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Microbial Nutrition Principles

Based on the decision means the microbial nutrients can be divided into bodies and bodies
osmotrof fagotrof . The bodies osmotrof take nutrients in solution form , such as bacteria and
fungi , while the bodies of fagotrof take nutrients in phagocytosis and digested in the food
vacuole , such as vacuoles of protozoa . The bodies osmotrof issued exo enzyme for example,
proteases break down large molecules to break down proteins into amino acids , amylase to
break down starch into sugar , lipase breaks down fats into fatty acids and glycerol .
Furthermore, amino acids , sugars , fatty acids and glycerol absorbed into the cells for use .
Microbial Nutrition Required
Type the nutrients that were found among microbes :
1 . Biosynthesis of cell activities such as cell components , transport nutrients into cells and
motility requires energy . Based energy sources , microbial bodies divided over fototrof that use
sunlight as an energy source and kemotrof bodies that use chemical oxidation as a source of
energy .
2 . All living things need carbon contained in all the cells making up the macro molecules like
proteins carbohydrates , nucleic acids , and lipids . All of these carbon -containing molecules are
involved in the process of metabolism .
3 . All living things require sulfur or sulfur and phosphorus . Sulfur is used to form the amino
acid cysteine and metioni and koensim .
4 . All living things need nitrogen because nitrogen is needed to synthesize amino acids ,
nucleotides , and vitamins .
5 . All living things require some metal elements , sodium , potassium , magnesium , manganese
, iron , copper , zinc , cobalt right for normal growth .
6 . All living things need vitamins or organic compounds that are essential for growth . Most
vitamins that activate the enzyme to form the unprotected substrate .
7 . Oxygen is an element that is present in biological molecules such as amino acids , nucleotides
, glycerides , another molecule .
8 . All living things need water for life because all metabolic activities occurring in the aquatic
environment . Availability of water that can be used in microbial activity is often expressed with
water , can be calculated by means of isoteniskop .
The main parameters that need to be considered in growing microbes are:
1 . temperature
Temperature affects the rate of growth and the increase in cell numbers . Diversity temperature
can also alter metabolic processes and cell morphology . Each microbe grows at a certain
temperature range , then there is the nature psikrofilik microbes that grow at 0 degrees to 20
degrees Celsius . Mesophilic growing at 20 to 45 degrees Celsius . And thermophilic grow at
temperatures of 45-80 degrees Celsius . Incubation temperature that allows the growth tersepat
over short periods of time or 12-24 hours known as the optimum growth temperature .
2 . Atmospheric conditions such as oxygen levels , RH , and Air Pressure
Showed extensive microbial diversity in response to oxygen -free and on this basis it is divided
into four , namely microbial aerobic ( requiring oxygen ) , anaerobic ( grows without oksigan
molekulat ) , anaerobic falkutatif ( grown in aerobic and anaerobic state ) , and microaerophilic (
grow when there is little oxygen atmosphere ) .
3 . pH
Based on the pH minimum , optimum , and maximum for microbial growth is classified into :
Microbial asidofilik : pH between 2.0 to 5.0
mesophilic microbes : pH between 5.5 to 8.0
Microbial alkalifilik : pH between 8.4 to 9.5
Shift in pH can inhibit growth , this can be prevented by using a buffer solution or buffer in the
medium . Some nutrients such as peptone medium has the capacity to buffer .
4 . osmotic pressure
The magnitude of the minimum pressure required to prevent the flow of water across the
membrane in solution . Based on the osmotic pressure of the solution is where microbial growth
can be classified on hipotonis solution , isotonic and hypertonic laritan .
Growth Media and Its Use in the Laboratory
In order for microbes that grow and thrive in the media , certain necessary conditions , namely :
- Media contains all the necessary nutrient elements for growth and microbial proliferation
- The media has osmotic pressure , and pH suitable for microbes .
- The media must be in a state of sterile
Shape , Structure , and Properties of Media
Forms of media : Media solid , liquid media , and semi- solid media .

Organization of media : Natural Media ( eggs are used for virus growth and development ) ,
synthetic media ( growth and development of Clostridium ) , semi- synthetic media ( nutrient
broth ) .
The nature of the media :
The general media : the media used for the growth and proliferation of one or more groups of
microbes in general . For example, in order for bacterial nutrient broth , to dry , to potato
dextrose for mushrooms .
Media add-ons : a type of microbe given the opportunity to grow and develop faster than other
types equally be in the media .
Mesia selective : only media covered one or more specific types of microbes but will hinder or
other mematikanjenis .
Media diferansial : the medium used to grow the certain microbes and determination of its
properties such as blood agar media for growth of hemolytic bacteria .
Media testing : testing of certain compounds with the aid of microbial compounds . For
example, media testers vitamins , antibiotics , pesticide residue .

- Sterilization physically : by using hot air or hot water steam with high pressure , for example by
the use of an autoclave with a temperature of 121 degrees Celsius with a pressure of 15 lbs .
- Sterilization chemical : a chemical compound that is widely used is a solution of CuSO4 ,
AgNO3 , HgCl2 , ZnO , and alcohol to levels 50-75 % due to rapid coagulation proteins causing
microbes .
- Sterilization mechanically : ie the filter , filtering using a filter that is used as Berkefeld ,
Chamberland , and Seitz , also filters glucose , glass , or porcelain .
Microbial Cultivation Method
To avoid or reduce the occurrence of mutations in domestic savings , then :
- In periodic pets should be moved to the new medium . This transfer should be done at the time
of the colony reached log phase .
- Pet must be kept in a low temperature and protected from radiation .
- Microbial right lyophilized is incorporated into an ampoule containing dried milk mixed with
CO2 and then stored at low temperatures .
Characteristics of Bacterial Cultures
Characteristics of bacterial growth in the medium indicates growth morphology and activity
cleavage mechanism metabolism . Growth of bacteria in a liquid medium can be formed
precipitate , pellicle , or looks cloudy . Growth that forms a precipitate indicates bacterial cells
form aggregates that become severe , then settles , eg Staphylococcus aureus . Shaped the growth
of the bacterial pellicle have pili or glycocalyx which causes cells attached to one another , such
as Mycobacterium phlei . Growth turbidity indicates that the bacteria are spread evenly and
usually grow the bacteria are motile .