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JOB SPEC 4478-50A1

PIPING PAGE 2
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DATE Apr 12, 1999


ORIGINATING ENGINEER: R. Chakravarti

CORE TEAM APPROVAL:
JOB SPEC 4478-50A1
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I. SCOPE

This job specification is intended to govern the design and
supply of process and utility piping systems (for ISBL and OSBL),
for the SINCOR Downstream Project, Jose, Venezuela. This
specification is supplemented by: Job specifications,
Engineering Flow Diagrams, Line Classification Lists, Line Class
Piping Material Specifications and Plot Plans.

II. REFERENCES

The latest editions and revisions of the following documents are
referred to in this specification:

(4) A. Job Specifications

JOB SPEC 4478-01A1, Basic Engineering Data
JOB SPEC 4478-43A1, Foundations and Elevated Concrete
Structures
JOB SPEC 4478-46A1, Structural Steel Design and
Fabrication
JOB SPEC 4478-50A2, Gaskets and Surface Finish for
Bolted Flanged Joints
JOB SPEC 4478-50A4, Dimensions of Nonstandard Gaskets
& Surface Finish for Proper
Compression
JOB SPEC 4478-50A6, Special Requirements for
Compressor Piping
JOB SPEC 4478-50A10, Line Class Piping Materials
Specifications
JOB SPEC 4478-52A1, Shop and Field Fabricated Piping
JOB SPEC 4478-52B2, Reinforcement of Welded Branches
JOB SPEC 4478-56A1, Steam Tracing for Piping and
Vessels
JOB SPEC 4478-58A1, Underground Piping and Surface
Drainage
JOB SPEC 4478-59A1, Steam Traps
JOB SPEC 4478-59B9, General Notes - Valves
JOB SPEC 4478-60A1, Instrumentation
JOB SPEC 4478-67A2, Steam Tracing of Instruments
JOB SPEC 4478-67A3, Electric Tracing of Instruments
JOB SPEC 4478-78A1, Electrical Heat Tracing
JOB SPEC 4478-83A1, Painting
JOB SPEC 4478-83A4, Coating and Wrapping of
Underground Steel Pipe
JOB SPEC 4478-89A1, Pressure Testing at Jobsite

B. It is not practical to list all applicable industry standards
here. Such standards where applicable are referenced within
the job specifications.

1. ASME/ANSI Standards

a. ASME/ANSI B16.5, Pipe Flanges and Flanged Fittings
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b. ASME B16.20, Metallic Gaskets for Pipe Flanges - Ring-
Joint, spiral-Wound, and Jacketed

c. ASME B16.21, Non-metallic Gaskets for Pipe Flanges

d. ASME B16.47, Large Diameter Steel Flanges (NPS 26
through 60)

2. ASME Standards (Codes)

a. B31.1, Power Piping
b. B31.3, (1996 Edition), Process Piping

3. ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code

a. Section I, Power Boilers
b. Section VIII, Division 1 and 2, Pressure Vessels
c. Section IX, Welding and Brazing Qualifications

4. API Publications

a. API RP 520, Recommended Practice for the Design and
Installation of Pressure - Relieving Systems in
Refineries Part II - Installation

b. API RP 521, Guide for Pressure-Relieving Depressuring
Systems.

c. API Std. 610, Centrifugal Pumps for Petroleum, Heavy
duty chemical, gas industry services.

d. API Std. 612, Special-purpose steam turbine for
refinery services.

e. API Std. 617, Centrifugal Compressors for General
Refinery Service.

f. API Std. 618, Reciprocating Compressors for General
Refinery Service.

5. Pipe Fabrication Institute Standards

a. PFI Std. ES-3, Fabricating Tolerances

b. PFI Std. ES-24, Pipe Bending Tolerances

6. Standards of Expansion Joint Manufacturers Association

7. ASTM Specifications

a. ASTM A 193, Alloy-Steel and Stainless Steel Bolting
Materials for High-Temperature Service.

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b. ASTM A 194, Carbon and Alloy Steel nuts for bolts for
high-pressure and high-temperature service.

c. ASTM A 307, Standard specification for Carbon Steel
bolts and studs 60,000 psi tensile strength.



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d. ASTM A 453, Bolting Materials with (High-Temperature),
Yield Strength and Expansion Coefficients Comparable
to Austenitic Steels.
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C. FIGURES: (1 through 6)


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TYPICAL PIPING AT TURBINES





NOTES

1. NPS 3/4 DRAIN 5. RELIEF VALVE SIZED FOR MAX. THROTTLE
2. NPS 3/4 DRAIN BEFORE STEAM FLOW
TRIP & THROTTLE VALVE 6. EXPANSION JOINT AND ANCHOR TO BE
(WHEN USED) INSTALLED ONLY AS REQUIRED. (OWNER=S
3. CASING AND CHEST DRAINS (APPROVAL REQUIRED)
VALVED AND TRAPPED TO 7. WHEN EXHAUST NOZZLE IS UP USE PUMPING
SUIT TURBINE DESIGN. TYPE TRAP ON CASING DRAIN (SARCO TYPE
(ALSO SEE NOTE 7). PPP OR EQUAL).
4. TRIP & THROTTLE VALVE
SUPPLIED BY TURBINE VENDOR
(IF REQUIRED)


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TYPICAL PIPING AT TURBINES (CONTINUED)







NOTES
1. NPS 3/4 DRAIN 10. BYPASS VALVE (SIZED FOR 10% OF
5. RELIEF VALVE SIZED FOR MAX. NORMAL THROTTLE STEAM FLOW)
THROTTLE STEAM FLOW MAY BE INSTALLED TO ALLOW
6. EXPANSION JOINT AND ANCHOR CONTINUOUS SLOW-ROLL OPERATION
TO BE INSTALLED ONLY AS REQUIRED WHEN TURBINE AND DRIVEN EQUIPMENT
(OWNER=S APPROVAL REQUIRED) ARE EQUIPPED WITH FORCED FEED LUBE
8. TRAPPED DRAIN OIL SYSTEM OR OTHER SUITABLE
9. WHEN EXHAUST PRESSURE IS HIGHER LUBRICATION PROVISIONS.
THAN 150 PSIG. CONSIDERATION
SHALL BE GIVEN TO SPECIFYING
EQUIPMENT SUITABLE FOR CONTINUOUS

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SLOW-ROLL OPERATION.
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FIGURE 5-TYPICAL VALVING AT EXCHANGERS




FIGURE 6-ISOLATION VALVING ON-BY-PASS EXCHANGER UNITS
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D. General Criteria

1. Select specific elevations for lines running North and South
and other specific elevations for lines running East and
West. Maintain these elevations through the unit, except
where pockets must be avoided. Usual dimension between banks
of pipe = 2-0" (610 mm) (min.) to 3-0" (915 mm).

2. Select specific elevations for short runs at pumps, control
stations manifolds, etc., and maintain these through the
unit. (8-0" (2400 mm) Min. Clearance to H.P. of paving)

3. Elevation of Lines Above Supports to be per Para. VI.A.6.

4. Flanged connections required to permit dismantling lines for
maintenance, inspections, or removal of equipment shall be
provided.

5. Elevations of Paving, Floors and Equipment to be as follows
(per JOB SPEC 4478-43A1).

Note: Engineering standard & procedure dictates:

a. Top of concrete is top of grout (not top of rough
concrete).

b. Platform elevation is top of steel (not top of grating or
checkered plate).

(4) (*=Reference elevations shall be based on low point of paving)

Low Point of Paving (top of Catch Basins) = Elev. * +0" (*mm)
(4)(7) High Point of Paving = Elev. * +6(*+150 mm)
(7) High Point Finished Floor: = Elev. * +8(*+200 mm)
(4) Enclosed Buildings in Paved Areas = Elev. * +6"(*+150 mm)
Open Buildings in Paved Areas = Match Outer
Edges with Adj. Paving
(4) All Buildings in Unpaved Areas = 6" Above Adj. (150 mm)
Grade
"Top of Grout" or "Bottom of Base Plate":
(4) Centrifugal Pumps = Elev. * +9" (*+225 mm)
(Min)
(4) Reciprocating Pumps = Elev. *+1'-3" (*+380 mm)
(Min)
(4) Vertical Vessels = Elev. *+1'-0" (*+300 mm)
(4) Base of Columns = Elev. *+1'-0" (*+300 mm)

6. Provide chain or extension stem for valves as specified in Para.
VI.C.

Gear operators shall be provided as specified in Para. VI.A.19.
Style of gearing must be specified after layout.

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7. Access to block valves shall be accomplished as described in
Para. VI.C.

8. Center line of Control valves shall be located 0.61m (2'-0")
above high point of paving or first level of structures unless
otherwise specified on flow diagram. Those which control
level in a vessel must be located to have gage glass visible
and accessible while operating by-pass valve.

For size of blocks and by pass valves, see JOB SPEC 4478-60A1.

9. Utility Station Requirements (per Para. VI.D.1).

Steam, air and water at grade: spaced so that all areas can
be reached with 50'-0" (15 m) of hose.

Steam and air at alternate levels of structures and vessels
(same levels as manways).

All lines to utility stations to be 1". Provide gate valve in
each line at hose connection.

(6) 10. Deleted
(6) 11. Deleted

12. Orifice Flow Measurement

(4) Horizontal orifice runs are preferred. Vertical runs are
permitted in upward flow only for liquids; downward flow
preferred for gases. For instrument connections see Job Spec
4478-60A1.

A minimum of 2'-0" (610 mm) clearance shall be allowed from OD
of orifice flange to any obstruction, for installation of
meter leads.

13. Overhead suction lines shall drain toward the pump without
pockets.

14. Piping and structures shall be arranged to permit mobile
lifting equipment to approach pumps control valves, other
rotating equipment, safety valves etc., and make lifts without
obstruction.

15. The block valve in the exhaust line of a turbine shall be
located at the turbine and down stream of a relief valve. No
additional block shall be provided at the exhaust steam
header. Expansion joints will not be used unless shown on
flow diagrams.

(6) 16. Deleted

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17. Allow for 1" (25 mm) shims (or grout) above steel (or
concrete). For vessels over 15'-0" (4570 mm) dia. allow 1
(40 mm) for shims (or grout).
18. Branches from plant air, gas and steam headers to be from top.
Branches from service water header can be from bottom of
header. Relief valves to discharge into top of header.

19. Platforms may not be provided for manways in horizontal or
vertical vessels where the manway centerline is 12'-0" (3650
mm) or less from grade. Assume portable ladders will be used.

20. Dead Ends in piping to facilitate supports shall not be
allowed in process lines.

21. ITEM MINIMUM CLEARANCES

ROADS, ACCESSWAY AND CRANEWAYS:

Headroom for Primary Access Road (Where major
maintenance vehicles are expected to pass).....21'-0" (6400 mm)
Pump Maintenance Accessway Headroom.............12'-0" (3650 mm)
Process Area Craneway Headroom..................17'-6" (5335 mm)
Pump Maintenance Accessway, Horizontal Clearance,
not necessarily in a straight line.............10'-0" (3050 mm)
Clearance from edge of road to platforms,
equipment, pipe, etc........................... 5'-0" (1525 mm)
Normal Overhead, inside Battery Limit...........16'-0" (4880 mm)
Plant Roads, Outside Battery Limit, Clearance...20'-0" (6100 mm)

RAILROADS:

Headroom from Top of Rail.......................21'-6" (6550 mm)
Clearance from track centerline to obstruction.. 8'-6" (2590 mm)

MAINTENANCE PASSAGEWAYS AND WALKWAYS:

Horizontal Clearance, not necessarily in a
straight line ................................. 3'-0" ( 915 mm)
(4) Headroom (except for handwheels, which may be
6'-6" (1980 mm)................................ 7'-0" (2135 mm)

CLEARANCE UNDER PIPEWAY:

Access for vehicular equipment..................12'-0 (3650 mm)
Access for portable service equipment...........10'-0" (3050 mm)

PIPE ON SLEEPERS:

Clearance, bottom of pipe to finished grade, unless
otherwise specified in project specifications... 1'-3" ( 380 mm)

EQUIPMENT:

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Minimum maintenance space required between shells
of exchangers or other equipment arranged
in pairs.........................................3'-0" ( 915 mm)

(4) Minimum maintenance space required to structural
member or pipe.................................. 1'-0" ( 300 mm)
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FIRED EQUIPMENT:

Clearance from edge of roads to shell...........10'-0" (3050 mm)

PIPE (ABOVE GROUND):

Clearance between outside diameter of flange and
Outside diameter of pipe or insulation.......... 0'-1" ( 25 mm)

Clearance between outside diameter of pipe or
insulation and structural member................ 0'-1" ( 25 mm)

III. BASIS OF DESIGN

A. Code Requirements

1. Piping shall be designed, fabricated, inspected and tested in
accordance with ASME B31.3. (1996 Edition), Process Piping,
including applicable addenda, in effects as last edition, and
other governing codes. Piping within the jurisdiction of the
ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (BPVC), Section I, power
boilers, shall be designed, fabricated, inspected and tested
in accordance with ASME B31.1, Power Piping.

2. Dimensions of various classes of flanges and valves shall be
in accordance with the appropriate ASME/ANSI, API or MSS
Standards.

3. All welding including tack welding on pressure parts of
piping, whether shop or field, shall be by welders qualified
in accordance with the ASME BPVC, Section IX, Welding and
Brazing Qualifications and the ASME Code for Pressure Piping.

4. The applicable edition of the National Codes and Standards
shall be that in effect on the contract date.

B. Design Requirements

(5) 1. Discharge piping of a centrifugal pump not protected by a
safety valve shall be designed for the maximum discharge
pressure of the pump or compressor.

2. All systems operating below atmospheric pressure (excluding
the steam out conditions) shall be designed for full vacuum.

3. The design temperature will usually be the maximum fluid
temperature plus 15C.

4. Flanged connections inside tower skirts are not allowed.

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C. Piping Material Specifications

(6) 1. Material of construction for individual piping systems and
specific operating conditions shall conform to the
requirements of Line Class Piping Material Specifications (JOB
SPEC 4478-50A10). The Line Class Piping Material



Specifications are categorized by their flange classes. The
design pressure and temperature for each line including for
infrequent variations shall be determined as per ASME
B31.3/B31.1 code, as applicable. All necessary data for line
size and class selection must be clearly stated on the Line
List established by the Engineering Department.

D. Piping Material and Sizes

1. Pipe

a. Minimum corroded thickness shall be calculated as
specified in the applicable code.

b. The corrosion allowance shall be specified on MOC
(Materials of Construction)drawings. The minimum corrosion
allowance used in determination of pipe wall thickness
shall be as follows:

1. For carbon steel and low chrome alloys (up to and
including 5% Cr.): 0.063" (1.5mm)

2. For stainless steels and higher alloys: 0.030"
(0.75mm)

c. The wall thicknesses given in the Piping Material
Specifications provide allowance for corrosion, thread
depth and manufacturing tolerance in addition to the
thickness required by the most severe condition which can
occur. The thickness required by the most severe design
conditions shall be compared with the retirement thickness
as listed below. The larger of the two values shall be
used in the pipe wall thickness calculations.

Nom. Pipe Size Retirement Thickness

1/2" - 3/4" 0.04"
1" - 8" 0.06"
10" 0.09"
12" - 14" 0.11"
(6) 16" - larger 0.12"

A nominal thickness of Schedule 80 or more is specified
for threaded pipe. Pipe designed for welded joints shall
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have a minimum nominal thickness of standard wall in
carbon steel and ferritic alloys, Schedule 10S in
stainless steels and higher alloys.

d. Close nipples shall not be used. All carbon steel and
ferritic alloy steel screwed nipples shall be sch 160 min.
Austenitic stainless steel and non-ferrous alloy screwed
nipples shall be sch 40S minimum.


e. In carbon steel pipe, Grade B is specified due to its
higher allowable stresses at no higher price than Grade A.
If bending is contemplated, however, the ductility of
Grade A pipe is required for the bent section. Many heats
have the required strength of Grade B and ductility of
Grade A, allowing them to be stamped and certified to
either grade.

f. Ductile iron pipe may only be used for underground water,
and sewer services, and for underground firewater service.
An internal cement lining for these pipes shall be
specified in the Line Class Piping Material Specifications
if product is corrosive. Design temperature shall be
limited to the one allowed by the soft gasket material
used to seal joints.

g. No pipe smaller than NPS 3/4 shall be used, except for
connections to instruments, steam tracing, air connections
to control valves, and connections to vendors equipment.

h. Pipe sizes NPS 1-1/4, 2, 3 and odd numbered sizes NPS 5,
7, etc., shall not be used. Equipment furnished with
connections in these sizes shall be adjusted to a standard
size immediately adjacent to the equipment by means of a
special flange or reducer.

i. Welded end closures shall be welding caps for all process
service lines and for all other services with design
pressures over 1.05 kg/cm
2
(gauge) or in vacuum service.

j. Round head plugs shall be used.

2. Valves

(4) a. Valves shall be provided of the type and tag number (when
shown) shown in the Engineering Flow Diagrams. The type
of valve shall be in accordance with Line Class piping
Material Specification, JOB SPEC 4478-50A10 and procured
in accordance with JOB SPEC 4478-59B9.

b. Vent and drain valves shall normally be bolted bonnet type
unless otherwise required due to process or service.

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c. Valves with bodies, seal rings or linings of teflon and
other plastics are limited to the maximum temperature
specified in the Line Class Piping Material
Specifications, JOB SPEC 4478-50A10. All soft seal valves
shall be of the Fire-Safe type. A Fire-Safe
certificate complying with API 607 or similar approved
test must be supplied.

d. Cast iron, brass and bronze valves are limited to design
conditions and fluid services of Category D, which are not
critical to the plant operability or safety. These valves
shall not be installed on Instrument Air or Power Air to
the valve actuators.

e. API Trim No. 8 (F6+) is generally supplied or available
for carbon steel and low chrome alloy steel valves.

f. Use of asbestos is not permitted in any packing or gasket
material.

g. Where two lines of different classification connect, the
higher classification (due to pressure-temperature-
conditions, required corrosion resistance or other special
problems) shall prevail up to and including the first
shut-off valve to the line or both shut-off valves, if the
line is double-valved.

h. Valves shall be provided with pressure equalizing bypass
globe valve, as indicated below, when the operating
differential pressure across the closed valve
approximately equal the pressure rating of the valve at
the operating temperature.

BYPASS VALVES-GLOBE
(Pipe Size in Inches)

GATE VALVE RATING AND BYPASS GLOBE VALVE SIZE

Size 150 300 400 600 900 Class

CLASS CLASS CLASS CLASS and Over

None N-A


4..... - - - 3/4

6..... - - 3/4 3/4

8..... - 3/4 3/4

10.... - - 1 1

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12.... - 1 1 1

14 to 20... 1 - 1 1

24..... 1 - 1 1



3. Flanges

a. Raised face flanges shall be used for services in Class
900 and lower classes and at temperatures 538C and
below, except as noted in the Piping Material
Specifications.

b. Large diameter flanges (NPS 26 and above) shall be per
ASME B16.47 Series A.

c. For Class 1500 and above, ring type joint (RTJ) flanges
shall be used.

d. Flange surface finish shall be in accordance with JOB
SPEC 4478-50A2 or 4478-50A4 as applicable.

e. Pipe and pipe component endings shall be as follows
unless otherwise shown in the Line Class specifications
or requisitions.

(1) NPS 1 and smaller, socket welding (SW).
(2) NPS 2 and larger butt welding (BW), Weldneck
flanges shall be bored to suit pipe.
(3) Slip-on flanges or Lap Joint flanges shall not
be used.

4. Gaskets

Gaskets shall be per JOB SPEC 4478-50A2 or 4478-50A4 as
applicable.

a. Gaskets containing asbestos in any form shall not be
used.

b. Compressed sheet gaskets are limited to utility services,
such as water, air, nitrogen etc. However, they shall
not be used in steam services, process services or in
category M fluid services. Compressed sheet gaskets
shall be graphoil type with stainless steel reinforcing
insert.

c. Spiral wound stainless steel gaskets shall be used for
raised face flanges unless specified otherwise. Spiral
wound gaskets shall be 304SS or 316SS spiral, (when
service conditions dictate), graphite filled. Graphite
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to be pure with anti-oxidant and anti-corrosion agents
(when specified in Line Class piping material specs).
Outer ring to be provided in all cases (except for tongue
and Groove design). Inner ring to be limited to vacuum
services and/or required by ASME/ANSI standards for
higher pressure classes. Inner ring to be 304SS or 316SS
material.

d. Gasket widths shall be limited in accordance with
dimensions tabulated in ASME B16.5 Annex E. Flat gaskets
in accordance with ASME B16.21 and spiral wound or
jacketed gaskets in accordance with ASME B16.20.


e. Where ring joint closure is specified, ring material
shall be soft carbon steel for carbon steel flanges, 4-6%
Cr 1/2% Mo for ferritic alloy flanges and 18-8 Cr-Ni for
austenitic alloy flanges. Ring shall be oval
cross-section. Maximum hardness of ring joint gasket
material is per Table 1, ASME B16.20.

5. Bolting

a. When bolting Class 250 CI flanges to Class 300 steel
flanges, carbon steel machine bolts (ASTM A307GR-B) may
be used for services at design temperature of -29C to
204C. The gasket used shall be per Group No. 1a
material, ASME/ANSI B16.5.

b. ASTM A193 Gr. B7 alloy steel stud bolts shall be used at
design temperatures of -29C to 427C for carbon and low
alloy steel flanges (up to 9% Cr.). For design
temperatures from 427C to 538C, Gr. B16 shall be used.
(Note: 20% temperature reduction on uninsulated flange
bolting cannot be used)

c. For stainless steel flanges, ASTM A193 Gr. B7 alloy steel
bolts shall be used at design temperatures of -29C to
370C, ASTM A453 Gr. 660 stainless steel bolts from 370C
to 538C. ASTM A193 Gr. B8M Class 2 stainless steel
bolts shall be used at design temperatures below -29C.

6. Fittings

a. Socket welding fittings shall be used for NPS 1 and
smaller, unless otherwise specified. Butt-welded
fittings shall be used for larger sizes.

b. Threaded fittings are acceptable in NPS 1 and smaller
size piping whose fluid service is designated Category D
and in instrument service and atmospheric vent or drain
piping downstream of the last block valve.

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7. Branch Connection

a. Welded pipe to pipe connections shall be designed so that
the angle of intersection between the branch and the run
shall not be less than 45.

b. Integrally reinforced branch welding fittings which abut
the outside surface of the run wall, in sizes 4 in. NPS
(100mm) and larger, are not permitted under any of the
following conditions:

1. The d/D ratio (branch diameter/run diameter)
exceeds 0.8.

2. The run piping wall thickness is less than
standard wall.

3. The run piping wall thickness is less than 0.375
in. (9.5mm) where outside diameter exceeds 36
in. (900mm).

c. Pad-type reinforcement for full size branch connections
is not permitted.

d. Connections NPS 1 (40 mm) or smaller shall be welded to
run piping by using a coupling, or a schedule 160 or
greater nipple, or an integrally reinforced branch
welding fitting.

8. General Installation Requirement

a. Provisions for expansion shall normally be made with pipe
loops. Cold strain shall be avoided.

b. All piping systems shall be designed so that the loads
and moments applied at the flanges of mechanical
equipment such as pumps and compressors, shall not exceed
the permissible reactions for the equipment.

9. Supports and Anchors

a. All piping shall be supported and shall be provided with
anchors, sway braces or vibration dampeners to prevent
excessive expansion forces on equipment and excessive
vibration.

b. Piping at valves and mechanical equipment, such as pumps,
requiring periodic maintenance shall be supported so that
the valves and equipment can be removed with a minimum
necessity of installing temporary pipe supports.

10. Responsibility of the Owner

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In accordance with Para. 300 (b) of ASME B31.3, the owner is
responsible for identifying these fluid services which are in
categories D and M as defined in Para. 300.2.

11. Safeguarding

When safeguarding is required by ASME B31.3, its Appendix G
shall be used as a guide toward selection of appropriate
safeguarding.

IV. PROCESS SYSTEMS GUIDELINES

The following guidelines are generally reflected in the preparation of
the Engineering Flow Diagrams (EFD). In case of any conflict, the EFD
shall govern.



A. Towers and Drums

1. Block valves shall be provided at tower nozzles in the
following instances:

a. Each line feeding process steam or purge gas to a tower.
A NPS 3/4 bleed connection and a check valve shall also
be provided, immediately upstream of the block. These
are in addition to the block valve normally provided at
the header. The bleed connection can be in a drip ring
between the valves, or in either valve body.

b. Where a line connects to a tower below the liquid level,
and there is no other valve before the next piece of
equipment nor within 15 m (50 feet) on a horizontal
radius from the tower and accessible from grade or a
platform.

c. Vent and drain lines.

d. Pumpout lines which discharge to a closed pumpout system,
plus a second block and a NPS 3/4 bleed valve located
between the two valves.

e. Process lines operating above 370C.

f. Unless otherwise indicated on the P&I flow diagrams, the
piping systems for pumping out towers and equipment shall
be a part of the regular process piping of the unit.

2. Block valves shall not be provided at the tower in the
following:

a. Reflux return lines above the liquid level, where block
valves have been provided at the pump discharge.
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b. Fractionator draw-off line providing liquid to side
stream stripper, when the line includes a control valve
with blocks and by-pass.

3. No block valves will be provided in the following:

(6) a. Relief valve connections on vessels and drums.

b. Stripper vapor return lines to fractionating towers.

c. Vapor overhead lines from towers.

d. Thermo-syphon reboiler suction and return lines.

e. Gravity intercooler suction and return lines.
B. Pumps

1. A block valve shall be installed in both the suction and
discharge lines of each pump. The rating of the discharge
valve shall be determined by the design conditions of the
line. The suction valve will usually be rated for the design
conditions of the suction line. Where the piping of two or
more pumps is manifolded, see Para. IV.B.9.

2. Where the pump inlet nozzle is one or more sizes smaller than
the line size, the block valve may be nozzle size if pump
hydraulics permit. Review conditions with Mechanical
Equipment Engineer.

3. A check valve shall be installed in the discharge line of a
centrifugal or rotary pump between the pump nozzle and the
block valve. Reciprocating pumps shall not normally be
provided with a check valve.

4. Overhead suction lines shall drain toward the pump without
vapor pockets.

5. Casing vents and drains shall be provided as shown on the
Auxiliary Flow Diagrams.

6. A temporary strainer shall be provided upstream of each pump
suction nozzle during break-in operations. A Y-type strainer
with a 1/16" diameter perforated stainless steel screen shall
be used in NPS 2 and smaller. In larger sizes, a cone type
carbon steel plate strainer with 3 mm (1/8") diameter
perforations, having an open area equal to 200% of the
internal cross-sectional area of the pipe, shall be installed
between FF or RF flanges, pointing upstream. In lines with
RTJ flanges, a strainer fitting inside the ring gasket,
Aitken C-2 or equal, shall be used. Since the temporary
strainer must be removed and its collected sediment
JOB SPEC 4478-50A1
PIPING PAGE 25
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DATE Apr 12, 1999


discarded, it shall be installed in a short flanged section.
Flat plate strainers shall not be used.

7. A warm-up bypass system, as illustrated in Figure 1, shall be
provided between a pump and its spare when the spare must be
brought close to operating temperature before switch-over,
kept at operating temperature in anticipation of automatic
switch-over, or kept warm in winter. If a high differential
pressure precludes meeting the 3 to 5% normal pump flow
limitation, a bypass with a flow restrictor is acceptable on
pumps with discharge nozzles 2 in. NPS (50 mm) diameter and
larger. Drilled check valve may only be used as an alternate
in special cases with Owners approval.

8. A suction line to a centrifugal pump with side or end entry
shall be installed with an eccentric reducer (flat on top)
adjacent to the pump nozzle or nozzle size valve. A reducing
elbow may be used when the space for a long radius elbow and
eccentric reducer is not available, and the layout will allow
the temporary strainer to be fitted inside and later removed
with its collected sediment.

(6) 9. Suction lines to centrifugal pumps with double suction
impellers shall be piped with split flow to the inlet nozzle
to prevent impeller damage due to unequal flows.

10. Pumps with top suctions shall utilize concentric reducers.

11. If the discharge block valve is open and the check valve
malfunctions, the suction piping may be subjected to pump
discharge conditions for short periods. Where this can
occur, the suction block valve and any piping downstream
shall be designed per Para. 302.2.4 of ASME B31.3 unless
means of relieving the accidental overpressure are provided.

12. Piping shall have adequate flexibility and support to prevent
expansion or dead loads from imposing damaging strains on the
pump casing.

13. A NPS 3/4 drain shall be installed on the discharge side of
the check valve body or downstream of the check valve,
depending on size. See Figure 1.

14. Piping shall be arranged to allow the removal of the pump for
maintenance. In-line pumps with motor drives not exceeding
60 KW may be supported directly by suction and discharge
piping, with distance between pump flange and pipe support
centerline not to exceed 1 times the pipe diameter.

15. Pump suction and discharge block valves shall be located in
an accessible location or shall be provided with chain
wheels.

JOB SPEC 4478-50A1
PIPING PAGE 26
REV 7
DATE Apr 12, 1999


16. A low flow protection system shall be installed for pump
expected to operate for extended periods of time at less than
20% of their best efficiency point (BEP) flow rating. The
low flow protection system shall be designed to assure
continuous pump operation at flows exceeding 20% of BEP flow
rating.

17. The low flow protection system shall either be piped back to
the pump suction source upstream of the suction valve or
through a cooler and back to the pump suction. Alternative
system design shall be submitted to the Owners Engineer for
approval.

18. In Boiler Feed Water pumps, an automatic combined low-flow-
bypass/check valve shall be provided for each pump (in lieu
of an unvalved Orificed bypass).

C. Compressor

1. Reciprocating compressor must have a recirculating line
between discharge and suction piping which shall accommodate
50% of full design flow rate. This line is equipped with a
manual block valve which is closed in normal operation.

2. Reciprocating compressor shall be provided with a check
valve.

3. Centrifugal compressor must have an anti-pumping (anti-surge)
line between discharge and suction piping equipped with an
anti-pumping valve driven by the automatic control system of
the compressor.

4. Suction piping from the knock out drum to the compressor must
be as short as possible and its diameter shall normally be
not less than one of the inlet nozzle of the compressor
unless otherwise required by the process engineering, or if
the vendor would charge extra to change the nozzle size for
customizing the equipment.

5. Piping to be without low points between knock-out drum and
Anti-pulsation Bottle (Reciprocating Compressor) or inlet
nozzle flange (for other compressor type). Piping to be
sloped downward from the compressor to knock out drum.

6. All suction piping must be equipped with a filter (strainer).
The filter (strainer) shall be installed upstream of the
anti-pulsation bottle in case of the reciprocating
compressor.

7. For maintenance purpose, suction piping must be equipped with
a block valve and a blind (fig 8 or paddle depending on the
line size) on the compressor side. Automation emergency
isolation block valve may be required if specified on P&ID.

JOB SPEC 4478-50A1
PIPING PAGE 27
REV 7
DATE Apr 12, 1999


8. The individual discharge piping of a compressor must be
equipped with a quick response, non slam type check valve
whatever the compressor type.

9. For maintenance purpose, discharge piping must be equipped
with a block valve with a fig. 8 blind on the compressor
side. For high pressure compressor (over 900# series)
considerations must be given to double block and bleed
valves. Automated emergency isolation block valve may be
required if specified on P&ID.

10. Process and auxiliary piping shall be arranged in orderly
fashion around the compressor and in such a way as to allow
maintenance work and general overhaul with a minimum of
piping dismantling. The upper half of body of centrifugal
compressors and the blind end cover of barrel compressor
shall be easily removable.

11. Piping diameters must be selected to allow for reasonable
linear velocities of gases and pressure drop in the lines.

12. Block valves and check valves shall have same nominal
diameter as the line.

13. Unless temperature limits their use, soft seal fire safe ball
valve as per applicable piping class shall be used a block
valves. Ball valves to be full port.



14. All piping materials (valves, flanges) shall be rated
(following ANSI B16.5) for the highest possible design
conditions they may experience. For instance the block
valve and downstream piping on the suction line may be rated
for the high pressure outlet conditions in the case of
several compressors running parallel.

15. Each stage of a volumetric compressor must be protected
against over pressure by a safety valve.

16. Loads from piping (in the cold and hot conditions) on the
compressor nozzles shall be limited to the values allowed by
API standards 617 & 618. This shall be achieved by
appropriate supporting of the lines and proper flanges
alignment. During erection flange faces parallelism shall
be achieved within 0.8 mm and bolts shall not be forced
through bolt holes.

17. In vibrating services, gusseting on small bore connections
should be considered.

18. Silencers, if required, shall be installed in the suction and
discharge piping as close to the compressor nozzles as
practicable. In order to optimize layout, the silencers may
JOB SPEC 4478-50A1
PIPING PAGE 28
REV 7
DATE Apr 12, 1999


be arranged with side or end connections. Silencer shell and
flanges shall conform to the appropriate piping material
specifications.

D. Turbines

1. Where two or more turbines have a common control valve, a
block valve shall be provided in the steam inlet line to each
turbine.

2. The exhaust side of each turbine shall have a separate block
valve, located at the turbine downstream of the relief valve.
This location permits maximum safety in determining whether
the valve is open or closed. No additional block valve shall
be provided at the exhaust steam header.
3. Manufacturers normally provide turbines with permanent
integral strainers. Where removal of such strainers is
effected through the inlet piping, a flanged spool piece or
other means for easy access shall be furnished. If a
turbine without an integral strainer is to be used, a Y-type
strainer with blowdown valve shall be indicated on the
Engineering Flow Diagram and installed in the steam inlet
line as near to the turbine flange as is feasible. Y-type
strainers shall have stainless steel screens with 0.80mm
(.033") perforations.

4. Regulating, throttling or control valves shall be accessible
for hand operation. When used in conjunction with an
indicator which responds to the operation of a valve, the two
shall be located so that the operator may observe the
response from his position at the valve.



5. Expansion joints (Owners approval required) shall be
provided for turbine exhaust steam lines as shown on the
Engineering Flow Diagram.

6. Drain connections, with steam traps to remove condensate,
shall be provided at the low point on the turbine inlet line
before the block valve. For turbines on automatic start-up,
traps shall be connected as close as possible to the inlet
side of the automatic start valve as well as the low point of
the inlet line. Traps are also required for draining the
turbine casing and pockets within the turbine.

7. A drain with steam trap shall be provided at the low point of
the exhaust line, downstream of the block valve.

8. Turbine exhaust piping and its safety relief shall be as
follows:

a. Condensing Turbines

JOB SPEC 4478-50A1
PIPING PAGE 29
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DATE Apr 12, 1999


A full capacity relief valve shall be provided for
turbine exhaust condensing at atmospheric or
sub-atmospheric pressure and discharging to a surface
type condenser. This relief valve can be installed on
the turbine, in the piping or furnished with the
condenser. Only one such valve is required where a
condenser serves more than one turbine. The capacity of
the relief valve shall not be less than the total
possible steam flow from all turbines connected to the
condenser.

If a block valve is specified by the client, in the
exhaust line to the condenser, the block valve shall be
car-sealed open, if no relief valve is provided upstream
of it.

For steam flows higher than 55,000 kg/hr, requiring an
atmospheric relief valve, NPS 20 or larger, Purchaser
shall have the option to use a full capacity rupture disc
mounted on the turbine exhaust casing, instead of the
atmospheric relief valve on the condenser.

If the discharge is to a barometric type condenser, no
relief valve is required, but the barometric leg shall be
checked to be sure its size is adequate to provide
required relief.

b. Turbines Exhausting to Atmosphere Only

Neither a block valve nor a relief valve shall be
provided in the exhaust line.

c. Turbines Exhausting Above Atmospheric Pressure

A full capacity relief valve shall be installed upstream
of the exhaust block valve of each non-condensing
turbine.




9. Turbines arranged for automatic start can sit idle with full
rated exhaust pressure in the casing and no controls to
maintain readiness except the automatic steam control valve
and traps shown in Fig 4. A bypass around the control valve
may be used to run the turbine continuously at a slow-roll
speed if the turbine has suitable lubrication provisions.
Provision for slow-roll operation shall be applied on an
individual basis.

E. Shell and Tube Exchangers

1. Except in Category M service, block valves shall not be
provided on the process side of shell and tube equipment,
JOB SPEC 4478-50A1
PIPING PAGE 30
REV 7
DATE Apr 12, 1999


unless isolation of the exchanger tube bundle or shell is
necessary during operation. Block valves at exchangers in
process units shall be the exception, not the rule.

2. Block valves are required for each exchanger cooling water
supply and return line when several units are in common
service and the ability to take one or more out of service
during operation is required to avoid shutdown.

3. Where isolation is not required, a block valve shall be
placed only in the cooling water return line from the cooler.

4. Stacked units operating with shell sides in common service
shall have only the top unit vented and the bottom unit
drained, unless the shell cover is of a larger diameter than
the shell. For this type of exchanger, vents and drains
shall be provided on all shell covers. Vent and drain valves
provided on shells and shell covers shall be NPS 1 min.,
flanged.


5. Where block valving is not required at the bottom connections
on shell and tube nozzles, and drainage can be accomplished
through existing piping, drain valves shall not be provided.

6. Where valves are to be located immediately adjacent to the
nozzles of heat exchanger units, the NPS 1 flanged vent or
drain when required shall be located inside the valve, on the
connecting pipe.

7. On heat exchangers provided with annular distribution, NPS 1
flanged vents and drains shall be provided on the high and
low points of these annular distributors.

8. See Figures 5 and 6 for illustrations of the above.

F. Control Valves and Orifice Flanges

(4) 1. Control valve arrangements and details shall be in accordance
Engineering Flow Diagrams. Arrangement shall be based on
removal for maintenance. No provision will be made for
servicing internals in place.

(4) 2. Orifice flanges and the minimum straight run of pipe upstream
and downstream shall be in accordance with JOB SPECS 4478-
60A1.

G. Relief Valves

1. Relief valves shall be in accordance with JOB SPEC 4478-60A1.

2. Reactive forces caused by rapid opening of relief or control
valves shall be calculated in accordance with API RP520 Part
JOB SPEC 4478-50A1
PIPING PAGE 31
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DATE Apr 12, 1999


II, Para. 2.4. Adequate means to absorb or resist these
forces shall be provided.

3. Relief valve discharge lines from adjacent equipment may be
combined into a common discharge header, providing the header
is of sufficient size that the relieving capacities of the
valves are not affected. When combining such lines, special
consideration shall be given to thermal expansion of the
piping system and the effects of back pressure on relief
valve settings. Headers shall slope 6.4mm (1/4") in 3,000mm
(10 feet) toward the battery limit or the disposal point
(flare stack or blowdown drum).

4. Relief valves which discharge into a common header shall
discharge into the top of the relief header. Valves shall be
located above the header. If not, a drain valve shall be
provided at the low point of the piping and shall be piped to
a safe location. Piping below the header shall be heat
traced if necessary.


5. Relief valves which discharge to atmosphere shall exhaust at
a safe distance away from any personnel area. A 6.4mm (1/4")
diameter weep hole (drain) shall be drilled in the underside
of the elbow below the point of discharge line. The exhaust
discharge pipe to extend at least 3 meters above any platform
or working area within a 7.6 meter radius of the point of
discharge.

6. Relief valves shall be connected to flare or other disposal
system only when so indicated on the applicable P&I flow
diagrams.

7. Relief valves have a minimum of piping between the protected
line or equipment and the valve inlet and shall be
accessible.

H. Expansion Joints

1. Expansion joints of any kind and flexible/hose piping shall
not be used without owners approval

2. Only the packless type of expansion joints shall be
considered. They shall be adequate for the following
conditions as defined in the requisition:


a. Axial deflection
b. Transverse deflection
c. Angular rotation
d. Design pressure-temperature of the system
e. Test pressure
f. Maximum Forces on Connected Piping and Equipment

JOB SPEC 4478-50A1
PIPING PAGE 32
REV 7
DATE Apr 12, 1999


3. Systems in which expansion joints are installed shall be
controlled by suitable anchors, guides, supports, or stops to
avoid deflecting the joints beyond their designed limits or
imposing damaging forces on the joints in the shut-down
condition.

4. Unless otherwise specified by supplementary design data,
material selection for the flexible elements and external
attachments such as lugs, rods, etc., shall be as recommended
by the joint manufacturer. The material for the other
components shall be in accordance with the Piping Material
Specification of the line in which it is to be installed.

5. The design, manufacture, testing and installation of
expansion joints shall be in compliance with the latest
edition of Standards of the Expansion Joint Manufacturers
Association, Inc.

I. Vents and Drains

1. Vents and drains shall be NPS 3/4 minimum, except as
otherwise noted on the Engineering Flow Diagram or equipment
drawing. Those intended only for testing piping will not be
shown on Engineering Flow Diagrams.

2. Vents and drains required while the unit is operating must be
valved and will be shown on the flow diagrams. For all
piping vents and drains shall normally consist of a branch
connection per JOB SPEC 4478-50A10, and an extended body
valve per API 602. From equipment and small lines, the
branch and its reduction to valve size shall use an
appropriate combination of fitting, reducer and nipples. The
valve and last nipple may be combined by using an extended
body valve per API 602 with required end connections.

(7) 3. Vents and drains required only while the unit is not
operating, as for hydrostatic test, shall be the same as
above for carbon steel piping. In alloy and stainless steel
piping, they shall consist of a branch connection per Line
Class Material Specification, JOB SPEC 4478-50A10, a nipple
of sufficient length to protrude through the insulation, and
a socket weld cap. The field shall supply carbon steel
valves for testing alloy piping and remove them when testing
is completed.

4. High points of all lines shall be vented and low points
drained except where the line can be vented or drained
elsewhere; e.g., a high point need not be vented where it is
connected to a tower with no block valve or lower piping
between. The amount of vents and drains shall be kept to a
minimum.

5. No permanent drains or vents shall be provided in Hydrogen
carrying lines. Any vents or drains installed for
JOB SPEC 4478-50A1
PIPING PAGE 33
REV 7
DATE Apr 12, 1999


hydrostatic testing shall have valves removed and connections
plugged and welded after testing.

6. A 3/4 inch drain shall be installed upstream of each control
valve, between block valve and control valve.

7. Pumps, compressor, turbines, heat exchangers and their piping
shall be vented and drained in accordance with Paragraphs
IV.B through IV.E.

J. Sample/Sample Coolers

1. Sample connections and sample coolers shall be supplied to
the extent shown on the P&I flow diagrams. Avoid long dead
legs.

2. All sample connections shall normally be 3/4 inch.

3. For pipe in a horizontal or inclined plane, the sample
connection shall be located at the side of the pipe unless
otherwise indicated on the P&I flow diagrams.

K. Heat Steam Tracing

1. Heat Tracing of Instruments

a. Heat tracing of instruments and their lead lines shall be
in accordance with:

JOB SPEC 4478-67A2 - Steam Tracing of Instruments
JOB SPEC 4478-67A3 - Electric Tracing of Instruments

2. Steam Tracing

a. Where specified on the Engineering Flow Diagrams, steam
tracing of piping and equipment shall be used for the
following purposes:

1. To maintain viscous materials in a fluid
condition.

2. To preheat process lines and avoid change of
phase in cold lines while starting up.

b. Steam tracing shall be in accordance with JOB SPEC 4478-
56A1.


3. Electrical Heat Tracing

Electrical heat tracing shall be in accordance with JOB SPEC
4478-78A1.

JOB SPEC 4478-50A1
PIPING PAGE 34
REV 7
DATE Apr 12, 1999


V. UTILITY SYSTEMS PRACTICES (In case of any conflict the EFD shall
govern)

A. Live Steam and Exhaust Steam

1. Live and exhaust steam mains shall be located on overhead
pipe racks and shall have block valves at or near the Unit
Limit in order to isolate the process unit from the rest of
the plant.

2. Steam take-off lines and exhaust steam return lines shall be
connected to the top side of the headers. Side connections
shall be avoided, except where clearances do not permit top
connections.

3. Block valves shall be provided in branch lines from steam and
exhaust steam headers; these shall normally be located at the
steam header. Where a line operates at less than 3.5 Bar(g)
(50 psig) and a valve is provided elsewhere, no valve shall
be provided at the header. Note also the exception taken in
Paragraph IV.D.2, stating that turbine exhaust steam valves
shall be at the turbine, with no valve at the header.

4. Steam traps shall be provided for steam separators, header
drainage pockets, and low points in lines where required.
Piping of traps shall be as shown in JOB SPEC 4478-59A1.

(6) 5. Steam trap discharge and other condensate lines may be reused
as boiler feed water or discharged to the nearest sewer hub
or catch basin, as stated in Job Specification 4478-59A1.

6. Single block and check valves shall be provided adjacent to
the point of injection of steam into any process stream.

7. Steam relief valves shall discharge to atmosphere through
discharge piping extending at least 3 meters above any
platform or working area within 7.6 m radius of the point of
discharge.

8. The low point of the relief valve outlet piping shall be
provided with a 9 mm minimum weephole when discharging to the
atmosphere.

9. All steam lines shall be designed to avoid unnecessary traps.

10. Traps which discharge to a high pressure condensate system
generally be provided with a bypass with globe valve and two
block valves.

11. Traps which discharge to a low pressure condensate or
discharge to the open air will have no bypass.

12. Before each steam trap inlet, a free blow type drain valve
shall be installed in direction of flow.
JOB SPEC 4478-50A1
PIPING PAGE 35
REV 7
DATE Apr 12, 1999



B. Purge Steam

1. Purge steam lines shall be permanently connected to
combustion chambers and header boxes of fired heaters or
elsewhere as indicated on the Engineering Flow Diagrams.

2. Purge steam shall be taken from the nearest point on the
steam supply header to the unit.
3. Branch lines from the header, location and arrangement of
steam traps and the disposal of condensate shall be as
specified for Live Steam, except that lines used solely for
purge steam shall not have valves at the header, regardless
of pressure.

C. Cooling Water

1. Cooling water shall be distributed to the various users
throughout the unit in an aboveground steel pipe system,
where practicable. The Engineering Flow Diagrams or
supplementary design data shall specify whether the cooling
water system will be above or below ground.


2. Cooling water supply and return lines shall have block valves
at the unit limit. Valving for a user shall be above ground
and shall be located at the user. Header valves shall not be
provided on branch lines.

3. When the cooling water is to be distributed as an underground
system, all instruments and unit limit block valves shall be
installed in gravel bottom boxes.

4. Small branches (NPS 1 and less) from the cooling water
header shall be taken from the top of the header to avoid
blockage. Larger branches may be taken from the top or the
bottom of the header, to suit the specific layout
requirements.

5. Where the manufacturer's service rating of cooling water
jackets on equipment is less than the pressure of the water
used, provisions for a pressure reducing valve and relief
valve shall be made upstream of the connections to the
equipment.

6. All process cooling water lines shall be configured so that
the equipment being cooled will remain full of water in the
event of shutdown of the cooling water pumps.

D. Utility Water

1. Utility water is a fresh water system utilized for utility
stations. This system may provide cooling water for remote
JOB SPEC 4478-50A1
PIPING PAGE 36
REV 7
DATE Apr 12, 1999


equipment not easily connected to the cooling water system.
Refer to Engineering Flow Diagrams for scope.

2. Take-off lines from the utility water header shall preferably
be taken from the bottom of the header. Block valves are
required for every takeoff and shall be located at the user.
No branch line valves shall be provided at the header.

3. Utility water shall be piped to utility stations at grade
only, as noted under Utility Hose Stations, Paragraph VI.D.1.

E. Potable Water

1. Safety showers, eyewash stations, drinking and toilet
facilities will be supplied from the potable water header.

F. Plant Air

1. Unless otherwise specified, the air supply for plant air
shall enter the unit from an outside source, with a block
valve installed in the line at the unit limit. This air
shall be used as follows:

a. As an auxiliary source of instrument control air.


b. For process or other purposes where indicated on the
Engineering Flow Diagrams.

c. For utility stations, as noted under Utility Hose
Stations, Paragraph VI.D.1.

2. Branch lines from the plant air header shall be taken from
the top of the header. Block valves are required for every
branch, located at the user rather than at the header.

3. Drain valves shall be provided at low points in the header to
free the system of water that may collect.

4. Air filters or separators shall not be provided in the plant
air system unless shown on the Engineering Flow Diagrams.

G. Instrument Air

1. Unless otherwise specified, instrument air supply shall enter
the unit from an outside source, with a block valve at the
unit limit.

2. Where the instrument air supply is taken from the plant air
system, its inlet shall be upstream of all block valves.

3. Branch lines from the instrument air header shall be taken
from the top of the header. Block valves are required for
every branch, located at the header.
JOB SPEC 4478-50A1
PIPING PAGE 37
REV 7
DATE Apr 12, 1999



4. Dehydration of instrument air piping shall be as described in
JOB SPEC 4478-01A1.

VI. ARRANGEMENT

A. General

1. Generally, piping shall be run overhead within the unit
limits. Exceptions are fire water lines and drain lines.

2. The tops of catch basins shall be flush with low point of
paving. The tops of manholes shall be flush with the paving
and at least 2"(50mm) above grade in unpaved areas.

3. For the purpose of this standard, "screwed lines" are defined
as lines in which screwed or socket welded type fittings are
used or specified and "flanged lines" as lines in which
flanges or butt-welded type fittings are specified.

4. Specific elevations shall be selected for lines running North
and South and other specific elevations for those running
East and West. These elevations shall be used throughout the
unit, except where pockets must be avoided.

5. In overhead pipe racks (yard piping) the small diameter pipe
shall be intermixed with the large diameter pipe.


6. Uninsulated piping shall rest directly on pipe support steel.
Insulated hot piping with 75mm (3") thick or less insulation
shall be mounted 100mm (4") above support steel, using steel
shoes. Insulated hot piping with insulation thickness
greater than 75mm (3") and up to 125mm (5") shall be mounted
150mm (6") above support steel. Shoes will normally be
welded to the piping, but may be bolted or clamped (e.g., if
piping is ferritic alloy or thin wall stainless steel.)

Insulated cold piping with insulation thickness up to 90mm
(3) will be elevated 100mm (4") above support steel. For
cold insulation thicknesses 100mm (4") and above, lines will
be elevated the insulation thickness plus 25mm (1") above
support steel. Commercially available foam blocks with steel
wear plates will be used.

7. Piping and structures shall be arranged to permit mobile
lifting equipment to approach process equipment and make
lifts without obstruction.

8. Wherever possible, the center lines of top discharge nozzles
of pumps and the center lines of channel nozzles of
exchangers shall be in line.

JOB SPEC 4478-50A1
PIPING PAGE 38
REV 7
DATE Apr 12, 1999


9. In sizes through NPS 24, changes in direction shall be made
with fittings unless other considerations dictate the use of
bent pipe.

10. Bent pipe may be used to change direction where:

a. It costs less and space in the pipe rack layout will
allow.
b. The bend radius required is not standard for fittings.
c. Flow requirements dictate its use.

11. Bent pipe shall have a minimum center line radius in
accordance with PFI Std ES-24, but not less than 5 times the
nominal pipe size. The required radius shall be noted on the
piping drawing.

12. Miter bends shall not be used.

13. Butt-welded elbows shall be long radius type (1 D), wherever
possible. Exceptions shall be noted on the piping drawings.

14. Changes in sizes for NPS 1 and smaller shall be made with
reducing tees or swaged nipples. For larger lines, a reducer
shall be used for in-line changes and reducing branch
connections shall be per JOB SPEC 4478-50A10 and 4478-52B2.


15. Class 125 cast iron flanges and flanges on steel pipe, valves
and fittings that bolt to Class 125 cast iron equipment,
valves, or fittings, shall have flat faces. Joints which
include a Class 125 cast iron flange shall use a full face
gasket and alloy studs.

16. When Class 300 flanges on steel pipe, piping components, and
equipment are bolted to Class 250 cast iron flanges, raised
faces shall not be removed from the flanges, but carbon steel
bolts to ASTM A 307 Gr B shall be used.

17. Flanged valves or fittings having bolt holes which do not
straddle the centerline shall be noted on the piping
drawings.

18. A blind shall be provided for insertion on the outlet side of
each unit limit block valve in process services, in steam
services of 10.3 Bar(g) and higher, and in other utility
services whose design conditions are beyond the limits of
Category D.

(4) 19. Valves with gear operators shall be per Line Class Piping
Material Specification JOB SPEC. 4478-50A10. Geared
handwheels shall be supplied with valves as follows:



JOB SPEC 4478-50A1
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DATE Apr 12, 1999













ANSI Primary
Rating Class

VALVE TYPE AND SIZE (NPS)



Gate or Globe

Ball or Plug

Fire-safe Butterfly



in.

mm

in.

mm

in.

mm.

150 (1)

14

350

8

200

8

200

300 (2)

10

250

8

200

6

150

400

8

200

6

150

4

100

600

8

200

6

150

4

100

900

6

150

4

100

-

-

1500

4

100

3

80

-

-

2500

3

80

3

80

-

-

Notes:

(1) Includes ANSI Class 125 and 250 cast iron
(2) Includes ANSI Class 300 ductile iron

20. Spring Hangers shall be made accessible for their maintenance
and to facilitate pulling of the shipment pins.



21. All piping shall be routed for the shortest practical run and
have a minimum number of fittings consistent with provision
for flexibility.

22. The use of pipe trenches within units shall be avoided.

23. Pockets shall be avoided in all lines.

B. Clearances

1. The minimum clearance between the high point of the yard
paving and the underside of the lowest pipe support or pipe
shall be 12'-0" (3650 mm) in trucking areas, 8'-0" (2400 mm)
elsewhere. Piping over railroad spurs shall be so arranged
that a minimum distance of 21'-6" (6550mm) exists between the
top of the rail and the underside of the lowest pipe support
JOB SPEC 4478-50A1
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DATE Apr 12, 1999


or pipe unless other regulations govern. Consideration
should be given to maintaining an aisle for access by mobile
lifting equipment.

(4) 2. The minimum clearance in pedestrian areas below handwheels,
pipe lines, flanges, etc., from platforms or high point of
paving or building floors shall be 7'-0" (2135 mm). In
operating aisles where mobile lifting equipment will operate,
clearance shall be 10'-0" (3050 mm).

3. Normally, the spacing of mechanical equipment (pumps,
exchangers, etc.) shall be arranged to provide a minimum
clearance of 2'-6" (760 mm) between foundations, or any
projection of adjacent equipment, piping, flanges or valve
stems. To conserve space, however, small pumps may be paired
and placed on one block; exchangers may be paired to allow
room for maintenance only on one side and operation on the
other.

4. The operating aisle shall be located at the driver end of
pumps and shall have a minimum free width of 5'-0" (1525 mm)
between any projections. Where a column is located between
pumps there shall be a minimum of 2'-6" (760 mm) clear
between the column and any projection on the operating side
of the pump.

5. Exchanger piping and pipe supports shall be located so that
they do not interfere with the removal of channel covers and
tube bundles when mobile lifting equipment is used. For
exchangers located at ground level, piping shall not extend
past the channel cover.

6. Fired heater tube removal areas shall be kept clear of all
piping and pipe supports.

7. Where commercial style bolt tensioners are specified,
adequate clearance shall be provided around flanged
connections for installation and operation of the bolt
tensioners.


8. To permit access for the removal or maintenance of a pipe
line, a minimum side clearance of 25 mm shall be provided
between parallel lines, outside of insulation or between
flange and pipe (insulation).

a. Thermal movements shall be taken into consideration in
determining side clearances.

b. Clearance for maintenance personnel shall be allowed for
removal of interior lines in multiple pipe line racks.

JOB SPEC 4478-50A1
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DATE Apr 12, 1999


C. Accessibility

1. Chain wheels as a general rule shall be avoided.
Inaccessible block valves (center line more than 7'-3"
(2210 mm)above operating level) which are required for normal
operation shall be provided with chain wheels (only if
necessary) or extension stem operators.

2. Chain wheel operators shall not be used on valves in sizes 2
inch and smaller. Extension stems shall be provided instead.

3. Drawings will indicate the lengths of the chains or extension
stems. Chain lengths should be such as to clear the
operating level by 3'-0" (915 mm).

(6) 4. Battery limit valves to be accessible from grade or operators
platform at grade.

5. Instrument connections shall be oriented so that the
instruments will not obstruct aisles or platforms.

6. Wherever possible, level gauge glasses and level instruments
shall be adjacent to each other, and the gauge glass shall
preferably be visible from the valve which controls the level
in the vessel.

D. Miscellaneous

1. Utility Hose Stations

a. Utility hose stations providing steam, air and water
shall be located at convenient points at grade so that
all parts of the unit may be reached with 50'-0" (15 m)
lengths of hose. Hose, hose connections, and hose reels
shall not be furnished.

b. Utility hose stations providing steam and air only shall
be located as follows:

1. At alternate levels of elevated structures so
that all parts of the structure may be reached
with 50-0" (15 m)lengths of hose.

2. At alternate platforms required for servicing of
manholes in towers or vessels.

c. The supply for utility hose stations shall be taken from
the steam, plant air and service water headers previously
described in this specification.

d. Supply lines shall be NPS 1 and shall be provided with
gate valves of the appropriate material specification.

2. Figure 8 Blinds, Paddle Blinds and Ring Spacers
JOB SPEC 4478-50A1
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DATE Apr 12, 1999



a. Figure 8 blinds, paddle blinds and ring spacers shall be
installed where indicated on the Engineering Flow
Diagrams.

b. Blinds (spacers and spades) shall normally be installed
on all process lines at battery limits and where required
to facilitate testing, inspections or maintenance of
equipment.

c. Paddle blinds shall be used for piping NPS 14 and larger,
where the weight of a Figure 8 blind would make its
operation impractical. Where the piping arrangement is
such that the pipe cannot be easily sprung for the
thickness of the paddle blind, a ring spacer shall be
used.

d. Figure 8 blinds shall be used for piping NPS 1 through
NPS 12.

e. Paddle blinds, figure 8 blinds and ring spacer material
shall be in accordance with Line Class Pipe Material
specification. Blinds and spacers shall have separate
handle configuration for identification.

f. Special handling devices, such as davits, shall not be
provided for lifting blinds and spacers.

g. Gasket surface finish shall be in accordance with JOB
SPEC 4478-50A2 or 4478-50A4 as applicable.

3. Completed pipe racks for new facilities (Grass Root) shall
have 10 percent of available space unused.

VII. DRAINAGE AND SEWAGE SYSTEMS

Separate drainage and sewage systems shall be designed in accordance
with JOB SPEC 4478-58A1, Underground Piping and Surface Drainage.

VIII. OFFSITE PIPING

A. Wherever possible, offsite piping shall be located in banks at
grade and supported by concrete piers or sleepers.

B. Where double pipe banks are required, steel columns and supports
built up from concrete piers or sleepers shall be used. As a
minimum, a clearance of 3'-0" (915 mm) between the two banks shall
be provided.


C. Overhead pipe racks shall be kept to a minimum.

JOB SPEC 4478-50A1
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DATE Apr 12, 1999


D. Where piping at grade is required to cross a road, it shall pass
under the road with a minimum cover height of 3'-3" (1.0m). Where
the pipe is insulated, a sleeve shall be buried to the same
minimum cover height, and the insulated pipe passed through it.

E. Clearance between the high point of a road and the underside of
the lowest overhead pipe support shall be 20'-0" (6100 mm).
Clearance over railroad spurs shall be in accordance with
Paragraph VI.B.1 of this specification.

F. The minimum height of concrete piers or sleepers shall be 1'-0"
(305 mm).

G. Wherever possible, changes in direction shall be accomplished by
flat turning.

H. Changes in direction shall be made with fittings.

J. Consideration shall be given to expansion of pipe as a result of
process or climatic conditions. The expansion shall preferably be
absorbed by the use of loops or bends. Vertical loops are
acceptable except in gravity flow. The use of expansion joints
shall be avoided.

K. Consideration shall be given to providing flexibility in the
piping to storage tanks to allow for future settlement.

M. Except at valves and line terminations, the use of flanges shall
be avoided.

IX. FABRICATION

A. Fabrication shall be in accordance with JOB SPEC 4478-52A1.

B. Jet-Lube TF-25 (max. service temp. 315C) shall be used as a
thread sealer in threaded lines, including vents and drains.
Where thread sealer is prohibited, threaded connections shall be
made with no thread compound and shall be seal welded.

X. EXAMINATION AND INSPECTION

A. Process Piping

1. The type and extent of examination shall be as required by
Job Spec 4478-52A1.

B. Boiler Piping

Boiler piping, including Boiler External Piping, shall be
inspected during construction and after completion by an ASME Code
Inspector, who will approve stamping the fabricated sections and
complete Form P-4A. This will be forwarded to the Purchaser to
become part of the Master Data Report.
JOB SPEC 4478-50A1
PIPING PAGE 44
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DATE Apr 12, 1999


XI. CLEANING

A. Piping and Equipment

The internal cleaning and flushing of piping and equipment prior
to start-up shall be in accordance with specifications related to
plant completion. Plant Completion Specification is not within
the scope of Basic Engineering design at present.

B. Compressor Piping

The following shall be cleaned in accordance with JOB SPEC 4478-
50A6:

1. External systems circulating lube oil and seal oil for
centrifugal compressors and turbo-generators.

2. Suction and interstage piping and pulsation dampers.

XII. TESTING

A. Field pressure testing of the piping shall be performed in
accordance with JOB SPEC 4478-89A1 and the applicable code.

B. Shop fabricated piping other than boiler piping shall not be
pressure tested by the shop unless specified in the Requisition.



XIII. COATING

A. Aboveground piping shall be painted in accordance with JOB SPEC
4478-83A1. Underground steel piping shall be coated and wrapped
in accordance with JOB SPEC 4478-83A4.

B. Lead and zinc compounds shall not be permitted to contact
austenitic stainless steel pipe and piping components at any
temperature. The use of paints containing lead and zinc shall be
prohibited.















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DATE Apr 12, 1999





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