi!h are +ro( we !an a$$re!iate and %ee#& they !an be more eai#y
!ontro##ed( b"t what abo"t the %iner intin!t0 How !an they be !ontro##ed0 /hen I am an+ry( my who#e
mind be!ome a h"+e wave o% an+er' I %ee# it( ee it( hand#e it( !an eai#y mani$"#ate it( !an %i+ht with it&
b"t I ha## not "!!eed $er%e!t#y in the %i+ht "nti# I !an +et down be#ow to it !a"e' A man ay omethin+
very harh to me( and I be+in to %ee# that I am +ettin+ heated( and he +oe on ti## I am $er%e!t#y an+ry and
%or+et mye#%( identi%y mye#% with an+er' /hen he %irt be+an to ab"e me( I tho"+ht( 4I am +oin+ to be
an+ry4' An+er wa one thin+( and I wa another& b"t when I be!ame an+ry( I wa an+er' Thee %ee#in+
have to be !ontro##ed in the +erm( the root( in their %ine %orm( be%ore even we have be!ome !on!io" that
they are a!tin+ on "' /ith the vat ma2ority o% mankind the %ine tate o% thee $aion are not even
known 1 the tate in whi!h they emer+e %rom "b!on!io"ne' /hen a b"bb#e i riin+ %rom the bottom
o% the #ake( we do not ee it( nor even when it i near#y !ome to the "r%a!e& it i on#y when it b"rt and
make a ri$$#e that we know it i there' /e ha## on#y be "!!e%"# in +ra$$#in+ with the wave when we
!an +et ho#d o% them in their %ine !a"e( and "nti# yo" !an +et ho#d o% them( and "bd"e them be%ore they
be!ome +ro( there i no ho$e o% !on8"erin+ any $aion $er%e!t#y' To !ontro# o"r $aion we have to
!ontro# them at their very root& then a#one ha## we be ab#e to b"rn o"t their very eed' A %ried eed
thrown into the +ro"nd wi## never !ome "$( o thee $aion wi## never arie'
1:. T* fin Sa,s#aras ar to - con;urd -y rso$0in! t*, into t*ir causa$ stat.
Samkara are the "bt#e im$reion that mani%et theme#ve into +ro %orm #ater on' How are thee
%ine Samkara to be !ontro##ed0 .y reo#vin+ the e%%e!t into it !a"e' /hen the Chitta( whi!h i an e%%e!t(
i reo#ved into it !a"e( Amita or E+oim( then on#y( the %ine im$reion die a#on+ with it' 6editation
!annot detroy thee'
11<y ,ditation, t*ir (!ross) ,odifications ar to - r=ctd.
6editation i one o% the +reat mean o% !ontro##in+ the riin+ o% thee wave' .y meditation yo" !an make
the mind "bd"e thee wave( and i% yo" +o on $ra!ti!in+ meditation %or day( and month( and year( "nti#
it ha be!ome a habit( "nti# it wi## !ome in $ite o% yo"re#%( an+er and hatred wi## be !ontro##ed and !he!ked'
1'. T* >rc+tac$ of "or#s> *as its root in t*s +ain&-arin! o-structions, and t*ir
2+rinc is in t*is 0isi-$ $if, or in t* unsn $if.
.y the 4re!e$ta!#e o% work4 i meant the "m*tota# o% Samkara' /hatever work we do( the mind i
thrown into a wave( and a%ter the work i %inihed( we think the wave i +one' No' It ha on#y be!ome %ine(
b"t it i ti## there' /hen we try to remember the work( it !ome "$ a+ain and be!ome a wave' So it wa
there& i% not( there wo"#d not have been memory' Th" every a!tion( every tho"+ht( +ood or bad( 2"t +oe
down and be!ome %ine( and i there tored "$' .oth ha$$y and "nha$$y tho"+ht are !a##ed $ain*bearin+
obtr"!tion( be!a"e a!!ordin+ to the -o+i( they( in the #on+ r"n( brin+ $ain' A## ha$$ine whi!h !ome
%rom the ene wi##( event"a##y( brin+ $ain' A## en2oyment wi## make " thirt %or more( and that brin+ $ain
a it re"#t' There i no #imit to man; deire& he +oe on deirin+( and when he !ome to a $oint where
deire !annot be %"#%i##ed( the re"#t i $ain' There%ore the -o+i re+ard the "m*tota# o% the im$reion(
+ood or evi#( a $ain*bearin+ obtr"!tion& they obtr"!t the way to %reedom o% the So"#'
It i the ame with the Samkara( the %ine root o% a## o"r work& they are the !a"e whi!h wi## a+ain brin+
e%%e!t( either in thi #i%e( or in the #ive to !ome' In e7!e$tiona# !ae when thee Samkara are very
tron+( they bear %r"it 8"i!k#y& e7!e$tiona# a!t o% wi!kedne( or o% +oodne( brin+ their %r"it even in thi
#i%e' The -o+i ho#d that men who are ab#e to a!8"ire a tremendo" $ower o% +ood Samkara do not have to
Yoga Sutras of Patanjali (On Practice) http://www.yoga-age.com/sutras/pata2.html
3 of 11 4/11/2014 12:07 AM
die( b"t( even in thi #i%e( !an !han+e their bodie into +od*bodie' There are evera# "!h !ae mentioned
by the -o+i in their book' Thee men !han+e the very materia# o% their bodie& they re*arran+e the
mo#e!"#e in "!h %ahion that they have no more i!kne( and what we !a## death doe not !ome to them'
/hy ho"#d not thi be0 The $hyio#o+i!a# meanin+ o% %ood i aimi#ation o% ener+y %rom the "n' The
ener+y ha rea!hed the $#ant( the $#ant i eaten by an anima#( and the anima# by man' The !ien!e o% it i
that we take o m"!h ener+y %rom the "n( and make it $art o% o"re#ve' That bein+ the !ae( why ho"#d
there be on#y one way o% aimi#atin+ ener+y0 The $#ant; way i not the ame a o"r& the earth; $ro!e
o% aimi#atin+ ener+y di%%er %rom o"r own' ."t a## aimi#ate ener+y in ome %orm or other' The -o+i ay
that they are ab#e to aimi#ate ener+y by the $ower o% the mind a#one( that they !an draw in a m"!h o% it
a they deire witho"t re!o"re to the ordinary method' A a $ider make it web o"t o% it own
"btan!e( and be!ome bo"nd in it( and !annot +o anywhere e7!e$t a#on+ the #ine o% that web( o we have
$ro2e!ted o"t o% o"r own "btan!e thi network !a##ed the nerve( and we !annot work e7!e$t thro"+h the
!hanne# o% thoe nerve' The -o+i ay we need not be bo"nd by that'
Simi#ar#y( we !an end e#e!tri!ity to any $art o% the wor#d( b"t we have to end it by mean o% wire' Nat"re
!an end a vat ma o% e#e!tri!ity witho"t any wire at a##' /hy !annot we do the ame0 /e !an end
menta# e#e!tri!ity' /hat we !a## mind i very m"!h the ame a e#e!tri!ity' It i !#ear that thi nerve %#"id
ha ome amo"nt o% e#e!tri!ity( be!a"e it i $o#aried( and it anwer a## e#e!tri!a# dire!tion' /e !an on#y
end o"r e#e!tri!ity thro"+h thee nerve !hanne#' /hy not end the menta# e#e!tri!ity witho"t thi aid0 The
-o+i ay it i $er%e!t#y $oib#e and $ra!ti!ab#e( and that when yo" !an do that( yo" wi## work a## over the
"nivere' -o" wi## be ab#e to work with any body anywhere( witho"t the he#$ o% the nervo" ytem' /hen
the o"# i a!tin+ thro"+h thee !hanne#( we ay a man i #ivin+( and when thee !eae to work( a man i
aid to be dead' ."t when a man i ab#e to a!t either with or witho"t thee !hanne#( birth and death wi##
have no meanin+ %or him' A## the bodie in the "nivere are made "$ o% Tanmatra( their di%%eren!e #ie in
the arran+ement o% the #atter' I% yo" are the arran+er( yo" !an arran+e a body in one way or another' /ho
make "$ thi body b"t yo"0 /ho eat the %ood0 I% another ate the %ood %or yo"( yo" wo"#d not #ive #on+'
/ho make the b#ood o"t o% %ood0 -o"( !ertain#y' /ho $"ri%ie the b#ood( and end it thro"+h the vein0
-o"' /e are the mater o% the body( and we #ive in it' On#y we have #ot the know#ed+e o% how to
re2"venate it' /e have be!ome a"tomati!( de+enerate' /e have %or+otten the $ro!e o% arran+in+ it
mo#e!"#e' So( what we do a"tomati!a##y ha to be done knowin+#y' /e are the mater and we have to
re+"#ate that arran+ement& and a oon a we !an do that( we ha## be ab#e to re2"venate 2"t a we #ike(
and then we ha## have neither birth nor dieae nor death'
1.. T* root -in! t*r, t* fruition co,s (in t* for, of) s+cis, $if, and 2+rinc of
+$asur and +ain.
The root( the !a"e( the Samkara bein+ there( they mani%et and %orm the e%%e!t' The !a"e dyin+ down
be!ome the e%%e!t& the e%%e!t +ettin+ "bt#er be!ome the !a"e o% the ne7t e%%e!t' A tree bear a eed(
whi!h be!ome the !a"e o% another tree( and o on' A## o"r work now are the e%%e!t o% $at Samkara&
a+ain( thee work be!omin+ Samkara wi## be the !a"e o% %"t"re a!tion( and th" we +o on' So thi
a$horim ay that the !a"e bein+ there( the %r"it m"t !ome( in the %orm o% $e!ie o% bein+: one wi## be
a man( another an an+e#( another an anima#( another a demon' Then there are di%%erent e%%e!t o% )arma in
#i%e' One man #ive %i%ty year( another a h"ndred( another die in two year( and never attain mat"rity& a##
thee di%%eren!e in #i%e are re+"#ated by $at )arma' One man i born( a it were( %or $#ea"re& i% he b"rie
hime#% in a %oret( $#ea"re wi## %o##ow him there' Another man( wherever he +oe( i %o##owed by $ain&
everythin+ be!ome $ain%"# %or him' It i the re"#t o% their own $at' A!!ordin+ to the $hi#oo$hy o% the
-o+i( a## virt"o" a!tion brin+ $#ea"re( and a## vi!io" a!tion brin+ $ain' Any man who doe wi!ked deed
i "re to rea$ their %r"it in the %orm o% $ain'
11. T*y -ar fruit as +$asur or +ain, causd -y 0irtu or 0ic.
13. To t* discri,inatin!, a$$ is, as it "r, +ainfu$ on account of 0ryt*in! -rin!in! +ain it*r
as cons;unc, or as antici+ation of $oss of *a++inss, or as frs* cra0in! arisin! fro,
i,+rssions of *a++inss, and a$so as countraction of ;ua$itis.
The -o+i ay that the man who ha di!riminatin+ $ower( the man o% +ood ene( ee thro"+h a## that are
!a##ed $#ea"re and $ain( and know that they !ome to a##( and that one %o##ow and me#t into the other& he
ee that men %o##ow an i+ni %at"" a## their #ive( and never "!!eed in %"#%i##in+ their deire' The +reat
kin+ -"dhihthira on!e aid that the mot wonder%"# thin+ in #i%e i that every moment we ee $eo$#e dyin+
aro"nd "( and yet we think we ha## never die' S"rro"nded by %oo# on every ide( we think we are the on#y
e7!e$tion( the on#y #earned men' S"rro"nded by a## ort o% e7$erien!e o% %i!k#ene( we think o"r #ove i
the on#y #atin+ #ove' How !an that be0 Even #ove i e#%ih( and the -o+i ay that in the end we ha## %ind
that even the #ove o% h"band and wive( and !hi#dren and %riend( #ow#y de!ay' 3e!aden!e ei<e
everythin+ in thi #i%e' It i on#y when everythin+( even #ove( %ai#( that( with a %#ah( man %ind o"t how
vain( how dream*#ike i thi wor#d' Then he !at!he a +#im$e o% Vaira+ya (ren"n!iation)( !at!he a +#im$e
o% the .eyond' It i on#y by +ivin+ "$ thi wor#d that the other !ome& never thro"+h ho#din+ on to thi one'
Never yet wa there a +reat o"# who had not to re2e!t ene*$#ea"re and en2oyment to a!8"ire hi
+reatne' The !a"e o% miery i the !#ah between the di%%erent %or!e o% nat"re( one dra++in+ one way(
and another dra++in+ another( renderin+ $ermanent ha$$ine im$oib#e'
Yoga Sutras of Patanjali (On Practice) http://www.yoga-age.com/sutras/pata2.html
4 of 11 4/11/2014 12:07 AM
14. T* ,isry "*ic* is not yt co, is to - a0oidd.
Some )arma we have worked o"t a#ready( ome we are workin+ o"t now in the $reent( and ome are
waitin+ to bear %r"it in the %"t"re' The %irt kind i $at and +one' The e!ond we wi## have to work o"t( and
it i on#y that whi!h i waitin+ to bear %r"it in the %"t"re that we !an !on8"er and !ontro#( toward whi!h end
a## o"r %or!e ho"#d be dire!ted' Thi i what Patan2a#i mean when he ay that Samkara are to be
!ontro##ed by reo#vin+ them into their !a"a# tate (II' #=)'
16. T* caus of t*at "*ic* is to - a0oidd is t* =unction of t* sr and t* sn.
/ho i the eer0 The Se#% o% man( the P"r"ha' /hat i the een0 The who#e o% nat"re be+innin+ with the
mind( down to +ro matter' A## $#ea"re and $ain arie %rom the 2"n!tion between thi P"r"ha and the
mind' The P"r"ha( yo" m"t remember( a!!ordin+ to thi $hi#oo$hy( i $"re& when 2oined to nat"re( it
a$$ear to %ee# $#ea"re or $ain by re%#e!tion'
17. T* 2+rincd is co,+osd of $,nts and or!ans, is of t* natur of i$$u,ination, action,
and inrtia, and is for t* +ur+os of 2+rinc and r$as (of t* 2+rincr).
The e7$erien!ed( that i nat"re( i !om$oed o% e#ement and or+an 1 the e#ement( +ro and %ine( whi!h
!om$oe the who#e o% nat"re( and the or+an o% the ene( mind( et!' 1 and i o% the nat"re o% i##"mination
(Sattva)( a!tion (Ra2a)( and inertia (Tama)' /hat i the $"r$oe o% the who#e o% nat"re0 That the P"r"ha
may +ain e7$erien!e' The P"r"ha ha( a it were( %or+otten it mi+hty( +od#y nat"re' There i a tory that
the kin+ o% the +od( Indra( on!e be!ame a $i+( wa##owin+ in mire& he had a he*$i+ and a #ot o% baby $i+(
and wa very ha$$y' Then ome +od aw hi $#i+ht( and !ame to him( and to#d him( 4-o" are the kin+ o% the
+od( yo" have a## the +od "nder yo"r !ommand' /hy are yo" here04 ."t Indra aid( 4Never mind& I am a##
ri+ht here& I do not !are %or heaven( whi#e I have thi ow and thee #itt#e $i+'4 The $oor +od were at their
wit; end' A%ter a time they de!ided to #ay a## the $i+ one a%ter another' /hen a## were dead( Indra be+an
to wee$ and mo"rn' Then the +od ri$$ed hi $i+*body o$en and he !ame o"t o% it( and be+an to #a"+h(
when he rea#ied what a hideo" dream he had had 1 he( the kin+ o% the +od( to have be!ome a $i+( and
to think that that $i+*#i%e wa the on#y #i%e> Not on#y o( b"t to have wanted the who#e "nivere to !ome into
the $i+*#i%e> The P"r"ha( when it identi%ie ite#% with nat"re( %or+et that it i $"re and in%inite' The
P"r"ha doe not #ove( it i #ove ite#%' It doe not e7it( it i e7iten!e ite#%' The So"# doe not know( It i
know#ed+e ite#%' It i a mitake to ay the So"# #ove( e7it( or know' ,ove( e7iten!e( and know#ed+e are
not the 8"a#itie o% the P"r"ha( b"t it een!e' /hen they +et re%#e!ted "$on omethin+( yo" may !a##
them the 8"a#itie o% that omethin+' They are not the 8"a#itie b"t the een!e o% the P"r"ha( the +reat
Atman( the In%inite .ein+( witho"t birth or death( etab#ihed in it own +#ory' It a$$ear to have be!ome o
de+enerate that i% yo" a$$roa!h to te## it( 4-o" are not a $i+(4 it be+in to 8"ea# and bite'
Th" i it with " a## in thi 6aya( thi dream wor#d( where it i a## miery( wee$in+ and !ryin+( where a %ew
+o#den ba## are ro##ed( and the wor#d !ramb#e a%ter them' -o" were never bo"nd by #aw( nat"re never
had a bond %or yo"' That i what the -o+i te## yo"' Have $atien!e to #earn it' And the -o+i how how( by
2"n!tion with nat"re( and identi%yin+ ite#% with the mind and the wor#d( the P"r"ha think ite#% mierab#e'
Then the -o+i +oe on to how yo" that the way o"t i thro"+h e7$erien!e' -o" have to +et a## thi
e7$erien!e( b"t %inih it 8"i!k#y' /e have $#a!ed o"re#ve in thi net( and wi## have to +et o"t' /e have +ot
o"re#ve !a"+ht in the tra$( and we wi## have to work o"t o"r %reedom' So +et thi e7$erien!e o% h"band(
and wive( and %riend( and #itt#e #ove& yo" wi## +et thro"+h them a%e#y i% yo" never %or+et what yo" rea##y
are' Never %or+et thi i on#y a momentary tate( and that w e have to $a thro"+h it' E7$erien!e i the
one +reat tea!her 1 e7$erien!e o% $#ea"re and $ain 1 b"t know it i on#y e7$erien!e' It #ead( te$ by
te$( to that tate where a## thin+ be!ome ma##( and the P"r"ha o +reat that the who#e "nivere eem
a a dro$ in the o!ean and %a## o%% by it own nothin+ne' /e have to +o thro"+h di%%erent e7$erien!e( b"t
#et " never %or+et the idea#'
18. T* stats of t* ;ua$itis ar t* dfind, t* undfind, t* indicatd on$y, and t* si!n$ss.
The ytem o% -o+a i b"i#t entire#y on the $hi#oo$hy o% the Sankhya( a I to#d yo" be%ore( and here a+ain
I ha## remind yo" o% the !omo#o+y o% the Sankhya $hi#oo$hy' A!!ordin+ to the Sankhya( nat"re i both
the materia# and the e%%i!ient !a"e o% the "nivere' In nat"re there are three ort o% materia#( the Sattva(
the Ra2a( and the Tama' The Tama materia# i a## that i dark( a## that i i+norant and heavy' The Ra2a i
a!tivity' The Sattva i !a#mne( #i+ht' Nat"re( be%ore !reation( i !a##ed by them Avyakta( "nde%ined( or
indi!rete& that i( in whi!h there i no ditin!tion o% %orm or name( a tate in whi!h thee three materia#
are he#d in $er%e!t ba#an!e' Then the ba#an!e i dit"rbed( the three materia# be+in to min+#e in vario"
%ahion( and the re"#t i the "nivere' In every man( a#o( thee three materia# e7it' /hen the Sattva
materia# $revai#( know#ed+e !ome& when Ra2a( a!tivity& and when Tama( darkne( #ait"de( id#ene(
and i+noran!e' A!!ordin+ to the Sankhya theory( the hi+het mani%etation o% nat"re( !onitin+ o% the three
materia#( i what they !a## 6ahat or inte##i+en!e( "nivera# inte##i+en!e( o% whi!h ea!h h"man inte##e!t i a
$art' In the Sankhya $y!ho#o+y there i a har$ ditin!tion between 6ana( the mind %"n!tion( and the
%"n!tion o% the ."ddhi( inte##e!t' The mind %"n!tion i im$#y to !o##e!t and !arry im$reion and $reent
them to the ."ddhi( the individ"a# 6ahat( whi!h determine "$on it' O"t o% 6ahat !ome e+oim( o"t o%
Yoga Sutras of Patanjali (On Practice) http://www.yoga-age.com/sutras/pata2.html
5 of 11 4/11/2014 12:07 AM
whi!h a+ain !ome the %ine materia#' The %ine materia# !ombine and be!ome the +ro materia# o"tide 1
the e7terna# "nivere' The !#aim o% the Sankhya $hi#oo$hy i that be+innin+ with the inte##e!t down to a
b#o!k o% tone( a## i the $rod"!t o% one "btan!e( di%%erent on#y a %iner to +roer tate o% e7iten!e' The
%iner i the !a"e( and the +roer i the e%%e!t' A!!ordin+' to the Sankhya $hi#oo$hy( beyond the who#e o%
nat"re i the P"r"ha( whi!h i not materia# at a##' P"r"ha i not at a## imi#ar to anythin+ e#e( either
."ddhi( or mind( or the Tanmatra( or the +ro materia#' It i not akin to any one o% thee( it i entire#y
e$arate( entire#y di%%erent in it nat"re( and %rom thi they ar+"e that the P"r"ha m"t be immorta#(
be!a"e it i not the re"#t o% !ombination' That whi!h i not the re"#t o% !ombination !annot die' The
P"r"ha or o"# are in%inite in n"mber'
Now we ha## "ndertand the a$horim that the tate o% the 8"a#itie are de%ined( "nde%ined( indi!ated on#y(
and i+ne' .y the 4de%ined4 are meant the +ro e#ement( whi!h we !an ene' .y the 4"nde%ined4 are
meant the very %ine materia#( the Tanmatra( whi!h !annot be ened by ordinary men' I% yo" $ra!tie
-o+a( however( ay Patan2a#i( a%ter a whi#e yo"r $er!e$tion wi## be!ome o %ine that yo" wi## a!t"a##y ee
the Tanmatra' :or intan!e( yo" have heard how every man ha a !ertain #i+ht abo"t him& every #ivin+
bein+ emit a !ertain #i+ht( and thi( he ay( !an be een by the -o+i' /e do not a## ee it( b"t we a## throw
o"t thee Tanmatra( 2"t a a %#ower !ontin"o"#y end o"t %ine $arti!#e whi!h enab#e " to me## it' Every
day o% o"r #ive we throw o"t a ma o% +ood or evi#( and everywhere we +o the atmo$here i %"## o% thee
materia#' That i how there !ame to the h"man mind( "n!on!io"#y( the idea o% b"i#din+ tem$#e and
!h"r!he' /hy ho"#d man b"i#d !h"r!he in whi!h to worhi$ 5od0 /hy not worhi$ Him anywhere0 Even
i% he did not know the reaon( man %o"nd that the $#a!e where $eo$#e worhi$$ed 5od be!ame %"## o% +ood
Tanmatra' Every day $eo$#e +o there( and the more they +o the ho#ier they +et( and the ho#ier that $#a!e
be!ome' I% any man who ha not m"!h Sattva in him +oe there( the $#a!e wi## in%#"en!e him and aro"e
hi Sattva 8"a#ity' Here( there%ore( i the i+ni%i!an!e o% a## tem$#e and ho#y $#a!e( b"t yo" m"t
remember that their ho#ine de$end on ho#y $eo$#e !on+re+atin+ there' The di%%i!"#ty with man i that he
%or+et the ori+ina# meanin+( and $"t the !art be%ore the hore' It wa men who made thee $#a!e ho#y(
and then the e%%e!t be!ame the !a"e and made men ho#y' I% the wi!ked on#y were to +o there( it wo"#d
be!ome a bad a any other $#a!e' It i not the b"i#din+( b"t the $eo$#e that make a !h"r!h( and that i what
we a#way %or+et' That i why a+e and ho#y $eron( who have m"!h o% thi Sattva 8"a#ity( !an end it o"t
and e7ert a tremendo" in%#"en!e day and ni+ht on their "rro"ndin+' A man may be!ome o $"re that hi
$"rity wi## be!ome tan+ib#e' /hooever !ome in !onta!t with him be!ome $"re'
Ne7t 4the indi!ated on#y4 mean the ."ddhi( the inte##e!t' 4The indi!ated on#y4 i the %irt mani%etation o%
nat"re& %rom it a## other mani%etation $ro!eed' The #at i 4the i+n#e4' There eem to be a +reat
di%%eren!e between modern !ien!e and a## re#i+ion at thi $oint' Every re#i+ion ha the idea that the
"nivere !ome o"t o% inte##i+en!e' The theory o% 5od( takin+ it in it $y!ho#o+i!a# i+ni%i!an!e( a$art %rom
a## idea o% $erona#ity( i that inte##i+en!e i %irt in the order o% !reation( and that o"t o% inte##i+en!e !ome
what we !a## +ro matter' 6odern $hi#oo$her ay that inte##i+en!e i the #at to !ome' They ay that
"ninte##i+ent thin+ #ow#y evo#ve into anima#( and %rom anima# into men' They !#aim that intead o%
everythin+ !omin+ o"t o% inte##i+en!e( inte##i+en!e ite#% i the #at to !ome' .oth the re#i+io" and the
!ienti%i! tatement( tho"+h eemin+ dire!t#y o$$oed to ea!h other are tr"e' Take an in%inite erie(
A1.1A1. 1A1.' et!' The 8"etion i 1 whi!h i %irt( A or .0 I% yo" take the erie a A1.' yo" wi## ay
that A i %irt( b"t i% yo" take it a .1A( yo" wi## ay that . i %irt' It de$end "$on the way we #ook at it'
Inte##i+en!e "nder+oe modi%i!ation and be!ome the +ro matter( thi a+ain mer+e into inte##i+en!e( and
th" the $ro!e +oe on' The Sankhya( and other re#i+ionit( $"t inte##i+en!e %irt( and the erie be!ome
inte##i+en!e( then matter' The !ienti%i! man $"t hi %in+er on matter( and ay matter( then inte##i+en!e'
They both indi!ate the ame !hain' Indian $hi#oo$hy( however( +oe beyond both inte##i+en!e and matter(
and %ind a P"r"ha( or Se#%( whi!h i beyond inte##i+en!e( o% whi!h inte##i+en!e i b"t the borrowed #i+ht'
':. T* sr is int$$i!nc on$y, and t*ou!* +ur, ss t*rou!* t* co$ourin! of t* int$$ct.
Thi i( a+ain( Sankhya $hi#oo$hy' /e have een %rom the ame $hi#oo$hy that %rom the #owet %orm "$ to
inte##i+en!e a## i nat"re& beyond nat"re are P"r"ha (o"#)( whi!h have no 8"a#itie' Then how doe the
o"# a$$ear to be ha$$y or "nha$$y0 .y re%#e!tion' I% a red %#ower i $"t near a $ie!e o% $"re !ryta#( the
!ryta# a$$ear to be red( imi#ar#y the a$$earan!e o% ha$$ine or "nha$$ine o% the o"# are b"t
re%#e!tion' The o"# ite#% ha no !o#o"rin+' The o"# i e$arate %rom nat"re' Nat"re i one thin+( o"#
another( eterna##y e$arate' The Sankhya ay that inte##i+en!e i a !om$o"nd( that it +row and wane(
that it !han+e( 2"t a the body !han+e( and that it nat"re i near#y the ame a that o% the body' A a
%in+er*nai# i to the body( o i body to inte##i+en!e' The nai# i a $art o% the body( b"t it !an be $ared o%%
h"ndred o% time( and the body wi## ti## #at' Simi#ar#y( the inte##i+en!e #at aeon( whi#e thi body !an be
4$ared o%%(4 thrown o%%' -et inte##i+en!e !annot be immorta# be!a"e it !han+e 1 +rowin+ and wanin+'
Anythin+ that !han+e !annot be immorta#' Certain#y inte##i+en!e i man"%a!t"red( and that very %a!t how
" that there m"t be omethin+ beyond that' It !annot be %ree( everythin+ !onne!ted with matter i in
nat"re( and( there%ore( bo"nd %or ever' /ho i %ree0 The %ree m"t !ertain#y be beyond !a"e and e%%e!t' I%
yo" ay that the idea o% %reedom i a de#"ion( I ha## ay that the idea o% bonda+e i a#o a de#"ion' Two
%a!t !ome into o"r !on!io"ne( and tand or %a## with ea!h other' Thee are o"r notion o% bonda+e and
%reedom' I% we want to +o thro"+h a wa##( and o"r head b"m$ a+aint that wa##( we ee we are #imited by
that wa##' At the ame time we %ind a wi##$ower( and think we !an dire!t o"r wi## everywhere' At every te$
thee !ontradi!tory idea !ome to "' /e have to be#ieve that we are %ree( yet at every moment we %ind we
Yoga Sutras of Patanjali (On Practice) http://www.yoga-age.com/sutras/pata2.html
6 of 11 4/11/2014 12:07 AM
are not %ree' I% one idea i a de#"ion( the other i a#o a de#"ion( and i% one i tr"e( the other a#o i tr"e(
be!a"e both tand "$on the ame bai 1 !on!io"ne' The -o+i ay( both are tr"e& that we are bo"nd
o %ar a inte##i+en!e +oe( that we are %ree o %ar a the o"# i !on!erned' It i the rea# nat"re o% man( the
o"#( the P"r"ha( whi!h i beyond a## #aw o% !a"ation' It %reedom i $er!o#atin+ thro"+h #ayer o% matter
in vario" %orm( inte##i+en!e( mind( et!' It i it #i+ht whi!h i hinin+ thro"+h a##' Inte##i+en!e ha no #i+ht
o% it own' Ea!h or+an ha a $arti!"#ar !entre in the brain& it i not that a## the or+an have one !entre&
ea!h or+an i e$arate' /hy do a## $er!e$tion harmonie0 /here do they +et their "nity0 I% it were in the
brain( it wo"#d be ne!eary %or a## the or+an( the eye( the noe( the ear( et!'( to have one !entre on#y(
whi#e we know %or !ertain that there are di%%erent !entre %or ea!h' .oth a man !an ee and hear at the
ame time( o a "nity m"t be there at the ba!k o% inte##i+en!e' Inte##i+en!e i !onne!ted with the brain( b"t
behind inte##i+en!e even tand the P"r"ha( the "nit( where a## di%%erent enation and $er!e$tion 2oin
and be!ome one' The o"# ite#% i the !entre where a## the di%%erent $er!e$tion !onver+e and be!ome
"ni%ied' That o"# i %ree( and it i it %reedom that te## yo" every moment that yo" are %ree' ."t yo"
mitake( and min+#e that %reedom every moment with inte##i+en!e and mind' -o" try to attrib"te that
%reedom to the inte##i+en!e( and immediate#y %ind that inte##i+en!e i not %ree& yo" attrib"te that %reedom to
the body( and immediate#y nat"re te## yo" that yo" are a+ain mitaken' That i why there i thi min+#ed
ene o% %reedom and bonda+e at the ame time' The -o+i ana#ye both what i %ree and what i bo"nd( and
hi i+noran!e vanihe' He %ind that the P"r"ha i %ree( i the een!e o% that know#ed+e whi!h( !omin+
thro"+h the ."ddhi( be!ome inte##i+en!e( and( a "!h( i bo"nd'
'1. T* natur of t* 2+rincd is for *i,.
Nat"re ha no #i+ht o% it own' A #on+ a the P"r"ha i $reent in it( it a$$ear a #i+ht' ."t the #i+ht i
borrowed& 2"t a the moon; #i+ht i re%#e!ted' A!!ordin+ to the -o+i( a## the mani%etation o% nat"re are
!a"ed by nat"re ite#%( b"t nat"re ha no $"r$oe in view( e7!e$t to %ree the P"r"ha'
''. T*ou!* dstroyd for *i, "*os !oa$ *as -n !aind, yt it is not dstroyd, -in! co,,on
to ot*rs.
The who#e a!tivity o% nat"re i to make the o"# know that it i entire#y e$arate %rom nat"re' /hen the o"#
know thi( nat"re ha no more attra!tion %or it' ."t the who#e o% nat"re vanihe on#y %or that man who
ha be!ome %ree' There wi## a#way remain an in%inite n"mber o% other( %or whom nat"re wi## +o on
workin+'
'.. Junction is t* caus of t* ra$i?ation of t* natur of -ot* t* +o"rs, t* 2+rincd and
its Lord.
A!!ordin+ to thi a$horim( both the $ower o% o"# and nat"re be!ome mani%et when they are in
!on2"n!tion' Then a## mani%etation are thrown o"t' I+noran!e i the !a"e o% thi !on2"n!tion' /e ee
every day that the !a"e o% o"r $ain or $#ea"re i a#way o"r 2oinin+ o"re#ve with the body' I% I were
$er%e!t#y !ertain that I am not thi body( I ho"#d take no noti!e o% heat and !o#d( or anythin+ o% the kind'
Thi body i a !ombination' It i on#y a %i!tion to ay that I have one body( yo" another( and the "n
another' The who#e "nivere i one o!ean o% matter( and yo" are the name o% a #itt#e $arti!#e( and I o%
another( and the "n o% another' /e know that thi matter i !ontin"o"#y !han+in+' /hat i %ormin+ the
"n one day( the ne7t day may %orm the matter o% o"r bodie'
'1. I!noranc is its caus.
Thro"+h i+noran!e we have 2oined o"re#ve with a $arti!"#ar body( and th" o$ened o"re#ve to miery'
Thi idea o% body i a im$#e "$ertition' It i "$ertition that make " ha$$y or "nha$$y' It i
"$ertition !a"ed by i+noran!e that make " %ee# heat and !o#d( $ain and $#ea"re' It i o"r b"ine to
rie above thi "$ertition( and the -o+i how " how we !an do thi' It ha been demontrated that(
"nder !ertain menta# !ondition( a man may be b"rned( yet he wi## %ee# no $ain' The di%%i!"#ty i that thi
"dden "$heava# o% the mind !ome #ike a whir#wind one min"te( and +oe away the ne7t' I%( however( we
+ain it thro"+h -o+a( we ha## $ermanent#y attain to the e$aration o% Se#% %rom the body'
'3. T*r -in! a-snc of t*at (i!noranc) t*r is a-snc of =unction, "*ic* is t* t*in!&to&-
a0oidd@ t*at is t* ind+ndnc of t* sr.
A!!ordin+ to -o+a $hi#oo$hy( it i thro"+h i+noran!e that the o"# ha been 2oined with nat"re' The aim i
to +et rid o% nat"re; !ontro# over "' That i the +oa# o% a## re#i+ion' Ea!h o"# i $otentia##y divine' The +oa#
i to mani%et thi 3ivinity within( by !ontro##in+ nat"re( e7terna# and interna#' 3o thi either by work( or
worhi$( or $y!hi! !ontro#( or $hi#oo$hy 1 by one or more or a## o% thee 1 and be %ree' Thi i the who#e
o% re#i+ion' 3o!trine( or do+ma( or rit"a#( or book( or tem$#e( or %orm( are b"t e!ondary detai#' The
-o+i trie to rea!h thi +oa# thro"+h $y!hi! !ontro#' 9nti# we !an %ree o"re#ve %rom nat"re( we are #ave&
a he di!tate o we m"t +o' The -o+i !#aim that he who !ontro# mind !ontro# matter a#o' The interna#
nat"re i m"!h hi+her than the e7terna# and m"!h more di%%i!"#t to +ra$$#e with( m"!h more di%%i!"#t to
!ontro#' There%ore he who ha !on8"ered the interna# nat"re !ontro# the who#e "nivere& it be!ome hi
ervant' Ra2a*-o+a $ro$o"nd the method o% +ainin+ thi !ontro#' :or!e hi+her than we know in $hyi!a#
Yoga Sutras of Patanjali (On Practice) http://www.yoga-age.com/sutras/pata2.html
7 of 11 4/11/2014 12:07 AM
nat"re wi## have to be "bd"ed' Thi body i 2"t the e7terna# !r"t o% the mind' They are not two di%%erent
thin+& they are 2"t a the oyter and it he##' They are b"t two a$e!t o% one thin+& the interna#
"btan!e o% the oyter take "$ matter %rom o"tide( and man"%a!t"re the he##' In the ame way the
interna# %ine %or!e whi!h are !a##ed mind take "$ +ro matter %rom o"tide( and %rom that man"%a!t"re thi
e7terna# he##( the body' I%( then( we have !ontro# o% the interna#( it i very eay to have !ontro# o% the
e7terna#' Then a+ain( thee %or!e are not di%%erent' It i not that ome %or!e are $hyi!a#( and ome
menta#& the $hyi!a# %or!e are b"t the +ro mani%etation o% the %ine %or!e( 2"t a the $hyi!a# wor#d i
b"t the +ro mani%etation o% the %ine wor#d'
'4. T* ,ans of dstruction of i!noranc is un-ro#n +ractic of discri,ination.
Thi i the rea# +oa# o% $ra!ti!e 1 di!rimination between the rea# and the "nrea#( knowin+ that the P"r"ha
i not nat"re( that it i neither matter nor mind( and that be!a"e it i not nat"re( it !annot $oib#y !han+e'
It i on#y nat"re whi!h !han+e( !ombinin+ and re*!ombinin+( dio#vin+ !ontin"a##y' /hen thro"+h !ontant
$ra!ti!e we be+in to di!riminate( i+noran!e wi## vanih( and the P"r"ha wi## be+in to hine in it rea#
nat"re 1 omni!ient( omni$otent( omni$reent'
'6. His #no"$d! is of t* s0nfo$d *i!*st !round.
/hen thi know#ed+e !ome& it wi## !ome( a it were( in even +rade( one a%ter the other& and when one o%
thee be+in( we know that we are +ettin+ know#ed+e' The %irt to a$$ear wi## be that we have known what
i to be known' The mind wi## !eae to be diati%ied' /hi#e we are aware o% thirtin+ a%ter know#ed+e( we
be+in to eek here and there( wherever we think we !an +et ome tr"th( and %ai#in+ to %ind it we be!ome
diati%ied and eek in a %reh dire!tion' A## ear!h i vain( "nti# we be+in to $er!eive that know#ed+e i
within o"re#ve( that no one !an he#$ "( that we m"t he#$ o"re#ve' /hen we be+in to $ra!tie the
$ower o% di!rimination( the %irt i+n that we are +ettin+ near tr"th wi## be that that diati%ied tate wi##
vanih' /e ha## %ee# 8"ite "re that we have %o"nd the tr"th( and that it !annot be anythin+ e#e b"t the
tr"th' Then we may know that the "n i riin+( that the mornin+ i breakin+ %or "( and takin+ !o"ra+e( we
m"t $erevere "nti# the +oa# i rea!hed' The e!ond +rade wi## be the aben!e o% a## $ain' It wi## be
im$oib#e %or anythin+ in the "nivere( e7terna# or interna#( to +ive " $ain' The third wi## be the
attainment o% %"## know#ed+e' Omni!ien!e wi## be o"r' The %o"rth wi## be the attainment o% the end o% a##
d"ty thro"+h di!rimination' Ne7t wi## !ome what i !a##ed %reedom o% the Chitta' /e ha## rea#ie that a##
di%%i!"#tie and tr"++#e( a## va!i##ation o% the mind( have %a##en down( 2"t a a tone ro## %rom the
mo"ntain to$ into the va##ey and never !ome "$ a+ain' The ne7t wi## be that the Chitta ite#% wi## rea#ie
that it me#t away into it !a"e whenever we o deire' ,at#y we ha## %ind that we are etab#ihed in o"r
Se#%( that we have been a#one thro"+ho"t the "nivere( neither body nor mind wa ever re#ated( m"!h #e
2oined( to "' They were workin+ their own way( and we( thro"+h i+noran!e( 2oined o"re#ve to them' ."t
we have been a#one( omni$otent( omni$reent( ever b#eed& o"r own Se#% wa o $"re and $er%e!t that we
re8"ired none e#e' /e re8"ired none e#e to make " ha$$y( %or we are ha$$ine ite#%' /e ha## %ind that
thi know#ed+e doe not de$end on anythin+ e#e& thro"+ho"t the "nivere there !an be nothin+ that wi##
not be!ome e%%"#+ent be%ore o"r know#ed+e' Thi wi## be the #at tate( and the -o+i wi## be!ome $ea!e%"#
and !a#m( never to %ee# any more $ain( never to be a+ain de#"ded( never to be to"!hed by miery' He wi##
know he i ever b#eed( ever $er%e!t( a#mi+hty'
'7. <y t* +ractic of t* diffrnt +arts of Yo!a t* i,+uritis -in! dstroyd, #no"$d! -
co,s ffu$!nt u+ to discri,ination.
Now !ome the $ra!ti!a# know#ed+e' /hat we have 2"t been $eakin+ abo"t i m"!h hi+her' It i away
above o"r head( b"t it i the idea#' It i %irt ne!eary to obtain $hyi!a# and menta# !ontro#' Then the
rea#i<ation wi## be!ome teady in that idea#' The idea# bein+ known( what remain i to $ra!ti!e the method
o% rea!hin+ it'
'8. Ya,a, Niya,a, Asana, Pranayaa,a, Pratya*ara, A*arana, A*yana, and Sa,ad*i ar t* i!*t
$i,-s of Yo!a.
.:. Non&#i$$in!, trut*fu$nss, non&sta$in!, continnc, and nor&rci0in! ar ca$$d Ya,as.
A man who want to be a $er%e!t -o+i m"t +ive "$ the e7 idea' The o"# ha no e7& why ho"#d it de+rade
ite#% with e7 idea0 ,ater on we ha## "ndertand better why thee idea m"t be +iven "$' The mind o% the
man who re!eive +i%t i a!ted on by the mind o% the +iver( o the re!eiver i #ike#y to be!ome de+enerated'
Re!eivin+ +i%t i $rone to detroy the inde$enden!e o% the mind( and make " #avih' There%ore( re!eive no
+i%t'
.1. T*s, un-ro#n -y ti,, +$ac, +ur+os, and cast&ru$s, ar (uni0rsa$) !rat 0o"s.
Thee $ra!ti!e 1 non*ki##in+( tr"th%"#ne( non*tea#in+( !hatity( and non*re!eivin+ 1 are to be $ra!tied
by every man( woman( and !hi#d& by every o"#( irre$e!tive o% nation( !o"ntry( or $oition'
.'. Intrna$ and 2trna$ +urification, contnt,nt, ,ortification, study, and "ors*i+ of God ar
Yoga Sutras of Patanjali (On Practice) http://www.yoga-age.com/sutras/pata2.html
8 of 11 4/11/2014 12:07 AM
t* Niya,as.
E7terna# $"ri%i!ation i kee$in+ the body $"re& a dirty man wi## never be a -o+i' There m"t be interna#
$"ri%i!ation a#o' That i obtained by the virt"e named in I' O% !o"re( interna# $"rity i o% +reater va#"e
than e7terna#( b"t both are ne!eary( and e7terna# $"rity( witho"t interna#( i o% no +ood'
... To o-struct t*ou!*ts "*ic* ar ini,ica$ to Yo!a, contrary t*ou!*ts s*ou$d - -rou!*t.
That i the way to $ra!tie the virt"e that have been tated' :or intan!e( when a bi+ wave o% an+er ha
!ome into the mind( how are we to !ontro# that0 ?"t by raiin+ an o$$oin+ wave' Think o% #ove' Sometime
a mother i very an+ry with her h"band( and whi#e in that tate( the baby !ome in( and he kie the
baby& the o#d wave die o"t and a new wave arie( #ove %or the !hi#d' That "$$ree the other one' ,ove
i o$$oite to an+er' Simi#ar#y( when the idea o% tea#in+ !ome( non*tea#in+ ho"#d be tho"+ht o%& when
the idea o% re!eivin+ +i%t !ome( re$#a!e it by a !ontrary tho"+ht'
.1. T* o-structions to Yo!a ar #i$$in!, fa$s*ood, tc., "*t*r co,,ittd, causd, or
a++ro0d@ it*r t*rou!* a0aric, or an!r, or i!noranc@ "*t*r s$i!*t, ,idd$in!, or !rat@ and
t*y rsu$t in infinit i!noranc and ,isry. T*is is (t* ,t*od of) t*in#in! t* contrary.
I% I te## a #ie( or !a"e another to te## one( or a$$rove o% another doin+ o( it i e8"a##y in%"#' I% it i a very
mi#d #ie( ti## it i a #ie' Every vi!io" tho"+ht wi## rebo"nd( every tho"+ht o% hatred whi!h yo" may have
tho"+ht( in a !ave even( i tored "$( and wi## one day !ome ba!k to yo" with tremendo" $ower in the %orm
o% ome miery here' I% yo" $ro2e!t hatred and 2ea#o"y( they wi## rebo"nd on yo" with !om$o"nd interet'
No $ower !an avert them& when on!e yo" have $"t them in motion( yo" wi## have to bear them'
Rememberin+ thi wi## $revent yo" %rom doin+ wi!ked thin+'
.3. Non&#i$$in! -in! sta-$is*d, in *is +rsnc a$$ n,itis cas (in ot*rs).
I% a man +et the idea# o% non*in2"rin+ other( be%ore him even anima# whi!h are by their nat"re %ero!io"
wi## be!ome $ea!e%"#' The ti+er and the #amb wi## $#ay to+ether be%ore that -o+i' /hen yo" have !ome to
that tate( then a#one yo" wi## "ndertand that yo" have be!ome %irm#y etab#ihed in non*in2"rin+'
.4. <y t* sta-$is*,nt of trut*fu$nss t* Yo!i !ts t* +o"r of attainin! for *i,s$f and
ot*rs t* fruits of "or# "it*out t* "or#s.
/hen thi $ower o% tr"th wi## be etab#ihed with yo"( then even in dream yo" wi## never te## an "ntr"th'
-o" wi## be tr"e in tho"+ht( word( and deed' /hatever yo" ay wi## be tr"th' -o" may ay to a man( 4.e
b#eed(4 and that man wi## be b#eed' I% a man i dieaed( and yo" ay to him( 4.e tho" !"red(4 he wi## be
!"red immediate#y'
.6. <y t* sta-$is*,nt of non&sta$in! a$$ "a$t* co,s to t* Yo!i.
The more yo" %#y %rom nat"re( the more he %o##ow yo"& and i% yo" do not !are %or her at a##( he be!ome
yo"r #ave'
.7. <y t* sta-$is*,nt of continnc nr!y is !aind.
The !hate brain ha tremendo" ener+y and +i+anti! wi##*$ower' /itho"t !hatity there !an be no $irit"a#
tren+th' Continen!e +ive wonder%"# !ontro# over mankind' The $irit"a# #eader o% men have been very
!ontinent( and thi i what +ave them $ower' There%ore the -o+i m"t be !ontinent'
.8. B*n * is fi2d in non&rci0in!, * !ts t* ,,ory of +ast $if.
/hen a man doe not re!eive $reent( he doe not be!ome beho#den to other( b"t remain inde$endent
and %ree' Hi mind be!ome $"re' /ith every +i%t( he i #ike#y to re!eive the evi# o% the +iver' I% he doe not
re!eive( the mind i $"ri%ied( and the %irt $ower it +et i memory o% $at #i%e' Then a#one the -o+i be!ome
$er%e!t#y %i7ed in hi idea#' He ee that he ha been !omin+ and +oin+ many time( o he be!ome
determined that thi time he wi## be %ree( that he wi## no more !ome and +o( and be the #ave o% Nat"re'
1:. Intrna$ and 2trna$ c$an$inss -in! sta-$is*d, t*r ariss dis!ust for on's o"n -ody,
and non&intrcours "it* ot*rs.
/hen there i rea# $"ri%i!ation o% the body( e7terna# and interna#( there arie ne+#e!t o% the body( and the
idea o% kee$in+ it ni!e vanihe' A %a!e whi!h other !a## mot bea"ti%"# wi## a$$ear to the -o+i a mere#y
anima#( i% there i not inte##i+en!e behind it' /hat the wor#d !a## a very !ommon %a!e he re+ard a
heaven#y( i% the $irit hine behind it' Thi thirt a%ter body i the +reat bane o% h"man #i%e' So the %irt
i+n o% the etab#ihment o% $"rity i that yo" do not !are to think yo" are a body' It i on#y when $"rity
!ome that we +et rid o% the body idea'
Yoga Sutras of Patanjali (On Practice) http://www.yoga-age.com/sutras/pata2.html
9 of 11 4/11/2014 12:07 AM
11. T*r a$so ariss +urification of t* Satt0a, c*rfu$nss of t* ,ind, concntration, con;ust
of t* or!ans, and fitnss for t* ra$isation of t* S$f.
.y the $ra!ti!e o% !#ean#ine( the Sattva materia# $revai#( and the mind be!ome !on!entrated and
!heer%"#' The %irt i+n that yo" are be!omin+ re#i+io" i that yo" are be!omin+ !heer%"#' /hen a man i
+#oomy( that may be dy$e$ia( b"t it i not re#i+ion' A $#ea"rab#e %ee#in+ i the nat"re o% the Sattva'
Everythin+ i $#ea"rab#e to the Sattvika man( and when thi !ome( know that yo" are $ro+rein+ in -o+a'
A## $ain i !a"ed by Tama( o yo" m"t +et rid o% that& moroene i one o% the E7"#t o% Tama' The
tron+( the we## knit( the yo"n+( the hea#thy( the darin+ a#one are %it to be -o+i' To the -o+i everythin+ i
b#i( every h"man %a!e that he ee brin+ !heer%"#ne to him' That i the i+n o% a virt"o" man' 6iery
i !a"ed by in( and by no other !a"e' /hat b"ine have yo" with !#o"ded %a!e0 It i terrib#e' I% yo"
have a !#o"ded %a!e( do not +o o"t that day( h"t yo"re#% "$ in yo"r room' /hat ri+ht have yo" to !arry
thi dieae o"t into the wor#d 0 /hen yo"r mind ha be!ome !ontro##ed( yo" have !ontro# over the who#e
body& intead o% bein+ a #ave to thi ma!hine( the ma!hine i yo"r #ave' Intead o% thi ma!hine bein+ ab#e
to dra+ the o"# down( it be!ome it +reatet he#$mate'
1'. 9ro, contnt,nt co,s su+r$ati0 *a++inss.
1.. T* rsu$t of ,ortification is -rin!in! +o"rs to t* or!ans and t* -ody, -y dstroyin! t*
i,+urity.
The re"#t o% morti%i!ation are een immediate#y( ometime by hei+htened $ower o% viion( hearin+ thin+
at a ditan!e( and o on'
11. <y t* r+tition of t* Mantra co,s t* ra$isation of t* intndd dity.
The hi+her the bein+ that yo" want to +et the harder i the $ra!ti!e'
13. <y sacrificin! a$$ to Is*0ara co,s Sa,ad*i.
.y rei+nation to the ,ord( Samadhi be!ome $er%e!t'
14. Postur is t*at "*ic* is fir, and +$asant.
Now !ome Aana( $ot"re' 9nti# yo" !an +et a %irm eat yo" !annot $ra!ti!e the breathin+ and other
e7er!ie' :irmne o% eat mean that yo" do not %ee# the body at a##' In the ordinary way( yo" wi## %ind
that a oon a yo" it %or a %ew min"te a## ort o% dit"rban!e !ome into the body& b"t when yo" have
+ot beyond the idea o% a !on!rete body( yo" wi## #oe a## ene o% the body' -o" wi## %ee# neither $#ea"re nor
$ain' And when yo" take yo"r body "$ a+ain( it wi## %ee# o reted' It i on#y $er%e!t ret that yo" !an +ive to
the body' /hen yo" have "!!eeded in !on8"erin+ the body and kee$in+ it %irm( yo"r $ra!ti!e wi## remain
%irm( b"t whi#e yo" are dit"rbed by the body( yo"r nerve be!ome dit"rbed( and yo" !annot !on!entrate
the mind'
16. <y $ssnin! t* natura$ tndncy (for rst$ssnss) and ,ditatin! on t* un$i,itd, +ostur
-co,s fir, and +$asant.
/e !an make the eat %irm by thinkin+ o% the in%inite' /e !annot think o% the Abo#"te In%inite( b"t we !an
think o% the in%inite ky'
17. Sat -in! con;urd, t* dua$itis do not o-struct.
The d"a#itie( +ood and bad( heat and !o#d( and a## the $air o% o$$oite( wi## not then dit"rb yo"'
18. Contro$$in! t* ,otion of t* 2*a$ation and t* in*a$ation fo$$o"s aftr t*is.
/hen $ot"re ha been !on8"ered( then the motion o% the Prana i to be broken and !ontro##ed' Th" we
!ome to Pranayama( the !ontro##in+ o% the vita# %or!e o% the body' Prana i not breath( tho"+h it i ""a##y
o tran#ated' It i the "m tota# o% the !omi! ener+y' It i the ener+y that i in ea!h body( and it mot
a$$arent mani%etation i the motion o% the #"n+' Thi motion i !a"ed by Prana drawin+ in the breath(
and it i what we eek to !ontro# in Pranayama' /e be+in by !ontro##in+ the breath( a the eaiet way o%
+ettin+ !ontro# o% the Prana'
3:. Its ,odifications ar it*r 2trna$ or intrna$, or ,otion$ss, r!u$atd -y +$ac, trns, and
nu,-r, it*r $on! or s*ort.
The three ort o% motion o% Pranayama are( one by whi!h we draw the breath in( another by whi!h we
throw it o"t( and the third a!tion i when the breath i he#d in the #"n+( or to$$ed %rom enterin+ the #"n+'
Thee( a+ain( are varied by $#a!e and time' .y $#a!e i meant that the Prana i he#d to ome $arti!"#ar $art
o% the body' .y time i meant how #on+ the Prana ho"#d be !on%ined to a !ertain $#a!e( and o we are to#d
Yoga Sutras of Patanjali (On Practice) http://www.yoga-age.com/sutras/pata2.html
10 of 11 4/11/2014 12:07 AM
how many e!ond to kee$ one motion( and how many e!ond to kee$ another' The re"#t o% thi
Pranayama i 9d+hata( awakenin+ the )"nda#ini'
31. T* fourt* is rstrainin! t* Prana -y rf$ctin! on 2trna$ or intrna$ o-=ct.
Thi i the %o"rth ort o% Pranayama( in whi!h the )"mbhaka i bro"+ht abo"t by #on+ $ra!ti!e attended with
re%#e!tion( whi!h i abent in the other three'
3'. 9ro, t*at, t* co0rin! to t* $i!*t of t* C*itta is attnuatd.
The Chitta ha( by it own nat"re( a## know#ed+e' It i made o% Sattva $arti!#e( b"t i !overed by Ra2a and
Tama $arti!#e( and by Pranayama thi !overin+ i removed'
3.. T* ,ind -co,s fit for A*arana.
A%ter thi !overin+ ha been removed( we are ab#e to !on!entrate the mind'
31. T* dra"in! in of t* or!ans is -y t*ir !i0in! u+ t*ir o"n o-=cts and ta#in! t* for, of t*
,ind&stuff, as it "r.
The or+an are e$arate tate o% the mind*t"%%' I ee a book& the %orm i not in the book( it i in the mind'
Somethin+ i o"tide whi!h !a## that %orm "$' The rea# %orm i in the Chitta' The or+an identi%y theme#ve
with( and take the %orm o%( whatever !ome to them' I% yo" !an retrain the mind*t"%% %rom takin+ thee
%orm( the mind wi## remain !a#m' Thi i !a##ed Pratyahara'
33. T*nc ariss su+r, contro$ of t* or!ans.
/hen the -o+i ha "!!eeded in $reventin+ the or+an %rom takin+ the %orm o% e7terna# ob2e!t( and in
makin+ them remain one with the mind*t"%%( then !ome $er%e!t !ontro# o% the or+an' /hen the or+an
are $er%e!t#y "nder !ontro#( every m"!#e and nerve wi## be "nder !ontro#( be!a"e the or+an are the
!entre o% a## the enation( and o% a## a!tion' Thee or+an are divided into or+an o% work and or+an o%
enation' /hen the or+an are !ontro##ed( the -o+i !an !ontro# a## %ee#in+ and doin+& the who#e o% the body
!ome "nder hi !ontro#' Then a#one one be+in to %ee# 2oy in bein+ born& then one !an tr"th%"##y ay(
4.#eed am I that I wa born'4 /hen that !ontro# o% the or+an i obtained( we %ee# how wonder%"# thi body
rea##y i'
PATANJALI'S YOGA APHORISMS && D 1 D ' D . D 1 D
E'::. T* Yo!a&A!.co,
Yoga Sutras of Patanjali (On Practice) http://www.yoga-age.com/sutras/pata2.html
11 of 11 4/11/2014 12:07 AM