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Census Data Dissemination Workshop

Migration Profile of Tripura

Indraneel Bhowmik

Venue: Tripura University, Agartala

December 2005
Migration Profile of Tripura

 Migration means movement from one place


to another.
 In Economics, migration is movement from
one place to another for an economic
activity.
 Theories on Migration in most cases have
been regarding developing countries.

December 2005
Migration Profile of Tripura

 Migration  Migration
Rural to Urban Rural to Rural
1. Urban- rural income 1. Lack of opportunities
differential 2. Lack of agricultural
2. Probability of Obtaining land
an urban job
3. Unemployment in the
rural sector

December 2005
Migration Profile of Tripura

 Major literature on Migration ----


– Arthur Lewis ( “Economic Development with Unlimited
Supplies of Labour”, 1954)
– Michael Todaro (“ A Model of Labour Migration and Urban
Unemployment “, 1969)
– John Harris & Michael Todaro (Migration, Unemployment
and Development: A Two-Sector Analysis”1970)
– T.W. Schultz (“ Agriculture in an Unstable Economy”, 1945)
– Gustav Ranis and John Fei ( “ A Theory of Economic
Development”1961)

December 2005
Migration Profile of Tripura

 Major literature on Migration ----(contd.)


– G. Fields (“ Rural- Urban Migration, Urban Unemployment
and Underemployment, and Job Search Activity in LDCs”,
1975)
– L.Y.L.Yap (“The Attraction of Cities: A Review of the
Migration Literature”,1977)
– A.S. Oberai & H.K. Manmohan Singh (“Migration,
Employment and the Urban Labour Market: A Study in the
Indian Punjab”1984)
– Biswajit Banerjee (“ Information flow, expectations and job
search: rural-to-urban migration process in India, 1984)

December 2005
Migration Profile of Tripura

 Migrants by place of birth are those who


are enumerated at a village/town at the time
of census other than their place of birth.

 Migrant by place of last residence are


those who have changed their place of living
during the interim period of census.

December 2005
Migration Profile of Tripura

Total 2001 1991 Variation


Migrants Census Census (%)
Persons 307.1 229.8 32.9
Male 90.4
Female 216.7
Intra-district 181.7 136.2 32.6
Inter-district 76.8 59.1 29.5
Inter-state 42.3 27.2 54.5
Abroad 6.1 6.9 -11.6
Note: J&K Excluded In 1991
Migration Profile of Tripura

In terms of net migrants- In terms of net migrants-


Maharastra- 2.3 million Uttar Pradesh: -2.7million
Delhi- 1.7 million Bihar: -1.7 million
Gujarat- 0.68 million Tamil Nadu: -0.37 million
Haryana- 0.67 million Rajasthan -0.26 million
Punjab- 0.33 million Andhra: -0.21 million
West Bengal: 0.25million Assam: -0.15million
Tripura- 27970 Mizoram: -704

December 2005
Migration Profile of Tripura

Reasons _- All India level


Work/ Employment………..14.7%
Business…………………… 1.2%
Education………………….. 3.0%

December 2005
Migration Profile of Tripura

Marriage………………….... 43.8%
Moved after birth………….. 6.7%
Moved with household….. 21.0%
Other………………………. 9.7%

December 2005
Migration Profile of Tripura

 Marriage is the most important cause for


migration among females.
 Work/Employment is the most important
reason for migration among males.

December 2005
Migration Profile of Tripura

 Union territories and small states have the


highest migration rate- Daman &Diu(44.1%),
Dadra & Nagar (32.6%), Chandigarh
(21.4%), Delhi(18.7%)
 Tripura- 1%
 Least rates for Bihar(-2.7%), UP(-2.0%),
Manipur(-1.4%), Nagaland(-1.4%)

December 2005
Migration Profile of Tripura

 International Migration
 97% of the migrants from the neighbouring
countries
 3.0 million from Bangladesh, 0.9 million from
Pakistan, 0.5 million from Nepal and 0.1 million
from Sri Lanka
 Considerable migration from China

December 2005
Migration Profile of Tripura

 Migration in India- four types


– Rural to Rural: 56.52%
– Rural to Urban: 21.74%
– Urban to Rural: 6.57%
– Urban to Urban: 15.16%

N.B.- Computed from Table D-2, Census of India


excluding international and unclassified migrants

December 2005
Migration Profile of Tripura

 Intra state migrants  Inter state migrants


Rural to Rural: 60.5% Rural to Rural: 26.6%
Rural to Urban: 17.6% Rural to Urban: 37.9%
Urban to Rural: 6.5% Urban to Rural: 6.3%
Urban to Urban: 12.3% Urban to Urban: 26.7%
Unclassified: 3.1% Unclassified: 2.6%

December 2005
Migration Profile of Tripura

 Rural to Rural Migration – Bihar, Jharkhand,


Uttar Pradesh, Assam
 Rural to Urban Migration- Mizoram, Jammu
& Kashmir, Maharastra, Tamil Nadu
 Urban to Rural Migration- Goa, Kerala,
Sikkim, Maharastra, Andhra Pradesh
 Urban to Urban Migration- Tamil Nadu, Goa,
Mizoram, Nagaland

December 2005
Migration Profile of Tripura

Tripura
 Total Migrants- 961,653
 Male- 42%, Female-58%
 National - 72.69% (M-38.42%,F-61.58%)
 Within State-90.89% (M-37.48%, F- 62.52%)
 Within District-84.38%(M-37.03%,F- 62.97%)
 Other States- 63778 (M-47.83%, F- 52.17%)
 Other Districts- 99369(M-39.88%, F- 60.12%)
 International – 27.21% (M-51.59%, F-48.41%)

December 2005
Migration Profile of Tripura

 Maximum number of immigrants from-


Mizoram(28,292), followed by Assam
(17827).
 No immigrants from Daman &Diu,
Lakshadeep, Dadra & Nagar and
Pondicherry.
 International immigrants from Bangladesh,
Nepal, Burma, Pakistan etc.

December 2005
Migration Profile of Tripura

 Out migrants from Tripura during 1991-2001:


23,538.
 In-migrants from other states( 1991-2001):
40,262.
 In migrants from abroad (1991-2001):
11,246.
 5 migrants from Europe.
 65509 migrants in Agartala- 32237 males &
33272 females.
December 2005
Migration Profile of Tripura

 Causes of Migration:
Causes (in %) Persons Male Female
Work / Employment 5.38 10.76 1.49
Business 0.95 2.05 0.15
Education 0.92 1.55 0.46
Marriage 28.69 2.03 48.00
Moved after birth 0.55 0.79 0.37
Moved with household 23.99 27.36 21.55
Others 39.52 55.46 27.97

December 2005
Migration Profile of Tripura

 Causes for International migration

Causes (in %) Persons Male Female


Work / Employment 3.28 5.52 0.88
Business 0.88 1.53 0.19
Education 0.44 0.70 0.15
Marriage 11.26 0.65 22.53
Moved after birth 0.24 0.46 0.18
Moved with household 44.19 41.94 46.59
Others 39.70 49.35 29.41
December 2005
Migration Profile of Tripura

 Others is the most important factor for


migration in Tripura.
 It includes widespread internal
displacement due to insurgency and
ethnic unrest.
 More than 10000 persons have
migrated from Takarjala & Jampuijala.

December 2005
Migration Profile of Tripura

 Several persons in the state who have


been forced to migrate due to
exogenous factors for more than twice.
 Huge migration from areas once used
for resettlement of refugees after
partition.

December 2005
Migration Profile of Tripura

 Migration from Mizoram is highest for other


causes.
 Male majority migration from Mizoram and
Bangladesh.
 More migration in the offing- regrouping of
villages by the state government.

December 2005
Migration Profile of Tripura

 More than 30% of the people in the state are


considered to be migrants.
 Marriage is the most important cause for
intra state migration.
 Out migration from the state mostly to West
Bengal.
 Second to Arunachal in terms of migration
rate.

December 2005
Migration Profile of Tripura

THANK YOU

December 2005

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