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Examining/Exam Admin/2009-10

UNIVERSITY OF ABERDEEN SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING SESSION 2009-10


EXAMINATION FOR COURSE - EG55F6: RISERS SYSTEMS AND HYDRODYNAMICS

Qu. No.

1
SOLUTION
Page 1
of 9
Marks











3















3







1








1






2

(a)





















































The pipe has external diameter of
11
ex
D = inches and
wall thickness h = 1 inch
Then,
11 0.0254 0.2794
e
D = = m
2
0.06131
4
e
e
D
A

= = m
2

1.0 0.0254 0.0254 h = = m
2 0.2286
i e
D D h = = m
2
0.04104
4
i
i
D
A

= = m
2

Pipe cross-sectional Area 0.0203
e i
A A = m
2
We have the following values given
The pipe wall density 7850
tube
= kg/m
3
Internal fluid density 800
i
= kg/m
3

External fluid density 1025
e
= kg/m
3

Using gravitational acceleration g = 9.81 m/s
2

We can calculate:
Pipe wall weight (in air) per unit of length ( ) 1561
tube tube e i
w A A g = =
Internal fluid column weight per unit of length 322
i i i
w A g = =
External fluid column weight per unit of length 616.5
e e e
w A g = =
Apparent weight per unit of length is
1266.4
tube i e a
w w w w + = = N/m

The suspended length of the riser is 900
T
s = m.
Using Catenary equation we can calculate suspended length of the riser
sinh
o T
T
o
T x w
s
w T

=



Thus sinh
T T
o o
x w s w
T T

=



Horizontal projection
T
x can be found from the equation
cosh 1
o T
T
o
T wx
y
w T


=





We re-write it as
1 cosh + =
o
T
o
T
T
wy
T
wx

Using the formula
2 2
Cosh ( ) Sinh ( ) 1 x x = , we obtain equation for
0
T :
2 2
1 1
T T
o o
wy s w
T T

+ =



( ) ( )
2 2
2
0 T o T
wy T s w T + =
Thus



Examining/Exam Admin/2009-10
UNIVERSITY OF ABERDEEN SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING SESSION 2009-10
EXAMINATION FOR COURSE - EG55F6: RISERS SYSTEMS AND HYDRODYNAMICS

Qu. No.


SOLUTION
Page 2
of 9
Marks



1


1






2


2

2







2



















4


1










(b)



















(c)























( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( )
2 2
2 2 2 2 2
0
2 0
1266.4 900 600
474900 N
2 2 1266.4 600
T o T T
T T
T
wy T wy s w
s w wy
T
wy
+ =

= = =


Then
474900 1266.4 6 123474 00 0 N
o T T
wy T T = + = + =

The length of the riser is equal to the water depth, so the length of the segment,
seg
L is 0 1000
seg
L < < m
The effective tension is calculated as
e tw e e i i
T T p A p A = +
where
top
tw tw tube
T T W = and
top top
tw t i i
T T p A = + and
top
i i i seg
p p gL = + is internal pressure and
e e seg
p gL = is external pressure
Thus
( )
( ) ( )
3000000 1561 616
3000000 1266
.5 322
.4
top top
tw e e i i t i i tube e seg e i i seg i
t tube e i seg e e i i seg
seg seg
e
seg
seg
T p A p A T p A W gL A p gL A
T A A L g A A gL
T
L
L L L


= + = + + + =
+ = =
=

+ =
=


0 200 400 600 800 1000
1600000
1950000
2300000
2650000
3000000
E
f
f
e
c
t
i
v
e

T
e
n
s
i
o
n
,

T
e
Length along the riser, L
seg

At TDP we have:
3000000 1266.4 1000 1733600
e
T = = N






Examining/Exam Admin/2009-10
UNIVERSITY OF ABERDEEN SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING SESSION 2009-10
EXAMINATION FOR COURSE - EG55F6: RISERS SYSTEMS AND HYDRODYNAMICS

Qu. No.

2
SOLUTION
Page 3
of 9
Marks






















6




2


1

1
1

1
1



1



1






1


1
(a)



























(b)









(c)

















BMS is Bundle Main Section is made of line pipe(s) and buoyancy/isolation foam.
Flexible jumpers provide a decoupling effect from vessel motions and hence help to reduce
fatigue. They have to be long enough to accommodate vertical motion between the riser and the
platform at maximum offset.

A typical flexible pipe consists of the following layers:
Carcass (made of stainless steel) which provides external pressure resistance and
collapse resistance;
Internal Sheath (made of polymer) which provides internal fluid containment barrier;
Pressure Armour (made of carbon steel) which provides hoop load resistance; it also
contributes to collapse resistance;
Tensile Armour (made of carbon steel) which provides tensile load resistance;
External Shealth (made of polymer) which provides external fluid barrier;

First we calculate mass of the internal fluid
2
/ 4 145.36 109.94 35.42
intsw int eq full of sea water air
m ID m m = = = = kg/m for the
riser flooded with sea water.
Then equivalent internal diameter of the riser as
4 35.42 4
0.2098
1025 3.14159
intsw
eq
int
m
ID


= = =

m
Therefore apparent mass of the riser could be calculated:
air intoil ext
AM m m m = +
where 109.94
air
m = kg is mass of the riser empty in the air
( )
2
2
/ 4 1025 3.14159 0.2807 / 4 63.43
ext ext
m OD = = = kg/m is mass of the
displaced sea water.
Mass of the internal fluid for the oil filled riser is
2 2
/ 4 850 3.14159 (0.2098) / 4 29.37
intoil int eq
m ID = = = kg/m

Examining/Exam Admin/2009-10

UNIVERSITY OF ABERDEEN SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING SESSION 2009-10
EXAMINATION FOR COURSE - EG55F6: RISERS SYSTEMS AND HYDRODYNAMICS

Qu. No.


SOLUTION
Page 4
of 9
Marks

1


1


1

1


1




1







1


1















































Thus apparent mass for the riser is
109.94 29.37 63.43 75.88
air intoil ext
AM m m m = + = + = kg/m
And apparent mass of the buoyancy is
( 1.7) 75.88 ( 1.7) 129
buoyancy
AM AM = = = kg/m
Now we can calculate equivalent OD for the buoyancy by volume and by area:
( )
2 2 2
/ 3 0.6752
volume
eq buoy r r
OD OD OD OD = + = m
( )
/ 3 0.5538
area
eq buoy r r
OD OD OD OD = + = m
For the equivalent buoyancy section mass of the displaced water is
( ) ( )
2
2
/ 4 1025 3.14159 0.6752 / 4 366.98
volume
ext buoyancy ext eq
m OD = = = kg/m
Thus
208.61kg 129 29.37 / 366.98 m
air buoy
buoyancy air buoyancy intoil ext buoyancy
buoyancy intoil ext buoya a c ncy n y
AM m m m
AM m m m
= +
= + = + =

The hydrodynamic coefficients are
area
buoy
d equiv buoy d nominal
volume
buoy
OD
c c
OD
=
Thus the equivalent drag coefficient normal to structure is
0.7792
0.5538
0.95
0.6752
0.5538
0.5
0.6752
0.4101
dn equiv buoy
dt
area
buoy
dn nominal
volume
buoy
area
buoy
dt nominal
volume
equiv b o
buoy
u y
OD
c
OD
OD
c
O
c
c
D
= =
= = =
=


























UNIVERSITY OF ABERDEEN SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING SESSION 2009-10
Examining/Exam Admin/2009-10
EXAMINATION FOR COURSE - EG55F6: RISERS SYSTEMS AND HYDRODYNAMICS

Qu. No.

3
SOLUTION
Page 5
of 9
Marks




2

1






2







3



2




2







1


1









3


1
(a)





















(b)








(c)






















Installation methods of SCR:
S-lay
Used for SCR up to moderate water depth
Can be used for very deep water with modified stinger
Curvature induced at stinger is a limiting factor
J-lay
Suitable installation in deep and ultra deep water
Reel-lay
Used widely for installation of SCR
It is faster than J-lay with more controlled stop welds instead of off-shore welding
It requires more complex weld testing and fracture mechanics work
Larger SCR might not be able to sustain stresses induced by reeling max strain and low
cycle fatigues are issues
It requires nearby spool base to be economical

Installation challenges are:
Ultra-deep water high tension loads
Large diameter
Positioning for TDP and clashing during transfer
Rigging/hanging of pull-in/abandonment
Weather fatigue during installation
Vessel on-site vs. abandonment & recovery

TTR requires low motion vessels such as TLP, Truss Spar or Cell Spar. High motion vessels
such as Semi-submersible rig or FPSO are not practical to use. To ensure that the appropriate
tension is provided to the riser, heave and pitch responses of the chosen vessel have to be small.

Tension is provided by the following types of the tensioning system:
Buoyancy cans
Hydraulic/pneumatic tensioners
Direct hand-off

First minimal wall thickness has to be calculated as
min corr f
WT t t t tol =
where 0.8 0.0254 0.0203 t = = m is wall thickness, 0.0025
corr
t = m is corrosion
allowance of the pipe and 0.1
f
tol = is fabrication tolerance on the wall thickness.
min
0.0203 0.0025 0.0020 0.0158
corr f
WT t t t tol = = = m
Then maximal internal diameter is
max min
2 0.254 2 0.0158 0.2224
i o
D D WT = = = m
Cross Sectional Area of the entire pipe is
2 2
3.14159 0.254
0.0507
4 4
o
o
D
A

= = = m
2

Maximal cross sectional area of the pipe bore is
2 2
max
max
3.14159 0.2224
0.0388
4 4
i
i
D
A

= = = m
2

And minimal cross sectional area of the pipe walls
min max
0.0507 0.0396 0.0118
pipe o i
A A A = = = m
2

Moment of inertia then is
( ) ( )
4 4 4 4 5
max
3.14159
0.254 0.2224 8.42 10
64 64
o i
I D D


= = = m
4



Examining/Exam Admin/2009-10
UNIVERSITY OF ABERDEEN SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING SESSION 2009-10
EXAMINATION FOR COURSE - EG55F6: RISERS SYSTEMS AND HYDRODYNAMICS

Qu. No.


SOLUTION
Page 6
of 9
Marks


1


1




1







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Axial tension at the top (true wall tension) is
6
max
1900000 0 20000000 0.0118 2.677 10
a e e o i i o
T T p A p A A = + = + = N
Then the stresses in the pipe could be calculated as
Radial stress:
6 max
max
20000000 0.2224
9.34 10
0.254 0.2224
o o i i
r
i o
p D p D
D D

+
= = =
+ +
Pa
Hoop stress:
( )
6
min
0.254
20000000 1 140.76 10
2 2 0.0158
o
i o i
D
p p p
WT


= = =


Pa
Axial stress with bending moment for tension
( ) ( )
6
6
5
min
2.691 10 350
0.254 0.0203 227 10
2 0.0118 2 7.975 10
a
zt o
pipe
T M
D t
A I

= + = + =

Axi
al stress with bending moment for compression
( ) ( )
6
6
5
min
2.691 10 350
0.254 0.0203 226 10
2 0.0118 2 7.975 10
a
zc o
pipe
T M
D t
A I

= = =


Finally Von Mises stress is
( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2
6
1
207.2 10
2
vmt r r zt zt
= + + = and
( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2
6
1
206.5 10
2
vmc r r zc zc
= + + =
Then
6
[ , ] 207.2 10
vm vmt vmc
Max = =
Maximal allowable stress is
6
max
2 2
1 448000000 298.667 10
3 3
f all f
c c Y = = = = Pa
Thus
max
0.69 1
vm

= < Acceptable design at the top of the riser





















UNIVERSITY OF ABERDEEN SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING SESSION 2009-10
Examining/Exam Admin/2009-10
EXAMINATION FOR COURSE EG55F6: RISERS SYSTEMS AND HYDRODYNAMICS

Qu
No.
4 Solution Page 7
of 9
Marks

(a)












3

















5






























d = 100m; pressure transducer at y = -10m

From Figure 1: T = 15s; pmax = 142.5 kN/m
2


Calculate wave length.....
Deep water wavelength
2
2
gT
L
o
= = 352m
d = 100 < 0.5 L
o
so



gives L = 335m


0187 . 0
2
= =
L
k




= 0.8377

pmax =

gives = 5m





Therefore wave height H = 10m (2 x 5m).












Course co-ordinator ..

Scrutineer .
Examining/Exam Admin/2009-10

UNIVERSITY OF ABERDEEN SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING SESSION 2009-10
EXAMINATION FOR COURSE EG55F6: RISERS SYSTEMS AND HYDRODYNAMICS

Qu
No.
Solution Page 8
of 9
Marks











































6















(b) part (i)

H = 10m; T = 15s; d = 100m; y = -10m; D = 0.6m; Cd = 1.3; Cm = 1.0


Kinematics

= 1.839

= 0.77

= 1.7173

= -0.7193




Under wave crest: horiz velocity is max, horiz accn is zero,
vertical velocity is zero, vertical accn is max ve.


Drag force under crest u Au C F
D

2
1
= = 0.5.1025.1.3(0.6)(1.839
2
) = 1352 N/m
Direction is in +ve x-dirn.

Inertia force crest v C F
m
V = = 1.0.1025.(pi.0.6.0.6/4)(0.7193) = 208.5 N/m
Direction is in -ve y-dirn.


Total wave force Ft = sqrt(1352
2
+ 208.5
2
) = 1368 N/m

Angle of force atan(208.5/1352) = 8.8degrees (clockwise from the +ve x-dirn)




Course co-ordinator ..

Scrutineer .
Examining/Exam Admin/2009-10


UNIVERSITY OF ABERDEEN SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING SESSION 2009-10
EXAMINATION FOR COURSE EG55F6: RISERS SYSTEMS AND HYDRODYNAMICS

Qu
No.
Solution Page 9
of 9
Marks


















6
















5

























Under downward zero-crossing: horiz velocity is zero, horiz accn is max +ve,
vertical velocity is max +ve, vertical accn is zero.

Drag force downward zero-crossing v Av C F
D

2
1
= = 0.5.1025.1.3.(0.6)(1.7173
2
) =
= 1179 N/m
Direction is in +ve y-dirn.

Inertia force downward zero-crossing v C F
m
V = = 1.0.1025(pi.0.6.0.6/4)(0.77) =
= 223 N/m
Direction is in +ve x-dirn.


Total wave force Ft = sqrt(1179
2
+ 223
2
) = 1200 N/m

Angle of force atan(1179/223) = 79deg, anticlock from the +ve x-dirn



(b) Part (ii)

To calculate max force during the wave cycle....

For 0 2

At each value of , calculate

horizontal drag force Fhd, horizontal inertial force Fhi
total horizontal force Fht = Fhd + Fhi
vertical drag force Fvd, vertical inertia force Fvi
total vertical force Ftv = Fvd + Fvi

total force Ft = sqrt(Fth
2
+ Ftv
2
)
angle of force thta = atan(Ftv/Fth)



Course co-ordinator ..

Scrutineer .