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Internal capsule
Important compact band of white mater.
composed of ascending and descending nerve fibers that connect the cerebral cortex to the brain
stem &spinal cord.
Fibers are arranged between the caudate nucleus medially &lentiform nucleus laterally.
It has the anterior limb, posterior limb & genu due to the wedge shape of the caudate nucleus.
a. Fronto pontine fibers
b. Thalmocortical fibers(to frontal lobe
c. Thalamo cortical fibers(to parietal lobe
d. !ortico nuclear fibers
e. !ortico spinal fibers
Blood supply- medial & lateral striate central branches of middle cerebral artery.
Clinicals- Fre"uently involved in vascular disorders.
#ffects on the contralateral side of the body.
$epeat campaign %&&' ()*

%
CEREBRAL HEMI SPHERES
2 cerebral hemisphere
each controls opposite site of the body
contains outer grey matter & inner white matter with embedded nuclei
cortex forms the complete covering of the hemisphere.It is thrown into series of folds ( Gyri) separated by
fissures ( Sulci )
ortex divided into ! lobes
frontal lobe In front of the central sulcus
temporal lobe below the posterior rami of lateral sulcus
occipital lobe "ehind the parito occipital sulcus
parital lobe between central & paritooccipital sulcui & above posterior rami of lateral sulcus
Cortical areas
F
R
O
N
T
A
L

L
O
B
E
Areas Location Key function Lesion
#rimary motor
area
$$$$$$$$.
$$$$$$$$.
arryout induvidsual
movements of the
different part of the
body
$$..........................
$$$$$$$$..
Secondary
motor area
%nterior of the pre
central gyrus
store program of
motor activity
program the activity
of primary motor
area
$$..........................
$$$$$$$$..
Supplementary
moter area
$$..........................
$$$$$$$$..
$$..........................
$$$$$$$$..
&o permanent loss of
movements
'otor speech
area of "roca
posterir part of the
inferior frontal gyrus
$$..........................
$$$$$$$$..
(xpressive aphasia) loss
of ability to produce
speech
*rontal eye field $$..........................
$$$$$$$$..
+oluntary con,ugated
scanning ga--
(yes deviated to lesion
sideInability to turn eye to
opposite site
Sensory speech
area of
$$.......................... $$.......................... .eceptive aphasia
$epeat campaign %&&' ()*

+
/ernic0s area $$$$$$$$.. $$$$$$$$..
#
%
.
I
1
%
2

2
3
"
(
#rimary
somesthetic area
$$..........................
$$$$$$$$..
Sensory perception $$..........................
$$$$$$$$..
secondary
somesthetic area
$$..........................
$$$$$$$$..
$$..........................
$$$$$$$$..
lesion doesn4t affect the
primary area
sensory
association area
Superior parital lobe $$..........................
$$$$$$$$..
%stereognosis
3

I
#
I
1
%
2

2
3
"
(
#rimary visual
area
$$..........................
$$$$$$$$..
+isual perception 5omonymous hemianopia
2eft visual cortex
responsible for $$$$
visual field.
$$$$$$responsible
for inferior visual field
secondary visual
area
$$..........................
$$$$$$$$..
.elate visual
perception with past
experiences
1roubles in visual
appreciation of the
opposite site
3ccipital eye
field
) ) on,ugate ga-e followed
by a moving visual
stimulus
1
(
'
#
3
.
%
2

2
3
"
(
#rimary auditory
area
$$$......................
.
$$$$$$$$..
%uditory perceptin "ilateral loss of hearing
Secondary
auditort area
#osterior to primary
area
Interpretation of
sound connected with
other sensory stimuli
$$$.......................
$$$$$$$$..

Q) Draw a lael !ia"ra# in!icatin" t$e cortical areas%
$epeat campaign %&&' ()*

,
BA&AL 'AN'LIA
orpus stratum %mygdala
audate nucleus lentiform nuclei
#utamen Globus pallidus
Q) ($at are t$e functions of asal "an"lia%
$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$
$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$
$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$
$epeat campaign %&&' ()*