Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 64


Project Study Report

Employee Satisfaction in Education Industry

Submitted in partial fulfillment for the
Award of degree of
Master of Business Administration

Submitted By: - Submitted To:-
MBA Part IV Asstt Prof.

2009 - 2011



Employee satisfaction and retention have always been important issues for physicians. After all,
high levels of absenteeism and staff turnover can affect your bottom line, as temps, recruitment
and retraining take their toll. But few practices (in fact, few organizations) have made job
satisfaction a top priority, perhaps because they have failed to understand the significant
opportunity that lies in front of them. Satisfied employees tend to be more productive, creative
and committed to their employers, and recent studies have shown a direct correlation between
staff satisfaction and patient Satisfaction.1 Family physicians who can create work environments
that attract, motivate and retain hard-working individuals will be better positioned to succeed in
a competitive health care environment that demands quality and cost-efficiency. What's more,
physicians may even discover that by creating a positive workplace for their employees,
Theyve increased their own job satisfaction as well.

Job satisfaction is one of the important factors which have drawn attention of managers in the
organization as well as academicians. Various studies have been conducted to find out the factors
which determine job satisfaction and the way it influences productivity in the organization.
Though there is no conclusive evidence that job satisfaction affects productivity directly because
productivity depends on so many variables, it is still a prime concern for managers.
Job satisfaction is the mental feeling of favorableness which an individual has about his job.
DuBrins has defined job satisfaction in terms of pleasure and contentment when he says that:
Job satisfaction is the amount of pleasure or contentment associated with a job. If you like
your job intensely, you will experience high job satisfaction. If dislike your job intensely, you
will experience job dissatisfaction.



I express my sincere thanks to my project guide, Ms. Kavita Gidwani, Asstt. Prof, of
MBA Department, for guiding me right forms the inception till the successful completion
of the project. I sincerely acknowledge her for extending their valuable guidance, support
for literature, critical reviews of project and the report and above all the moral support
she had provided to me with all stages of this project.

I would also like to thank the Dr. Madhu Srivastava, Director and other staff members of
MBA Department, for their help and cooperation throughout our project.

Vijaylaxmi Shekhawat



Particulars Page No.







Chapter 1

Employee satisfaction is a measure of how happy workers are with their job and working
environment. Keeping morale high among workers can be of tremendous benefit to any company,
as happy workers will be more likely to produce more, take fewer days off, and stay loyal to the
company. There are many factors in improving or maintaining high employee satisfaction, which
wise employers would do well to implement.
To measure employee satisfaction, many companies will have mandatory surveys or face-to-face
meetings with employees to gain information. Both of these tactics have pros and cons, and
should be chosen carefully. Surveys are often anonymous, allowing workers more freedom to be
honest without fear of repercussion. Interviews with company management can feel intimidating,
but if done correctly can let the worker know that their voice has been heard and their concerns
addressed by those in charge. Surveys and meetings can truly get to the center of the data
surrounding employee satisfaction, and can be great tools to identify specific problems leading to
lowered morale.
Many experts believe that one of the best ways to maintain employee satisfaction is to make
workers feel like part of a family or team. Holding office events, such as parties or group outings,
can help build close bonds among workers. Many companies also participate in team-building
retreats that are designed to strengthen the working relationship of the employees in a non-work
related setting. Camping trips, paintball wars and guided backpacking trips are versions of this
type of team-building strategy, with which many employers have found success.
Of course, few workers will not experience a boost in morale after receiving more money. Raises
and bonuses can seriously affect employee satisfaction, and should be given when possible. Yet
money cannot solve all morale issues, and if a company with widespread problems for workers

cannot improve their overall environment, a bonus may be quickly forgotten as the daily stress of
an unpleasant job continues to mount.
If possible, provide amenities to your workers to improve morale. Make certain they have a
comfortable, clean break room with basic necessities such as running water. Keep facilities such
as bathrooms clean and stocked with supplies. While an air of professionalism is necessary for
most businesses, allowing workers to keep family photos or small trinkets on their desk can make
them feel more comfortable and nested at their workstation. Basic considerations like these can
improve employee satisfaction, as workers will feel well cared for by their employers.
The backbone of employee satisfaction is respect for workers and the job they perform. In every
interaction with management, employees should be treated with courtesy and interest. An easy
avenue for employees to discuss problems with upper management should be maintained and
carefully monitored. Even if management cannot meet all the demands of employees, showing
workers that they are being heard and putting honest dedication into compromising will often help
to improve morale.
How to improve employee satisfaction?
Factors that can improve employee satisfaction:
Organization development
Shared mission or vision: In many organizations, employee doesnt know what is mission,
vision, objects. Building a corporate culture that requires employees to be an integral part of the
organization can be an effective way of getting the most from the talents or competencies brought
to the organization by each employee.
Feedback programs: These programs will help organization what is opinions of their employees.
Work itself
You can increase job satisfaction by
Job rotation

Job enlargement: knowledge enlargement, task enlargement.
Job enrichment
Compensation and benefits
Policies of compensation and benefits are most important part of organization. But you should
build your policies at suitability not the best.
Appraisal program
You should build the proper evaluation and fair and encourage employees perform work.
Relationship with supervisors
Relationship with management is the key factor often happen dissatisfaction of employees. The
company should have policies to:
Management must be fair treated with staff.
Ready to help them.
Full training for staff
Ready to listen and respond to employee.
Promotions and career development
Develop programs to promote all titles in the organization.
Develop training programs for employees
Build programs for career development of each title.
Build corporate culture
Build channel of communication in organization

Relationship with coworkers
Build sharing culture.
Working condition and environment
Build occupational health and safety program.
Improvement programs of employee satisfaction
HR department must have the monitoring methods for improvement programs of employee
satisfaction. Many organizations just do appraisal of employee satisfaction but not pay attention
to role of monitoring.
Build solutions to improve satisfaction
Training all level of management about the importance of satisfaction and methods to increase

Employees by them self
Hiring the right employees:
Clearly defined and communicated employee expectations.
Process of improvement
Identification of method used:
You should identify methods that can be implemented to improve the assessment
satisfaction of employees.
Determining the level of satisfying the question
Example rating scale of relation with supervisors is 2.2/5. And you intend to implement 2
solutions and the expectation scale is 4/5.

Determining the increasing rate of each method.
You get a new level satisfy subtract satisfying old level, in example above is
4 2.2 = 1.8.
Total of the increasing scale is 8 for example. Methods to improve factor: relation with
supervisors accounting for (1.8 / 100 = 22.5%.)
2.4 Method options.
Depending on the desire to resolve issues of the business.
Depending contain any mn levels need to resolve.
Depending on the resources of the business. Mainly resources can improve satisfaction of
employees is money, time, workforce of management, management methods. You can change the
resources at many different levels to consider the rate of change as part of the 2.3.
Employee satisfaction index
1. Definition of employee satisfaction index (ESI)
Employee satisfaction index is a index to measure satisfaction of employee in an organization.
2. How to calculate ESI?
There is a five-point scale in the questionnaire or survey from employee responses. They are
Strongly Agree,
Strongly Disagree.

You should remark number attached, include strongly agree (5) to strongly disagree (1).
Then, total number of questions with answers against each response is calculated (5, 4, 3, 2, 1).
Identify total point of each response.
Identify total number of questions answered
ESI = ( total point / total question ) * 100.
3. Analyze employee satisfaction index
You can identify ESI by company, department, fieldand then, you can use 80/20 principle or
Pateto tool to analyze employee satisfaction.
Importance of employee satisfaction
1. Importance of employee satisfaction for organization
Enhance employee retention.
Increase productivity.
Increase customer satisfaction
Reduce turnover, recruiting, and training costs.
Enhance customer satisfaction and loyalty.
More energetic employees.
Improve teamwork.
Higher quality products and/or services due to more competent, energized employees.
2. Importance of employee satisfaction for employee
Employ will believe that the organization will be satisfying in the long run.

They will care about the quality of their work.
They will create and deliver superior value to the customer.
They are more committed to the organization.
Their works are more productive.
Factors influences to employee satisfaction
1. Organization development factors
Brand of organization in business field and comparison with leading competitor.
Missions and Vision of organization.
Potential development of organization.

2. Policies of compensation and benefits factors
Wage and salary
Rewards and penalties

3. Promotions and career development factors
Opportunities for promotion.
Training program participated or will do.
Capacity of career development


4. Work task factors
Quantity of task
Difficult level of task
5. Relationship with supervisor factors
Level of coaching
Level of assignment for employee
Treatment to employee etc

6. Working conditions and environment factors
Tools and equipment
working methods
Working environment

7. Corporate culture factors
Relationship with coworkers
Level of sharing etc

8. Competencies, Personalities and Expectations of employee factors
Competencies and personalities of employee are suitable for job?
Expectations of employee are suitable for policies of organization?

Procedure of employee satisfaction
1. Purpose of procedure of employee satisfaction:
Develop or change the policy for satisfaction of employees.
Knowledge, satisfaction and expectations need to be measured in order to develop company
prepared for tomorrow.
To derive and analyze the current satisfaction level of the employees in the company.
Assessment of the management developmental needs and areas of improvement.
Assessment of level of progress in performance improvement and overall companys climate.

2. Policies of employee satisfaction:
The employee satisfaction survey is carried one time per 3 months.
The sample size for the survey is about 40% of the total / target population. The total / target
population for the employee satisfaction survey includes the complete employee strength at the
3. Steps of implementing employee satisfaction:
Step 1 Employee satisfaction study / research.

Each quarter, HR Manager reviews the information needed to determine the satisfaction of
employees based on the following basis.
Information and results of the survey times before.
Comments by company directors.
Proposal by HR staff and Department managers.
Other contents in the purpose of this process.

Step 2 Develop evaluation plan:
Pursuant to the need to evaluate, HR Manager create a draft of content assessed in the form and
attached this procedure.
HR manager also discuss with other manager about content, method assessed. Then the draft
must be sent to director for approval.
Methods of appraisal also indicate clearly. You also use employee satisfaction survey software
for appraisal.
Step 3 Transfer form to employees:
Pursuant to the plan was approved by Director, HR manager deployed to HR staff do the
Photo sufficient number of survey.
Preparing small envelope enough based on number of survey.
Preparing large envelope by department.
Deployment to Manager / Supervisors about survey plan.

Move the survey to department heads. Each employee will be received 01 form attached with an
When employees complete the assessment, they must be closed envelope by pasting on it, send
to the department head.
Head of department is responsible for collecting envelope and then send to HR department.
Step 4 Gather and analyze data:
Next time 3-5 days from the date of distributing survey, HR department is responsible for
collecting survey and send it to director.
Based on the opinions of staff, Director of the company will assign people to enter and analyze
Analysts are responsible to analyze survey data and preparation of reports.
Presentation of results to directors, department managers.
Communication of the results to employees through employees meeting, Company newsletters,
memoranda and feedback meetings conducted by trained leaders to clarify and identify issues.
Development of plans by department managers to respond to issues identified in feedback
Step 5 Implement improvement.
HR department is responsible for implementing improvement solutions, supervising result and
reporting result to director.
3. Deployment of procedure:
This document was distributed to Board of Directors, all departments.
Head of personnel is responsible for guiding the staff of this document (requires employees to

The guidelines for staff to be in the minutes of instructions and procedures and training on latest
1 week from the date of receiving the document.

How to maintain employee satisfaction?
You should remember that achieving results were difficult but keeping the results are more
To maintain employee satisfaction, you can use 2 solutions as follows:
1. Determining suitable frequency of appraisal
Appraisal frequency should be at least 3 or 6 months / time. This help you regularly review
satisfaction trends of employees.
For some department, you should increase appraisal frequency for them because of lack of
management skills or unsuitable personalities.
Many organizations only perform appraisal satisfaction of employees 1 time per year, simply by
applying the standard management rather than the needs of the organization. This is a very long
time because the dissatisfaction of employees can occur at any time.
2. Implementation of feedback program regularly
You can not assess satisfaction of employees every month because it is very time-consuming. So
how you know the opinions of employees? You can implement the program on the response of
employees monthly or suddenly when a problem happened.
The feedback of the staff are their comments, attitudes about problems that will occur or has
The feedback can conduct independent or attached to the assessment of the work month


How to measure employee satisfaction? We can conduct a employee satisfaction survey by
methods as follows:
1. Job Descriptive Index (JDI)
Job Descriptive Index is a scale used to measure five major factors associated with job
satisfaction: Work itself, Supervision, Pay, Promotion, Co-workers. The JDI was first introduced
in 1969 and since then has been used by over 1,000 organizations in many sectors.
2. Job In General Scale (JIG)
Job In General Scale is a method of employee satisfaction and developed as a global measure of
job satisfaction.
JIG is similar to JDI, it introduced 1969 by Smith, Kendall, & Hulin, was modified in 1985 by the
JDI Research Group.
3. Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ)
The Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ) is designed to measure an employees
satisfaction with their particular job.
Method includes 100 items measuring 20 facets of job satisfaction.
There are three version are available: two long forms (1977 version and 1967 version) and a short
4. Satisfied / dissatisfied method
In this method, you just send a question form that include:
What is good thing in our company?
What is not good one in our company?
This method is suitable for emergency events and you need result in a short time.

5. Interview method
This method is used for:
Review all data collected from other method.
Review key person.

Whether the employee stays or goes, the employer is bound to suffer a financial loss of some
type. This is because "Disgruntled" costs money. If he or she leaves, there is the cost of
advertising, interviewing and training a new employee in addition to the training already invested
in "Disgruntled." If he or she stays, the costs, while just as high, can be more difficult to measure.
One of the costs can be lost productivity due to poor morale on the part of both the "Disgruntled
Employee of the Month," and the employees who must work with "Disgruntled" on a daily basis.
Also, statistically speaking, "Disgruntled" probably also has a higher rate of absenteeism and on-
the-job injuries than other employees. All of these factors make "Disgruntled" an under-
performing asset compared to more satisfied employees.
There is currently a wealth of information available outlining the results of research on positive
employee motivation and retention strategies. A quick surf on the Net pulls up a myriad of
research on topics such as "Managing Human Capital." And new books, such as The ROI of
Human Capital and The HR Score Card, are selling even before they hit the bookstores. When I
read this literature, however, I find several recurring themes on the types of management
programs that build corporate value. These commonalties are:
1. Shared Mission or Vision: Organizations that have a mission or vision statement and use it as a
guide for decision-making find employees spend less time and resources on non-income-
producing activities when their people management strategies are aligned to the mission. A team
guided by a clearly stated and communicated mission is more cost-effective and competitive than
one where the mission is fuzzy or nonexistent.
2. Regular Employee Input and Feedback Programs: Building a corporate culture that requires
employees to be an integral part of the organization can be an effective way of getting the most

from the talents or competencies brought to the organization by each employee. Allowing
employees at all levels of the organization to share their ideas and concerns will also help the
company develop and maintain a safer and more productive work environment. Knowing
employees' feelings for, and levels of commitment to, the organization can be essential to
measuring whether people management programs are producing the desired results.
3. Clearly Defined and Communicated job Expectations: When an organization makes the
decision to fill a new position, it has an idea of what will be expected of the new employee.
However, unless these expectations are clearly communicated, the result can be disappointing for
both the employee and employer. Such situations cause conflict and inefficiencies in the
workplace. Therefore, it is very important that the employer establish a mechanism for making
sure the needs of the organization are clearly communicated and understood.
4. Regular and Fair Performance Feedback: Research has found that most employees in today's
economy want to believe that they contribute to the overall success of the organization. However,
if the employee is not sure how his or her job fits into the bigger picture, an employer may suffer
a reduction in productivity or morale. A well-designed, consistently-applied and fair system for
discussing the business goals, objectives and individual employee contributions can be a valuable
tool in ensuring each employee becomes and remains an integral part of the organization's team.
5. Compensation, Benefits and Rewards Programs that are Aligned With Mission
Accomplishment: There is no way to overstate the importance of developing properly aligned
compensation, benefits and rewards programs. Employees emulate behavior that they see being
rewarded. When employees see executive and management employees being rewarded for
behavior or work product that does not support the stated mission and/or vision of the
organization, they may become disgruntled. These employees will either change their own
behavior to mirror the rewarded behavior or become disgruntled with the lack of recognition they
receive for "towing the line." Consequently, the work group loses its mission alignment.
6. Promotion of a Diversified Work Force: Diversity in today's global market is much different
than the old Affirmative Action Plan that characteristically sits on the shelf in a binder and
gathers dust. A truly diverse work environment not only welcomes but also encourages
employees of different cultures and backgrounds. Such work environments promote the sharing of
new ideas, diverse points of view and employees who challenge "the way we do things here."

7. Hiring the Right Employees: No, this is not a contradiction to the statements made in the
previous section. It actually is a compliment to diversity. Mission and vision are guiding
principles for employees as to why the organization exists, what services it provides and how it
operates. Corporate culture flows from the mission and vision. Hiring the right people means not
only finding employees with the necessary knowledge, skills and abilities but also those who will
be productive members of the organizational work team. Bringing in an employee who does not
understand or support the shared mission and goals can be very disruptive and costly to the
8. Comprehensive Employee Orientation and Integration Programs: Once an organization has
developed a clear mission, defined its expectations, developed and implemented appropriate
feedback and rewards programs and hired the right people, it is important to make sure that all
employees have the information and tools necessary to transition smoothly into the work
environment. Well-developed employee orientation and integration programs help both new and
current employees work together to form a productive and satisfying work environment.
Organizations that lack such programs can find that it loses many new employees who just "never
got off to the right start."
9. Strong Commitment to Training and Development Programs: One of the most important
benefits offered by many employers is employee personal development. Employers that invest in
personal development programs that encourage employees to update skills and expand their
knowledge base can directly contribute to bottom line profitability. This is because the
organization will remain competitive and be able to adapt to market changes quickly, with little
interruption in daily operations.
So, what does this all mean to the owners, beneficiaries or constituencies served by the
organization? Richard Rudman, in his article entitled "People Management and the Bottom Line,"
found that research examining organizational productivity issues reached the following
* Job satisfaction and organizational commitment respectively explained 5 percent and 16 percent
of variation in productivity while supervisory support, autonomy, training and concern for
employee welfare accounted for 10 percent of variation in profitability.

* Strategy accounted for less than 3 percent of the variation in profitability and research and
development accounted for 8 percent of the variation in profitability.
The bottom line was that approximately 29 percent of the variation in productivity over a 3- or 4-
year period could be attributed to how employers managed their human assets. In summary,
concern for employee welfare was identified as the single most-important predictor of
organizational performance.
Measuring Employee Satisfaction
In the traditional depiction of a Balanced Scorecard strategy map, the four perspectives are
stacked up on top of each other: learning & growth at the bottom and financial at the top.
Sometimes, people think this implies that employees are the least important perspective but a
better interpretation is that employees are the foundation of a successful organization. If
employees dont understand your mission and dont have the correct skills to achieve it, youre
highly unlikely to be successful.
This shouldnt be surprising. Many studies have shown the linkage between employee
satisfaction and increased performance on customer and financial objectives. The University of
Sheffield in the UK conducted a research study designed to help explain the difference in
profitability between manufacturing companies. It found that people management practices were
better predictors of company performance than strategy, technology or research and
development. Employee satisfaction isnt just important; its critical.
Some organizations have even managed to quantify the relationship. In 1997 a Fortune Magazine
article reported that Sears conducted an 820-store survey to determine the impact of employee
attitude on the bottom line. Analysis of the results by Claes Fornell International Group, an
organization made up of econometric statisticians at the University of Michigan, showed that a 5-
point improvement in employees attitudes yielded a 1.3-point improvement in customer
satisfaction, which in turn improved revenue by 0.5%. Happier employees led directly to higher
Because employee satisfaction is a good indication of future success, it should almost always be
one of the key performance indicators on your scorecard. As with my cautions around measuring

customer satisfaction in an earlier post. If you want to know if employees are happy, its best to
ask them.
However, be careful with the questions that get used on many employee satisfaction surveys.
Many years ago, the HR department in the company worked for sent out a single-question survey
that asked how satisfied we were with our jobs on a scale of 0 to 4, with 4 being the highest.
When the results came back, my department had the lowest average score (2.6) of any group in
the company. The HR VP solemnly explained that my group was in danger of mass exodus and
that my annual bonus was going to be negatively affected.
In order to execute well-informed business decisions, managers need more than a ledger of
numbers to understand what is really taking place on the front line. The employees who work
day to day with the customers can provide invaluable feedback drawn upon first-hand experience.
Encouraging bidirectional communications in this matter can create an organizational culture that
breaks down silos and fosters teamwork between management and their staff.

This type of employee-centric culture has an effect that extends beyond the internal sphere of an
organization it can actually affect a companys bottom line with a direct and noticeable impact
on profits. Take, for instance, the average annual turnover rate in the United States. Depending on
the industry, this can range from 15-40%. With that in mind, consider also that it costs 10 times
more to hire and train a new employee than it does to retain one.

Furthermore, extensive research has shown that motivated and satisfied employees tend to
contribute more in terms of organizational productivity and maintaining a commitment to
customer satisfaction. Satisfaction is infectious and it indeed permeates across the employee-
customer boundary, where revenue and brand image are continuously at stake. This whitepaper
will demonstrate the significance of employee feedback and how companies can successfully
implement a program to positively impact both organizational culture and ultimately bottom line


Why employee feedback matters ?

Feedback plays a critical role in helping an organization increase employee retention. Creating
and implementing a feedback process that encourages employees to engage in continued dialogue
creates a common voice for the employees. This shared voice can help negate an employees
perception of being an interchangeable part and emphasizes his or her role as a vital
component of a collective body that has a say in shaping the organization.

Organizations that perform regular online employee satisfaction surveys and then take action on
that feedback take this a step further by promoting a true sense of influence to go with the shared
voice. This sense of influence can be a very critical element to nurturing employee satisfaction.
When the employees believe that they have a voice that carries influence, it deepens their
commitment to the organization and encourages a continuous, positive dialogue. This dialogue
ensures that even when issues arise, the impact on employee satisfaction is dramatically reduced
because the employees sense that their feelings and needs are being heard and therefore

Assuming employee satisfaction is a dangerous management pitfall; without opening channels for
feedback, one can never be certain about employee sentiments. To attain an accurate pulse of
employee morale levels and other important dimensions of job satisfaction, surveys must be used
tactically and appropriately. This means using anonymous surveys to protect those providing
feedback from any type of reciprocity or negative action.

By doing so, you are able to elicit the most honest and considerate feedback possible; it is
important to receive organizational buy-in at all levels in order to promote a culture of utilizing
the anonymous drop-box to ensure that everyones voice is heard in all the decisions being
made by management.

Keeping in mind that a companys most valuable resource (in terms of money and time invested)
is the employee, it is alarming that across America, fewer than half of workers surveyed state they

are satisfied with their jobs. Furthermore, the statistics show that a very significant percentage
of employees want to change careers or feel lackluster toward their current jobs.

With this in mind, it should be a companys first priority to accurately gauge the true sentiment of
the employee body so that strategic and tactical changes can be put into motion as to promote
employee satisfaction. Employee satisfaction, in turn, translates directly into added value in terms
of performance, customer relations, and profitability.

Many companies can provide a range of services to assist with the implementation of a customer
satisfaction program. Choosing the right supplier is crucial to ensuring that such an initiative is
carried out with business value objectives in primary focus.

The right supplier should not only provide the technology, but they should also have a keen
understanding of HR-specific processes and solutions.A quality internal survey solution should be
able to streamline the integration of many of the aforementioned best practices into your current
business processes.

`` An actual database of employee knowledge that dynamically serves as a central repository for
all your employee information (survey history, performance history, etc.)

`` Anonymous surveying capability to protect employees from any fear of repercussion from
management and coworkers

`` Real-time email alerts to address critical employee complaints immediately.

``Question scoring to use variable weighting on different dimensions of employee satisfaction

`` An easy-to-use interface with a manageable learning curve

`` Pre-survey consultation with real consultants and survey experts not just software that will
ensure your deployment is on the right track.


Improving Job Satisfaction:

Job satisfaction plays significant role in the organization. Therefore, managers should take
concrete steps to improve the level of job satisfaction. These steps may be in the form of job
redesigning to make the job more interesting and challenging, improving quality of work life,
linking rewards with performance, and improving overall organizational climate.
As part of a larger project whose goal was to create an employee-driven, survey-improvement
process six factors that influenced job satisfaction. When these six factors were high, job
satisfaction was high. When the six factors were low, job satisfaction was low. These factors are
similar to what we have found in other organizations.



Employees are more satisfied when they have challenging opportunities at work. This
includes chances to participate in interesting projects, jobs with a satisfying degree of challenge
and opportunities for increased responsibility. Important: this is not simply "promotional
opportunity." As organizations have become flatter, Promotions can be rare. People have found
challenge through projects; team Leadership, special assignments-as well as promotions.

Promote from within when possible.
Reward promising employees with roles on interesting projects.
Divide jobs into levels of increasing leadership and responsibility.
It may be possible to create job titles that demonstrate increasing levels of expertise,
which are not limited by availability of positions. They simply demonstrate achievement
When negative stress is continuously high, job satisfaction is low. Jobs are more stressful if
they interfere with employees' personal lives or are a continuing source of worry or
Promote a balance of work and personal lives. Make sure that senior managers model this
Distribute work evenly (fairly) within work teams.
Review work procedures to remove unnecessary "red tape" or bureaucracy.
Manage the number of interruptions employees have to endure while trying to do their
Some organizations utilize exercise or "fun" breaks at work.


Employees are more satisfied when their managers are good leaders. This includes
motivating employees to do a good job, striving for excellence or just taking action.
Make sure your managers are well trained. Leadership combines attitudes and behavior. It
can be learned.
People respond to managers that they can trust and who inspire them to achieve
meaningful goals.
Work Standards.
Employees are more satisfied when their entire workgroup takes pride in the quality of its
Encourage communication between employees and customers. Quality gains importance
when employees see its impact on customers.
Develop meaningful measures of quality. Celebrate achievements in quality.
Trap: be cautious of slick, "packaged" campaigns that are perceived as superficial and

Fair Rewards.
Employees are more satisfied when they feel they are rewarded fairly for the work
they do. Consider employee responsibilities, the effort they have put forth, the work they have
done well and the demands of their jobs.


Make sure rewards are for genuine contributions to the organization.
Be consistent in your reward policies.
If your wages are competitive, make sure employees know this.
Rewards can include a variety of benefits and perks other than money.

As an added benefit, employees who are rewarded fairly, experience less stress.

Adequate Authority.
Employees are more satisfied when they have adequate freedom and authority to do their jobs.

Actions: When reasonable:
Let employees make decisions.
Allow employees to have input on decisions that will affect them.
Establish work goals but let employees determine how they will achieve those goals. Later
reviews may identify innovative "best practices."
Ask, "If there were just one or two decisions that you could make, which ones would
make the biggest difference in your job?"

Employees with higher job satisfaction:
Believe that the organization will be satisfying in the long run
Care about the quality of their work
Are more committed to the organization
Have higher retention rates, and
Are more productive.

Recognition. Individuals at all levels of the organization want to be recognized for their
achievements on the job. Their successes don't have to be monumental before they deserve
recognition, but your praise should be sincere. If you notice employees doing something well,
take the time to acknowledge their good work immediately. Publicly thank them for handling a
situation particularly well. Write them a kind note of praise. Or give them a bonus, if appropriate.
You may even want to establish a formal recognition program, such as "employee of the month."
Advancement. Reward loyalty and performance with advancement. If you do not have an open
position to which to promote a valuable employee, consider giving him or her a new title that
reflects the level of work, he or she has achieved. When feasible, support employees by allowing
them to pursue further education, which will make them more valuable to your practice and more
fulfilled professionally.
Job satisfaction is good not only for employees but employers, too; it increases
productivity and decreases staff turnover.
An organization's policies, if unclear or unfair, can stand in the way of employee
Employees need a reasonable amount of social interaction on the job.
Employees also need some degree of personal space, which diffuses tension and improves
working conditions.
To begin motivating employees, help them believe that their work is meaningful.
To help employees achieve on the job, provide them with ongoing feedback and adequate
When your employees do good work, recognize them for it immediately.
To increase an employee's sense of responsibility, do not simply give them more work;
give them freedom and authority as well.
You can help employees advance in their professional lives by promoting them, when
appropriate, or encouraging continuing education.


Chapter -2

Education is the base for economic growth as well as social transformation for any country.
Among all the key indicators of socio-economic development like economy's growth rate, literacy
rate, birth rate, death rate and infant mortality rate (IMR), the literacy rate of the country is one of
the most vital one as the rise and fall of others largely depend upon country's literacy rate. In
India, high literacy rate leads to low birth rate as well as low IMR and it also increases life
expectancy rate. So, the importance of education industry in India can be understood.

The education system in India is much more improved these days and is one of the leading ones
in the world. It is also one of the biggest contributors to the economic growth of the nation.
Besides various government initiatives, the role of the private institutions in the development of
education industry in India cannot be denied. India's private education market was worth $40
billion in 2008, which is expected to reach $68 billion by the year 2012.

However, there are also some glooming statistics as well. Despite such rising investment in
education industry, 40% of country's population is still illiterate. Only 15% of the students can go
to next level to reach high school.
The Higher Education
India has world's third largest higher secondary education system with a number of institutions.
More and more students are going for higher education these days. The result gets reflected on the
number of students enrolling for higher education. The number of institutions is also increasing
day by day. India has got following numbers of educational institutions (as on December 31,

Institution Qty (in no.)
Central University 25
State University 231
Institutions established through State Legislation 5
Deemed University 100
Institutes of National Importance 31
Degree-granting Engineering College 1,522
Polytechnic 1,244

Prominent Institutions

There are a number of Indian universities/colleges/institutions that have crafted its name in the
world of education through its quality of education and infrastructure. Many of those have won
awards. Some of the prominent institutions that have won awards are listed below:

World's Top 200 Universities (Times Higher Education)

* Indian Institute of Technology
* Indian Institutes of Management
* Jawaharlal Nehru University


Top 20 Science and Technology Schools in Asia (Asiaweek)

* Indian Institutes of Technology
* Birla Institute of Technology and Science

Global MBA Ranking (Financial Times, London)

* Indian School of Business, Hyderabad (15th)

Medical Research and Treatment

* All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS)

Major Players
* There are a number of major players in the education industry in India.

Educomp Solutions

It is India's one of the fastest growing education solutions company. Educomp offers end-to-end
solutions to government as well as private schools. Educomp is currently growing at a great pace.
It is expected that the top-line and bottom-line of the company will grow at CAGRs of 76% and
67% respectively from FY2008 to FY2010 (Estimated).


Educomp Solutions has got the following features:

* It is the market leader in SmartClass and Instruction and Computing Technologies (ICT)
* Well-developed content
* Strong Sales Team

Everonn Systems

Everonn Systems is into ViTELS business. It's also a leader in the government schools business.
With the growth rate that the company is going through, it is expected that the top-line and
bottom-line of the company will grow at CAGRs of 52% and 28% respectively from FY2008 to
FY2010 (Estimated).

Following are the features of Everonn Systems:

* A leader in Institutional Education and IT Infrastructure Services (IEIS) business
* Focus on content development
* Less prone to economic cyclicality
* Highly depends on government business


NIIT Limited

NIIT Limited is the largest training company in India. The top-line and the bottom-line of the
company are expected to grow at CAGRs of 21.5% and 36.4% respectively from FY2007 to
FY2010 (Estimated).

Features of NIIT Limited:

* Have strategic initiative to shift to a 'Global Talent Development Corporation'
* Scalability of new businesses
* Strong hold in domestic IT training market in India

IT Training Institutes

IT has brought a major growth in the Indian education industry. It has also given India the much
needed visibility and recognition in the global market. The overwhelming success of the Indian
software industry has also helped India to build a strong economy. And for all these, the IT
training industry played a major role.

The revenue generated by the Indian IT training industry during FY2007 was ` 2,135 crore,
comparing to ` 1,453 crore in FY2006. The 46% growth rate in 2007 was much higher than the
growth rate of 2006 (14%). Though after the dot com bust, the industry started de-growing at a

CAGR of about 24% during FY2001-04. The revenue in FY2004 was also less than 45% of the
revenue's of FY2001. But the scenario started changing from FY2005 onwards.

Following are the list of leading players in IT training in India.

Company FY2010 Revenues (in crore) FY2009 Revenues (in crore)
NIIT 795 450
Aptech 190 121
Jetking Infotrain 87 63
Siemens 44 34
CMS Computers 23 15
SQL Star 15 16
MAAC 19 5
New Horizon 18 4
Educomp 35 28


Education encompasses teaching and learning specific skills, and also something less tangible but
more profound: the imparting of knowledge, positive judgment and well-developed wisdom.
Education has as one of its fundamental aspects the imparting of culture from generation to
generation (see socialization). Education means to draw out, facilitating realization of self-
potential and latent talents of an individual. It is an application of pedagogy, a body of theoretical
and applied research relating to teaching and learning and draws on many disciplines such as

psychology, philosophy, computer science, linguistics, neuroscience, sociology and anthropology.
Education is not a process of pouring in some knowledge in to an individual. It is a process of
acquiring. It is a perfection from the perfection. Education is the manifestation of perfection
already existing in man.

The education of an individual human begins at birth and continues throughout life. (Some
believe that education begins even before birth, as evidenced by some parents playing music or
reading to the baby in the womb in the hope it will influence the childs development.) For some,
the struggles and triumphs of daily life provide far more instruction than does formal schooling
(thus Mark Twains admonition to "never let school interfere with your education"). Family
members may have a profound educational effect often more profound than they realize
though family teaching may function very informally.
The Indian education industry is poised for growth. This sector is changing rapidly with more
private players entering the field. The government is also taking many measures to improve the
quality of education in India. This industry is going to achieve its peak as the idea of business via
education catches up.

Fifty percent of India's population is the youth. This means that the Indian education sector is
huge with a population of 1.13 billion. India has around 367 universities, 18,000 colleges, about
half a million teachers, and 11 million pupils. The private education industry is estimated to be
between 20,00025,000 crores. There are about 1,500 management institutes, 3,500 engineering
institutes, and 1,200 medical colleges in the country.

With an increase in the average Indian household, more money is being kept aside for education
purposes. Also, because of the initiatives of the government, more students are enrolling
themselves for higher education. This means that more colleges are needed to cater to these
students. Also, the demand for education is inflexible; that is, no matter what, the education sector
is not going to collapse.

Primary education is expanding. Many foreign schools are making their presence felt in India.
Parents are enrolling their kids into international schools for better education directly from the
primary level.

Technology-oriented courses are gaining in popularity due to the rising demand in these
industries. The medical industry is also revamping itself. There is a need for more doctors and
skilled professionals in this area. Thus, engineering and medical colleges are going to be in
demand. The demand for management education is also rising. Many international management
institutes are creating ties with Indian colleges or setting up their own centers in India.

Specialized courses, such as aeronautics and biotechnology, are also popular. There is immense
scope in India for universities offering specialized courses and research potential. The R&D
sector requires more expertise and quality professionals to cater to its design and needs.

Many foreign universities operate via the twinning mode as of now. This essentially means the
collaborating institution can offer the curriculum of the other university in its first half. These
students thus gain credits, which are transferable to the foreign university. This helps the students
choose from an array of subjects and also complete a year in India itself. Thus, these programmes
are successful and present a good opportunity for investment.

E-learning and Distance learning programmes are also gaining popularity. Many students and
working professionals are taking these courses to get a quality education. The drawing factors for
these programmes are the world-class curriculum, comfort, and low costs.


As many Indians go to foreign shores for quality education, the market for foreign universities is
very present in India. The government is also encouraging FDI in this sector to improve the
quality of education in the country. 100% FDI is allowed in this sector as long as the rules and
regulations are met.

Thus, this sector offers multiple benefits and is becoming a favorable area for investment.
Indian educational system is considered to be one of the best in the world, however there
is huge gap when compared to the global standards in terms of people being able to think
independently and taking up entrepreneurship.
With the educational industry booming in India there is a significant increase in the
number of private colleges offering various courses, some of them really do not offer
value addition to the students and their future hang in balance.
Presently the educational Industry is USD 50 billion strong and it expected to show an
increase of 12% in 2010 and by 2012 it expected to touch USD 80 billion. Universities
and colleges in India have grown at a CAGR (Compound Annual Growth Rate) of over
5% and 6% respectively, since independence. The statistics clearly shows that more
number of private institutes is going to surface offering various courses. Not only full time
educational institutions but various other training centers offering computer education,
entrance coaching, career counseling etc.
This is further going to add to the confusions that this generation students are facing. The
top creamy layer will make it to the premier institutes like IIT or IIM, the rest of them
struggle with their higher studies in tier 2 tier 3 or tier 4 institutes. The challenge of
identifying a good institute remains a mystery.
Most of the students will be at their most important cross roads of identify the right
institute and the right course. Solving such an enigma is to be tackled by driving more
interaction with the experienced professionals from across Industry. More and more
professionals are also coming forward to help students because they have gone through
tough situations in their career as well as in their education because of lack of proper
guidance during their times.

Gyantonic.com offers a unique platform for students to identify the institute of their
choice and also share knowledge on various subjects with other students and experienced
professionals. Gyantonic is a knowledge network. The Indian educational system has been
recognized as one of the best in the world, however our efforts are to facilitate interaction
between the students and laterals to enhance their skill sets through mutual interaction and
real-time learning experience.

India Education System
The formal admission ceremony was known as 'Upanayana'. With the accomplishment of this
ceremony the child had to leave his home for the 'ashrama' where he would receive education. It
was supposed to be the re-birth of the child and was known as 'Dvijya', which means, "twice
born". Sanskrit was the language of teaching. It was supposed to be the language of learned men.
The academies of higher learning were known as 'Parisads'. The education system involved of
three basic processes, which included 'Sravana', 'Manana' and 'Nidhyasana'. \

In the 'Sravana' stage of education, students received 'shrutis' knowledge, which was passed
orally from one generation to another. The second stage was 'Manana' which means that pupils
had to think themselves about what they have heard. They have to make their own inferences and
assimilate the lesson taught by their teacher into the life. The third stage 'Nidhyasana' means
complete comprehension of truth and its use in the life.

In ancient India women were given the equal right to education and teaching. Women seers like
'Gayatri' were prominent participants in educational debates and the proceedings of the
'Parishads'.( Assemblies) It was mainly the Brahmins followed by Kshatriyas that received
education at the Gurukuls while the boys from the lower caste learnt their family trade from their

Few of the most important universities of India in the ancient times were Taxila, Vikramshila and

Nalanda. Taxila University of 7th century BC was famous for medical studies and a galaxy of
eminent teachers such as Panini, the well known grammarian, Kautilya, the minister of
Chandragupta Maurya, and Charaka, a medical teacher of repute.

Nalanda was the highest learning center not just of India but also of the entire South Asia.
Students from foreign countries like China, Japan, Korea used to come here for higher studies. It
had around 10,000 students and teachers on its roll cards. The University had eight colleges. And
one of the colleges had four-storied building. It was one of the earliest examples of residential
cum learning complex.

Vikramshila University. Varanasi was famous for religious teachings. In the South, Kanchi was
famous for its studies while the Vallabhi University was no less. Huan Tsang in his records
mention the university to be at par with Nalanda and Vikramshila universities.

India had several great minds at work, which contributed in every aspect of life. The concept of
zero, decimal and Pythagoras Theorem were all developed here.

As India progressed from ancient to medieval its education system deteriorated. Various factors
were responsible for the degradation of this most efficient and most ancient education system of
the world.

The present educational system of India is an implantation of British rulers. Wood's Dispatch of
1854 laid the foundation of present system of education in India. Before the advent of British in
India, education system was private one. With the introduction of Wood's Dispatch known as
Magna Carta of Indian education, the whole scenario changed. The main purpose of it was to
prepare Indian Clerks for running local administration. Under it the means of school educations
were the vernacular languages while the higher education was granted in English only. British
government started giving funds to indigenous schools in need of help and thus slowly some of
the schools became government-aided.

Contemplating on the new system which was introduced Mahatma Gandhi expressed his anguish

in following words, "I say without fear of my figures being challenged successfully, that today
India is more illiterate than it was fifty or a hundred years ago, and so is Burma, because the
British administrators, when they came to India, instead of taking hold of things as they were,
began to root them out. They scratched the soil and began to look at the root, and left the root like
that, and the beautiful tree perished. The village schools were not good enough for the British
administrator, so he came out with his program. Every school must have so much paraphernalia,
building, and so forth. Well, there were no such schools at all. There are statistics left by a British
administrator which show that, in places where they have carried out a survey, ancient schools
have gone by the board, because there was no recognition for these schools, and the schools
established after the European pattern were too expensive for the people, and therefore they could
not possibly overtake the thing. I defy anybody to fulfill a program of compulsory primary
education of these masses inside of a century. This very poor country of mine is ill able to sustain
such an expensive method of education. Our state would revive the old village schoolmaster and
dot every village with a school both for boys and girls. "

Today education system in India can be divided into many stages.
Pre- Primary - It consists of children of 3-5 years of age studying in nursery, lower
kindergarten and upper kindergarten. At this stage student is given knowledge about
school life and is taught to read and write some basic words.
Primary - It includes the age group of children of 6-11 years studying in classes from first
to fifth.
Middle - It consists of children studying in classes from sixth to eighth.
Secondary - it includes students studying in classes ninth and tenth.
Higher Secondary - Includes students studying in eleventh and twelfth classes.
Undergraduate - Here, a student goes through higher education, which is completed in
college. This course may vary according to the subject pursued by the student. For
medical student this stage is of four and a half years plus one year of compulsory
internship, while a simple graduate degree can be attained in three years.
Postgraduate - After completing graduation a student may opt for post graduation to
further add to his qualifications.

Education Governing Bodies
The Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE): This is the main governing body
of education system in India. It has control over the central education system. It conducts
exam and looks after the functioning of schools accredited to central education system.
The Council of Indian School Certificate Examination (CISCE): It is a board for
Anglo Indian Studies in India. It conducts two examinations 'Indian Certificate of
Secondary Education' and 'Indian School Certificate'. Indian Certificate of secondary
education is a k-10 examination for those Indian students who have just completed class
10th and Indian school certificate is a k-12 public examination conducted for those
studying in class 12th.
The State Government Boards: Apart from CBSE and CISCE each state in India has its
own State Board of education, which looks after the educational issues.
The National Open School: It is also known as National Institute of Open Schooling. It
was established by the Government Of India in 1989. It is a ray of hope for those students
who cannot attend formal schools.
The International School: It controls the schools, which are accredited to curriculum of
international standard.

Elementary Education
According to the Constitution of India, elementary education is a fundamental right of children in
the age group of 6-14 years. India has about 688,000 primary schools and 110,000 secondary
schools. According to statistics two third of school going age children of India are enrolled in
schools but the figures are deceptive as many don't attend schools regularly. At least half of all
students from rural area drop out before completing school. The government has rolled out many
plans to increase the percentage of elementary education. The plans such as 'Sarva Siksha
Abhiyan (SSA), District Primary Education Program (DPEP), Operation Blackboard, Mid Day
Meal have been successful to great extent.


Sarva Siksha Abhiyan (SSA)
The main goal of this program is that all children of 6-11 years of age should complete primary
education by the year 2007 and all children of 6-14 years of age should complete eight years of
schooling by 2010. This plan covers the whole country with special emphasis on girl education
and education of Schedule Caste (SC) and Schedule Tribe (ST) children and children with special
needs. The SSA centers are mainly opened in those areas, which do not have any school or where
schools are very far off. Special girl oriented programs include:
Girl education at elementary level.
National Program for Education of Girls at Elementary Level (NPEGEL)
Kasturba Gandhi Balika Vidyalaya (KGBV)
Mahila Samakhya Scheme

District Primary Education Program
This program was launched in 1994 with the objective of universalization of primary education.
Its main features are Universal Access, Universal Retention and Universal Achievement. It aims
that the primary education should be accessible to each and every child of school going age, once
a child is enrolled in school he/ she should be retained there. The final step is achievement of the
goal of education. The main components of this program are:
Construction of classrooms and new schools
Opening of non-formal schooling centers
Setting up early childhood education centers.
Appointment of teachers.
Providing education to disabled children.
The program has been successful to the large extent as 1,60,000 schools and 84,000 alternative
schools have been opened under this program. And work is going on for the construction of new
buildings of 52,758 schools. 4,20,203 disabled students have been successfully enrolled into the

Operation Blackboard
It was started in 1987-88. The aim of this program is to improve human and physical resource
availability in primary schools of India. According to this program every primary school should
have at least two rooms, two teachers and essential teaching aids like blackboard, chalk, duster

National Bal Bhavan
The National Bal Bhavan was opened with the aim of developing overall personalities of children
of all strata of society irrespective of their caste, creed, religion and gender. It supplements school
education by helping children to learn in play way and natural environment.

Other important endeavors taken up by Indian government for the development of education in
India includes:
Navodaya Vidyalaya Samiti
Kendriya Vidyalaya Sangathan
Integrated Education for disabled children
National Council of Educational Research and Training

Secondary Education
The enrollment at secondary school throughout the country was close to 28 million in 1998-99.
Efforts are being made to increase this figure through the implementation of proposed new
educational strategies.

Education system in India is making fast progress. The data of students' enrollment at primary and
secondary level of school education testifies to it.


Year Primary (Lakh person) Middle (Lakh person)
50-51 192 31
60-61 350 67
68-69 544 125
79-80 716 193
89-90 973 322
99-2000 1136 421
2000-01 926 342
2-Jan 1098 426
3-Feb 1184 457
4-Mar 1224 468

University Education
This massive system of higher education in India constitutes of 342 universities (211 State, 18
Central, 95 deemed universities) 13 institutes of national importance, 17,000 colleges and 887
polytechnics. University Grant Commission (UGC), a national body, coordinates and looks after
the maintenance of standard of university education in India. The university education in India
starts with undergraduate courses. Depending upon the nature of course pursued its duration may
vary from three to five and a half years.

Academic Degree Course
This undergraduate course in India is of three years' duration. After completing this course student
get a Bachelor's degree in the subject studied such as Bachelor of Arts, Bachelor of Commerce or
Bachelor of Science.


Professional Course
There are large numbers of professional courses at the undergraduate level. Student may opt for
any of it depending upon their interest and condition of eligibility.

Medical Courses
This course at undergraduate level is known as MBBS (Bachelor of Medicine Bachelor of
Surgery). It is of four and a half year's duration plus one year of obligatory internship. Various
medical colleges conduct entrance examination for admission to this course. An all India level
examination is also conducted by CBSE for admission to colleges all over India based over 15%
reserved seats.

Engineering Course
The bachelor of Engineering (BE) or bachelor of Technology (B Tech) is a four-year course. It
has wide range of options.

Management Course
In India education in management is one of the most sort out courses. The institutes, which impart
education in management, are known as "Business Schools". In India management education is
given at two levels, undergraduate and post-graduate. Undergraduate degree courses include
BBA, BBS, BBM. Postgraduate degree course is known as MBA (Masters of Business


Distance Education in India
Indian Education system offers distance education to those who cannot join regular schools or
colleges. National Institute of Open Schooling offers school education through distance learning.

University Education is also offered thorough distance learning. Many college courses like in arts
(history, economics, literature, Islamic studies), commerce (finance, banking, accounting) are
offered by Indian universities. Apart from these, professional courses in management, mass
media, para medical, engineering, law, travel and tourism are also part of distance education in

Education Policy
The national policy of education (1986) and program of action (1992) lay down the objectives and
features of Indian education policy. It includes:
Development of International cooperation and peaceful coexistence through education.
Promotion of equality. It could be achieved by providing equal access and equal condition
of success to children.
A common educational structure (10+2+3) for the whole of India.
Education for women's equality. The Indian education should be used as a tool to change
the status of women in the society.
Equalization of SC population with others in the matter of education. This is ensured by
giving incentives to parents who send their children to schools, providing scholarship to
SC students for higher studies, reservation of seats in institution of higher studies in India,
recruitment of SC teachers.
Opening of primary schools in tribal area for promotion of education in ST people.
Development of curriculum and study material in the language of tribal people.

Emphasis on the education of minorities.
Adult education - Initiation of National Literacy Mission, for teaching illiterate people of
age group 15-35. And making them aware of the day-to-day realities of their surroundings.
Special emphasis on early childhood care and education by opening up of day care
centers, promotion of child focused programs.
Increasing the scope of Operation Blackboard for upliftment of standard of primary
education in India.
Secondary education curriculum should expose the students to differentiated roles of
science, the humanities, and social science.
Redesigning of courses of higher education to meet the increasing demand of
Providing enhanced support to the research work in Universities. Efforts to relate ancient
Indian knowledge with the contemporary reality.
Setting up of Open Universities and Distance Learning centers to promote the goal of
education as a life long process.
A combined perspective of technical and management education.
Minimum exposure to computers and training in their use to be the part of professional
The All India Council for Technical Education will be responsible for maintenance of
norms and standards, accreditation, funding, and monitoring of technical and management
education in India.
Multiple task performance for teachers such as teaching, research, development of
learning resource material, extension and management of the institution.

Providing teachers a better deal to make education system in India work in proper way, as
teachers are the backbone of the system. Providing better facilities to institutions and
improved services to students.
Development of languages in great deal.
Measures to be taken for easy accessibility of books at minimum costs to all sections of
Strengthening of science education for the development of spirit of inquiry and objectivity
in the minds of students.
The purpose of examination to be to bring about qualitative improvement in education. It
should discourage memorization.
Methods of teacher recruitment to be recognized one to ensure merit and objectivity in the
Overhauling of the system of teacher education and establishment of District Institutes of
Education and Training (DIET) to organize courses for elementary school teachers.
Reviewing of educational developments by the Central Advisory Board of Education
Involvement of local communities for school improvement programmes.
Review of the implementation of the parameters of the policy every five years,
Strengthening the base of pyramid of Indian population for proper development of
education system in India.

National Policy of Education (1992) laid down many objectives for the development of education
system in India but it has not been successful in achieving all of them. It has specified that the

examination system should discourage the memorizing but it is what is going on. The education
in India seems to encourage rote learning instead of experimentation and questioning. There is
some disparity in assessment as all the State Boards have different standards of evaluation.
The reservation on the basis of caste and religion is also a negative point in Indian education.
Corruption is visible in the allocation of seats of institutions of higher studies and student politics
is another sore point. These are some of the issues, which need to be worked upon.

Though there are disparities between the objectives and their implementation in education but still
education system in India has come a long way and will continue to improve in the future.

Some important facts about Indian education:
Ayurveda is the earliest school of medicine known to the world and 'charaka' is known as
the father of Ayurveda. He developed this system some 2500 years back.
Takshila was the first university of world established in 700 B.C.
Nalanda University, built in 4 AD, was considered to be the honor of ancient Indian
system of education as it was one of the best Universities of its time in the subcontinent.
Indian language Sanskrit is considered to be the mother of many modern languages of
Place value system was developed in India in 100 B.C.
India was the country, which invented number system.
Aryabhatta, the Indian scientist, invented digit zero.
Trigonometry, algebra and calculus studies were originated in India.

Chapter 3
Research Methodology

Research Design
Research is a structured enquiry that utilizes acceptable scientific methodology to solve problems
and create new knowledge that is generally applicable. Scientific methods consist of systematic
observation, classification and interpretation of data.

Although we engage in such process in our daily life, the difference between our casual day- to-
day generalisation and the conclusions usually recognized as scientific method lies in the degree
of formality, rigorousness, verifiability and general validity of latter.

Research is a process of collecting, analyzing and interpreting information to answer questions.
But to qualify as research, the process must have certain characteristics: it must, as far as possible,
be controlled, rigorous, systematic, valid and verifiable, empirical and critical.

Type of Research
The study was object oriented so the type of research was Descriptive research.
Descriptive research, also known as statistical research, describes data and characteristics
about the population or phenomenon being studied. Descriptive research answers the questions
who, what, where, when and how...
Although the data description is factual, accurate and systematic, the research cannot describe
what caused a situation. Thus, Descriptive research cannot be used to create a causal relationship,
where one variable affects another. In other words, descriptive research can be said to have a low
requirement for internal validity.
Descriptive research is used to obtain information concerning the current status of the
phenomena to describe "what exists" with respect to variables or conditions in a situation. The

methods involved range from the survey which describes the status quo, the correlation study
which investigates the relationship between variables, to developmental studies which seek to
determine changes over time. Statement of the problem

Identification of information needed to solve the problem
Selection or development of instruments for gathering the information
Identification of target population and determination of sampling procedure
Design of procedure for information collection
Collection of information
Analysis of information
Generalizations and/or predictions

This research is the most commonly used and the basic reason for carrying out descriptive
research is to identify the cause of something that is happening.

Types of Data
Primary Data : The data which is collected for the first time, So in this research method of
primary data collection is survey method. Questionnaire tools has been used for this
Secondary Data : The data which have already been collected and analysed by someone
else. So, in this research, books, newspapers, magazines, websites and journals have been
used to collect the secondary data.


Sample Design:

Sample Unit: Employees working in Education Industry (Management
and Engineering Colleges)

Sample Area: Jaipur

Sample Size: 70 respondents

Sampling Method: Non-Probability Sampling


Chapter 4
Data Analysis & Interpretation

Q. 1 Type of College (Engineering or Management)

Q. 1 Do you pay equal remuneration to both male and female employees?

Engineering Management
Yes No

Q. 2 Does your organization follow Maternity Benefit Act, Payment of Wages Act and Payment
of Minimum Wages Act?

Q. 3 Does your Organization make deduction to all employees as per ESI Act?

Yes No
Yes No

Q.4 Do you think that all the rules laid down on above mentioned Act is employer and employee

Q.5 What is the amount of Bonus you usually pay to your employees?

Yes No
Rs.500 Rs.1000 Rs.1500 Rs.2000 Rs.5000

Q. 6 Do you think that there should be only 5 days working or the daily working hours should not
exceed 6 hours or 48 hours in a week?

Q. 7 Apart from the salary, what other benefits you provide to your employees?

Yes No
Leaves Sickness Benefit Foreign Educational Trip Travel Concession Rent Allowance

Q 8 What is the maximum duration any employee stay in your organization?

Q 9 Does your organization pay on the basis of VIth pay scale?

6 Hours 7 Hours 8 Hours 9 Hours 10 Hours
Yes No

Q 10 Please mention the various employee welfare programme in your organization beside of
those made compulsory


Chapter 5
Findings & Suggestions

Findings :

1. Majority of the respondents are having the experience in between 1-3 years and poor
percentage of employees are having above 5 years experience in this organization.

2. In my study, poor percentages of employees are of PG holders and the remaining majority
people are having less than SSLC as their educational qualifications.

3. Majority of the employees are female and most of the respondents belonging to employee
category than staff.

4. Most of the employees are getting basic salaries below 5,000 and a minor part of the
employees getting their basic as above 30,000.

5. Employee attitude is positive towards canteen facilities, large number of employees is
agreed that it is good and a few numbers response is towards poor.

6. Employee response is negative towards pick & drop facility, which is provided by the
company. Only one shift of employees is benefited with pick & drop and the remaining
two shifts were not having bus facility.

7. 92% of the respondents are satisfied with the safety measures which are provided by the
company and the remaining 8 % said that they were not satisfied.

8. More than 58% of the workers are not aware of ESI benefits and minor part of the workers
felt that ESI benefits are good.

9. Most of the respondents attitude is bonus will be announced on the companys
profitability and it had been announced once in a year.

10. Majority (80%) of the employees satisfied with the peers and superiors behaviors and 20
% of the respondents were not satisfied.

11. 40% of the employees were well known about the loans and advances issued by the
company and they were utilizing them, 29% are not utilizing them and the remaining 31%
were not know about the loans and advances in the organization.

12. 65% of the respondents in the organization are satisfied with their salaries and the
remaining 35% were not satisfied with the salaries.

13. In my study, 57% of respondents attitude is positive in the case of companys
infrastructure and the remaining 43 % respondents attitude is negative.

14. Majority of the respondents job satisfaction falling in between 50%-75% and a minor part
of the respondents job satisfaction is up to 100%.

Suggestions :

Faculty development: Non availability of adequate proficient faculty is a major constraint for
sustainable growth of quality management education in India. An autonomous, financially sound
and academically credible institute with active support from the leading management institutes,
industry and Government should be set up for faculty development. Standards for curriculum
covering the entire spectrum need to be set. Active involvement of faculty in training,
conferences, industry engagement and curriculum revision should be encouraged. Given the
current demand-supply gap, additional faculty would need to be attracted by appropriate

Sensitize management education to our unique socio-cultural situation by including India specific
case studies in the curriculum, reflecting our diversity and incorporating traditional wisdom.

Integrate management with other knowledge sources and increase research funding for
management and supporting disciplines. With globalization, the need for management education
to pursue a wider scope and realise a more wholesome impact on society has increased.
Management departments in universities should therefore draw upon knowledge sources in other

Revamp the existing Bachelors degree in management, the Bachelors in Business
Administration, to cater to the burgeoning need of management graduates. Compulsory
apprenticeship in organizations and study of under managed sector areas should be included as
part of the program. The current text bookish nature of the curriculum is not sufficient to prepare
students for junior management levels.

The key focus of the governing board should be to continuously improve quality of education and
research. For this purpose, they would have to maximise the resource/fund inflows and
allocate/spend them purposively and efficiently. The Board should encourage faculty to publish in
reputed journals and publications, obtain regular feedback from students on teaching-learning
process, obtain recruiter feedback for improving quality, institutionalize faculty evaluation and
management system and encourage faculty to write India based case studies.


Chapter 6

From the conclusion point of view, I wish to summarize regarding my project undertaken
in different education institutes as a great work and experience achieved under an Indian
education industry.
Several objectives were taken into consideration :

1. To know the satisfaction level towards the behaviors of peers and superiors.
2. To study the level of satisfaction towards his salary and also other benefits which are
provided by the organization?
3. To study the ESI facilities and safety measures which are provided by the organizations?
4. To suggest the institutes about the measures to be taken for more employee satisfaction.

While analyzing the various determinants of job satisfaction, we have to keep in mind
that: all individuals do not derive the same degree of satisfaction though they perform the
same job in the same job environment and at the same time. Therefore, it appears that
besides the nature of job and job environment, there are individual variables which affect
job satisfaction thus all those factors which provide a fit among individual variables,
nature of job, and the situational variables determine the degree of job satisfaction.


Chapter 7

Education Journal - 2008
Employee Resource Magazine 2006,2007,2008