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# Examples to Solve

## in the course TMHL03

Mechanics of Light Weight Structures
2
Chapter 1
In-plane loaded plates in Cartesian
coordinates
1.1
A rectangular plate is xed at a rigid wall and it is carrying a triangularly dis-
tributed total load Q in accordance to the gure below. Dene the boundary
conditions along all four edges. Plane stress conditions can be assumed. The
length of the plate is L, the height H and the thickness t.
x
Q
y
L
H
1.2
A rectangular plate of length L, height H and thickness t is loaded by a bending
moment. Show that the stresses in the plate can be derived from an Airys stress
function
(y) =
2M
tH
3
y
3
(1.1)
Check that both the boundary conditions and bi-harmonic dierential equation
are fullled.
3
4 1. In-plane loaded plates in Cartesian coordinates
x
y
L/2 L/2
H/2
H/2
M M
1.3
A rectangular plate of length L, height H and thickness t is loaded in accordance
to the gure below. Determine the unknown constants A
2
to D
3
used in the
Airys stress function (x, y) below so all boundary conditions are fullled.
(x, y) =
2
(x, y) +
3
(x, y) (1.2)
where

2
(x, y) =
A
2
2
x
2
+ B
2
xy +
C
2
2
y
2
(1.3)

3
(x, y) =
A
3
6
x
3
+
B
3
2
x
2
y +
C
3
2
xy
2
+
D
3
6
y
3
(1.4)
x
y
p
p
qy
qy
5
1.4
A rectangular plate is xed at a rigid wall and it is carrying a shear stress
0
along its upper boundary. Determine the unknown constant C used in the Airys
stress function (x, y) below.
(x, y) = C(axy xy
2
xy
3
/a + by
2
+ by
3
/a) (1.5)
Hint: Focus on how to at least fulll the bending stress situation along the left
vertical boundary from an equilibrium point of view.
x
y
b
a
a

0
1.5
A rectangular plate is loaded in accordance to the gure below. Determine the
unknown constants C and D used in the Airys stress function (x, y) below so
that the bending stress is approximated as good as possible. The thickness of
the plate is t.
(x, y) = Cy
2
/2 + Dy
3
/6 (1.6)
x
y
L L
H
H
P P
6 1. In-plane loaded plates in Cartesian coordinates
1.7
A triangular plate is exposed to a linearly increasing pressure shown in the gure
below. The pressure is q
0
at x = a. A proper choice of an Airys stress function
(x, y) is given below. The thickness of the plate is t.
(x, y) = Ax
3
+ Bx
2
y + Cxy
2
+ Dy
3
(1.7)
Determine the constants A to D and calculate the stresses along the xed bound-
ary. The results can be compared to a FE-analysis.
x
y
a
a
q(x)
Chapter 2
In-plane loaded plates in polar
coordinates
1.12
A thin arc-shaped plate, shown in the gure below, is loaded by a bending mo-
ment M. Plane stress conditions can be assumed. Calculate the stresses! A
polar coordinate system is most conveniently used. The thickness of the plate is
t. The stress function (r) to be used is
(r) = a
0
lnr + b
0
r
2
+ c
0
r
2
lnr
b
a
M M
r

7
8 2. In-plane loaded plates in polar coordinates
1.13
An innite plate is exposed to a uniform tensile stress
0
i the x-direction. In
the plate there is a hole with a radius a. Calculate the stresses, especially close
to the hole and compare it to the stress level
0
! A polar coordinate system is
most conveniently used.
r
x
y

2a

0
1.16
A semi-innite plate is exposed to a concentrated force P acting perpendicular
to the boundary as shown i the gure below. The force P is distributed as a
uniform line load across the thickness t. Calculate the stresses.
r

P
9
1.17
A semi-innite plate is exposed to a concentrated force P acting parallel to the
boundary as shown i the gure below. The force P is distributed as a uniform
line load across the thickness t. Calculate the stresses. Study especially the
maximum shear stress.
r

P
1.18
A sector of an innite plate with an opening angle is exposed to a concentrated
force P acting perpendicular to the symmetry line through the material as shown
in the gure below. The force P is distributed as a uniform line load across the
thickness t. Calculate the stresses.
r

## 10 2. In-plane loaded plates in polar coordinates

Chapter 3
Plates in Cartesian coordinates
2.1
A rectangular plate is xed at rigid walls along its shortest edges. The shortest
edges has a length a which is much smaller than the longest edge of length b.
The thickness t is much smaller than a. That is b a t.A uniform pressure
p is applied on the entire plate. Calculate the largest displacement in the plate.
The Youngs modulus E and the Poissons ratio are known entities.
x
y
b
a
p
t
2.2
A rectangular plate is simply supported along all its edges. A uniform pressure
p is applied to the entire plate. Calculate the displacement w(x, y) in the z-
direction. The Youngs modulus E and the Poissons ratio are known entities.
11
12 3. Plates in Cartesian coordinates
x
y
b
a
p
x
z
t
2.3
Calculate the maximum stresses in the center of the plate from example 2.2.
2.5
A rectangular plate is simply supported along all its edges. The geometry is the
same as in example 2.2. In this case the loading is a concentrated point load
P acting in the center of the plate. Calculate the displacement in the center of
the plate under the load. The Youngs modulus E and the Poissons ratio are
known entities.
Chapter 4
Plates in polar coordinates
2.6
A circular plate of radius a is simply supported along the outer edge. A uniform
pressure p is applied on the plate. Calculate the displacement w(r), the maximum
value of w(r), the stresses and the slope at the edge. The Youngs modulus E
and the Poissons ratio are known entities.
p
r
z
a
t
2.7
A circular plate of radius a is simply supported along the outer edge. A linearly
varying pressure p(r) is applied. Calculate the largest displacement w(r), the
stresses and the slope at the edge. The Youngs modulus E and the Poissons
ratio are known entities.
p(r)
r
z
a
t
p
0
13
14 4. Plates in polar coordinates
2.8
A circular plate of radius a is clamped along the outer edge. A linearly varying
pressure p(r) is applied. Calculate the largest displacement w(r). The Youngs
modulus E and the Poissons ratio are known entities.
p(r)
r
z
a
t
p
0
2.9
A circular plate of radius a is clamped along the outer edge. A constant pressure p
is applied. Calculate the largest displacement w(r). The Youngs modulus E and
the Poissons ratio are known entities. Hint: Use superposition of handbook
formulas.
p
r
z
a
t
2.10
A circular plate of radius a is simply supported along the outer edge. A uniform
pressure p is applied on the entire plate. In the center of the plate there is a
support on a distance . Select the distance so that this support in the center
will carry half of the total load.
p
r
z
a
t

Chapter 5
Axi-symmetric shells
3.1
An axi-symmetric shell has a radius of curvature R = 2a in the vertical plane
and a radius a in the horizontal bottom plane. The structure is exposed to a
vertical concentrated load P along the symmetry line. Calculate the membrane
stresses at the bottom plane. The thickness of the shell is t.
P
r
z
a
R=2a
15
16 5. Axi-symmetric shells
3.2
A innite conical section has a top angle 2 and the thickness of the shell is t.
The density is . Calculate the membrane stresses in the cone on a distance s
from the top due to the dead load.
r
z
2
s
3.3
A spherical roof has a radius R, an opening angle and the thickness of the shell
is t. The density of the roof is . Calculate the membrane stresses in the roof
r
z
R

17
3.4
A thin half spherical shell has a radius R and the thickness t. The shell is lled
by a liquid having the density . Calculate the largest membrane stresses in the
shell due to the load from the liquid. The support do not generate any bending
stresses.
z
R

r
3.5
A innite cone has the opening angle and the thickness t. The cone is lled by
a liquid having the density to the height h,. Calculate the membrane stresses
in the cone due to the load from the liquid. The support do not generate any
bending stresses.
r
z
2
h
18 5. Axi-symmetric shells
Chapter 6
Circular cylindrical shells
3.6
A long pipe (L a) has very sti gables and it is loaded by an internal pressure
p. Calculate the radial displacement w and the bending stresses as function z.
The thickness of the pipe is t. The Youngs modulus E and the Poissons ratio
are known entities.
r
z
p
L
a
t
3.7
A short pipe has very sti gables and it is loaded by an internal pressure p.
Calculate the radial displacement w and the bending stresses as function z. The
thickness of the pipe is t (t a). The Youngs modulus E and the Poissons
ratio are known entities.
r
z
p
L/2
a
L/2
t
19
20 6. Circular cylindrical shells
3.10
An innite pipe (L a) is loaded by force T
0
per unit length around the cir-
cumferential of the pipe. Calculate the radial displacement w(z). The thickness
of the pipe is t (t a). The Youngs modulus E and the Poissons ratio are
known entities.
r
z
T
0
a
t
3.12
A cylindrical oil tank has a radius R = 15.m and a height H = 20.m. Which wall
thickness t is required if the axial bending stress must not exceed 200.N/mm
2
.
The density of the oil is = 800.kg/m
3
.
r
R
p(z)
z
t
H
1.1
Boundary conditions are:
x = 0 u(0, y) = v(0, y) = 0
x = L
x
(L, y) =
xy
(L, y) = 0
y = H/2
y
= 2Qx/tL
2
,
xy
= 0
y = H/2
y
= 0,
xy
= 0
1.2

x
(x, y) =

2
(x, y)
y
2
=
12M
tH
3
y

y
(x, y) =

2
(x, y)
x
2
= 0

xy
(x, y) =

2
(x, y)
xy
= 0

H/2
H/2

x
tydy =

H/2
H/2
12My
2
/H
3
dy = M
1.3
Boundary conditions are:
y = H/2
y
= p,
xy
= 0
x = 0, L
x
= qy,
xy
= 0
(x, y) = px
2
/2 + qy
3
/6
1.4
C =
0
/4a
1.5
C = P/2tH
D = 3P/2tH
2
1.7
A = q
0
/6a, B = 0, C = q
0
/2a, D = q
0
/3a

x
= q
0
(2y/a 1)

xy
= q
0
y/a
22 6. Circular cylindrical shells
1.12

r
(r) =
4M
ct
(
a
2
b
2
r
2
ln
b
a
+ b
2
ln
r
b
+ a
2
ln
a
r
)

(r) =
4M
ct
(
a
2
b
2
r
2
ln
b
a
+ b
2
ln
r
b
+ a
2
ln
a
r
+ b
2
a
2
)

r
= 0
where
c = (b
2
a
2
)
2
4a
2
b
2
(ln
b
a
)
2
1.13

r
(r) =

0
2
(1
a
2
r
2
+ (1 4
a
2
r
2
+ 3
a
4
r
4
) cos 2)

(r) =

0
2
(1 +
a
2
r
2
(1 + 3
a
4
r
4
) cos 2)

r
=

0
2
(1 + 2
a
2
r
2
3
a
4
r
4
) sin2
If r = a we have

max
(r) =
0
(1 2 cos 2) = 3
0
That is, the stress concentration factor is equal to 3!
1.16

r
(r, ) =
2P
rt
sin

(r, ) =
r
(r, ) = 0
1.17

max
(r, ) = |

r
2
| =
2P
rt
| cos |
1.18

r
=
2P
rt
sin
sin
2.1
w
max
=
pb
4
384D
2.2
At a general position in the plate the displacement is dened by
w(x, y) =
16p

6
D

m=1

n=1
1
mn((
m
a
)
2
+ (
n
b
)
2
)
2
sin
mx
a
sin
ny
b
where m and n are odd integer numbers
2.3
In the center of the plate at x = a/2 and y = b/2, we have

x
max
=
12M
x
t
3
t
2
=
96p

4
t
2

m=1

n=1
((
m
a
)
2
+ (
n
b
)
2
)
mn((
m
a
)
2
+ (
n
b
)
2
)
2
sin
m
2
sin
n
2

y
max
=
12M
y
t
3
t
2
=
96p

4
t
2

m=1

n=1
((
n
b
)
2
+ (
m
a
)
2
)
mn((
m
a
)
2
+ (
n
b
)
2
)
2
sin
m
2
sin
n
2

xy
= 0
where m and n are odd integer numbers
2.5
At a general position in the plate the displacement is
w(x, y) =
48(1
2
)P

4
Eabt
3

m=1

n=1
sin
m
2
sin
n
2
((
m
a
)
2
+ (
n
b
)
2
)
2
sin
mx
a
sin
ny
b
where m and n are odd integer numbers
2.6
At a general position in the circular plate the displacement is
w(r) =
pa
2
32D

(3 + )
(1 + )
(a
2
r
2
)
a
2
2
+
r
4
2a
2

## and in the center, we have

w(r = 0) = w
max
=
pa
4
64D
(5 + )
(1 + )
The stresses are

r
(r, z) =
12z
t
3
M
r
(r);

(r, z) =
12z
t
3
M

(r);
r
= 0
where the moments are
M
r
(r) =
(3 + )p
16
(a
2
r
2
)
M

(r) =
p
16
((3 + )a
2
(1 + 3)r
2
)
The slope (r) is for small rotations
(r) =
dw(r)
dr
=
pa
2
32D

2r
3
a
2
2r
(3 + )
(1 + )

(r = a) =
pa
3
8D
1
(1 + )
2.7
w
max
=
p
0
a
4
150D
(6 + )
(1 + )
24 6. Circular cylindrical shells
2.8
w
max
=
43p
0
a
4
4800D
2.9
w
max
=
pa
4
64D
2.10
The support should be pushed the distance
=
pa
4
64D
above the undeformed position!
3.1
The in-plane stress resultants N

(r) and N

(r) are
N

(r) =
P
2r
; N

(r) =
P
4r
3.2
The stresses are

(s) = g
1
2 cos
s

(s) = g
sin
2

cos
s
3.3
The stresses are

() = gR
1
(1 + cos )

() = gR
(sin
2
cos )
(1 + cos )
3.4
The maximum stress is found in bottom

max
=
gR
2
2t
3.6
The outward radial displacement of the wall w(x) are
w(x) = (1

2
)
pa
2
Et
(1 exp
nx
(sin nx + cos nx))
and thus the bending moment M
x
(x) is
M
x
(x) = (1

2
)
2pa
2
n
2
D
Et
exp
nx
(sinnx cos nx)
3.7
3.10
The outward radial displacement of the wall w(x) is
w(x) =
T
0
8n
3
D
exp
nx
(cos nx + sinnx)
where
n
4
=
3(1
2
)
a
2
t
2
; D =
Et
3
12(1
2
)
3.12
The thickness t of the wall has to be at least 22. mm.